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Sample records for test anxiety reduction

  1. Reduction of Test Anxiety Through Cognitive Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfried, Marvin R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire measures of test anxiety, only those in the rational restructuring condition reported a significant decrease in subjective anxiety when placed in an analogue test-taking situation. Participants in the restructuring condition also reported greater generalized anxiety reduction in social-evaluative situations. (Author)

  2. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  3. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  4. Testing the anxiety reduction function of grooming interactions in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Together with its hygienic and social function, grooming is thought to reduce anxiety. However, empirical evidence on the anxiety-reduction function of grooming is scarce. We collected 10-minute focal data on the donor and recipient of grooming using the post-grooming / matchedcontrol (PG-MC) method. In these PGs and MCs sessions, we recorded the occurrence of selfdirected behaviours (i.e. scratching and self-grooming), which are behavioural indicators of anxiety. We found mixed evidenc...

  5. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  6. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  8. Relationships between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and different aspects of sleep. Method. 175 adolescents (70.8% girls, mean age 15.14 years) participated in the study. Test anxiety, stress and chronic sleep reduction were assessed at baseline using

  9. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  10. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Search Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Send Us Your Feedback This article was last ... can relax you. Anyone who suffers from high anxiety about medical tests should talk with a healthcare ...

  11. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  12. Comparison of Relaxation as Self-control and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Arden L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation as self-control and desensitization were compared to a wait-list control in reduction of rest and other anxieties. Active treatments differed significantly from the control treatment. Subjects in both treatments reported less debilitating test anxiety, whereas desensitization subjects showed greater facilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  13. Test Anxiety, Computer-Adaptive Testing and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Nicole Makas

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the current findings and issues regarding the role of computer-adaptive testing in test anxiety. The computer-adaptive test (CAT) proposed by one of the Common Core consortia brings these issues to the forefront. Research has long indicated that test anxiety impairs student performance. More recent research indicates that…

  14. The Effects of Humor on Test Anxiety and Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Testing in an academic setting provokes anxiety in all students in higher education, particularly nursing students. When students experience high levels of anxiety, the resulting decline in test performance often does not represent an accurate assessment of students' academic achievement. This quantitative, experimental study examined the effects…

  15. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  16. Executive Functioning Profiles and Test Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study attempted to answer whether a specific executive functioning profile for individuals with test anxiety exists and whether deficits in working memory are associated with an earlier onset of test anxiety. Two hundred eighty-four undergraduate students completed a survey on test anxiety and self-report measures of test anxiety and…

  17. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  18. Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Systematic Desensitization versus Nonspecific Factors in Treating Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard K.; Lent, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the efficacy of two behavioral anxiety reduction techniques against "subconscious reconditioning," an empirically derived placebo method. Examination of within-group changes showed systematic desensitization produced significant reductions in test and trait anxiety, and remaining treatments and the placebo demonstrated…

  19. Group Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmaier, Elizabeth Mitchell; Woodward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Studied test-anxious college students (N=43) who received either vicarious desensitization, study skills training, or both treatments; there was also a no-treatment control condition. Self-report measures indicated that vicarious desensitization resulted in lower test and trait anxiety than study skills training alone or no treatment. (Author)

  20. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…

  1. Test Anxiety and Academic Delay of Gratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…

  2. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias

  3. A Comparison of Implosive Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E.; Nye, S. Lee

    1973-01-01

    Both Desensitization and implosive therapy resulted in significant decreases in scores on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale. However, the desensitization group also demonstrated a significant reduction in state anxiety assessed during simulated testing sessions and a significant increase in grade point average, while the implosive therapy group showed…

  4. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Sarfan, Laurel D.; Parsons, E. Marie; Magee, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants (N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness...

  5. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...

  6. Humor and Anxiety: Effects on Class Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael A. R.; Mahoney, Peggy

    1981-01-01

    Measures of anxiety and achievement were obtained on a sample of undergraduate students. Highly anxious students had lower achievement on humorous tests. Students with low anxiety had higher achievement on humorous tests. Results indicate that humor is not a positive factor in reducing high anxiety associated with academic evaluations. (Author)

  7. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  8. Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. The Relationship between Anxiety and Test-Taking C-Test and Cloze-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety has an important role in teaching and learning. If teachers can recognize which kind of tests create high anxiety then they will be able to omit these kinds of tests. Then, the results of test can probably show the students' knowledge more carefully. The subjects of the present study were sixty Iranian female junior university students.…

  10. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts. Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones. Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  11. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Shen

    Full Text Available To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students.The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts.Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05. Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones.Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  12. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  13. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.

  14. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis G. Gerwing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females suffered from self-reported TA at some point over the course of their university career. The prevalence of TA varied by faculty, with the highest incidence among those students enrolled concurrently in Arts and Science, and Nursing students. While student perceptions varied by age, sex, and experience with TA, one third of students expressed negative and inaccurate views about TA. These negative perceptions may explain why 11.3% of surveyed students indicated they would not seek help for their TA as, for many, to do so would make them seem weak in the eyes of their colleagues. Further, 20.5% of students surveyed reported that they believe professors would be unable or unwilling to help. It may be the case that this negative perception towards TA makes it difficult for faculty and helping professionals to identify and intervene effectively. Faculty specific educational campaigns designed to educate students about TA, in particular about its prevalence and severity, are suggested as a method to circumvent the negative stigma surrounding this condition. Implementation of such educational policies will likely improve the educational experience and performance of students with TA, as well as improve student retention.

  15. Two Self-Control Procedures in the Reduction of Targeted and Nontargeted Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Compared effects of relaxation as self-control and a self-control variant of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted (test anxiety) and nontargeted anxieties with those of wait-list and no-treatment expectancy controls. Groups given relaxation as self-control and modified desensitization reported less debilitating test anxiety than…

  16. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization effectively reduced debilitating test anxiety and increased facilitating test anxiety. Follow-up demonstrated maintenance of debilitating test anxiety reduction. Subjects receiving treatment had significantly higher psychology grades. (Author)

  17. The Relationship between Learning Style, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Kubilay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…

  18. Comparisons of Test Anxiety Level of Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test anxiety has been noted to be a common experience among students and has been found to have a debilitating effect on academic performance and general well-being of affected people. Despite the universality of the experience, the manifestation of test anxiety varies across some psychosocial and demographic ...

  19. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  1. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  2. Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination Among Prelicensure Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nicole

    Test anxiety may cause nursing students to cope poorly with academic demands, affecting academic performance and attrition and leading to possible failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Test-anxious nursing students may engage academic procrastination as a coping mechanism. The Test Anxiety Inventory and the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students were administered to 202 prelicensure nursing students from diploma, associate, and baccalaureate nursing programs in southwestern Pennsylvania. Statistically significant correlations between test anxiety and academic procrastination were found. The majority of participants reported procrastinating most on weekly reading assignments. Students with higher grade point averages exhibited less academic procrastination.

  3. Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)…

  4. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…

  5. Test Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Aydın

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The findings obtained from previous research indicate that test anxiety has significant effects on the foreign language learning process. Thus, this paper aims to present a synthesis of research results on the sources and effects of test anxiety among foreign language learners. The results of the studies reviewed in the paper were mainly categorized under two sub-sections: the sources and effects of test anxiety. It is expected that the study will not only contribute to the limited research on the subject in Turkey, but also help increase the awareness among target groups such as learners, teacher and examiners.

  6. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  7. Test anxiety and academic performance in chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N R

    2014-01-01

    Objective : We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods : We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results : Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion : Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs.

  8. [Test anxiety: associations with personal and family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Salgado, Ana; González-Pienda, Julio A; Valle, Antonio; Joly, Cristina; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-11-01

    Test anxiety is a common behavior among students facing social pressure centered on mastery. Only a few studies have analyzed the relations between test anxiety, academic procrastination, personal and family variables and math grades. This work focus on the analysis of the impact of students' social-personal variables such as parents' education level, number of siblings and under-achievement by performing ANOVAs in two samples of 533 and 796 students from junior high-school. Corroborating the findings in other studies, the data stress that test anxiety is higher in girls and decreases when students' parents have higher educational levels, with the number of courses flunked, and when students' math grades were lower. Test anxiety and procrastination correlate positive and significantly. Findings are discussed and compared with those of previous researches. The implications for teaching practice are also analyzed.

  9. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Transfer, Behavioral Improvement, and Anxiety Reduction in Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas D.; Kimura, Harry K.

    1974-01-01

    Degree of transfer and fear change associated with four levels of desensitization, pseudodesensitization, and no treatment were assessed in snakephobic students. Desensitization subjects reported significantly less anxiety than no-treatment controls when repeating their highest pretreatment responses, but were no different from either control…

  11. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  12. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.

  13. Test Anxiety and a High-Stakes Standardized Reading Comprehension Test: A Behavioral Genetics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sarah G.; Hart, Sara A.; Little, Callie W.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that reading comprehension test performance does not rely solely on targeted cognitive processes such as word reading, but also on other nontarget aspects such as test anxiety. Using a genetically sensitive design, we sought to understand the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between test anxiety and…

  14. Learned Helplessness, Test Anxiety, and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness of 82 children in third grade and later in fifth grade. Results indicate that teacher reports of helplessness had the strongest and most consistent relation to concurrent achievement and to achievement test scores two years later. (RJC)

  15. Hypnosis Versus Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Joseph; Russell, Ronald W.

    1976-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and the directed experience hypnotic technique in reducing self-reported test anxiety and increasing the academic performance of test-anxious undergraduates (N=36). The results are discussed as evidence for systematic desensitization as the more effective treatment in reducing…

  16. Actual and Recalled Test Anxiety and Flexibility, Rigidity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Anthony J.; Kubis, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    Compared recalled and actual test anxiety in college students (N=71) and examined the interrelationship of anxiety with personality variables and sex differences. Results showed recalled test anxiety to be significantly higher than actual test anxiety and indicated no significant differences according to sex. (LLL)

  17. Proceedings: Instrumentation and control test reduction workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) surveillance and testing is a significant contributor to operations and management costs. Several techniques to eliminate or reduce manual testing requirements could reduce costs while improving plant safety and performance. I ampersand C test reduction was the subject of this 1991 workshop. The workshop covered test elimination, test reduction, test automation, and relevant standards and benefits. The conclusions of the workshop were the following: More utility information sharing is important. There is a significant amount of information available throughout the industry, but it is not available in a concise, useable form. An I ampersand C utility users group is needed to address items such as instrument calibration reduction, set-point methodologies, and other current I ampersand C issues. The workshop was well received. The timing is right to initiate actions to reduce testing

  18. Test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating tendencies in examination among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, 1200 senior ...

  19. An investigation of the relationship between test anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance among students in Nyeri district, Kenya. The correlational study design was used. The study was carried out among form four students together with their teachers. The target population was 83,000 students and ...

  20. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  2. Effects of an Inquiry-Based Short Intervention on State Test Anxiety in Comparison to Alternative Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krispenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Test anxiety can have undesirable consequences for learning and academic achievement. The control-value theory of achievement emotions assumes that test anxiety is experienced if a student appraises an achievement situation as important (value appraisal, but feels that the situation and its outcome are not fully under his or her control (control appraisal. Accordingly, modification of cognitive appraisals is assumed to reduce test anxiety. One method aiming at the modification of appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction. In the present study (N = 162, we assessed the effects of an inquiry-based short intervention on test anxiety.Design: Short-term longitudinal, randomized control trial.Methods: Focusing on an individual worry thought, 53 university students received an inquiry-based short intervention. Control participants reflected on their worry thought (n = 55 or were distracted (n = 52. Thought related test anxiety was assessed before, immediately after, and 2 days after the experimental treatment.Results: After the intervention as well as 2 days later, individuals who had received the inquiry-based intervention demonstrated significantly lower test anxiety than participants from the pooled control groups. Further analyses showed that the inquiry-based short intervention was more effective than reflecting on a worry thought but had no advantage over distraction.Conclusions: Our findings provide first experimental evidence for the effectiveness of an inquiry-based short intervention in reducing students’ test anxiety.

  3. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  4. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  5. Dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance after treatment in a dental fear clinic: A follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartman, I.H.A.; de Jongh, A.; Makkes, P.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess treatment outcome in terms of dental anxiety reduction at a post-treatment assessment and dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance one year later. Furthermore, it was determined to what extent psychopathological characteristics were related to

  6. The role of self-control strength in the development of state anxiety in test situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C; Bertrams, A

    2013-06-01

    Self-control strength may affect state anxiety because emotion regulation is impaired in individuals whose self-control strength has been temporarily depleted. Increases in state anxiety were expected to be larger for participants with depleted compared to nondepleted self-control strength, and trait test anxiety should predict increases in state anxiety more strongly if self-control strength is depleted. In a sample of 76 university students, trait test anxiety was assessed, self-control strength experimentally manipulated, and state anxiety measured before and after the announcement of a test. State anxiety increased after the announcement. Trait test anxiety predicted increases in state anxiety only in students with depleted self-control strength, suggesting that increased self-control strength may be useful for coping with anxiety.

  7. Anxiety reduction through group instruction in rational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J W; Wilkerson, J

    1982-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of group Rational Therapy in promoting rational thinking and self-enhancing emotions among 24 college students. Each subject was administered the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire as a pre- and post-test measurement. Results reveal that some aspects of personality are affected by Rational Therapy group programs while others are not.

  8. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  9. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on state/trait anxiety and quality of life in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity affects the cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions and usually produces mood and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR on promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety among the obese women. Materials and Methods: In this pre-post-test designed experimental study with a 2 mouth follow- up, 24 obese women (BMI≥30 were randomly selected in the Obesity Treatment Center in (Tehran, Iran and assigned in Experimental and Control groups. Data were collected using the questionnaires of anxiety of Spiel-Berger (1970 and quality of life of Viyear (1988. The MBSR interventions of Kabat-Zinn were performed for experimental group in 8 sessions, followed by the assessment of anxiety and quality of life. Results: The pre- post-test and follow- up scores for quality of life of participants in MBSR program, in terms of general health; physical limitations; physical function; social function; state anxiety and trait anxiety were: (7.66±0.88, 9.50±1.67, 9.58±1.66; (22.83±1.58, 27.91±1.16, 27±1.53; (4.50±0.67, 6.16±1.11, 5±0.95; (2.91± 0.28, 5.91±0.66, 5.75±0.38; (52.25±3.51, 43.08±2.39, 44±2.29 and (68.08±1.78, 46.75±1.71, 47.25±2, respectively. The scores of quality of life was significantly increased in participants in MBSR compared to the Control group (P<0.01. In addition, the scores of state and trait anxiety were significantly decreased (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of research provide some evidence to suggest that MBSR is an appropriate therapy for promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety in obese women.

  10. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation vs. imagery rescripting on test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Warnecke, Irene; Tolgou, Theano; Krampen, Dorothea; Luka-Krausgrill, Ursula; Rohrmann, Sonja

    2017-01-15

    Test anxiety is a common condition in students, which may lead to impaired academic performance as well as to distress. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to reduce test anxiety. Test anxiety in the participants was diagnosed as social or specific phobia according to DSM-IV. Subsequently subjects were randomized to three groups: a moderated self-help group, which served as a control group, and two treatment groups, where either relaxation techniques or imagery rescripting were applied. Students suffering from test anxiety were recruited at two German universities (n=180). The randomized controlled design comprised three groups which received test anxiety treatment in weekly three-hour sessions over a period of five weeks. Treatment outcome was assessed with a test anxiety questionnaire, which was administered before and after treatment, as well as in a six-month follow-up. A repeated-measures ANOVA for participants with complete data (n=59) revealed a significant reduction of test anxiety from baseline to six-month follow-up in all three treatment groups (panxiety. The sample may therefore represent only more severe forms of text anxiety . Moreover, the sample size in this study was small, the numbers of participants per group differed, and treatment results were based on self-report. Due to the length of the treatment, an implementation of the group treatments used in this study might not be feasible in all settings. Group treatments constitute an effective method of treating test anxiety, e.g. in university settings. Imagery rescripting may particularly contribute to treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female...

  12. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji eYamazaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate i whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e. Japanese vs. Danish participants ii, investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction and iii if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone. Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M=64.52 years, SD=5.67 in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-II, had a 15 minutes conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterwards. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p=.013. The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r=.532 p=.041 as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants’ engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations.

  13. Testing Faith: A Mixed Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Prayer and Test Anxiety amongst College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Drey

    2016-01-01

    Test anxiety is problem that affects college students. Explanatory mixed methods research was completed with the objective of understanding the interrelationship of prayer and test anxiety as well as the potential therapeutic effects of Christian prayer on test anxiety. It was hypothesized that Christian prayer would have significant effects on…

  14. Is the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety Influenced by Goal Orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Daniels, Rachel Anne

    2010-01-01

    The study described here aimed to examine the relations between test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals, and in particular if the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety were moderated by achievement goals. Pupils in their first year of secondary schooling completed self-report questionnaires for test anxiety,…

  15. Effects of Two Short-Term Desensitization Methods in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Frank C.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    Accelerated massed desensitization and anxiety management training were compared with standard systematic desensitization in terms of reducing self-reported test anxiety in high test-anxious college students. All three treatments significantly reduced test anxiety as compared with a waiting list control group. (Author)

  16. Facilitating and Debilitating Test Anxiety Among College Students and Volunteers for Desensitization Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra

    1978-01-01

    Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…

  17. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  18. Evaluating mepindolol in a test model of examination anxiety in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krope, P; Kohrs, A; Ott, H; Wagner, W; Fichte, K

    1982-03-01

    The effect of a single dose of beta-blocker (5 or 10 mg mepindolol) during a written examination was investigated in two double-blind studies (N : 49 and 55 students, respectively). The question was whether the beta-blocker would in comparison to placebo diminish examination anxiety and improve the performance of highly complex tasks, while leaving the performance of less complex tasks unchanged. A reduction in examination anxiety after beta-blocker intake could not be demonstrated with a multi-level test model (which included the parameters self-rated anxiety, motor behaviour, task performance and physiology), although pulse rates were lowered significantly. An improvement in performance could not be observed, while - by the same token - the performance was not impaired by the beta-blocker. A hypothesis according to which a beta-blocker has an anxiolytic effect and improves performance, dependent on the level of habitual examination anxiety, was tested post hoc, but could not be confirmed. Ten of the subjects treated with 10 mg mepindolol, complained of different side effects, including dizziness, fatigue and headache.

  19. Effects of mental practice on performance are moderated by cognitive anxiety as measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvari, H

    1996-12-01

    45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a cognitive rehearsal of the task, whereas the latter did not. None practiced the task physically before being tested. Analysis of variance showed that both errors and performance time interacted significantly with Mental Practice versus Control group scores and scores on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Among subjects who practiced mentally, those scoring low on cognitive anxiety performed significantly better than subjects who scored high. Further, the relationship between test scores of cognitive anxiety and performance for the total sample was analysed by different curvilinear regression models. The cubic model fitted the data better and accounted for a greater percent of variance on error performance explained by anxiety test scores (R = .39) than the linear correlation (r = .25). This cubic model formed a polynomial relationship between cognitive anxiety test scores and error in performance.

  20. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  1. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  2. Effectiveness of Structured Psychodrama and Systematic Desensitization in Reducing Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.; Giladi, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Students with examination anxiety took part in study of effectiveness of two kinds of treatment, structured psychodrama and systematic desensitization, in reducing test anxiety. Results showed that subjects in both treatment groups significantly reduced test-anxiety scores. Structured psychodrama is as effective as systematic desensitization in…

  3. State test-anxiety, selective attention and concentration in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Caurcel, María J

    2015-08-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the level of selective attention and mental concentration before exams in a sample of university students and to determine a possible relationship between anxiety and reduction of levels of attention in this circumstance. A total of 403 university students, 176 men and 227 women, aged from 18 to 46 years, participated in the study. Of them, 169 were first-year undergraduates, 118 were second to fourth-year undergraduates and 116 were postgraduate Master's degree students. All of them completed the Spanish version of the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory and the D2 Attention Test just before taking an exam. Our results showed that participants with lower levels of anxiety had higher levels of selective attention and mental concentration before the exam. These results specifically indicate that when anxiety levels are very high, this could over-activate the orientating and alerting functions and to reduce the capacity of attentional control. These processes could have a negative impact on specific attentional processes and become a negative influence on performance in exams. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  5. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  6. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  7. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  9. Treatment efficacy of virtual reality distraction in the reduction of pain and anxiety during cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marc R; Kallingal, George J S; Musser, John E; Folen, Raymond; Stetz, Melba C; Clark, Joseph Y

    2014-08-01

    Assessment of virtual reality (VR) distraction for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a common ambulatory procedure performed in Urology and can be associated with moderate pain and anxiety. Sophisticated distraction techniques are not used with cystoscopy and VR has not been studied for this procedure. We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial assessing the efficacy of VR for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Adult men referred for cystoscopy were randomized into a control or VR group. Subjects were given preprocedure and postprocedure questionnaires addressing anxiety, pain, and time spent thinking about pain. Vitals signs and galvanic skin monitors were used as objective measures. The control group underwent routine cystoscopy and the VR group underwent cystoscopy with VR. Physicians answered a postprocedure questionnaire assessing the difficulty of the exam. All questionnaires used a visual analog score for assessment. 23 patients enrolled in the control group and 22 in the VR group. Mean scores and Student's t-test were employed to analyze the data. No data endpoints showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. We concluded no benefit to VR distraction mitigating pain in male patients during cystoscopy. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  11. The Effects of Social Anxiety and State Anxiety on Visual Attention: Testing the Vigilance-Avoidance Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J Suzanne; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Dodd, Michael D; Hope, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    A growing theoretical and research literature suggests that trait and state social anxiety can predict attentional patterns in the presence of emotional stimuli. The current study adds to this literature by examining the effects of state anxiety on visual attention and testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, using a method of continuous visual attentional assessment. Participants were 91 undergraduate college students with high or low trait fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a core aspect of social anxiety, who were randomly assigned to either a high or low state anxiety condition. Participants engaged in a free view task in which pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented and eye movements were continuously monitored. Overall, participants with high FNE avoided angry stimuli and participants with high state anxiety attended to positive stimuli. Participants with high state anxiety and high FNE were avoidant of angry faces, whereas participants with low state and low FNE exhibited a bias toward angry faces. The study provided partial support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. The findings add to the mixed results in the literature that suggest that both positive and negative emotional stimuli may be important in understanding the complex attention patterns associated with social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p students' achievement motivation.

  13. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  14. Dose reduction for snubber inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.M.; Cotton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Health physics staff members at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station have implemented several dose reduction methods for snubber inspection, testing and changeout. These methods include construction maps to permit easy location of snubbers in the drywell, painting azimuth numbers on the inside drywell wall and biological shield wall to coincide with the maps, requiring pre-job briefings for quality inspectors and craft support personnel, using job history files for work planning, using experienced inspectors and craft personnel whenever possible, designating certain craft personnel solely for snubber work, and cutting out stuck snubber pins rather than attempting intact removal. The total dose for snubber-related tasks has been significantly reduced using these methods

  15. Academic level and student’s faculty as factors of test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Oladipo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety as a prominent problem among students has been a focus of study for decades now, with studies focusing more on such factors as age, gender and study habit in relation to test anxiety. There is a dearth of literature in respect of such factors as academic level and student’s faculty in relation to test anxiety among undergraduates. The focus of the present study therefore, was to investigate academic level and students’ faculty as factors predicting test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 197(126 males and 71 females undergraduates participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30years (M=21.6,SD=2.68.Four hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that academic level and students’ faculty had no correlation with test anxiety. Moreover, the result of the multiple regression analysis showed that academic level and students’ faculty have no independent and joint influence on test anxiety. It was concluded that irrespective of student’s academic level and faculty, test anxiety is unavoidable. Other factors might be responsible for student test anxiety especially among undergraduates Nigeria. It is therefore recommend that more research should be conducted in this area so as to determine the salient factors that predict test anxiety.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEST ANXIETY AND PARENTING IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, MALEKSHAHI, ILAM

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Havasian and Zohreh Havasian*

    2017-01-01

    Test anxiety, which is one of the main obstacles of education systems at different levels, is one of the most common phenomena among students. Regarding the effect of test anxiety on academic performance, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between test anxiety and parenting in Malekshahi city of Ilam. The present research is a descriptive cross-sectional study and the statistical population includes all male and female students of high school in Maleshahi city. The subject...

  17. Test Anxiety, Procrastrination and Mental Simpthoms in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan, Luis Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA and academic procrastination (AP, are motives of counsulting frequentlly asociated with another mental simpthoms. To estimate more accurately this commorbidity, 219 students of the National University of Cordoba, completed inventories of mental simpthoms, TA and AP. A multivariate analysis of variance with groups of 1 Highly TA and AP (n= 75, 2 highly TA and low AP (n= 40, 3 low TA and highly AP (n= 38 and 4 low TA and AP (n= 66 showed diffrerences between the three simpthomatic scales (negativeness - low self seteem; tension, irritability – indecision and suspicacy – alucination between the four groups. Group 1 obteined higher scores to the other groups in the scales. Non significative diffrerences were found between groups 2 and 3. Group 4 showed lower scores to group 2 and 3 but the diffrenecies were of little significance. Implicances to diagnosis and treatment of both conditions are discussed.

  18. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devine Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematics anxiety (MA, a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education

  19. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  20. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  1. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  2. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  3. Effects of Aromatherapy on Test Anxiety and Performance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Jocelyn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety is a complex, multidimensional construct composed of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that have been shown to negatively affect test performance. Furthermore, test anxiety is a pervasive problem in modern society largely related to the evaluative nature of educational programs, therefore meriting study of its nature,…

  4. Test Anxiety Research: Students with Vision Impairments and Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee

    2014-01-01

    There is an absence of research on test anxiety in students with disabilities although such testing is taken for granted among students without disabilities. This study investigated the test anxiety of the students in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairments and those with intellectual disabilities who are placed in…

  5. Effects of rational-emotive therapy on psychophysiological and reported measures of test anxiety arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, A F; Barabasz, M

    1981-07-01

    Developed audio taped lectures, taped therapy session models, and homework assignments designed to reduce irrational beliefs associated with test anxiety within Ellis' rational-emotive therapy (RET) approach. The initial sample consisted of 148 university students. Comparisons with an attention placebo counseling program, which was established to be equally credible by a post-experiment inquiry and a no-treatment group found the RET Ss to show significantly lower skin conductance responses to a test anxiety visualization and lower reported anxiety on a questionnaire. However, skin conductance responses to an alternative test anxiety visualization did not show treatment effects.

  6. Can I Count on Getting Better? Association between Math Anxiety and Poorer Understanding of Medical Risk Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Connor, Patrick A

    2016-10-01

    Lower numerical ability is associated with poorer understanding of health statistics, such as risk reductions of medical treatment. For many people, despite good numeracy skills, math provokes anxiety that impedes an ability to evaluate numerical information. Math-anxious individuals also report less confidence in their ability to perform math tasks. We hypothesized that, independent of objective numeracy, math anxiety would be associated with poorer responding and lower confidence when calculating risk reductions of medical treatments. Objective numeracy was assessed using an 11-item objective numeracy scale. A 13-item self-report scale was used to assess math anxiety. In experiment 1, participants were asked to interpret the baseline risk of disease and risk reductions associated with treatment options. Participants in experiment 2 were additionally provided a graphical display designed to facilitate the processing of math information and alleviate effects of math anxiety. Confidence ratings were provided on a 7-point scale. Individuals of higher objective numeracy were more likely to respond correctly to baseline risks and risk reductions associated with treatment options and were more confident in their interpretations. Individuals who scored high in math anxiety were instead less likely to correctly interpret the baseline risks and risk reductions and were less confident in their risk calculations as well as in their assessments of the effectiveness of treatment options. Math anxiety predicted confidence levels but not correct responding when controlling for objective numeracy. The graphical display was most effective in increasing confidence among math-anxious individuals. The findings suggest that math anxiety is associated with poorer medical risk interpretation but is more strongly related to confidence in interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Relations among Mathematics Anxiety, Gender, and Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Yasmeen; Krause, Jeremy A.; Blum, Emily N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety typically involves apprehension toward activities that require computation, which can lead to complications in every-day-life activities (Ashcraft, 2002). Mathematics anxiety also has become accepted as an issue associated with academic success for both children and adults (Ashcraft, 2002; Ashcraft & Moore, 2009; Beilock,…

  8. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  9. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  10. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  11. Is Cognitive Test-Taking Anxiety Associated With Academic Performance Among Nursing Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duty, Susan M; Christian, Ladonna; Loftus, Jocelyn; Zappi, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive component of test anxiety was correlated with academic performance among nursing students. Modest but statistically significant lower examination grade T scores were observed for students with high compared with low levels of cognitive test anxiety (CTA). High levels of CTA were associated with reduced academic performance.

  12. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  13. Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety Through Observation of Video-taped Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jay

    1972-01-01

    Procedural variations were compared for a vicarious group treatment of test anxiety involving observation of videotapes depicting systematic desensitization of a model. The theoretical implications of the present study and the feasibility of using videotaped materials to treat test anxiety and other avoidance responses in school settings are…

  14. A Study of Income and Test Anxiety among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between income level of Turkish university students studying at an English language teaching department and test anxiety levels as well as worry and emotionality components of test anxiety. 249 (60 male, 189 female) undergraduate students studying at an English Language Teaching Department of a…

  15. Does exercise aid smoking cessation through reductions in anxiety sensitivity and dysphoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Garey, Lorra; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Langdon, Kirsten J; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Paulus, Daniel J; Baird, Scarlett O; Smits, Jasper A J

    2018-07-01

    Research shows that high anxiety sensitivity (AS) and dysphoria are related to poor smoking cessation outcomes. Engaging in exercise may contribute to improvement in smoking cessation outcomes through reductions in AS and dysphoria. In the current study, we examined whether exercise can aid smoking cessation through reductions in AS and dysphoria. Participants were sedentary and low activity adult daily smokers (N = 136) with elevated AS who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing smoking cessation treatment (ST) plus an exercise intervention (ST + EX) to ST plus wellness education (ST + CTRL). Self-reported smoking status was assessed in-person weekly from baseline through week 16 (end of-treatment; EOT), at week 22 (4 months postquit day), and at week 30 (6 months postquit day), and verified biochemically. Results indicated that both AS and dysphoria at 6-month follow-up were significantly lower in the ST + EX group compared to the ST + CTRL group (controlling for baseline levels). Moreover, reductions in AS and dysphoria emerged as independent mechanisms of action explaining success in quitting. These novel findings offer clinically significant evidence suggesting that vigorous-intensity exercise can effectively engage affective constructs in the context of smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Role of Academic Self-efficacy and Social Support on Nursing Students' Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawski, Sigalit; Bar-Lev, Oshra; Barnoy, Sivia

    2018-05-25

    Associations between test anxiety, academic self-efficacy (ASE), and social support through social media have not been fully explored. The purposes were to explore associations between test anxiety, ASE, and social support from social media and to examine differences in test anxiety by students' year of studies and cultural background. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design. The sample comprised first- and fourth-year nursing students (n = 240) attending a baccalaureate nursing program in Israel. Higher ASE and support through social media were related to lower test anxiety. Fourth-year students and Jewish students had higher ASE than first-year and Arab students, who received more support on social media than Jewish students. Developing learning strategies designed to increase students' ASE and reduce test anxiety is warranted. Social media as an educational tool can be adopted for this purpose.

  17. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  18. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training to decrease test anxiety in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Catherine A; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experiencing debilitating test anxiety may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and have potential for poor academic performance. A biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program was created to reduce test anxiety. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory and monitoring peripheral skin temperature, pulse, and respiration rates during the training. Participants were introduced to diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training. Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions. No statistically significant difference was noted between the first and second TAI. Subjective test anxiety scores of the students did not decrease by the end of training. Autogenic training session was most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.

  1. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  2. Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a large enrollment gateway course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kimberly A; Couret, Jannelle; Ramsay, Jason B; Caulkins, Joshua L

    2017-09-01

    Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as "high stakes" because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in "C" students when compared to "A" students: P < 0.00006 and "B" students: P < 0.05), overall academic ability (in academically weaker students: P < 0.025), and demographic factors (in women: P < 0.025). The strongest performances on examinations were primarily observed in already academically strong students (mean individual performance: P < 0.000, mean group performance: P < 0.000). Furthermore, changes in test anxiety were not significantly associated with the group portion of the examinations. Patterns of changes in test anxiety over the course of the semester underscore a complex interaction between test anxiety, student background, and student performance. Results suggest that pathways for test anxiety in "high stakes" courses may be separate from the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of collaborative testing. Anat Sci Educ 10: 409-422. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Just Breathe: The Effects of Emotional Dysregulation and Test Anxiety on GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Samantha D.; Wasieleski, David T.; Whatley, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    College is considered to be one of the most evaluative and stressful times during a student's academic career. A student's inability to regulate emotions may be correlated with an increased level of test anxiety. Previous research has indicated significant relationships between emotional dysregulation and generalized anxiety disorders (e.g.,…

  4. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  5. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Basic Psychological Needs, Academic Engagement, and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Farnaz Mehdipour; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Hejazi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Some of the key issues in educational psychology are the way of students' engagement at school, controlling anxiety, and academic achievement. In line with that, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between variables that are basic psychological needs, academic engagement, and test anxiety with regard to structural…

  6. Attachment, Self-Esteem and Test Anxiety in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…

  7. Lead time reduction by optimal test sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.; Jong, de I.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Het testen van machines neemt in het huidige ontwerp en productie fases binnen ASML ongeveer 30-50% van de totale doorlooptijd in. Om deze tijd te verkorten, worden er test strategieën gemaakt. Een van de belangrijke onderdelen van zo een test strategie is de test volgorde, oftewel de volgorde

  8. Contaminated metallic melt volume reduction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale metallic melts (stainless steel) were accomplished in support of Decontamination and Decommissioning's (D and D) contaminated equipment volume reduction and Low-Level Lead Site Waste programs. Six laboratory scale melts made with contaminated stainless steel provided data that radionuclide distribution can be predicted when proper temperature rates and ranges are employed, and that major decontamination occurs with the use of designed slagging materials. Stainless steel bars were contaminated with plutonium, cobalt, cesium and europium. This study was limited to stainless steel, however, further study is desirable to establish data for other metals and alloys. This study represents a positive beginning in defining the feasibility of economical volume reduction or conversion from TRU waste forms to LLW forms for a large portion of approximately 50 thousand tons of contaminated metal waste now being stored at Hanford underground or in deactivated facilities

  9. Characteristics of test anxiety among medical students and congruence of strategies to address it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Encandela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with ‘high stakes’ exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods: We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results: Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals’ strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion: Students’ adoption of a ‘menu’ of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a ‘real’ experience, and students would benefit from educator support.

  10. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  11. Neurofeedback Treatment of College Students' Test on Anxiety, Depression, Personality, and Mood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Zhu; Yuan Li; Jin Yang

    2009-01-01

    Biofeedback is used to treat the mental diseases of college students, such as test anxiety, depression, personality, and mood. Anxiety of the colleague students was first tested by test anxiety scale (TAS) and then treated by biofeedback. After getting the biofeedback treatment, the students' TAS scores, blood volume pulse, and skin conductance were decreased, especially, their TAS scores dropped markedly. Meanwhile, the level of EEG ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) and peripheral temperature increased observably. Then, neurofeedback ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) was applied to treat students' depression, personality, and mood. As a result, these three kinds of symptoms got alleviated. And their therapeutic effects based on neurofeedback were more stable, durative and less recrudescent.

  12. Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Korhonen, Johan; Peng, Aihui; Linnanmäki, Karin; Svens-Liavåg, Camilla; Bagger, Anette; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3…

  13. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  14. The End of Leisure: Are Preferred Leisure Activities Contraindicated for Education-Related Stress/Anxiety Reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher stress is an increasing problem not only for practicing teachers but for student teachers as well. It leads to professional teachers leaving the profession, and future teachers enduring much stress and anxiety throughout teacher education programs. To further explore effects of stress, teacher candidates were surveyed with respect to (1 the role of their leisure preferences and (2 their stress levels related to Pedagogy, Evaluation, Class Management, and Interpersonal Relations. In Study One (n=216, a profile of leisure preferences was comprised, and findings from the relationship between leisure preferences and teaching anxieties contributed to a profile to explore reduced anxiety over time. A follow-up investigation (Study Two, n=136 tested the discriminatory potential of these leisure profile variables to separate those who showed less anxiety over time from those who regressed. Surprisingly, increased anxiety was associated with higher leisure in Sports, Adventure, Travel, and Exotica and with non-Science majors, Human Kinesiology majors, and Males. Some leisure preferences appear to be counterintuitive, given commonsense notions of the value of leisure. A Leisure Preferences Profile serves to facilitate discrimination between groups (improvement in anxiety levels versus no improvement with respect to Pedagogical and Evaluation anxiety. A Composite Profile suggests that Leisure preferences related to Sports, Adventure, and Exotica are counterproductive in reducing stress related to Pedagogy. Implications are discussed.

  15. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  16. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

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    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  17. Does prenatal valproate interact with a genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter?A rat study on anxiety and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Ellenbroek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Given that VPA significantly impacts on the serotonergic system, and serotonin has strong biochemical and genetic links to ASD, we aimed to investigate the interaction between genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter and prenatal valproate administration. More specifically, we exposed both wildtype (SERT+/+ rats and rats heterozygous for the serotonin transporter deletion (SERT+/- to a single injection of 400 mg/kg VPA at gestational day (GD 12. The offspring, in adulthood, was assessed in four different tests: Elevated Plus Maze and Novelty Suppressed Feeding as measures for anxiety and prepulse inhibition (PPI and latent inhibition as measures for cognition and information processing. The results show that prenatal VPA significantly increased anxiety in both paradigm, reduced PPI and reduced conditioning in the latent inhibition paradigm. However, we failed to find a significant gene – environment interaction. We propose that this may be related to the timing of the VPA injection and suggest that whereas GD12 might be optimal for affecting normal rat, rats with a genetically compromised serotonergic system may be more sensitive to VPA at earlier time points during gestation. Overall our data are the first to investigate gene * environmental interactions in a genetic rat model for ASD suggest that timing may be of crucial importance to the long-term outcome.

  18. Behavioural analysis of four mouse strains in an anxiety test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaalen, M M; Steckler, T

    2000-10-01

    Differences in locomotor activity, exploratory activity and anxiety-like behaviour of C57BL/6ChR,C57BL/6J, Swiss Webster/J and A/J strain were investigated in an anxiety battery. The battery consisted of paradigms studying spontaneous behaviour after a mild stressor, tasks of innate anxiety (light-dark box, elevated plus maze, novel object exploration), response to a conflict situation (Vogel conflict), conditioned fear and response to inescapable swim stress. Locomotor activity was studied in an open field and compared with locomotion in the other tests. Exploratory behaviour was studied in a 16-hole board task. The data confirm previous studies suggesting that A/J mice are a relatively anxious strain. Also, the data indicated that locomotor activity was independent of the paradigm employed, while the rank order of strain-dependent effects on anxiety-related behaviour changed as a function of the task under study. Our data provide further support for the notion that choice of strain is essential in studies of anxiety-related behaviour. Influence of strain should be considered in pharmacological and lesion studies, as well as in studies with mutant mice. In addition, the data indicate that different anxiety paradigms tax different aspects of anxiety, suggesting that a battery of different tests should be used in studies of anxiety-related behaviour.

  19. Reduction of Cancer-Specific Thought Intrusions and Anxiety Symptoms With a Stress Management Intervention Among Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; Wimberly, Sarah R.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Kazi, Aisha; Sifre, Tammy; Urcuyo, Kenya R.; Phillips, Kristin; Smith, Roselyn G.; Petronis, Vida M.; Guellati, Sophie; Wells, Kurrie A.; Blomberg, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective After surgery for breast cancer, many women experience anxiety relating to the cancer that can adversely affect quality of life and emotional functioning during the year postsurgery. Symptoms such as intrusive thoughts may be ameliorated during this period with a structured, group-based cognitive behavior intervention. Method A 10-week group cognitive behavior stress management intervention that included anxiety reduction (relaxation training), cognitive restructuring, and coping skills training was tested among 199 women newly treated for stage 0-III breast cancer. They were then followed for 1 year after recruitment. Results The intervention reduced reports of thought intrusion, interviewer ratings of anxiety, and emotional distress across 1 year significantly more than was seen with the control condition. The beneficial effects were maintained well past the completion of adjuvant therapy. Conclusions Structured, group-based cognitive behavior stress management may ameliorate cancer-related anxiety during active medical treatment for breast cancer and for 1 year following treatment. Group-based cognitive behavior stress management is a clinically useful adjunct to offer to women treated for breast cancer. PMID:17012691

  20. The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance of Students in Vital Statistics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test anxiety is a common phenomenon among students and is one of the problems of educational system. The present study was conducted to investigate the test anxiety in vital statistics course and its association with academic performance of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This study was descriptive-analytical and the study sample included the students studying in nursing and midwifery, paramedicine and health faculties that had taken vital statistics course and were selected through census method. Sarason questionnaire was used to analyze the test anxiety. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated no significant correlation between test anxiety and score of vital statistics course.

  1. Systematic Desensitization Of Test Anxiety: A Comparison Of Group And Individual Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scissons, Edward H.; Njaa, Lloyd J.

    1973-01-01

    The results indicate the effectiveness of both individual desensitization and group desensitization in the treatment of high test anxiety. More research is needed in comparing the effectiveness of group desensitization and individual desensitization with intratreatment variables. (Author)

  2. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills

  3. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  4. The Influence of Math Anxiety, Math Performance, Worry, and Test Anxiety on the Iowa Gambling Task and Balloon Analogue Risk Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Barnhart, Wesley R

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that performance on behavioral decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), is influenced by external factors, such as mood. However, the research regarding the influence of worry is mixed, and no research has examined the effect of math or test anxiety on these tasks. The present study investigated the effects of anxiety (including math anxiety) and math performance on the IGT and BART in a sample of 137 undergraduate students. Math performance and worry were not correlated with performance on the IGT, and no variables were correlated with BART performance. Linear regressions indicated math anxiety, physiological anxiety, social concerns/stress, and test anxiety significantly predicted disadvantageous selections on the IGT during the transition from decision making under ambiguity to decision making under risk. Implications for clinical evaluation of decision making are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Amygdala Lesions Reduce Anxiety-like Behavior in a Human Benzodiazepine-Sensitive Approach-Avoidance Conflict Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Vunder, Johanna; Miró, Júlia; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Hurlemann, Rene; Bach, Dominik R

    2017-10-01

    Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation. In a preregistered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effect of a single dose (1 mg) of lorazepam (n = 59). We then compared 2 patients with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome with age- and gender-matched control participants (n = 17). Based on a previous report, the primary outcome measure was the effect of intra-epoch time (i.e., an adaptation to increasing potential loss) on presence in the safe quadrant of the spatial grid. We hypothesized reduced loss adaptation in this measure under lorazepam and in patients with amygdala lesions. Lorazepam and amygdala lesions reduced loss adaptation in the primary outcome measure. We found similar results in several secondary outcome measures. The relative reduction of anxiety-like behavior in patients with amygdala lesions was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from an impact of anterior hippocampus lesions found in a previous report. Our results establish the translational validity of human approach-avoidance conflict tests in terms of anxiolytic drug action. We identified the amygdala, in addition to the hippocampus, as a critical structure in human anxiety-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  7. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by

  8. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  9. Neurons in the Amygdala with Response-Selectivity for Anxiety in Two Ethologically Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong V.; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhiru; Lin, Longnian

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a key area in the brain for detecting potential threats or dangers, and further mediating anxiety. However, the neuronal mechanisms of anxiety in the amygdala have not been well characterized. Here we report that in freely-behaving mice, a group of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) fires tonically under anxiety conditions in both open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. The firing patterns of these neurons displayed a characteristic slow onset and progressively increased firing rates. Specifically, these firing patterns were correlated to a gradual development of anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field test. Moreover, these neurons could be activated by any impoverished environment similar to an open-field; and introduction of both comfortable and uncomfortable stimuli temporarily suppressed the activity of these BLA neurons. Importantly, the excitability of these BLA neurons correlated well with levels of anxiety. These results demonstrate that this type of BLA neuron is likely to represent anxiety and/or emotional values of anxiety elicited by anxiogenic environmental stressors. PMID:21494567

  10. Neurons in the amygdala with response-selectivity for anxiety in two ethologically based tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    Full Text Available The amygdala is a key area in the brain for detecting potential threats or dangers, and further mediating anxiety. However, the neuronal mechanisms of anxiety in the amygdala have not been well characterized. Here we report that in freely-behaving mice, a group of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA fires tonically under anxiety conditions in both open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. The firing patterns of these neurons displayed a characteristic slow onset and progressively increased firing rates. Specifically, these firing patterns were correlated to a gradual development of anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field test. Moreover, these neurons could be activated by any impoverished environment similar to an open-field; and introduction of both comfortable and uncomfortable stimuli temporarily suppressed the activity of these BLA neurons. Importantly, the excitability of these BLA neurons correlated well with levels of anxiety. These results demonstrate that this type of BLA neuron is likely to represent anxiety and/or emotional values of anxiety elicited by anxiogenic environmental stressors.

  11. Study of anxiety symptoms in drawing-a-person test of Khorramabad 10 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi Moghaddam

    2014-03-01

    Results: Significant signs (p>0.05 in test group children (anxious were: small eyes, very bold graphic lines, parallel lines shaded and plaid, scrawl and repeated cleaning - abnormal physical state, to use black color, anxious face of dummy, small head, long legs, big feet, horizontal and inflexible arms and closed hands. Also signs of anxiety were significant based on sex in drawing-a-person test. Conclusion: According to findings of the present research and importance of anxiety disorders recognition in childhood and its impact on life time, it is suggested to pay more attention to these signs of children's drawings. Through timely diagnosis of children with anxiety disorders, future impacts of anxiety can be prevented.

  12. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mostafavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom.  First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students.  Then, 60 participants whose score fell within the range of + 1 SD from the mean score were selected for the main study.  Next, they were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one experimental.  The design of the study was Experimental comparison-group plan.  Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale adopted from Horwitz (1986 was used to examine the EFL learners’ anxiety level in English class.  Moreover, two equivalent oral tests adopted from Heaton (1975 were administered to the participants of the two groups both at the beginning and at the end of the study served as pre and post-tests.  The treatment for the experimental group included Oxford's (1990 taxonomy of affective strategies, which included explicit affective strategy instruction (in relaxation, music, visualization, humor, positive self-talk, risk-taking, and monitoring emotions.  The control group did not receive any special instruction in terms of affective strategies.  To investigate the possible effects of explicit affective strategy use instruction on the participants’ oral language proficiency and their anxiety level, the pre and posttests of oral tests and the participants’ self-reports of anxiety control in both groups were analyzed and compared.  The results of independent samples T- test indicated that while the two groups were homogeneous in terms of oral proficiency and level of anxiety control before introducing the treatment, the experimental group performed better than the control group in the oral post-test.  Moreover, the level of anxiety control for the experimental group was significantly different and higher than that of the

  13. Test-Taking Skills of Secondary Students: The Relationship with Motivation, Attitudes, Anxiety and Attitudes towards Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh M.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Alshumrani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Test-taking skills are cognitive skills that enable students to undergo any test-taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety; attitudes towards mathematics; and attitudes…

  14. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  15. The Influence of Anxiety and Quality of Interaction on Collaborative Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Carol; Kapitanoff, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships among test performance, anxiety, and the quality of interaction during collaborative testing of college students. It also explored which students are most likely to benefit from collaborative testing. It was randomly determined whether a student would take each of six examinations alone or with a…

  16. The Effects of Test Anxiety on Learning at Superficial and Deep Levels of Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Using a deep-level processing strategy, low test-anxious college students performed significantly better than high test-anxious students in learning a paired-associate word list. Using a superficial-level processing strategy resulted in no significant difference in performance. A cognitive-attentional theory and test anxiety mechanisms are…

  17. Treatment of Test Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Desensitization and Study-Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Russell, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    Compared relative effectiveness of two multicomponent strategies in the treatment of test anxiety. Test-anxious students were assigned to groups. Within-group changes between pre- and post-testing favored multicomponent treatments. Between groups, both desensitization treatment programs demonstrated significant improvement over no-treatment on…

  18. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  19. Anxiety, anticipation and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Adam J; Jackson, Robin C; Bishop, Daniel T; Williams, A Mark

    2016-09-01

    We tested the assumptions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining the impact of anxiety on anticipation using a dynamic, time-constrained task. Moreover, we examined the involvement of high- and low-level cognitive processes in anticipation and how their importance may interact with anxiety. Skilled and less-skilled tennis players anticipated the shots of opponents under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Participants viewed three types of video stimuli, each depicting different levels of contextual information. Performance effectiveness (response accuracy) and processing efficiency (response accuracy divided by corresponding mental effort) were measured. Skilled players recorded higher levels of response accuracy and processing efficiency compared to less-skilled counterparts. Processing efficiency significantly decreased under high- compared to low-anxiety conditions. No difference in response accuracy was observed. When reviewing directional errors, anxiety was most detrimental to performance in the condition conveying only contextual information, suggesting that anxiety may have a greater impact on high-level (top-down) cognitive processes, potentially due to a shift in attentional control. Our findings provide partial support for ACT; anxiety elicited greater decrements in processing efficiency than performance effectiveness, possibly due to predominance of the stimulus-driven attentional system.

  20. Effects of computer-based immediate feedback on foreign language listening comprehension and test-associated anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Su, Hui-Kai; Lee, Shin-Da

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of immediate feedback on computer-based foreign language listening comprehension tests and on intrapersonal test-associated anxiety in 72 English major college students at a Taiwanese University. Foreign language listening comprehension of computer-based tests designed by MOODLE, a dynamic e-learning environment, with or without immediate feedback together with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were tested and repeated after one week. The analysis indicated that immediate feedback during testing caused significantly higher anxiety and resulted in significantly higher listening scores than in the control group, which had no feedback. However, repeated feedback did not affect the test anxiety and listening scores. Computer-based immediate feedback did not lower debilitating effects of anxiety but enhanced students' intrapersonal eustress-like anxiety and probably improved their attention during listening tests. Computer-based tests with immediate feedback might help foreign language learners to increase attention in foreign language listening comprehension.

  1. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  2. Post-Secondary Educators’ Perceptions of Students’ Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah A. Connon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Student test anxiety (TA is a far-reaching concern in many post-secondary institutions as it can have a negative impact on student performance and retention. Educator perceptions of TA may influence the incidence of TA as well as treatment success. As such, we surveyed educators at a medium-sized Canadian university about their perceptions and experiences with TA. In total, 90% of surveyed educators (n=50 were willing to accommodate students with TA, and 69% of educators were aware of TA support services on campus, whereas only 40% could identify symptoms of TA. Two principal components were extracted from survey responses: the importance of TA on campus, and the importance of institutional commitment to managing TA. Perceived importance of TA varied by educator age and sex, with female and older educators perceiving TA as a more serious condition than male and younger educators. Educators that were aware of TA services had a more positive view of institutional commitment to TA. In addition, 42% of educators felt limited in their ability to assist students with TA, and only 40% believed their classes were structured in such a way as to minimize or address TA. Providing information to educators about the symptoms and treatability of TA, as well as available support services is recommended. L’anxiété des étudiants face aux examens est une préoccupation qui a des implications importantes dans de nombreux établissements d’enseignement post-secondaire car elle peut avoir des effets négatifs sur les résultats des étudiants et sur leur rétention. Les perceptions des éducateurs concernant l’anxiété face aux examens risquent d’influencer l’incidence de l’anxiété ainsi que la réussite du traitement. C’est pourquoi nous avons fait un sondage auprès d’éducateurs dans une université canadienne de taille moyenne à propos de leurs perceptions et de leurs expériences concernant l’anxiété face aux examens. Au total, 90

  3. A high COPD assessment test score may predict anxiety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilman Harryanto,1 Sally Burrows,2 Yuben Moodley1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaThe prevalence of anxiety is 55% in patients with COPD,1 and it is associated with worse disease control. Therefore, early recognition and institution of treatment of this comorbidity significantly improve patient’s quality of life. Recently, a questionnaire called the COPD assessment test (CAT has been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD, and a higher score is associated with increased COPD symptoms.2 Considering the regular use of CAT, it was evaluated whether this tool can also be used to identify anxiety. The CAT score was correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to determine the level at which CAT may predict anxiety.

  4. Additive and Multiplicative Effects of Working Memory and Test Anxiety on Mathematics Performance in Grade 3 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Johan; Nyroos, Mikaela; Jonsson, Bert; Eklöf, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety…

  5. Treatment of Test Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard K.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Test-anxious subjects (N=19) participated in an outcome study comparing systematic desensitization, cue-controlled relaxation, and no treatment. The treatment groups demonstrated significant improvement on the self-report measures of test and state anxiety but not on the behavioral indices. The potential advantages of this technique over…

  6. Test Anxiety: Evaluation of a Low-Threshold Seminar-Based Intervention for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Nadine; Augustin, Sophie; Bade, Claudia; Ammer-Wies, Annett; Bahramsoltani, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary students are confronted with a high workload and an extensive number of examinations. However, the skills students gained in high school cannot serve as satisfactory coping strategies during veterinary training. This disparity can lead to test anxiety, as frequently reported by international surveys. In response, a pilot study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a newly developed training seminar to prevent and/or reduce test anxiety. The seminar was offered on a voluntary basis as a low-threshold intervention to first- and second-year veterinary students at three different veterinary schools in Germany. The intervention was offered in two different designs: in either a block or in a semester course containing cognitive and behavioral approaches as well as skill-deficit methods. By conducting a survey and interviews among the participants it was determined whether the contents of the seminar were perceived as helpful for counteracting test anxiety. The potential of the intervention was evaluated using a German test anxiety questionnaire (PAF). The contents of the training seminar were all assessed as beneficial but evaluated slightly differently by first- and second-year students. The results indicate that the seminar prevents and reduces test anxiety significantly compared to the control group students. The greatest effects were achieved by offering the intervention to first-year students and as a block course. As the participants benefit from the intervention independent of the extent of test anxiety, these results suggest that it may be profitable to integrate a workshop on coping strategies in the veterinary curriculum.

  7. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  8. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  9. Self-Desensitization and Meditation in the Reduction of Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; Henry, David

    1979-01-01

    Speech-anxious students were assigned to self-administered treatment conditions: (1) systematic desensitization, (2) desensitization with meditation replacing progressive relaxation, and (3) meditation only. Treatment manuals included coping-skill instructions. Treatments were equally effective in reducing anxiety and produced a greater reduction…

  10. Development and Testing of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Resource for Children's Dental Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, J; Rodd, H; Morgan, A; Williams, C; Gupta, E; Kirby, J; Creswell, C; Newton, T; Stevens, K; Baker, S; Prasad, S; Marshman, Z

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for dental anxiety; however, access to therapy is limited. The current study aimed to develop a self-help CBT resource for reducing dental anxiety in children, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a trial to evaluate the treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. A mixed methods design was employed. Within phase 1, a qualitative "person-based" approach informed the development of the self-help CBT resource. This also employed guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. Within phase 2, children, aged between 9 and 16 y, who had elevated self-reported dental anxiety and were attending a community dental service or dental hospital, were invited to use the CBT resource. Children completed questionnaires, which assessed their dental anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) prior to and following their use of the resource. Recruitment and completion rates were recorded. Acceptability of the CBT resource was explored using interviews and focus groups with children, parents/carers and dental professionals. For this analysis, the authors adhered to the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool criteria. There were 24 families and 25 dental professionals participating in the development and qualitative evaluation of the CBT resource for children with dental anxiety. A total of 56 children agreed to trial the CBT resource (66% response rate) and 48 of these children completed the study (86% completion rate). There was a significant reduction in dental anxiety (mean score difference = 7.7, t = 7.9, df = 45, P < 0.001, Cohen's d ES = 1.2) and an increase in HRQoL following the use of the CBT resource (mean score difference = -0.03, t = 2.14, df = 46, P < 0.05, Cohen's d ES = 0.3). The self-help approach had high levels of acceptability to stakeholders. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and acceptability of the resource in

  11. Development and Testing of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Resource for Children’s Dental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, J.; Rodd, H.; Morgan, A.; Williams, C.; Gupta, E.; Kirby, J.; Creswell, C.; Newton, T.; Stevens, K.; Baker, S.; Prasad, S.; Marshman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for dental anxiety; however, access to therapy is limited. The current study aimed to develop a self-help CBT resource for reducing dental anxiety in children, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a trial to evaluate the treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. A mixed methods design was employed. Within phase 1, a qualitative “person-based” approach informed the development of the self-help CBT resource. This also employed guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. Within phase 2, children, aged between 9 and 16 y, who had elevated self-reported dental anxiety and were attending a community dental service or dental hospital, were invited to use the CBT resource. Children completed questionnaires, which assessed their dental anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) prior to and following their use of the resource. Recruitment and completion rates were recorded. Acceptability of the CBT resource was explored using interviews and focus groups with children, parents/carers and dental professionals. For this analysis, the authors adhered to the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool criteria. There were 24 families and 25 dental professionals participating in the development and qualitative evaluation of the CBT resource for children with dental anxiety. A total of 56 children agreed to trial the CBT resource (66% response rate) and 48 of these children completed the study (86% completion rate). There was a significant reduction in dental anxiety (mean score difference = 7.7, t = 7.9, df = 45, P < 0.001, Cohen’s d ES = 1.2) and an increase in HRQoL following the use of the CBT resource (mean score difference = -0.03, t = 2.14, df = 46, P < 0.05, Cohen’s d ES = 0.3). The self-help approach had high levels of acceptability to stakeholders. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and acceptability of the resource

  12. Effects of repeated asenapine in a battery of tests for anxiety-like behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Hila M; Kara, Nirit Z; Barak, Noa; Reshef Ben-Mordechai, Tal; Einat, Haim

    2016-04-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs were demonstrated to have anxiolytic effects in patients and in animal models. These effects were mostly suggested to be the consequence of the drugs' affinity to the serotonin system and its receptors. Asenapine is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic that is prescribed for schizophrenia and for bipolar mania. Asenapine has a broad pharmacological profile with significant effects on serotonergic receptors, hence it is reasonable to expect that asenapine may have some anxiolytic effects. The present study was therefore designed to examine possible effects of asenapine on anxiety-like behaviour of mice. Male ICR mice were repeatedly treated with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg injections of asenapine and then tested in a battery of behavioural tests related to anxiety including the open-field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM), defensive marble burying and hyponeophagia tests. In an adjunct experiment, we tested the effects of acute diazepam in the same test battery. The results show that diazepam reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM, the defensive marble burying test and the hyponeophagia test but not in the open field. Asenapine has anxiolytic-like effects in the EPM and the defensive marble burying tests but had no effects in the open-field or the hyponeophagia tests. Asenapine had no effects on locomotor activity. The results suggest that asenapine may have anxiolytic-like properties and recommends that clinical trials examining such effects should be performed.

  13. an investigation of the relationship between test anxiety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Eighty students from four schools and 12 teachers were randomly ... discipline and unrest in secondary schools, the number of tests done as part .... sample of elementary children in Florida. However .... Students should seek counseling before.

  14. The Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA): Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Scores of a New Multidimensional Measure of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    A new multidimensional measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA), specifically designed for U.S. adolescents in Grades 6 to 12 was developed and its psychometric properties were examined. The TAMA consists of five scales (Cognitive Interference, Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task Irrelevant Behavior,…

  15. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  16. Enhancing Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness to Pupils' Test-Anxiety with 3D Immersive Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passig, David; Moshe, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether participating in a 3D immersive virtual reality world simulating the experience of test-anxiety would affect preservice teachers' awareness to the phenomenon. Ninety subjects participated in this study, and were divided into three groups. The experimental group experienced a 3D immersive simulation which made…

  17. Test Anxiety and Learned Helplessness Is Moderated by Student Perceptions of Teacher Motivational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Regner, Nicola; Wood, Megan A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between test anxiety (i.e. worry and emotionality) and learned helplessness in a sample of adolescents (N = 845, aged 13-17 years) in secondary schools in Germany. In accordance with the buffering hypothesis, it was hypothesised that the detrimental association between both components of…

  18. The Effect of Diffused Aromatherapy on Test Anxiety among Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative, randomized, pretest, posttest study was conducted to assess the effect of aromatherapy on cognitive test anxiety among nursing students. Sophomore nursing students (n = 39) from a private, 4-year college, were randomized into either the control group (n = 18) or the experimental group (n = 21). Each participant completed the…

  19. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Bozkurt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored the psychometric properties of the newly designed Turkish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised (CTAR. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed an unidimensional structure consistent with the conceptualized nature of cognitive test anxiety and previous examinations of the English version of the CTAR. Examination of the factor loadings revealed two items that were weakly related to the test anxiety construct and as such were prime candidates for removal. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to compare model fit for the 25- and 23-item version of the measure. Results indicated that the 23-item version of the measure provided a better fit to the data which support the removal of the problematic items in the Turkish version of the CTAR. Additional analyses demonstrated the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, concurrent validity, and gender equivalence for responses offered on the Turkish version of the measure. Results of the analysis revealed a 23-item Turkish version of the T-CTAR is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive test anxiety for use among Turkish students.

  20. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  1. "'Sink or Swim': Buoyancy and Coping in the Cognitive Test Anxiety--Academic Performance Relationship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' self-report levels of cognitive test anxiety (worry), academic buoyancy (withstanding and successfully responding to routine school challenges and setbacks), coping processes and their achieved grades in high-stakes national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. The sample comprised…

  2. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  3. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  4. Behavioral profiles of genetically selected aggressive and nonaggressive male wild house mice in two anxiety tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, S; Wurbel, H; Steimer, T; de Ruiter, A; Koolhaas, J; Sluyter, F; Driscoll, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Artificially selected aggressive (SAL) and non-aggressive (LAL) male house mice were tested in a hexagonal tunnel maze and light-dark preference (LD) box to determine if the bidirectional selection for aggressive behavior leads to a coselection for different levels of trait anxiety. The tunnel maze

  5. Determination of area reduction rate by continuous ball indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Bin; Guan, Kai Shu; Wu, Sheng Bao

    2016-01-01

    Rate of area reduction is an important mechanical property to appraise the plasticity of metals, which is always obtained from the uniaxial tensile test. A methodology is proposed to determine the area reduction rate by continuous ball indentation test technique. The continuum damage accumulation theory has been adopted in this work to identify the failure point in the indentation. The corresponding indentation depth of this point can be obtained and used to estimate the area reduction rate. The local strain limit criterion proposed in the ASME VIII-2 2007 alternative rules is also adopted in this research to convert the multiaxial strain of indentation test to uniaxial strain of tensile test. The pile-up and sink-in phenomenon which can affect the result significantly is also discussed in this paper. This method can be useful in engineering practice to evaluate the material degradation under severe working condition due to the non-destructive nature of ball indentation test. In order to validate the method, continuous ball indentation test is performed on ferritic steel 16MnR and ASTM (A193B16), then the results are compared with that got from the traditional uniaxial tensile test.

  6. An evaluation of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in the treatment of test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymen, S P; Warren, R

    1978-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in reduction of college students' test anxiety. 11 volunteers met for 6 1-hr. group treatment sessions over a 3-wk. period. After 2 initial treatment sessions subjects were randomly assigned to groups given either rational-emotive therapy with rational-emotive imagery or rational-emotive therapy without imagery. Contrary to predictions, improvement between groups on self-report and performance measures was nonsignificant. Failure to obtain differences was attributed to similarities in content of treatment sessions and short treatment time. Combined groups reported significant improvement on all dependent measures. Although the study did not yield the predicted benefits of the imagery, results lend further support to the efficacy of rational-emotive therapy procedures in the reduction of test anxiety.

  7. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...

  8. On the self-serving function of an academic wooden leg: test anxiety as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C W; Snyder, D R; Handelsman, M M

    1982-02-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that psychological symptoms may serve a self-protective function by providing an alternative explanation for potential failure in evaluating situations. It was hypothesized that highly test-anxious subjects would report anxiety symptoms in a pattern that reflected strategic presentation of symptoms; more specifically, it was predicted that greater reported anxiety should result when anxiety was a viable explanation for poor performance on an intelligence test and that lower reported anxiety should result when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor performance. Analysis of state measures of self-reported anxiety supported these predictions. Further analysis indicated that when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor test performance, high test-anxiety subjects reported reduced effort as an alternative self-protective strategy. These results are discussed in terms of traditional models of symptoms as self-protective strategies, current social psychological models of symptoms, and in reference to recent theory and research about the nature and treatment of test anxiety.

  9. A Control-Value Theory Approach: Relationships between Academic Self-Concept, Interest, and Test Anxiety in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on test anxiety of elementary school children has mainly focused on prevalence rates and gender differences. Less work has addressed predictors of test anxiety in elementary school children. According to the control-value theory developed by Pekrun ("Educ Psychol Rev" 18:315-341. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9,…

  10. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Reduction in Medical Education: Humor as an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.

  11. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coping strategies as mediators in the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most modern societies, nearly every realm of life involves some form of evaluation of our knowledge, abilities and skills. Given the potentially significant consequences of exams, it is not surprising that they are often very stressful. This study aimed to determine the existence and nature of the relationships between level of test anxiety, coping strategies, and achieved success on a mid-term test. As well as examining the direct relations between the given variables, our primary interest was to investigate the potential mediating role of coping mechanisms between the input and output variables of the examined stressful transaction. The study was conducted on a sample of 263 students from the Psychology and German Studies Departments of the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Novi Sad. According to our results, only emotion-focused coping mechanisms were statistically significant mediators in the relationship between level of test anxiety and mid-term test achievement. The results indicate that students with high test anxiety who employ predominantly emotion-focused coping strategies score lower on a pre-exam knowledge test.

  13. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-process instrumentation surveillance and test reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, R.; LeDonne, V.; Donat, T.; Thomson, I.; Sarlitto, M.

    1993-12-01

    Analysis of operating experience, instrument failure modes, and degraded instrument performance has led to a reduction in Technical Specification surveillance and test requirements for nuclear power plant process instrumentation. These changes have resulted in lower plant operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) labor costs. This report explores the possibility of realizing similar savings by reducing requirements for non-process instrumentation. The project team reviewed generic Technical Specifications for the four major US nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors (Westinghouse, General Electric, Combustion Engineering, and Babcock ampersand Wilcox) to identify nonprocess instrumentation for which surveillance/test requirements could be reduced. The team surveyed 10 utilities to identify specific non-process instrumentation at their plants for which requirements could be reduced. The team evaluated utility analytic approaches used to justify changes in surveillance/test requirements for process equipment to determine their applicability to non-process instrumentation. The report presents a prioritized list of non-process instrumentation systems suitable for surveillance/test requirements reduction. The top three systems in the list are vibration monitors, leak detection monitors, and chemistry monitors. In general, most non-process instrumentation governed by Technical Specification requirements are candidates for requirements reduction. If statistical requirements are somewhat relaxed, the analytic approaches previously used to reduce requirements for process instrumentation can be applied to non-process instrumentation. The report identifies as viable the technical approaches developed and successfully used by Southern California Edison, Arizona Public Service, and Boston Edison

  15. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henry; Kropp, Peter; Kirschstein, Timo; Rücker, Gernot; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter. A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors. Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment. Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  16. Tests of alternative reductants in the second uranium purification cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1980-05-01

    Miniature mixer-settler tests of the second uranium purification cycle show that plutonium cannot be removed by hydroxylamine-hydrazine (NH 2 OH-N 2 H 4 ) because the acidity is too high, or by 2,5-di-t-pentylhydroquinone because HNO 3 oxidizes the hydroquinone. Plutonium can be removed satisfactorily when U(IV)-hydrazine is used as the reductant

  17. Effects of a Clown-Nurse Educational Intervention on the Reduction of Postoperative Anxiety and Pain Among Preschool Children and Their Accompanying Parents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, O Bok; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Jung, Dukyoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a clown-nurse educational intervention on children undergoing day surgery for strabismus. This was a quasi-experimental study, using a nonequivalent control group, non-synchronized design. Fifty preschool children and their parents were invited to participate. The children in the intervention group (n=23) received clown therapy and subsequently reported significantly lower states of physiological anxiety, which was evidenced by systolic blood pressure, standardized behavioral anxiety tests, and post-surgery pain, than the control group (n=27). In addition, the parents in the experimental group showed a low state of physiological anxiety, evidenced by systolic blood pressure, pulse rates, standardized behavioral anxiety tests, and state-trait anxiety. The use of preoperative clown intervention may alleviate postoperative problems, not only for children, but also for their parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness based stress reduction may be equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B; Kuiper, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and depression co-occur in 50-70% of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but treatment methods for these comorbid problems have not been systematically studied. Recently, two ASD-tailored protocols were published: mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We wanted to investigate if both methods are equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms among adults with ASD. 59 adults with ASD and anxiety or depression scores above 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, gave informed consent to participate; 27 followed the CBT protocol, and 32 the MBSR treatment protocol. Anxiety and depression scores, autism symptoms, rumination, and global mood were registered at the start, at the end of the 13-week treatment period, and at 3-months follow-up. Irrational beliefs and mindful attention awareness were used as process measures during treatment and at follow-up. Results indicate that both MBSR and CBT are associated with a reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults with ASD, with a sustained effect at follow-up, but without a main effect for treatment group. A similar pattern was seen for the reduction of autistic symptoms, rumination and the improvement in global mood. There are some indications that MBSR may be preferred over CBT with respect to the treatment effect on anxiety when the scores on measures of irrational beliefs or positive global mood at baseline are high. Mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies are both promising treatment methods for reducing comorbid anxiety and depression in adults with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body and the mind. When you're under stress, your body releases the hormone adrenaline , which prepares it for ... level. Use a little stress to your advantage. Stress is your body's warning mechanism — it's a signal that helps you ...

  1. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen; Bossis, Anthony; Guss, Jeffrey; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Malone, Tara; Cohen, Barry; Mennenga, Sarah E; Belser, Alexander; Kalliontzi, Krystallia; Babb, James; Su, Zhe; Corby, Patricia; Schmidt, Brian L

    2016-12-01

    Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0.3 mg/kg) or niacin, both in conjunction with psychotherapy. The primary outcomes were anxiety and depression assessed between groups prior to the crossover at 7 weeks. Prior to the crossover, psilocybin produced immediate, substantial, and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression and led to decreases in cancer-related demoralization and hopelessness, improved spiritual wellbeing, and increased quality of life. At the 6.5-month follow-up, psilocybin was associated with enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects (approximately 60-80% of participants continued with clinically significant reductions in depression or anxiety), sustained benefits in existential distress and quality of life, as well as improved attitudes towards death. The psilocybin-induced mystical experience mediated the therapeutic effect of psilocybin on anxiety and depression. In conjunction with psychotherapy, single moderate-dose psilocybin produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological distress. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00957359. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Testing questionnaires “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale” and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” (short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Grigorieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety has a negative impact on individual’s daily life and disturbs his or hers social adaptation. Socially anxious people are often lonely, have difficulties in meeting new people and communicating with others. Social anxiety can also be a serious obstacle to professional growth and career development, can interfere with obtaining new skills and knowledge. Severe social anxiety is often associated with a variety of disorders, including depression, alcohol and drug addiction, eating disorders. However, social anxiety has a high prevalence among population. In this regard, it is becoming increasingly important to diagnose social anxiety. Therefore, the aim of our study was the validation of two questionnaires measuring social anxiety “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale“. The validation was conducted on 179 people (65 men and 114 women, aged from 18 to 35 years. “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ measures the degree of anxiety and a tendency to avoidance occurring in various social situations: situations of social interaction and performance situations. «Fear of negative evaluation (brief version» measures the central construct underlying social anxiety - the fear of negative evaluation. As a result of factor analysis of the data it is demonstrated, that “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ has three-factor structure. Single-factor structure of the «Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale» is confirmed. It is shown that all the subscale “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (brief version“ has good internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and external validity.

  4. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:20084180

  5. The effectiveness of psychoeducation and systematic desensitization to reduce test anxiety among first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; Saravanan, Coumaravelou

    2014-11-15

    To analyze the effect of psychological intervention on reducing performance anxiety and the consequences of the intervention on first-year pharmacy students. In this experimental study, 236 first-year undergraduate pharmacy students from a private university in Malaysia were approached between weeks 5 and 7 of their first semester to participate in the study. The completed responses for the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS), the Kessler Perceived Distress Scale (PDS), and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were received from 225 students. Out of 225 students, 42 exhibited moderate to high test anxiety according to the WTAS (score ranging from 30 to 39) and were randomly placed into either an experiment group (n=21) or a waiting list control group (n=21). The prevalence of test anxiety among pharmacy students in this study was lower compared to other university students in previous studies. The present study's anxiety management of psychoeducation and systematic education for test anxiety reduced lack of motivation and psychological distress and improved grade point average (GPA). Psychological intervention helped significantly reduce scores of test anxiety, psychological distress, and lack of motivation, and it helped improve students' GPA.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Scholten

    Full Text Available Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138 was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape. Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  7. Anxiety sensitivity predicts increased perceived exertion during a 1-mile walk test among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Brown, Richard A; Price, Lawrence H; Desaulniers, Julie; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-12-01

    Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers. Adult daily smokers (n = 157; M age  = 44.9, SD = 11.13; 69.4% female) completed the Rockport 1.0 mile submaximal treadmill walk test. RPE and heart rate were assessed during the walk test. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the interactive effect of anxiety sensitivity × time on RPE and on heart rate at five time points during the walk test. There were significant linear and cubic time × anxiety sensitivity effects for RPE. High anxiety sensitivity was associated with greater initial increases in RPE during the walk test, with stabilized ratings towards the last 5 min, whereas low anxiety sensitivity was associated with lower initial increase in RPE which stabilized more quickly. The linear time × anxiety sensitivity effect for heart rate was not significant. Anxiety sensitivity is associated with increasing RPE during moderate-intensity exercise. Persistently rising RPE observed for smokers with high anxiety sensitivity may contribute to the negative experience of exercise, resulting in early termination of bouts of prolonged activity and/or decreased likelihood of future engagement in physical activity.

  8. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  9. Reductions in negative repetitive thinking and metacognitive beliefs during transdiagnostic internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    We explored whether transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression effectively reduces repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and whether reductions in RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs mediate symptom improvement during iCBT. Participants

  10. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness Scale in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Sevginar; Ertaş, Sedar; Lester, David

    2011-04-01

    In a sample of 100 Turkish psychiatric patients with diagnoses of anxiety disorders, Lester's Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness inventory had moderate estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity.

  11. Comparison of Individualized Covert Modeling, Self-Control Desensitization, and Study Skills Training for Alleviation of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gina; Johhson, Suzanne Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Individualized covert modeling and self-control desensitization substantially reduced self-reported test anxiety. However, the individualized covert modeling group was the only treatment group that showed significant improvement in academic performance. (Author)

  12. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  13. Composite Material Testing Data Reduction to Adjust for the Systematic 6-DOF Testing Machine Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasios lliopoulos; John G. Michopoulos; John G. C. Hermanson

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a data reduction methodology for eliminating the systematic aberrations introduced by the unwanted behavior of a multiaxial testing machine, into the massive amounts of experimental data collected from testing of composite material coupons. The machine in reference is a custom made 6-DoF system called NRL66.3 and developed at the NAval...

  14. The effectiveness of test-enhanced learning depends on trait test anxiety and working-memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Pu, Xiaoping

    2012-09-01

    Despite being viewed as a better way to enhance learning than repeated study, it has not been clear whether repeated testing is equally effective for students with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The current study examined whether test-enhanced learning would be equally beneficial to participants with varied working-memory capacity (WMC) and trait test anxiety (TA). Chinese-English bilingual undergraduates in Hong Kong were recruited as participants. They acquired Swahili-English word pairs (half via repeated study and half via repeated testing) and performed a delayed cued-recall test for all pairs about one week after the acquisition phase. Their WMC and TA were estimated by Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock, and Engle's (2005) operation-span task and the Chinese version of Spielberger's (1980) Test Anxiety Inventory, respectively. We replicated the typical testing effect: Participants performed better for pairs in the repeated-testing condition than those in the repeated-study condition. Regression analyses showed that, (a) relative to other participants, those with lower WMC and higher TA made more intralist intrusion errors (i.e., recalling a wrong English translation to a Swahili word cue) during the acquisition phase, and (b) the testing effect was negatively correlated with TA for participants with lower WMC, but was not correlated with TA for participants with higher WMC. This demonstrates a boundary condition for the use of test-enhanced learning. Implications of these findings for theories of the testing effect (e.g., Pyc & Rawson's, 2010, mediator-effectiveness hypothesis) and their application in classroom settings are discussed.

  15. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  16. Behavioral interactions of simvastatin and fluoxetine in tests of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tainaê Santos,1 Monaliza Marizete Baungratz,1 Suellen Priscila Haskel,2 Daniela Delwing de Lima,3 Júlia Niehues da Cruz,4 Débora Delwing Dal Magro,5 José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz51Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Regional University of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Joinville Region, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 4Department of Medicine, University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 5Department of Natural Sciences, Regional University of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, BrazilAbstract: Simvastatin inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, and is widely used to control plasma cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular disease. However, emerging evidence indicates that the beneficial effects of simvastatin extend to the central nervous system. The effects of simvastatin combined with fluoxetine provide an exciting and potential paradigm to decreased anxiety and depression. Thus, the present paper investigates the possibility of synergistic interactions between simvastatin and fluoxetine in models of anxiety and depression. We investigated the effects of subchronically administered simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day combined with fluoxetine (2 or 10 mg/kg at 24, 5, and 1 hour on adult rats before conducting behavioral tests. The results indicate that simvastatin and/or fluoxetine treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Our results showed that simvastatin and/or fluoxetine induced a significant increase in the swimming activity during the forced swimming test (antidepressant effect, with a concomitant increase in climbing time in simvastatin-treated animals only (noradrenergic activation. We hypothesize that anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of simvastatin and/or fluoxetine produce their behavioral effects through similar mechanisms and provide

  17. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  18. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  19. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  20. Test anxiety inventory-State: Preliminary analysis of validity and reliability in psychology college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Dominguez-Lara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the internal structure of the Test anxiety inventory-State (TAI-State in Spanish version. A sample of 125 college students from Lima (84.8% female between 18 and 31 years old (M = 22.51 was evaluated. The internal structure of the STAI was analyzed by a confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating three models: oblique, bifactor and unidimensional. The results indicate that a single dimension constitutes the STAI and there are coefficients of reliability with high magnitudes. In conclusion, the version studied shows favorable psychometric properties that support its use in Lima.

  1. Anxiety sensitivity class membership moderates the effects of pre-quit reduction in anxiety sensitivity on quit-day tobacco craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, J.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Langdon, K.J.; Leventhal, A.M.; Smits, J.A.J.; Allan, N.; Schmidt, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although anxiety sensitivity has been primarily conceptualized as a dimensional latent construct, empirical evidence suggests that it also maintains a latent class structure, reflecting low-, moderate-, and high-risk underlying classes. The present study sought to explore whether these

  2. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  3. Anxiety sensitivity and suicide risk among firefighters: A test of the depression-distress amplification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Smith, Lia J; Boffa, Joseph W; Tran, Jana K; Schmidt, N Brad; Joiner, Thomas E; Vujanovic, Anka A

    2018-04-07

    Firefighters represent an occupational group at increased suicide risk. How suicidality develops among firefighters is poorly understood. The depression-distress amplification model posits that the effects of depression symptoms on suicide risk will be intensified in the context of anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns. The current study tested this model among firefighters. Overall, 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38.37 y [8.53 y]; 94.5% male; 75.2% White). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess for depression symptoms, AS concerns (cognitive, physical, social), and suicide risk, respectively. Linear regression interaction models were tested. The effects of elevated depression symptoms on increased suicide risk were augmented when AS cognitive concerns were also elevated. Unexpectedly, depression symptoms also interacted with AS social concerns; however, consistent with expectations, depression symptoms did not interact with AS physical concerns in the prediction of suicide risk. In the context of elevated depression symptoms, suicide risk is potentiated among firefighters reporting elevated AS cognitive and AS social concerns. Findings support and extend the depression-distress amplification model of suicide risk within a sample of firefighters. Interventions that successfully impact AS concerns may, in turn, mitigate suicide risk among this at-risk population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the Impact of Convergent vs. Divergent Assessment on ESL Students’ Anxiety and Test Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Saeedi Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Language assessment with its eye-catching nature, casts its spell on many researchers, spurring on them to study its telling role in different arenas. The present study with a closer look to the realm, keeps one eye on two fresh approaches in assessment, namely convergent and divergent, and the other one on anxiety in a bid to slash its negative impact on students’ performance. The researchers resort to a correlational method with Ex Post Facto design, along with different tests, to forward the foregoing aim; discovering and appraising the degree of relationship stands between the two variables. Analyzing data gathered in this hybrid research on 55 young Iranian male and female students in two schools, located in United Arab Emirates (UAE, the researchers reaped findings which bore witness to the main proposed hypotheses, illustrating that divergent assessment (DA was more effective in reducing learners’ test anxiety level in comparison with convergent assessment (CA which, in turn, led up to better performance in the participants. Some implications for EFL teachers, to include the similar strategies in their lesson plan, offered at the very end which is followed by proposing some new horizons for further studies and investigations.

  5. Social anxiety and suicidal ideation: Test of the utility of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Jeffries, Emily R; Shah, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety is related to greater suicidality, even after controlling for depression and other psychopathology. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness (sense that one is a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a greater sense of alienation from others). Socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to these interpersonal factors. The current study tested whether interpersonal IPTS components independently and additively mediate the social anxiety-suicidal ideation (SI) relation among 780 (80.5% female) undergraduates. Social anxiety was significantly, robustly related to SI and to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Social anxiety was indirectly related to SI via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The sum of these indirect effects was significant. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that perceived burdensomeness only mediated the relation between social anxiety and SI at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  7. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474

  8. Modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety through rational stage directed hypnotherapy [RSDH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, G E; Tosi, D J

    1983-05-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of Irrational Ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students. The treatments were Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized hypnosis and vivid-emotive-imagery, a hypnosis-only treatment, a placebo condition, and a no-treatment control. The 48 Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met for 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically significant treatment effects on cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological measures were noted for both the RSDH and hypnosis group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up. Post-hoc analyses revealed the RSDH treatment group to be significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group on both the post- and follow-up tests. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects either at post-treatment or at follow-up.

  9. The effect of time-management training on test-anxiety and self-efficacy of Iranian intermediate EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effect of time-management training on Iranian EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was carried out in Tabriz Azad University and University of Applied Sciences and Technology. Thirty-eight BA students majoring in TEFL who enrolled in the above mentioned context in the academic year 1390-1391 participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were Time-Management Behavior Scale constructed by Macan, Shahani, Dipboye, et al. (1990, General Self-Efficacy Scale constructed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1992 and Westside Test-Anxiety Scale constructed by Driscoll (2007.The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group's test-anxiety before and after time-management training and also there was a significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group's test-anxiety after intervention. These findings also apply to the mean scores of self-efficacy. Therefore, it can be concluded that time-management training affects EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. The findings of this study have some implications for researchers, teachers, universities and institutions.

  10. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  11. Anxiety in voluntary HIV-antibody testing in pregnancy and its implications for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldspang, A; Hedegaard, M

    1991-06-01

    During a three-month period in 1989, 820 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered a HIV-antibody test and asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about attitudes to HIV-antibody testing; 779 (95.0%) agreed to do so. One hundred and fifty-six women (20.0% of the participants) had been tested on a previous occasion, and 629 (80.7%) accepted the present offer to be tested. The most prevalent reasons to decline testing were indifference to the epidemic (45.3% of those declining), refusal of (further) blood testing (34.7%) and fear of being infected (16.7%). Women who consented to be tested most often expressed fear of being infected (21.8%). Fear of registration worried less than 5% of study group members; only 1% declined to be tested because of such worry. The pattern of worries expressed by the pregnant women is interpreted as one of anxiety and, in part at least, perplexity as concerns how to take rational consequences of public messages about the HIV epidemic. It is suggested that future surveillance be based primarily on voluntary testing and, whenever needed and possible, supplied with anonymous unlinked testing of existing blood samples from groups and persons declining to be tested. Such surveillance strategies should be supported in individual patient contacts and public health educational campaigns underscoring the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV and the need for repeated HIV-antibody testing of selected groups and individuals.

  12. Testing measurement invariance of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) across four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Bieda, Angela; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-11-01

    The rising burden of mental and behavioral disorders has become a global challenge (Murray et al., 2012). Measurement invariant clinical instruments are necessary for the assessment of relevant symptoms across countries. The present study tested the measurement invariance of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in Poland, Russia, the United Kingdom (U.K.), and the United States of America (U.S.). Telephone interviews were conducted with population-based samples (nPL = 1003, nRU = 3020, nU.K. = 1002, nU.S. = 1002). The DASS-21 shows threshold measurement invariance. Comparisons of latent means did not indicate differences between U.K. and U.S. However, Polish and Russian samples reported more depressive symptoms compared with U.K. and U.S. samples; the Russian sample had the highest levels of anxiety symptoms and the Polish sample demonstrated the highest stress levels. The DASS-21 can be recommended to meaningfully compare the relationships between variables across groups and to compare latent means in Polish-, Russian-, and English-speaking populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Genetic testing for hereditary cancer: effects of alexithymia and coping strategies on variations in anxiety before and after result disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Dauvier, Bruno; Arciszewski, Thomas; Antoine, Pascal; Manouvrier, Sylvie

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of the results of genetic testing for hereditary cancer from a multifactorial health psychology perspective, considering that emotional expression plays a key role in psychological adjustment. Measures of dispositional and transactional coping strategies, anxiety and alexithymia were filled out by 77 participants in a longitudinal study design. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models and partial least squares path modelling, low-constraint methods that are particularly useful in the behavioural sciences. While anxiety levels prior to the result announcement were predictive of the distress experienced by noncarriers, considerable variability was observed for mutation carriers. Some subjects who had lower anxiety levels before the test displayed greater anxiety afterwards, but others seemed to anticipate the distress they would experience with the result that they showed a decrease in anxiety. The mutation carriers behaved as though their adaptive functioning were reshaped by the test result, independent of their disposition and previous emotional state, except in the case of alexithymia. Difficulty expressing emotions prior to genetic testing contributed to a similar difficulty after receiving the result, adding to the latter's emotional impact by promoting emotion-focused coping strategies and increasing distress. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  14. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…

  15. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  16. Is It the Cognitive or the Behavioral Component Which Makes Cognitive-Behavior Modification Effective in Test Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Test-anxious subjects were assigned to condition groups: (1) desensitization only; (2) cognitive only; (3) cognitive plus desensitization; and (4) neither cognitive nor desensitization. On test anxiety and self-rating measures, combined treatment and desensitization were less effective than the cognitive-only treatment. Results are consistent with…

  17. Virtual testing of speed reduction schemes on urban collector roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Lorenzo; Branzi, Valentina; Meocci, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver's capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy). The road improvement design consisted of several engineering treatments aimed to reduce and homogenize the driving speed, as well as to manage the co-existence of the different road users and mainly to protect pedestrians. The main focus of the research was to understand if the drivers' behaviour was according to the design hypothesis before the safety treatments are implemented in the real world. Due to the multiple engineering treatments included in the reconfiguration project, the evaluation of the overall safety effectiveness of the project rather than the single treatment safety impact was the main concern of the research study. In addition, the study aimed to assess the usefulness of the considered testing method to understand how to integrate road design with drivers' performances, especially in heterogeneous traffic environments where drivers' behaviour plays a decisive role in the success of the proposed design solutions. Fifty-eight participants drove through two immersive virtual environments, reproducing the existing configuration and the project reconfiguration, while data relating to different driving aspects were collected. Two analyses were performed. The first was focused on the analysis of the mean speed profiles and revealed that the considered engineering treatments are able to control the speeding behaviour without providing a too high discomfort to the drivers. The second

  18. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Verification and Uncertainty Reduction of Amchitka Underground Nuclear Testing Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2006-02-01

    The modeling of Amchitka underground nuclear tests conducted in 2002 is verified and uncertainty in model input parameters, as well as predictions, has been reduced using newly collected data obtained by the summer 2004 field expedition of CRESP. Newly collected data that pertain to the groundwater model include magnetotelluric (MT) surveys conducted on the island to determine the subsurface salinity and porosity structure of the subsurface, and bathymetric surveys to determine the bathymetric maps of the areas offshore from the Long Shot and Cannikin Sites. Analysis and interpretation of the MT data yielded information on the location of the transition zone, and porosity profiles showing porosity values decaying with depth. These new data sets are used to verify the original model in terms of model parameters, model structure, and model output verification. In addition, by using the new data along with the existing data (chemistry and head data), the uncertainty in model input and output is decreased by conditioning on all the available data. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is adapted for developing new input parameter distributions conditioned on prior knowledge and new data. The MCMC approach is a form of Bayesian conditioning that is constructed in such a way that it produces samples of the model parameters that eventually converge to a stationary posterior distribution. The Bayesian MCMC approach enhances probabilistic assessment. Instead of simply propagating uncertainty forward from input parameters into model predictions (i.e., traditional Monte Carlo approach), MCMC propagates uncertainty backward from data onto parameters, and then forward from parameters into predictions. Comparisons between new data and the original model, and conditioning on all available data using MCMC method, yield the following results and conclusions: (1) Model structure is verified at Long Shot and Cannikin where the high-resolution bathymetric data collected by CRESP

  20. Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology Treatability Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alleman, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced biological reductive dechlorination (EBRD) shows a great deal of promise for efficiently treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, but demonstration sites around the country were reporting mixed results...

  1. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  2. Online insomnia treatment and the reduction of anxiety symptoms as a secondary outcome in a randomised controlled trial: The role of cognitive-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, John A; Batterham, Phil; Ritterband, Lee; Glozier, Nick; Thorndike, Frances; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen M

    2018-04-01

    Insomnia and anxiety commonly co-occur, yet the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. The current paper describes the impact of an Internet-based intervention for insomnia on anxiety, and explores the influence of two cognitive-behavioural constructs - dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and sleep-threat monitoring. A large-scale, 9-week, two-arm randomised controlled trial ( N = 1149) of community-dwelling Australian adults with insomnia and elevated yet subclinical depression symptoms was conducted, comparing a cognitive behavioural therapy-based online intervention for insomnia (Sleep Healthy Using The Internet) with an attention-matched online control intervention (HealthWatch). Symptoms of anxiety were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and sleep threat monitoring were assessed only at pretest. Sleep Healthy Using The Internet led to a greater reduction in anxiety symptoms at both posttest ( t 724.27  = -6.77, p < 0.001) and at 6-month follow-up ( t 700.67  = -4.27, p < 0.001) than HealthWatch. At posttest and follow-up, this effect was found to moderated by sleep-threat monitoring ( t 713.69  = -2.39, p < 0.05 and t 694.77  = -2.98, p < 0.01 respectively) but not by dysfunctional beliefs about sleep at either posttest or follow-up ( t 717.53  = -0.61, p = 0.55 and t 683.79  = 0.22, p = 0.83 respectively). Participants in the Sleep Healthy Using The Internet condition with higher levels of sleep-threat monitoring showed a greater reduction in anxiety than those with lower levels from pretest to posttest, ( t 724.27  = -6.77, p < 0.001) and through to 6-month follow-up ( t 700.67  = -4.27, p < 0.001). This result remained after controlling for baseline anxiety levels. The findings suggest that online cognitive behavioral therapy interventions for insomnia are beneficial for reducing anxiety regardless of people's beliefs about their sleep

  3. Emotional clarity and attention to emotions in cognitive behavioral group therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rachel M; Boden, Matthew T; Olino, Thomas M; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J; Heimberg, Richard G

    2018-04-01

    We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, patients with SAD completed measures of social anxiety, emotional clarity, and attention to emotions. Controls completed measures at baseline only. At pretreatment, patients with SAD had lower levels of emotional clarity than controls. Emotional clarity increased significantly among patients receiving CBGT, and changes were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Emotional clarity at posttreatment did not differ between CBGT and MBSR or between MBSR and WL. Changes in emotional clarity predicted changes in social anxiety, but emotional clarity did not moderate treatment outcome. Analyses of attention to emotions were not significant. Implications for the role of emotional clarity in the treatment of SAD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing the experiences of adolescent control rats: Effects of the absence of physical or social stimulation on anxiety-like behaviour are dependent on the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Namrata; Leslie, Ronald A; Perrot, Tara S

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to systematically assess the control experience routinely used in our laboratory as part of studies on predator odour stress. Specifically, we examined effects of the physical and social components of this control experience on measures of anxiety-like behaviour in adolescent rats. Adolescent animals are at increased susceptibility to environmental perturbations and have been used for such studies much less often. Long-Evans rats of both sexes were subjected to physical stimulation (Exposed or Unexposed) and social stimulation (Single-Housed or Pair-Housed), resulting in four groups. Exposed rats received six 30-min exposures to an enclosed arena containing an unscented piece of cat collar occurring between adolescence and early adulthood, while Unexposed remained in the home cage. Groups of Exposed and Unexposed animals were housed singly (Single-Housed) from early adolescence to early adulthood or Pair-Housed during this time. Experimental procedures began in adolescence and involved repeated assessment of startle amplitude (measure of anxiety-like behaviour) and prepulse inhibition (PPI; a measure of sensorimotor gating) to gauge the short-term impact of social and/or physical stimulation. All animals were re-paired in adulthood prior to a final startle/PPI session to assess if isolation limited to adolescence could impose long-term effects that were not reversible. We also measured anxiety-like behaviour in adulthood using an extended open field test (EOFT; addition of novel objects to the open field on later days), and the elevated plus maze task (EPM), as well as a sucrose preference test (SPT) to measure anhedonia. An absence of social or physical stimulation resulted in increased startle amplitude and some measures of anxiety-like behaviour in the EOFT, but a reduction in such anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM task. These results suggest common neural substrates for the physical and social experiences. Performance in the SPT

  5. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...

  6. The Effects of Psychodrama and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Group Work on Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Taspinar Goveci

    2017-04-01

    In the analyses relating to comparison; in terms of total exam anxiety, perception, delusion sublevel and trait anxiety points of the students, psychodrama techniques applied in the first group have been more affective with reference to the cognitive behavioral techniques applied in the second group. No meaningful difference has been detected when two experimental groups have been compared according to continuity anxiety points. [JCBPR 2017; 6(1.000: 22-30

  7. Testing Specificity: Associations of Stress and Coping with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...

  8. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and test anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Orrie; Raz, Sivan

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of adult ADHD with test anxiety (TA) has not been previously reported. This comorbidity can potentially affect clinical and academic interventions among individuals with ADHD. The present study investigated the relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and three subscales of TA among young adults: Cognitive Obstruction, Social Derogation, and Tenseness. A total of 25 female participants diagnosed with ADHD and 30 female controls without ADHD of comparable age and education completed an Online Continuous Performance Test, an ADHD questionnaire, a self-esteem inventory, and a TA questionnaire. Participants with ADHD exhibited significantly higher levels of TA on all three subscales and lower levels of self-esteem compared with controls. Self-esteem served as a partial mediator between ADHD and cognitive obstruction TA and as a full mediator between ADHD and social derogation TA, but had no mediation effect in the relationships between ADHD and tenseness TA. The findings of this study suggest that TA, well known to affect success on tests, is correlated with ADHD. Therefore, interventions for ADHD should include components aimed at reducing TA. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  10. Effect of extrinsic incentives on use of test anxiety as an anticipatory attributional defense: playing it cool when the stakes are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J; Pyszczynski, T; Paisley, C

    1984-11-01

    We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of extrinsic incentives on the use of test anxiety as a self-handicapping strategy. We hypothesized that although reports of anxiety may be greater when such symptoms can serve a defensive function, this effect occurs only when extrinsic incentives are low and not under conditions of high extrinsic incentive. Eighty-four male undergraduates anticipated taking a test of intellectual abilities and either were led to believe that test anxiety has no effect on test performance or were given no particular information about the relation between test anxiety and performance. Subjects were offered either +5 or +25 for obtaining the highest score on the test. Consistent with predictions, no-information subjects reported greater test anxiety before the test than did those who believed that test anxiety was unrelated to performance, but only when the extrinsic incentive for performance was low. However, these subjects did not report greater cognitive interference or exhibit lower test scores than did subjects in other conditions. It is tentatively suggested that the defensive strategy used by these subjects consisted of altering perceptions of anxiety, rather than anxiety itself. The implications of the absence of self-handicapping under high incentive conditions are discussed.

  11. The Role of Threat Level and Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) in Anxiety: An Experimental Test of IU Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2017-07-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been proposed as an important transdiagnostic variable within mood- and anxiety-related disorders. The extant literature has suggested that individuals high in IU interpret uncertainty more negatively. Furthermore, theoretical models of IU posit that those elevated in IU may experience an uncertain threat as more anxiety provoking than a certain threat. However, no research to date has experimentally manipulated the certainty of an impending threat while utilizing an in vivo stressor. In the current study, undergraduate participants (N = 79) were randomized to one of two conditions: certain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would give a 3-minute speech) or uncertain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would flip a coin to determine whether or not they would give a 3-minute speech). Participants also completed self-report questionnaires measuring their baseline state anxiety, baseline trait IU, and prespeech state anxiety. Results indicated that trait IU was associated with greater state anticipatory anxiety when the prospect of giving a speech was made uncertain (i.e., uncertain condition). Further, findings indicated no significant difference in anticipatory state anxiety among individuals high in IU when comparing an uncertain versus certain threat (i.e., uncertain and certain threat conditions, respectively). Furthermore, results found no significant interaction between condition and trait IU when predicting state anticipatory anxiety. This investigation is the first to test a crucial component of IU theory while utilizing an ecologically valid paradigm. Results of the present study are discussed in terms of theoretical models of IU and directions for future work. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reducing Test Anxiety among 12th Grade Students: Iraqi Kurdistan Region/Soran City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqe, Chiayee Khorshid; Moheddin, Kurdistan Rafiq; Kakamad, Karwan Kakabra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at reducing test anxiety among twelfth grade students at Soran city high schools. Throughout the study both quantitative and qualitative methods used to collect data. The participants were 450 twelfth grade students in five schools at Soran City-Kurdistan region of Iraq. Non-random purposive sampling because the students needed…

  13. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  14. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Language Version of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan M.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study details the development and validation of a Spanish language version of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) for elementary and secondary students. In this study, the TAICA was adapted and administered to a sample of 197 students, 87 males and 110 females, aged 9 to 19 years, in Grades 4 to 12. Results of an…

  15. Testing sex-specific pathways from peer victimization to anxiety and depression in early adolescents through a randomized intervention trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.; Huizink, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test for sex differences in the role of physical and relational victimization in anxiety and depression development through a randomized prevention trial. 448 seven-year-old boys and girls were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game intervention, a two-year

  16. The Effect of Time-Management Training on Test-Anxiety and Self-Efficacy of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam, Biook; Jenani, Shalaleh; Ahangari, Saeideh

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of time-management training on Iranian EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was carried out in Tabriz Azad University and University of Applied Sciences and Technology. Thirty-eight BA students majoring in TEFL who enrolled in the above mentioned…

  17. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic…

  18. Test Anxiety & Its Relation to Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy among Al Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    sa'ad alzboon, Habis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the degree of perceived academic self-efficacy and the relationship nature between test anxiety and perceived academic self-efficacy among students of Al Hussein Bin Talal University (AHU). Moreover, to identify the degree of available statistical significance differences that are attributed to gender, college and…

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  20. Intentional and automatic processing of numerical information in mathematical anxiety: testing the influence of emotional priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit

    2018-02-05

    Current theoretical approaches suggest that mathematical anxiety (MA) manifests itself as a weakness in quantity manipulations. This study is the first to examine automatic versus intentional processing of numerical information using the numerical Stroop paradigm in participants with high MA. To manipulate anxiety levels, we combined the numerical Stroop task with an affective priming paradigm. We took a group of college students with high MA and compared their performance to a group of participants with low MA. Under low anxiety conditions (neutral priming), participants with high MA showed relatively intact number processing abilities. However, under high anxiety conditions (mathematical priming), participants with high MA showed (1) higher processing of the non-numerical irrelevant information, which aligns with the theoretical view regarding deficits in selective attention in anxiety and (2) an abnormal numerical distance effect. These results demonstrate that abnormal, basic numerical processing in MA is context related.

  1. Protocol for a feasibility study of a self-help cognitive behavioural therapy resource for the reduction of dental anxiety in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Zoe; Morgan, Annie; Porritt, Jenny; Gupta, Ekta; Baker, Sarah; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Stevens, Katherine; Williams, Christopher; Prasad, Suneeta; Kirby, Jennifer; Rodd, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood dental anxiety is very common, with 10-20 % of children and young people reporting high levels of dental anxiety. It is distressing and has a negative impact on the quality of life of young people and their parents as well as being associated with poor oral health. Affected individuals may develop a lifelong reliance on general anaesthetic or sedation for necessary dental treatment thus requiring the support of specialist dental services. Children and young people with dental anxiety therefore require additional clinical time and can be costly to treat in the long term. The reduction of dental anxiety through the use of effective psychological techniques is, therefore, of high importance. However, there is a lack of high-quality research investigating the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches when applied to young people's dental anxiety. The first part of the study will develop a profile of dentally anxious young people using a prospective questionnaire sent to a consecutive sample of 100 young people referred to the Paediatric Dentistry Department, Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, in Sheffield. The second part will involve interviewing a purposive sample of 15-20 dental team members on their perceptions of a CBT self-help resource for dental anxiety, their opinions on whether they might use such a resource with patients, and their willingness to recruit participants to a future randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the resource. The third part of the study will investigate the most appropriate outcome measures to include in a trial, the acceptability of the resource, and retention and completion rates of treatment with a sample of 60 dentally anxious young people using the CBT resource. This study will provide information on the profile of dentally anxious young people who could potentially be helped by a guided self-help CBT resource. It will gain the perceptions of dental care team members of guided self-help CBT for

  2. Treating Comorbid Anxiety in Adolescents With ADHD Using a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Stephen; Alsalmi, Nadiyah; Tan, Carol; Taylor, Myra; Durkin, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate an 8-week cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment specifically designed for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety. Using a multiple baseline design, nine adolescents (13 years to 16 years 9 months) received a weekly CBT, which focused on four identified anxiety-arousing times. Participants self-recorded their levels of anxiety for each of the four times during baseline, intervention, and a maintenance phase. Anxiety was also assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Paired samples t tests supported the success of the intervention. Interrupted time-series data for each participant revealed varying rates of success across the four times, however. The MASC data revealed significant reductions in Physical Symptoms of Anxiety, Social Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Harm Avoidance, and Total Anxiety. The data demonstrate the efficacy of a CBT program for the treatment of comorbid anxiety in adolescents with ADHD.

  3. Little More than Personality: Dispositional Determinants of Test Anxiety (the Big Five, Core Self-Evaluations, and Self-Assessed Intelligence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted a hierarchical integration of several dispositional determinants of test anxiety (TA) [Sarason, I.G. (1984). "Stress, anxiety and cognitive interference: Reactions to tests." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 46, 929-938.], namely the Big Five personality traits [Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae,…

  4. The Relationship of Relaxation Technique, Test Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Nursing Students Intention to Stay in a Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manansingh, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of relaxation techniques among first semester Baccalaureate Degree nursing students' test anxiety and academic stress. Additionally, this study examined if there was a relationship among demographic characteristics of the respondents and test anxiety and academic stress. The pretest and posttest…

  5. Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

    1988-03-01

    Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys.

  6. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  7. Effects Of Group Counseling and Behavior Therapy On The Academic Achievement Of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kenneth R.; Ng, Kim T.

    1972-01-01

    Results indicated that only significant reductions on test anxiety were obtained for groups given desensitization, but for groups given combinations of desensitization and counseling, improvement occurred in both test anxiety and study skills. (Author)

  8. Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Combination with Conventional Techniques of Behavior Management in Anxiety/Pain Reduction during Dental Anesthetic Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez-Carrasco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Anxiety/pain are experiences that make dental treatment difficult for children, especially during the time of anesthesia. Hypnosis is used in pediatric clinical situations to modify thinking, behavior, and perception as well as, recently, in dentistry; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques during infiltration anesthetic. Methods. Anxiety/pain were assessed with the FLACC scale during the anesthetic moment, as well as heart rate variability and skin conductance before and during the anesthetic moment, between the control and experimental group. Results. A marginal statistical difference (p=0.05 was found in the heart rate between baseline and anesthetic moment, being lower in the hypnosis group. No statistically significant differences were found with the FLACC scale or in the skin conductance (p>0.05. Conclusion. Hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques decreases heart rate during anesthetic infiltration showing that there may be an improvement in anxiety/pain control through hypnotic therapy.

  9. Duplicate laboratory test reduction using a clinical decision support tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Yerian, Lisa M; Wyllie, Robert; Harrison, A Marc; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice

    2014-05-01

    Duplicate laboratory tests that are unwarranted increase unnecessary phlebotomy, which contributes to iatrogenic anemia, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased health care costs. We employed a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to block unnecessary duplicate test orders during the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) process. We assessed laboratory cost savings after 2 years and searched for untoward patient events associated with this intervention. This CDST blocked 11,790 unnecessary duplicate test orders in these 2 years, which resulted in a cost savings of $183,586. There were no untoward effects reported associated with this intervention. The movement to CPOE affords real-time interaction between the laboratory and the physician through CDSTs that signal duplicate orders. These interactions save health care dollars and should also increase patient satisfaction and well-being.

  10. Increased skills usage statistically mediates symptom reduction in self-guided internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Gandy, Milena; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Titov, Nickolai

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for clinical and subclinical symptoms of depression and general anxiety, and increases life satisfaction. Patients' usage of CBT skills is a core aspect of treatment but there is insufficient empirical evidence suggesting that skills usage behaviours are a mechanism of clinical change. This study investigated if an internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) intervention increased the frequency of CBT skills usage behaviours and if this statistically mediated reductions in symptoms and increased life satisfaction. A two-group randomised controlled trial was conducted comparing internet-delivered CBT (n = 65) with a waitlist control group (n = 75). Participants were individuals experiencing clinically significant symptoms of depression or general anxiety. Mixed-linear models analyses revealed that the treatment group reported a significantly higher frequency of skills usage, lower symptoms, and higher life satisfaction by the end of treatment compared with the control group. Results from bootstrapping mediation analyses revealed that the increased skills usage behaviours statistically mediated symptom reductions and increased life satisfaction. Although skills usage and symptom outcomes were assessed concurrently, these findings support the notion that iCBT increases the frequency of skills usage behaviours and suggest that this may be an important mechanism of change.

  11. Quality Improvement Intervention for Reduction of Redundant Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Ducatman MD, MS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory data are critical to analyzing and improving clinical quality. In the setting of residual use of creatine kinase M and B isoenzyme testing for myocardial infarction, we assessed disease outcomes of discordant creatine kinase M and B isoenzyme +/troponin I (− test pairs in order to address anticipated clinician concerns about potential loss of case-finding sensitivity following proposed discontinuation of routine creatine kinase and creatine kinase M and B isoenzyme testing. Time-sequenced interventions were introduced. The main outcome was the percentage of cardiac marker studies performed within guidelines. Nonguideline orders dominated at baseline. Creatine kinase M and B isoenzyme testing in 7496 order sets failed to detect additional myocardial infarctions but was associated with 42 potentially preventable admissions/quarter. Interruptive computerized soft stops improved guideline compliance from 32.3% to 58% ( P 80% ( P < .001 with peer leadership that featured dashboard feedback about test order performance. This successful experience was recapitulated in interrupted time series within 2 additional services within facility 1 and then in 2 external hospitals (including a critical access facility. Improvements have been sustained postintervention. Laboratory cost savings at the academic facility were estimated to be ≥US$635 000 per year. National collaborative data indicated that facility 1 improved its order patterns from fourth to first quartile compared to peer norms and imply that nonguideline orders persist elsewhere. This example illustrates how pathologists can provide leadership in assisting clinicians in changing laboratory ordering practices. We found that clinicians respond to local laboratory data about their own test performance and that evidence suggesting harm is more compelling to clinicians than evidence of cost savings. Our experience indicates that interventions done at an academic facility can be readily

  12. Cognitive bias modification and CBT as early interventions for adolescent social and test anxiety : Two-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, Eva; Sportel, B. Esther; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Jong, Peter J.

    Background and Objectives: This two-year follow-up study evaluated the long-term outcomes of two early interventions that aimed at reducing social and test anxiety in young adolescents at risk for developing social anxiety disorder. Methods: In this RCP, moderately socially anxious adolescents

  13. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  14. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  15. Screening the performance of lubricants for ironing of stainless steel with a strip reduction test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels; Andersen, Mette Merete

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory strip reduction test simulating the tribological conditions of an ironing process is proposed. The test is capable of simulating varying process conditions such as reduction, drawing speed, tool temperature and sliding length. The test makes it possible to quantify the onset of break...... of breakdown of the lubricant film and subsequent galling. Experimental investigations of stainless steel show the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants.......A laboratory strip reduction test simulating the tribological conditions of an ironing process is proposed. The test is capable of simulating varying process conditions such as reduction, drawing speed, tool temperature and sliding length. The test makes it possible to quantify the onset...

  16. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  17. Overcoming test anxiety by using emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in 3. grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Urek, Urška

    2013-01-01

    The role of the teacher in a class is not only teaching, but also developing skills which make it easier for the student to integrate in a social environment and protect himself/herself from negative effects in the vicinity. Anxiety has nowadays spread increasingly and is not treated as a taboo topic anymore. People discuss it in a frank manner. When some experience it to the extent their day-to-day operation is hindered, they are allowed to seek help. The term anxiety covers different typ...

  18. Development and Feasibility Testing of Internet-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Ditte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik

    2018-01-01

    , prevalent disorder associated with increased health care utilization. Still, there is a lack of easily accessible specialized treatment for severe health anxiety. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper were to (1) describe the development and setup of a new internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (i...... sample size of the study limited the robustness of the findings. Therefore, the findings should be replicated in a randomized controlled trial. Potentially, iACT may increase availability and accessibility of specialized treatment for health anxiety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Danish Data Protection Agency...

  19. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  20. Knowing One's Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students' satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students' impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students' first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students' social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  1. Interaction between morphine and noradrenergic system of basolateral amygdala on anxiety and memory in the elevated plus-maze test based on a test-retest paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadegan, Farhad; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-05-01

    The amygdala is the key brain structure for anxiety and emotional memory storage. We examined the involvement of β-adrenoreceptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interaction with morphine in modulating these behaviors. The elevated plus-maze has been employed for investigating anxiety and memory. Male Wistar rats were used for this test. We injected morphine (4, 5, and 6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, while salbutamol (albuterol) (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) and propranolol (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) were injected into the BLA. Open- arms time percentage (%OAT), open- arms entry percentage (%OAE), and locomotor activity were determined by this behavioral test. Retention was tested 24 hours later. Intraperitoneal injection of morphine (6 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like effect and improvement of memory. The highest dose of salbutamol decreased the anxiety parameters in test session and improved the memory in retest session. Coadministration of salbutamol and ineffective dose of morphine presenting anxiolytic response. In this case, the memory was improved. Intra-BLA administration of propranolol (4 μg/rat) decreased %OAT in the test session, while had no effect on memory formation. Coadministration of propranolol and morphine (6 mg/kg) showed an increase in %OAT. There was not any significant change in the above- mentioned parameter in the retest session. Coadministration of morphine and propranolol with the effective dose of salbutamol showed that propranolol could reverse anxiolytic-like effect. We found that opioidergic and β-adrenergic systems have the same effects on anxiety and memory in the BLA; but these effects are independent of each other.

  2. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  3. Perceptions of Parenting, Emotional Self-Efficacy, and Anxiety in Youth: Test of a Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Though associations between parenting styles marked by control (e.g., prevention of autonomous experiences) or rejection (e.g., criticism, arbitrary blame, and withholding of warmth) and youth anxiety have been established in the literature, few studies have examined cognitive mediators purported to explain these associations.…

  4. Children's Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Ustuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Seyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is no an appropriate tool to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the…

  5. Testing causality in the association between regular exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Stubbe, J.H.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: In the population at large, regular exercise is associated with reduced anxious and depressive symptoms. Results of experimental studies in clinical populations suggest a causal effect of exercise on anxiety and depression, but it is unclear whether such a causal effect also drives the

  6. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Eman; Al Ghadeer, Hind; Mitsu, Rufa; Almutary, Nadiah; Alenezi, Brouj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is a common phenomenon that constitutes a universal cause of poor academic performance among students worldwide. It is a kind of self preoccupation which is manifested as self-minimization and results in negative cognitive evaluation, lack of concentration, unfavorable physiological reactions and academic failure. Test…

  7. Randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction versus aerobic exercise: effects on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGoldin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is characterized by distorted self-views. The goal of this study was to examine whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR alters behavioral and brain measures of negative and positive self-views. Methods: 56 adult patients with generalized SAD were randomly assigned to MBSR or a comparison aerobic exercise (AE program. A self-referential encoding task was administered at baseline and post-intervention to examine changes in behavioral and neural responses in the self-referential brain network during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were cued to decide whether positive and negative social trait adjectives were self-descriptive or in upper case font. Results: Behaviorally, compared to AE, MBSR produced greater decreases in negative self-views, and equivalent increases in positive self-views. Neurally, during negative self vs. case, compared to AE, MBSR led to increased brain responses in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. There were no differential changes for positive self vs. case. Secondary analyses showed that changes in endorsement of negative and positive self-views were associated with decreased social anxiety symptom severity for MBSR, but not AE. Additionally, MBSR-related increases in DMPFC activity during negative self-view vs. case were associated with decreased social anxiety-related disability and increased mindfulness. Analysis of neural temporal dynamics revealed MBSR-related changes in the timing of neural responses in the DMPFC and PCC for negative self-view vs. case.Conclusions: These findings suggest that MBSR attenuates maladaptive habitual self-views by facilitating automatic (i.e., uninstructed recruitment of cognitive and attention regulation neural networks. This highlights potentially important links between self-referential and cognitive-attention regulation systems and suggests that MBSR may enhance more adaptive social self-referential processes in

  8. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...

  9. The Effects of Histaminergic Agents in the Nucleus ccumbens of Rats in the Elevated Plus-Maze Test of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezayof

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The nucleus accumbens (NAc receive histaminergic neurons from tuberomammillary nuclei. There are reports indicating that central histamine systems are involved in many physiological behavioral processes, including anxiety. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the histaminergic system of the NAc is involved in anxiety-related behaviors. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. In addition, two stainless-steel cannuale were placed 2 mm above the nucleus accumbens shell. Seven days after recovery from surgery, the behavioral testing was started. As a model of anxiety, the elevated plus maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents, was used in male Wistar rats.  "nResults: Intra-NAc administration of histamine (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat increased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT and open arm entries (%OAE ,but not locomotor activity, indicating an anxiolytic response. Furthermore, bilateral  microinjections of different doses of the H1 receptor  antagonist pyrilamine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat or the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat into the NAc increased %OAT and %OAE , but not locomotor activity. However, both histamine and histamine receptor antagonists showed an anxiolytic-like effect ; the antagonists (1 µg/rat also decreased the histamine response. "n "n Conclusion: The results may indicate a modulatory effect for the H1 and H2 histamine receptors of nucleus accumbens in the anxiety behavior of rats.

  10. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.

  11. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Hjeltnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes were found: (1 finding an inner source of calm, (2 sharing a human struggle, (3 staying focused in learning situations, (4 moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5 feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.

  12. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...

  13. Making an IMPACT: Designing and Testing a Novel Attentional Training Game to Reduce Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Enock, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel candidate interventions to treat anxiety disorders is an important research priority, given the burden of these disorders, barriers to treatment access, and the promising but limited success of current approaches, including attentional bias modification treatment. I created a novel training game paradigm, Intrinsically-Motivating Playable Attentional Control Training (IMPACT), with several potential ways that its design could increase the strength of attentional change an...

  14. Testing the Bivalent Fear of Evaluation Model of Social Anxiety: The Relationship between Fear of Positive Evaluation, Social Anxiety, and Perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keong; Gibbs, Amy L; Francis, Andrew J P; Schuster, Sharynn E

    2016-01-01

    The Bivalent Fear of Evaluation (BFOE) model of social anxiety proposes that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) play distinct roles in social anxiety. Research is however lacking in terms of how FPE is related to perfectionism and how these constructs interact to predict social anxiety. Participants were 382 individuals from the general community and included an oversampling of individuals with social anxiety. Measures of FPE, FNE, perfectionism, and social anxiety were administered. Results were mostly consistent with the predictions made by the BFOE model and showed that accounting for confounding variables, FPE correlated negatively with high standards but positively with maladaptive perfectionism. FNE was also positively correlated with maladaptive perfectionism, but there was no significant relationship between FNE and high standards. Also consistent with BFOE model, both FNE and FPE significantly moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and social anxiety with the relationship strengthened at high levels of FPE and FNE. These findings provide additional support for the BFOE model and implications are discussed.

  15. Training implicit social anxiety associations: an experimental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2010-04-01

    The current study investigates an experimental anxiety reduction intervention among a highly socially anxious sample (N=108; n=36 per Condition; 80 women). Using a conditioning paradigm, our goal was to modify implicit social anxiety associations to directly test the premise from cognitive models that biased cognitive processing may be causally related to anxious responding. Participants were trained to preferentially process non-threatening information through repeated pairings of self-relevant stimuli and faces indicating positive social feedback. As expected, participants in this positive training condition (relative to our two control conditions) displayed less negative implicit associations following training, and were more likely to complete an impromptu speech (though they did not report less anxiety during the speech). These findings offer partial support for cognitive models and indicate that implicit associations are not only correlated with social anxiety, they may be causally related to anxiety reduction as well. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in eastern Pennsylvania: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    EPA has installed radon reduction measures in 38 houses in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. All were basement houses with hollow block or poured concrete foundation walls. The reduction approaches tested in most houses involved active soil ventilation, including: suction on the footing drain tile system; suction underneath the concrete slabs, using pipes inserted through the slabs from inside the house; and ventilation of the void network inside hollow block foundation walls. Heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) were tested in three houses. The current results confirm that, for the houses tested here, drain tile suction appears consistently able to provide high radon reductions when a complete loop of drain tile exists, often reducing high-radon houses to 4 pCi/l (148 B1/m 3 ) and less. Sub-slab suction (with pipes through the slab) can also provide high reductions if a sufficient number of suction pipes are located properly. Placement of one or more sub-slab suction pipes near each perimeter wall appears in this testing to aid in treating the major soil gas entry routes, although fewer pipes can sometimes give high reductions if conditions are favorable. For effective radon reduction using any active soil ventilation technique, it is important that major wall and slab openings be closed, and that a fan be employed that is capable of developing adequate static pressure

  17. Functional Capacity Evaluation in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency and Amputation : Development and Pilot Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, S G; Bongers, R M; Reneman, M F; van der Sluis, C K

    Purpose To develop and pilot test a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) for individuals with upper limb absence (ULA) due to reduction deficiency or amputation, and to examine the relationship between FCE results and presence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC). Method Five tests (overhead lifting,

  18. Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seekles Wike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.

  19. Blade-Mounted Flap Control for BVI Noise Reduction Proof-of-Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Seth; Hassan, Ahmed; Straub, Friedrich; Tadghighi, Hormoz

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (MDHS) Active Flap Model Rotor at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The test demonstrated that BVI noise reductions and vibration reductions were possible with the use of an active flap. Aerodynamic results supported the acoustic data trends, showing a reduction in the strength of the tip vortex with the deflection of the flap. Acoustic results showed that the flap deployment, depending on the peak deflection angle and azimuthal shift in its deployment schedule, can produce BVI noise reductions as much as 6 dB on the advancing and retreating sides. The noise reduction was accompanied by an increase in low frequency harmonic noise and high frequency broadband noise. A brief assessment of the effect of the flap on vibration showed that significant reductions were possible. The greatest vibration reductions (as much as 76%) were found in the four per rev pitching moment at the hub. Performance improvement cam results were inconclusive, as the improvements were predicted to be smaller than the resolution of the rotor balance.

  20. Using Mobile Sensing to Test Clinical Models of Depression, Social Anxiety, State Affect, and Social Isolation Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Barnes, Laura E; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-03

    Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants' personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was associated with more time or greater

  1. The relationship between academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, test anxiety, and academic achievement among nursing students: mediating and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Verification test for radiation reduction effect and material integrity on PWR primary system by zinc injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H.; Nagata, T.; Yamada, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (Japan); Kasahara, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Nishimura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc injection is known to be an effective method for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of a PWR. There is a need to verify the effect of Zn injection operation on radiation source reduction and materials integrity of PWR primary circuit. In order to confirm the effectiveness of Zn injection, verification test as a national program sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was started in 1995 for 7-year program, and will be finished by the end of March in 2002. This program consists of irradiation test and material integrity test. Irradiation test as an In-Pile-Test managed by AEAT Plc(UK) was performed using the LVR-15 reactor of NRI Rez in Check Republic. Furthermore, Out-of-Pile-Test using film adding unit was also performed to obtain supplemental data for In-Pile-Test at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. Material Integrity test was planned to perform constant load test, constant strain test and corrosion test at the same time using large scale Loop and slow strain extension rate testing (SSRT) at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. In this paper, the results of the verification test for Zinc program at present are discussed. (authors)

  3. Reduction of sources of error and simplification of the Carbon-14 urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Carbon-14 urea breath testing is established in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible further simplification and identification of error sources in the 14 C urea kit extensively used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Thirty six patients with validated H. pylon status were tested with breath samples taken at 10,15, and 20 min. Using the single sample value at 15 min, there was no change in the diagnostic category. Reduction or errors in analysis depends on attention to the following details: Stability of absorption solution, (now > 2 months), compatibility of scintillation cocktail/absorption solution. (with particular regard to photoluminescence and chemiluminescence), reduction in chemical quenching (moisture reduction), understanding counting hardware and relevance, and appropriate response to deviation in quality assurance. With this experience, we are confident of the performance and reliability of the RAPID-14 urea breath test kit now available commercially

  4. H1-histamine receptors in the amygdala are involved in emotional memory but do not mediate anxiety-related behaviors in mice submitted to EPM testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, K R; Gianlorenço, A C L; Daher, F P; Mattioli, R

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the role of amygdala H(1) receptors in state-dependent memory deficits induced by l-histidine (LH). Tests using an elevated plus-maze (EPM) were performed on two consecutive days: Trial 1 (T1) and Trial 2 (T2). Before each trial, mice were intraperitoneally (IP) injected with LH (500mg/kg). Two hours later, they were microinjected with the H(1) receptor antagonist, chlorpheniramine (CPA 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1μl), or saline (SAL) into the amygdala and submitted to the EPM. LH-CPA did not affect trial 1 performances in the EPM, which indicated that these drugs did not affect anxiety. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between both trials, was present in the SAL-SAL groups as well as in the SAL-CPA groups for the lower doses of CPA (0.016 and 0.052nmol). On the contrary, neither the LH-SAL group nor the LH-CPA groups exhibited this decrease in open arm activity between both trials, which reveals that LH impaired emotional memory. While intra-amygdalar CPA did not interact with LH effect, it impaired per se the emotional memory performances at the highest dose (0.16nmol). No significant changes were observed in the number of enclosed arm entries (EAE), an EPM index of general exploratory activity. These results may be attributed to a combined effect in the different nucleus of the amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that the H(1) receptors in the amygdala are not implicated in anxiety-like behaviors but are involved in emotional states induced by the T1/T2 EPM protocol in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT): effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  6. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT: effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trynke R de Jong

    Full Text Available The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT. We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB or low-anxiety (LAB rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  7. Both sides of the story: Exploring how improved and less-improved participants experience mindfulness-based stress reduction for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Moltu, Christian; Schanche, Elisabeth; Jansen, Ylva; Binder, Per-Einar

    2018-01-01

    What works for whom in mindfulness-based group interventions for social anxiety disorder (SAD)? The present article compared the experiences of 14 participants in a clinical study of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for young adults with SAD. A two-staged mixed methods design was used to identify the participants who reported the highest (n = 7) and lowest (n = 7) levels of symptomatic change on outcome measures after treatment, and analyze qualitative in-depth interviews to explore what they experienced as helpful and unhelpful during the MBSR program. The qualitative interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis methodology. We identified the global theme of (i) Discovering agency to change or not feeling empowered through the MBSR program, and four sub-themes: (ii) Forming an active commitment or feeling ambivalence toward learning mindfulness, (iii) Engaging with others or avoiding contact with the group, (iv) Using the mindfulness exercises to approach or resigning when facing unpleasant experiences, and (v) Using the course to break interpersonal patterns or remaining stuck in everyday life. MBSR may be helpful for young adults with SAD, although it may be important to match clients to their preferred form of treatment.

  8. Acceptance test procedure for K basins dose reduction project clean and coat equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the clean and coat equipment designed by Oceaneering Hanford, Inc. under purchase order MDK-XVC-406988 for use in the 105 K East Basin. The ATP provides the guidelines and criteria to test the equipment's ability to clean and coat the concrete perimeter, divider walls, and dummy elevator pit above the existing water level. This equipment was designed and built in support of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, Dose Reduction Project. The ATP will be performed at the 305 test facility in the 300 Area at Hanford. The test results will be documented in WHC-SD-SNF-ATR-020

  9. Application of strip-reduction-test in hte evaluation of lubricants developed in Enform project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Gazvoda, S.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three different lubricants in relation to sheet metal forming of steel, Zinc coated steel and stainless steel is investigated in the present paper. A strip reduction test simulating can wall ironing is used. The test was originally developed for determining the limits...... of lubrication in forming of stainless steel by quantification of the degree of galling. The present results show that the test methodology to some extend can be used in testing of lubricants for Zinc coated steels whereas the lubricant performance in forming of steel is more complicated to quantify since...

  10. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

  11. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools/İngilizceyi Yabancı Dil olarak Öğrenen İlköğretim Öğrencilerinde Yabancı Dil Kaygısını Etkileyen Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety among young learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) and the relationship between test anxiety and factors such as gender, age, grade, achieveme...

  12. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  13. Design analysis and performance test of reduction furnace of kernel U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch Setyadji; Triyono; Dedy Husnurrofiq

    2015-01-01

    High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with coated particle fuel is a future reactor (generation IV) because it is not only having high efficiency but also release no fission product into the environment. It has a passive safety principles and negative reactivity. Coated particle fuel for high temperature reactor is made through Sol-Gel process followed by aging, drying, calcination, reduction, sintering and coating process. Research of design analysis of heating system, electrical system, and insulation systems continued construction and performance test of reduction furnace has been done. The aim of this research was to obtain a reduction furnace with adequate performance that can be used to reduce the kernel of U 3 O 8 into UO 2 . The results of the performance test of the reduction furnace showed that heating zones 1-3 can generate heat to a temperature of 900°C with operation time 144 minutes and heat rate of 5.979°C/min. The coefficient of convection in the outer wall of fireproof stone having 7 cm thick was around 30 W/m 2 C. UO 2 kernel resulting from the reduction process has a diameter of between 0.850 to 0.992 mm and qualify as feed sintering process. (author)

  14. Relationship between Homesickness and Test Anxiety in Non-Native Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences International Branch in the Clinical and Physiopathology Course In 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Saman

    2015-12-17

    Anxiety is an emotional and physiological response to the internal felling of overall danger that is easily resolved. The aim of this study has been to determine the relationship between exam anxiety and the feeling of homesickness among non-native students. The present study is cross-sectional and the subjects in this study are 80 non-native male and female PhD candidates in clinical and physiopathology majors in 2013 academic year that have been evaluated with the help of Persian homesickness questionnaire and Sarason's test anxiety questionnaire and the data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. With regard to the Pearson's correlation coefficient there is a significant and reverse relationship between the desire to return to home and exam anxiety (r=0.0344, p=0.004) and there is a significant and reverse relationship between the Compatibility and exam anxiety (r=0.428, panxiety (r=0.888, panxiety and the mental health of non-native students will be deteriorated by the feeling of homesickness and anxiety.

  15. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  16. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, E; Devine, A; Hill, F; Szűcs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. METHOD: We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and ...

  17. Assessing anxiety in C57BL/6J mice: a pharmacological characterization of the open-field and light/dark tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess anxiety in mammals various tests and species are currently available. These current assays measure changes in anxiety-like behaviors. The open-field and the light/dark are anxiety tests based on the spontaneous behavior of the animals, with C57BL/6J mice being a frequently used strain in behavioral studies. However, the suitability of this strain as a choice in anxiety studies has been questioned. In this study, we performed two pharmacological characterizations of this strain in both the open-field and the light/dark tests. We examined the changes in the anxiety-like behaviors of C57BL/6J mice exposed to chlordiazepoxide (CDP), an anxiolytic drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, picrotoxine (PTX), an anxiogenic drug, at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, and methylphenidate (MPH), a psychomotor stimulant drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, in a first experiment. In a second experiment, we tested CDP at 2.5 mg/kg, PTX at 2 mg/kg and MPH at 2.5 mg/kg. Results showed an absence of anxiolytic-like effects of CDP in open-field and light/dark tests. Light/dark test was more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of PTX than the open-field test. Finally, a clear anxiogenic effect of MPH was observed in the two tests. Although C57BL/6J mice could not be a sensitive model to study anxiolytic effects in pharmacological or behavioral interventions, it might be a suitable model to test anxiogenic effects. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17β estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improve spatial memory, suggesting that GPR30 plays a role in hippocampal-dependent cognition. In this study, we investigated the effect of a similar chronic administration of G-1 on behaviors that denote anxiety in adult ovariectomized female mice, using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test as well as the activation of the ERK pathway in the hippocampus. Although estradiol benzoate had no effect on behaviors in the EPM or the open field, G-1 had an anxiolytic effect solely in the open field that was independent of ERK signaling in either the ventral or dorsal hippocampus. Such an anxiolytic effect may underlie the ability of G-1 to increase spatial memory, by acting on the hippocampus.

  19. Testing of residual monomer content reduction possibility on acrilic resins quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA is material widely used in dentistry. Despite the various methods used to initiate the polymerization of acrylic resins, the conversion of monomer to polymer is not complete thus leaving some unreacted methyl methacrylate (MMA, known as residual monomer (RM, in denture structure. RM in dental acrylic resins has deleterious effects on their mechanical properties and their biocompatibility. The objective of the work was to test the residual monomer reduction possibility by applying the appropriate postpolymerization treatment as well as to determine the effects of this reduction on pressure yields stress and surface structure characteristics of the acrylic resins. Postpolymerization treatments and water storage induced reduction of RM amount in cold-polymerized acrylic resins improved their mechanical properties and the homogenized surface structure. After the polymerization of heat-polymerized acrylic resins the post-polymerization treatments for improving the quality of this material type are not necessary.

  20. Incremental Validity of the Subscales of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale for Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…

  1. Testing questionnaires “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale” and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” (short version)

    OpenAIRE

    Irina V. Grigorieva; Sergey N. Enikolopov

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety has a negative impact on individual’s daily life and disturbs his or hers social adaptation. Socially anxious people are often lonely, have difficulties in meeting new people and communicating with others. Social anxiety can also be a serious obstacle to professional growth and career development, can interfere with obtaining new skills and knowledge. Severe social anxiety is often associated with a variety of disorders, including depression, alcohol and drug addiction, eating ...

  2. Virtual reality and anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jahani Shourab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent studies, using virtual reality (VR has been proposed as a nonpharmacological method for anxiety reduction, but until this time, its effects have not been assessed on anxiety during episiotomy repair. This study aimed to determine the effect of audiovisual distraction (VR on anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 30 primigravida from May to July 2012 in the maternity unit of the Omolbanin Hospital, Mashhad city, Iran. The samples were divided randomly into two groups with the toss of a coin. Anxiety were evaluated by the numeric 0-10 anxiety self-report, in the first and during labor. However, after delivery, anxiety was measured with the Spilberger scale. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher tests, and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results: Anxiety scores were not significantly different between the two groups (wearing video-glass and receiving routine care, but anxiety scores were lower in the intervention group during and after repair (P = 0.000. Conclusions: VR are safe, appropriate, and nonpharmacologic to decrease and manage the anxiety-associated episiotomy.

  3. Virtual reality and anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shourab, Nahid Jahani; Zagami, Samira Ebrahimzadeh; Golmakhani, Nahid; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Nahvi, Ali; Pabarja, Ferial; Talebi, Mahdi; Rizi, Sohaiela Mohamadi

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies, using virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a nonpharmacological method for anxiety reduction, but until this time, its effects have not been assessed on anxiety during episiotomy repair. This study aimed to determine the effect of audiovisual distraction (VR) on anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair. This clinical trial was conducted on 30 primigravida from May to July 2012 in the maternity unit of the Omolbanin Hospital, Mashhad city, Iran. The samples were divided randomly into two groups with the toss of a coin. Anxiety were evaluated by the numeric 0-10 anxiety self-report, in the first and during labor. However, after delivery, anxiety was measured with the Spilberger scale. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher tests, and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Anxiety scores were not significantly different between the two groups (wearing video-glass and receiving routine care), but anxiety scores were lower in the intervention group during and after repair ( P = 0.000). VR are safe, appropriate, and nonpharmacologic to decrease and manage the anxiety-associated episiotomy.

  4. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  6. Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eHoferichter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  7. Effectiveness of “Task Concentration Training” in Reducing the Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Golmohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study, 20 students with social anxiety disorder were studied in Shahed University in 2014-15 academic year. The subjects, selected via stepwise cluster sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and experimental (task concentration training groups. Data was collected using the social anxiety questionnaire and the structured clinical interview. Five one-hour task-concentration treatment sessions were conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T test. Findings: The mean scores of social anxiety and its sub-scales were not significantly different in experimental and control groups at the pretest stage (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest differences of the scores of social anxiety and its subscales including avoidance, fear, and physiologic discomfort between the groups were significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: The task-concentration training techniques reduce the social anxiety symptoms in persons with social anxiety disorders.

  8. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...

  10. Test Time Reduction for BIST by Parallel Divide-and-Conquer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Gu; Kim, Dong Wook [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    BIST(Built-in Self Test) has been considered as the most promising DFT(design-for-test) scheme for the present and future test strategy. The most serious problem in applying BIST(Built-in Self Test) into a large circuit is the excessive increase in test time. This paper is focused on this problem. We proposed a new BIST construction scheme which uses a parallel divide-and-conquer method. The circuit division is performed with respect to some internal nodes called test points. The test points are selected by considering the nodal connectivity of the circuit rather than the testability of each node. The test patterns are generated by only one linear feedback shift register(LFSR) and they are shared by all the divided circuits. Thus, the test for each divided circuit is performed in parallel. Test responses are collected from the test point as well as the primary outputs. Even though the divide-and-conquer scheme is used and test patterns are generated in one LFSR, the proposed scheme does not lose its pseudo-exhaustive property. We proposed a selection procedure to find the test points and it was implemented with C/C{sup ++} language. Several example circuits were applied to this procedure and the results showed that test time was reduced upto 1/2{sup 1}51 but the increase in the hardware overhead or the delay increase was not much high. Because the proposed scheme showed a tendency that the increasing rates in hardware overhead and delay overhead were less than that in test time reduction as the size of circuit increases, it is expected to be used efficiently for large circuits as VLSI and ULSI. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The Impact of Support Services on Students' Test Anxiety and/or Their Ability to Submit Assignments: A Focus on Vision Impairment and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the support services on the test anxiety of students and/or their ability to submit assignments in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairment and those with intellectual disability, who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Interviews were…

  12. Anxiety/Depression and Hostility/Suspiciousness in Adolescent Boys: Testing Adherence to Honor Code as Mediator of Callousness and Attachment Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Lior Y.; Elizur, Yoel

    2012-01-01

    Research of psychological distress (PD) needs to differentiate between anxiety/depression and hostility/suspiciousness, which are associated with different motivational systems. In this study, structural equation modeling was used to test two hypothesized models for the prediction of each facet of PD. Hypotheses were proposed about the effects of…

  13. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Relationships in the Interplay of Perceived Stress, Neuroticism, and Test Anxiety among Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether socio-motivational relationships, such as student-student relationships (SSR) and teacher-student relationships (TSR), as well as peers as positive motivators (PPM) and teachers as positive motivators (TPM), would mediate the association of both perceived stress and neuroticism with test anxiety in 1,088 German…

  14. Three Treatments for Reducing the Worry and Emotionality Components of Test Anxiety with Undergraduate and Graduate College Students: Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnosis, Relaxation Therapy, and Supportive Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 different types of therapy in reducing the worry and emotional components associated with test anxiety among undergraduate (n=45) and graduate (n=45) students. Relaxation therapy was more effective with graduate students, while undergraduates responded more to supportive counseling. (JPS)

  15. Reduction in Unnecessary Clinical Laboratory Testing Through Utilization Management at a US Government Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konger, Raymond L; Ndekwe, Paul; Jones, Genea; Schmidt, Ronald P; Trey, Marty; Baty, Eric J; Wilhite, Denise; Munshi, Imtiaz A; Sutter, Bradley M; Rao, Maddamsetti; Bashir, Chowdry M

    2016-03-01

    To implement an electronic laboratory utilization management system (laboratory expert system [LES]) to provide safe and effective reductions in unnecessary clinical laboratory testing. The LES is a set of frequency filter subroutines within the Veterans Affairs hospital and laboratory information system that was formulated by an interdisciplinary medical team. Since implementing the LES, total test volume has decreased by a mean of 11.18% per year compared with our pre-LES test volume. This change was not attributable to fluctuations in outpatient visits or inpatient days of care. Laboratory cost savings were estimated at $151,184 and $163,751 for 2012 and 2013, respectively. A significant portion of these cost savings was attributable to reductions in high-volume, large panel testing. No adverse effects on patient care were reported, and mean length of stay for patients remained unchanged. Electronic laboratory utilization systems can effectively reduce unnecessary laboratory testing without compromising patient care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. The light spot test : Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Emmeke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411253972; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice,

  17. Does relational dysfunction mediate the association between anxiety disorders and later depression? Testing an interpersonal model of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance; Connolly, Nicole Phillips; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders tend to precede onset of comorbid depression. Several researchers have suggested a causal role for anxiety in promoting depressive episodes, but few studies have identified specific mechanisms. The current study proposes an interpersonal model of comorbidity, where anxiety disorders disrupt interpersonal functioning, which in turn elevates risk for depression. At age 15 (T1), 815 adolescents oversampled for maternal depression completed diagnostic interviews, social chronic stress interviews, and self-report measures. At age 20 (T2), participants repeated all measures and reported on self-perceived interpersonal problems. At approximately age 23 (T3), a subset of participants (n = 475) completed a self-report depressive symptoms measure. Consistent with other samples, anxiety disorders largely preceded depressive disorders. Low sociability and interpersonal oversensitivity mediated the association between T1 social anxiety disorder and later depression (including T2 depressive diagnosis and T3 depressive symptoms), controlling for baseline. Interpersonal oversensitivity and social chronic stress similarly mediated the association between generalized anxiety disorder before age 15 and later depression. Interpersonal dysfunction may be one mechanism through which anxiety disorders promote later depression, contributing to high comorbidity rates. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  19. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  20. [Usefulness of the 10 pictures reminding test for memory assessment for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and anxiety/depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, D; Thomas-Anterion, C; Borg, C; Foyatier Michel, N; Dirson, S; Laurent, B

    2008-10-01

    Episodic memory is often considered to be essential in the neuropsychological examination of elderly people consulting in the memory clinics. Therefore, the performance of three different episodic memory tests were compared in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and anxiety/depression. Seventy-six patients with AD, 46 with MCI, and 36 with anxiety/depression performed three memory tests: (1) three-words immediate and delayed recall of the MMSE test; (2) 10-pictures reminding test; (3) 16-items free and cued reminding test. Patients with AD and MCI differed from the depressed/anxious participants on all subcomponents of the memory tests. Only the three-words immediate and delayed recall in the MMSE test as well as the immediate recall (encoding) of the free and cued reminding test (16-items) did not differ between AD and MCI. Significant correlations were also evidenced between the free and cued recall of the 10 pictures and the score of the 16-items for all patients. Scores of total and free recalls distinguished the three group of patients; also, a trend was observed for the free recall between the patients with AD and MCI. The three-words immediate and delayed recall of the MMSE test is linked with hippocampic dysfunction. Also, the present study suggests that the 10-pictures reminding test, is a simple and reliable test for investigating memory, in addition to other evaluation tests. Finally, further studies would be necessary to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the tests.

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...

  2. A randomized-controlled trial examining the effects of reflexology on anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi Vardanjani, Mehdi; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Razavi, Narges Sadat; Aghajani, Mohammad; Azizi-Fini, Esmail; Vaghefi, Seied Morteza

    2013-09-01

    The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. This trial was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Kashan, Iran. One hundred male patients who were undergoing coronary angiography were randomly enrolled into intervention and placebo groups. The intervention protocol was included 30 minutes of general foot massage and the stimulation of three reflex points including solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart. The placebo group only received the general foot massage. Spielbergers state trait anxiety inventory was used to assess the anxiety experienced by patients. Data was analyzed using Man-Witney, Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. The stepwise multiple regressions used to analyze the variables that are involved in anxiety reduction. The mean range of anxiety decreased from 53.24 to 45.24 in reflexology group which represented 8 score reduction (P = 0.0001). The reduction in anxiety was 5.9 score in placebo group which was also significant (P = 0.0001). The anxiety reduction was significantly higher in reflexology group (P = 0.014). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that doing reflexology can explain the 7.5% of anxiety reduction which made a significant model. Reflexology can decrease the anxiety level before coronary angiography. Therefore, reflexology before coronary angiography is recommended.

  3. A proactive alarm reduction method and its human factors validation test for a main control room for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Suh, Sang-moon; Kim, Sa-kil; Suh, Yong-suk; Park, Je-yun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A proactive alarm reduction method improves effectiveness on the alarm reduction. ► The method suppresses alarms based on the ECA rules and facts for the alarm reduction under an alarm flood situation. ► The alarm reduction logics are supplemented to a high hit ratio of the reduction logics during on-line operations. ► The method is validated by human factors validation test based on regulatory requirements. -- Abstract: Conventional alarm systems tend to overwhelm operators during a transient because of a large number of nearly simultaneous annunciator activations with varying degrees of relevance to operator tasks. Thus alarm processing techniques have developed to support operators in coping with the volume of alarms, to identify which alarms are significant, and to reduce the need for operators to infer the plant conditions. This paper proposes a proactive alarm reduction method for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) whereby based on the contents of the past operating effects alarm reduction is carried out during the next transient. We designed and implemented the proactive alarm reduction system and constructed the environment for the human factors validation test. Also, eight subjects actually working in a nuclear power plant (NPP) tested the practical effectiveness of the proposed proactive alarm reduction method according to the procedure of human factors validation test under a dynamic simulation of a partial scope for an NPP.

  4. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Soeter

    Full Text Available Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.

  5. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.

  6. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety--results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Kronstrand, L; Fink, P; Frostholm, L

    2013-06-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten-session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6 months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8), and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90R Somatization Subscale). The patients' emotional representations and perception of the consequences of their illness (IPQ) improved significantly, and 87% of the patients were very or extremely satisfied with the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-anxiety activity of successive extracts of Angelica archangelica Linn. on the elevated T-maze and forced swimming tests in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Shah, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn. is widely used in food and liquor preparations and also in Kashmiri folk medicine to reduce anxiety. We evaluated the anxiolytic effect of successive extracts of A. archangelica linn. (SAE) on rats tested in the elevated T-maze test (an animal model of generalized anxiety) at doses that exhibit antidepressant-like activity in humans. A. archangelica (1 kg) was subjected to successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus with solvents [petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and decoction with water] in order of increasing polarity (yield: 6.9%, 7.3%, 5.1%, 11.88% and 8.2% w/w, respectively). SAE were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using the elevated T-maze and forced swimming tests in rats. Oral dosing of diazepam (1 mg/kg) and extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) clearly showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated T-maze test: it increased one-way escape and decreased inhibitory avoidance on the first, third and seventh day. In the forced swimming test, imipramine and SAE showed antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects as reflected by increased climbing time, swimming time and decreased immobility time on the first, third and seventh day. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed the most, petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C) and chloroform intermediate, and ethyl acetate the least anxiolytic activity (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P< 0.001) in both models. These results suggest the anti-anxiety activity of various extracts of A. archangelica and strongly justify its use in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of anxiety.

  8. Effect of stigma reduction intervention strategies on HIV test uptake in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several stigma reduction intervention strategies have been developed and tested for effectiveness in terms of increasing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test uptake. These strategies have been more effective in some contexts and less effective in others. Individual factors......, such as lack of knowledge and fear of disclosure, and social-contextual factors, such as poverty and illiteracy, might influence the effect of stigma reduction intervention strategies on HIV test uptake in low- and middle-income countries. So far, it is not clearly known how the stigma reduction intervention...... strategies interact with these contextual factors to increase HIV test uptake. Therefore, we will conduct a review that will synthesize existing studies on stigma reduction intervention strategies to increase HIV test uptake to better understand the mechanisms underlying this process in low- and middle...

  9. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  10. Dimensionality reduction for the quantitative evaluation of a smartphone-based Timed Up and Go test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerini, Luca; Mellone, Sabato; Rocchi, Laura; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    The Timed Up and Go is a clinical test to assess mobility in the elderly and in Parkinson's disease. Lately instrumented versions of the test are being considered, where inertial sensors assess motion. To improve the pervasiveness, ease of use, and cost, we consider a smartphone's accelerometer as the measurement system. Several parameters (usually highly correlated) can be computed from the signals recorded during the test. To avoid redundancy and obtain the features that are most sensitive to the locomotor performance, a dimensionality reduction was performed through principal component analysis (PCA). Forty-nine healthy subjects of different ages were tested. PCA was performed to extract new features (principal components) which are not redundant combinations of the original parameters and account for most of the data variability. They can be useful for exploratory analysis and outlier detection. Then, a reduced set of the original parameters was selected through correlation analysis with the principal components. This set could be recommended for studies based on healthy adults. The proposed procedure could be used as a first-level feature selection in classification studies (i.e. healthy-Parkinson's disease, fallers-non fallers) and could allow, in the future, a complete system for movement analysis to be incorporated in a smartphone.

  11. Students' anxiety in a senior thesis course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M R; Palm, L J

    2000-06-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered on Weeks 8, 12, and 15 of a semester to 16 students enrolled in a senior thesis course. State anxiety scores were elevated when oral presentations began and declined following the presentations. Trait anxiety scores remained constant across test administrations. The influence of situational variables on students' anxiety was discussed.

  12. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Tool Texture on Friction and Lubrication in Strip Reduction Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    While texturing of workpiece surfaces to promote lubrication in metal forming has beenapplied for several decades, tool surface texturing is rather new. In the present paper, tool texturing is studied as a method to prevent galling. A strip reduction test was conducted with tools provided...... with shallow, longitudinal pockets oriented perpendicular to the sliding direction. The pockets had small angles to the workpiece surface and the distance between them were varied. The experiments reveal that the distance between pockets should be larger than the pocket width, thereby creating a topography...... similar to flat table mountains to avoid mechanical interlocking in the valleys; otherwise, an increase in drawing load and pick-up on the tools are observed. The textured tool surface lowers friction and improves lubrication performance, provided that the distance between pockets is 2–4 times larger than...

  14. Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, J.A.; Buttedahl, O.I.; Skaats, C.D.; Terada, K.; Woodard, R.W.

    1977-02-01

    The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported

  15. Detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat against fenbendazole by faecal egg count reduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramandeep; Bal, M S; Singla, L D; Kaur, Paramjit

    2017-06-01

    Anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintic fenbendazole was evaluated by employing faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in the semi organized sheep and goat farms of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. A total of 80 animals (20 each for sheep and goat in both districts) were randomly selected and their faecal samples were examined by qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Results indicate presence of high level of resistance against fenbendazole in both sheep and goat population of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. More resistance was observed in the GI nematodes from animals reared in Amritsar district as compared to Ludhiana district. The level of anthelmintic resistance observed was apparently more in sheep than goats.

  16. How to improve the standardization and the diagnostic performance of the fecal egg count reduction test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levecke, Bruno; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2018-01-01

    Although various studies have provided novel insights into how to best design, analyze and interpret a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it is still not straightforward to provide guidance that allows improving both the standardization and the analytical performance of the FECRT across...... a variety of both animal and nematode species. For example, it has been suggested to recommend a minimum number of eggs to be counted under the microscope (not eggs per gram of feces), but we lack the evidence to recommend any number of eggs that would allow a reliable assessment of drug efficacy. Other...... the UI methodology that yields the most reliable assessment of drug efficacy (coverage of TDE) and detection of reduced drug efficacy, and (iii) to determine the required sample size and number of eggs counted under the microscope that optimizes the detection of reduced efficacy. Our results confirm...

  17. Characterization of the nociceptin receptor (ORL-1) agonist, Ro64-6198, in tests of anxiety across multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, G B; Hyde, L A; Hodgson, R A; Lu, S X; McCool, M F; Kazdoba, T M; Del Vecchio, R A; Guthrie, D H; Pond, A J; Grzelak, M E; Xu, X; Korfmacher, W A; Tulshian, D; Parker, E M; Higgins, G A

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated behaviors indicative of anxiolysis in rats pretreated with the nociceptin receptor (opioid receptor like-1, ORL-1) agonist, Ro64-6198. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ro64-6198 in anxiety models across three species: rat, guinea pig, and mouse. In addition, the receptor specificity of Ro64-6198 was studied, using the ORL-1 receptor antagonist, J-113397, and ORL-1 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Finally, neurological studies examined potential side effects of Ro64-6198 in the rat and mouse. Ro64-6198 (3-10 mg/kg) increased punished responding in a rat conditioned lick suppression test similarly to chlordiazepoxide (6 mg/kg). This effect of Ro64-6198 was attenuated by J-113397 (10 mg/kg), but not the mu opioid antagonist, naltrexone (3 mg/kg). In addition, Ro64-6198 (1-3 mg/kg) reduced isolation-induced vocalizations in rat and guinea pig pups. Ro64-6198 (3 mg/kg) increased the proportion of punished responding in a mouse Geller-Seifter test in wild-type (WT) but not ORL-1 KO mice, whereas diazepam (1-5.6 mg/kg) was effective in both genotypes. In rats, Ro64-6198 reduced locomotor activity (LMA) and body temperature and impaired rotarod, beam walking, and fixed-ratio (FR) performance at doses of 10-30 mg/kg, i.e., three to ten times higher than an anxiolytic dose. In WT mice, Ro64-6198 (3-10 mg/kg) reduced LMA and rotarod performance, body temperature, and FR responding, but these same measures were unaffected in ORL-1 KO mice. Haloperidol (0.3-3 mg/kg) reduced these measures to a similar extent in both genotypes. These studies confirm the potent, ORL-1 receptor-mediated, anxiolytic-like effects of Ro64-6198, extending the findings across three species. Ro64-6198 has target-based side effects, although the magnitude of these effects varies across species.

  18. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Janke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches

  19. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C.; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  20. The effect of assertiveness training on student's academic anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, S; Sharifirad, G H R; Shahsiah, M; Botlani, S; Matlabi, M; Rezaeian, M

    2012-03-01

    Academic anxiety is an important educational problem that affects millions of students in colleges and schools over the world each year. Although a low level of anxiety can cause positive motivation for improvement of educational functioning, high levels of it can cause a disturbance in concentration, attention, storage of knowledge, recall and educational reduction. It has also been recently determined that there is a relationship between anxiety and assertiveness. Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the effect of assertiveness training on reducing anxiety levels in pre-college academic students in Gonabad city in 2008. In this clinical trial study, all the pre-college students of Gonabad city were invited to participate and 89 students were divided into experimental and control groups. There were 3 questionnaires, namely demographic, academic anxiety and assertiveness Rathus questionnaires in which the validity and reliability were calculated and approved. The intervention for the experimental group was 5 sessions of assertiveness training using the PRECEDE model and 1 session for parents and teachers to help and support the intervention program. We had a post-test 8 weeks after the last training session for each group was conducted. The data was analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that anxiety levels and decisiveness in the target group were moderate to high and it is seen as a significant reverse relationship between these two factors (r = -0.69 and p anxiety decrease in the experimental group after the intervention. On the one hand, there was a significant increase in decisiveness for both groups, but there was not a significant difference between academic anxiety and assertiveness in the control group.before and after the intervention. Due to a significant decrease in anxiety and increased decisiveness in the experimental group, it can be claimed that assertiveness training is an effective non-pharmacological method for reducing academic anxiety

  1. A Test of Attention Control Theory in Public Speaking: Cognitive Load Influences the Relationship between State Anxiety and Verbal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E.; Finn, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between public-speaking state anxiety (PSA) and verbal communication performance when delivering a speech. In Study 1, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute classroom speech behind a lectern, and in Study 2, to increase cognitive load, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute…

  2. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result

  3. Cognition, imagery and coping among adolescents with social anxiety and phobia: testing the Clark and Wells model in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Tuomisto, Martti T; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    The Clark and Wells' cognitive model of social phobia suggests that self-focused attention, negative observer-perspective images of oneself and safety behaviours maintain anxiety in subjects with SP. Empirical research among adults supports the model, but limited evidence for it has been obtained in other age groups or in the general population. We examined automatic thoughts, imagery, safety behaviours and general coping of adolescents with social anxiety and phobia. These were elicited by a thought listing procedure in a recalled, distressing social situation. The target variables were compared between adolescents with high versus normal self-reported social anxiety (HSA/NSA) and between adolescents with clinical/subclinical SP (SP/SSP) versus no diagnosis. Adolescents with HSA reported overall negative thoughts, negative observer-perspective images and safety behaviours more frequently than adolescents with NSA. The SP/SSP group displayed the same difference, and clearer, relative to the no diagnosis group, but additionally reported negative thoughts focused more often on self. Minor differences in coping were found between the groups. The study suggests that adolescents with SP already display the negative self-focused cognitions, observer-perspective imagery and behavioural pattern found among adults with SP. Social anxiety associates with observer-perspective imagery and safety behaviours in adolescence. Adolescents with clinical social phobia report frequent negative self-focused thoughts. However, such negative cognitions focused on self do not associate to self-reported social anxiety. The cognitive model of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995) is applicable to adolescents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of examination related anxiety in a private medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Najeeb; Rasool, Sohail Ataur; Sultan, Ambreen; Tahira, Irum

    2013-01-01

    To assess examination related anxiety among first professional medical students and to determine the factors contributing to this kind of anxiety among them. A cross-sectional study using structured self-administered questionnaire was carried out over 10 days in Frontier Medical and Dental College, Abbottabad, in December 2012, using sample size of 200 students,. Survey questionnaire consisted of twenty questions regarding life style, study style, psychological and social problems, and results were analyzed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A total of 200 students out of 220 (90.90%) filled in the questionnaire. There were 61.50% male and 38.50% female students. The average maximum Examination related Anxiety marked on VAS was 47 +/- 21. Among different factors contributing to exam anxiety, inadequate rest (89%), irrational thoughts (67.50) and excessive course load (60%) were the most important factors reported by the students. Most of the students were aware of anxiety-reduction techniques but seldom implement them. On a VAS, examination, in its own right, has been established as a definite cause of anxiety, although the magnitude is not alarming. Students who regularly participate in class tests and perform well there, are least affected by this anxiety.

  5. Once hurt, twice shy: Social pain contributes to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Klint; Alden, Lynn E

    2017-03-01

    Social rejection has been consistently linked to the development of social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the relation have been largely unexplored, which presents an obstacle to fully understanding the origins of social anxiety and to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the emotion of social pain following rejection promotes the development of social anxiety in subsequent situations. In Study 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 2 social situations (Cyberball) 2 days apart. Participants who were rejected in the first situation reported higher social anxiety before and during the second situation relative to those who were included. This effect was fully mediated by initial social pain intensity. In Study 2, all participants were initially rejected. Using double-blinded drug administration, participants were randomly assigned to ingest acetaminophen to alleviate the social pain from rejection, or a sugar placebo. As predicted, the acetaminophen group reported lower social anxiety before and during the second situation. Approximately half of the effect was mediated by reduction in social pain. Notably, the immediate effect of acetaminophen was specific to social pain rather than social anxiety. Results were discussed in the context of literature on the etiology of social anxiety and social pain. Future directions were suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Interaction between Cannabinoidergic System and H2 Receptors in CA1 Region upon Anxiety-like Behaviors in Hole-Board Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasehi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids produce a wide array of effects on different species and interact with different neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In the present study, the effects of histaminergic and cannabinoidregic systems as well as their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors were examined on mice. Methods: In this study, at first mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine. They were then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannuale were placed one mm above CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. After that, seventeen groups of animals were tested with hole board apparatus for measuring anxiety behavior. For the statistical analysis, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used. Results: Intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.5µg/mice did not modify anxiety-related behaviors in mice. But administration of AM251 (25 and 50ng/mice, histamine or ranitidine (5µg/mice induced anxiogenic-like response. Also, co-administration of WIN55, 212-2 with histaminergic agents, decreased the anxiogenic-like response of histamine, but not that of ranitidine. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of AM251 with histaminergic drugs did not alter the response induced by these drugs. In all the experiments, locomotor activity was not significantly changed. Conclusion: These results showed that there may be a partial interaction between the cannabinoidergic and the histaminergic systems of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behaviors.

  7. Dansyl-PQRamide, a putative antagonist of NPFF receptors, reduces anxiety-like behavior of ethanol withdrawal in a plus-maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlinska, Jolanta; Pachuta, Agnieszka; Bochenski, Marcin; Silberring, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    Much evidence indicates that endogenous opioid peptides are involved in effects caused by ethanol. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dansyl-PQR amide, a putative antagonist of receptors for an anti-opioid peptide-neuropeptide FF (NPFF) could affect anxiety-like behavior measured during withdrawal from acute-, and chronic ethanol administration in the elevated plus maze test in rats. Our study indicated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of dansyl-PQRamide (2.4 and 4.8 nmol) reversed anxiety-like behavior measured as a percent time spent in the open arms, and a percent open arm entries onto the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. These effects were inhibited by NPFF (10 and/or 20 nmol, i.c.v.) in the experiments performed during withdrawal from acute- and chronic ethanol administration. During withdrawal from acute ethanol, naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p.), a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, attenuated only an increased percent time spent in the open arms induced by dansyl-PQR amide (4.8 nmol). Dansyl-PQR amide, NPFF and naloxone given alone to naive rats did not have influence on spontaneous locomotor activity of animals. Furthermore, NPFF potentiated anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal from chronic, but not acute, ethanol administration in rats. Our data suggest that NPFF system is involved in regulation of affective symptoms of ethanol withdrawal. It seems that involvement of the NPFF system in ethanol withdrawal anxiety-like behavior is associated with regulation of the opioid system activity.

  8. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  9. Test and data reduction algorithm for the evaluation of lead-acid battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, D.

    1986-01-15

    Experience from the DOE Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project indicated severe battery problems associated with driving electric cars in temperature extremes. The vehicle batteries suffered from a high module failure rate, reduced capacity, and low efficiency. To assess the nature and the extent of the battery problems encountered at various operating temperatures, a test program was established at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A test facility was built that is based on Propel cycling equipment, the Hewlett Packard 3497A Data Acquisition System, and the HP85F and HP87 computers. The objective was to establish a cost effective facility that could generate the engineering data base needed for the development of thermal management systems, destratification systems, central watering systems and proper charge algorithms. It was hoped that the development and implementation of these systems by EV manufacturers and fleet operators of EVs would eliminate the most pressing problems that occurred in the DOE EV Demonstration Project. The data reduction algorithm is described.

  10. [Girls are more successful than boys at the university. Gender group differences in models integrating motivational and aggressive components correlated with Test-Anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, A-M; Hoyois, Ph; Cadot, M; Nahama, V; Petit, F; Ansseau, M

    2004-01-01

    It is surprising to note the evolution of success rates in Belgian universities especially in the first Year. Men are less successful than women and the differences are escalating in an alarming way. Dropouts take the same direction and women now represent a majority of the students at the university. In a previous study, we assessed 616 students in the first Year at the university of Liège with Vasev, the English name of which was TASTE, a self report questionnaire constituted of 4 factors: anxiety, self confidence, procrastination and performance value; anxiety particularly concerned somatic expression of students before and during test evaluations; self confidence was a cognitive component close to self efficacy; procrastination was the behavioral component characterizing avoidance when students are confronted with the risk of failure; performance value referred to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. French validation of TASTE led to an abbreviated version of 50 items (THEE) consisting of 5 factors, the four of TASTE and an additional one, very consistent, at first called depression because of its correlations with this dimension, then called sense of competence on account of its semantic content. Self-competence has been described in the literature of Achievement Motivation and corresponded to expectancy and ability beliefs in performance process which was also relevant to self-efficacy except the particularity of comparison with others, which was not included in the last construct. Self-competence has been considered as an important part of the Worry component of test anxiety. Some Authors didn't hesitate to view causality flowing from self-competence to test anxiety and have conceptualized the latter as a failure of the self where one's sense of competence has been undermined as a result of experienced failure. In our study, only that factor was equally scored in women and men whereas it was scored higher in failed students. In other respects anxiety and

  11. Effect of aromatherapy on dental patient anxiety: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental anxiety is a common and potentially distressing problem, both for the patients and for dental practitioners. It is considered to be the main barrier and affects the working lives of dental professional potentially compromising their performance. Aim: To know the effect of aromatherapy in the reduction of dental anxiety and to compare the anxiety levels of dental patients with the control group. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used. Of 40 dental clinics in Khammam town, 10 dental clinics were selected by simple random sampling method. A total of 100 patients attending the dental clinic for the first time were included in the study. Ambient odor of lavender was maintained with a candle warmer. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, smoking status, Modified dental anxiety scale (Humphries et al. in 1995, was given to the patients when they were waiting in the waiting room. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Considerable decrease in anxiety scores in 3 age groups was observed. A statistically significant (P = 0.002 decrease with age in mean anxiety score. A significant difference in anxiety scores of lavender group, a significant decrease of anxiety scores with an increase of age. Conclusion: Lavender decreased the current anxiety scores of patients effectively.

  12. Evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based yoga intervention to reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    Yoga is often viewed as a form of alternative and complementary medicine, as it strives to achieve equilibrium between the body and mind that aids healing. Studies have shown the beneficial role of yoga in anxiety reduction. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a 10-week social cognitive theory based yoga intervention to reduce anxiety. The yoga intervention utilized the constructs of behavioral capability, expectations, self-efficacy for yoga from social cognitive theory, and included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing techniques), shava asana (relaxation), and dhyana (meditation). A one-between and one-within group, quasi-experimental design was utilized for evaluation. Scales measuring expectations from yoga, self-efficacy for yoga, and Speilberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory, were administered before and after the intervention. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed to compare pre-test and post-test scores in the two groups. Yoga as an approach shows promising results for anxiety reduction.

  13. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurmans Josien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy of preventive Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy with adolescents reporting depressive and anxiety symptoms. A secondary objective is to test potential mediating and moderating variables in order to gain insight into how the intervention works and for whom it works best. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial with an intervention condition group and a wait-list control group. The intervention condition group receives Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy. Support is provided by a professional and delivered through email. Participants in the wait-list control group receive the intervention four months later. The study population consists of adolescents (12-18-year-olds from the general population who report mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and are willing to complete a self-help course. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, social anxiety, and cost-effectiveness. The following variables are examined for their moderating role: demographics, motivation, treatment credibility and expectancy, externalizing behaviour, perceived social support from parents and friends, substance use, the experience of important life events, physical activity, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction. Mediator variables include problem-solving skills, worrying, mastery, and self-esteem. Data are collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after baseline. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study evaluates the efficacy and mechanisms of

  14. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  15. Do changes in affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body dissatisfaction in children? An experimental study by means of the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Lien; Van Durme, Kim; Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Claes, Laurence

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have already found a positive association between attachment and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in children and adolescents. However, to our knowledge, no experimental studies have examined whether changes in negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body dissatisfaction in children. A controlled laboratory setting was used to investigate whether changes in state negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body satisfaction in a sample of 81 children (M age =11.74). The changes in state affect were caused by the exposure to a performance-related stressor using the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children with high levels of attachment anxiety reported a decrease in body satisfaction, but only if the TSST-C led to a decrease in their positive affect. Early detection and intervention programs may benefit from addressing insecure attachment and maladaptive emotion regulation in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain reduction peripheral arteriographies of the upper and lower extriemities in a double blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Huber, R.; Welter, H.

    1980-01-01

    36 aortofemoral and 18 brachial angiographies effected under standardized conditions in a double blind test in approximately two equal parts with Lidocain/Ioglicinate and Metrizamide, respectively, were evaluated with regard to vascular pain and sensation of heat during the examination. With the femoralis angiograms reduction of vascular pain was on the average somewhat greater, although this could not be established statistically when using Metrizamide. In the case of the angiogram of the arm, pain was on the average equally low in both cases. Of the 14 patients who had received injections of both contrast media in varying succession at intervals of 20 minutes, 6 patients considered the Metrizamide injection to be more agreeable, whereas 2 preferred the Lidocain/Ioglicinate injection and 6 patients did not notice any significant difference. The average sensation of heat during contrast medium visualisation of the legs and arms was equal with both substances. Lidocain/Ioglicinate and Metrizamide are approximately equally well suited for peripheral angiography of arms and legs, rendering narcosis and strapping down of the extremities unneccessary in normal cases. (orig.) [de

  17. Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, B K; Esen, A; Büyükerkmen, B; Kilinç, A; Menziletoglu, D

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves are presented one to each ear at a steady intensity and frequency. We evaluated their effectiveness in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Sixty patients (30 in each group) who were to have impacted third molars removed were studied (experimental group: 20 women and 10 men, mean (range) age 24 (18-35) years, and control group: 22 women and 8 men, mean (range) age 28 (15-47) years). All patients were fully informed about the operation preoperatively, and their anxiety recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The local anaesthetic was given and the patients waited for 10minutes, during which those in the experimental group were asked to listen to binaural beats through stereo earphones (200Hz for the left ear and 209.3Hz for the right ear). No special treatment was given to the control group. In both groups anxiety was then recorded again, and the tooth removed in the usual way. The paired t test and t test were used to assess the significance of differences between groups. The degree of anxiety in the control group was unchanged after the second measurement (p=0.625), while that in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety (p=0.001). We conclude that binaural beats may be useful in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction of the anxiety of medical students after curricular reform Redução da ansiedade de estudantes de medicina após reforma curricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Curricular structure may interfere in students' anxiety level at medical schools. The objective of this study was to assess anxiety levels in medical students before and after a curriculum reform at the Medical School of Ribeirão Preto and to compare them with students at other courses that had no curricular changes in the same university campus. METHOD: Study samples were obtained in two moments: 1 two years before the reform; 2 after the reform when the reformed curriculum completed its fourth year. The pre-sample (former curriculum consisted of 307 medical students and 217 students from psychology and biology courses. The post-sample (new curriculum was composed of 330 medical students and 194 students from psychology and biology courses. Anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. RESULTS: Comparing the pre with the post sample, we found STAI-T scores of the students under the former curriculum were significantly higher in the first (42.9 + 1.08 and second (41.9 + 1.1 years than the STAI-T scores of the medical students under the new curriculum (38.1 + 1.0 and 37.9 + 1.06, respectively. Students from other courses and 5th year medical students, who followed the same curriculum, did not show any significant differences between different samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that changes to medical school curricula may reduce the medical student' levels of anxiety in the first two years of the course.OBJETIVOS: Características da estrutura curricular podem interferir no nível de ansiedade dos alunos do curso médico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o nível de ansiedade nos alunos do curso médico, antes e depois de uma reforma no currículo da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, comparando com outros cursos, do mesmo campus da universidade, que não tiveram mudanças curriculares. MÉTODO: As amostras do estudo foram obtidas em dois tempos distintos: 1 dois anos antes da reforma; 2 pós a

  19. Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Reduction of patient doses in X-ray diagnosis using quality control tests on image and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.; Tomulescu, V.; Sorescu, Anca; Vladareanu, M.; Olteanu, B.; Enachescu, B.; Zaharia, N.; Lesaru, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of a research program under the contract with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), several patient dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) before and after application of Quality Control tests and patient dose reduction methods. The paper evidenced the practical influence factors (like the need of use of high voltage technique) and possibilities for dose reduction keeping the image quality. (authors)

  1. Heart-related anxieties in relation to general anxiety and severity of illness in cardiology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness.

  2. Thinking while drinking: Fear of negative evaluation predicts drinking behaviors of students with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Whitley, Robert B; Capron, Daniel W; Madson, Michael B

    2018-03-01

    College students with social anxiety disorder experience more alcohol-related negative consequences, regardless of the amount of alcohol they consume. Social anxiety refers to psychological distress and physiological arousal in social situations due to an excessive fear of negative evaluation by others. The current study examined within-group differences in alcohol-related negative consequences of students who met or exceeded clinically-indicated social anxiety symptoms. In particular, we tested a sequential mediation model of the cognitive (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) and behavioral (protective behavioral strategies) mechanisms for the link between social anxiety disorder subtypes (i.e., interaction and performance-type) and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 412 traditional-age college student drinkers who met or exceeded the clinically-indicated threshold for social anxiety disorder and completed measures of fear of negative evaluation, protective behavioral strategies (controlled consumption and serious harm reduction), and alcohol-related negative consequences. Fear of negative evaluation and serious harm reduction strategies sequentially accounted for the relationship between interaction social anxiety disorder and alcohol-related negative consequences, such that students with more severe interaction social anxiety symptoms reported more fear of negative evaluation, which was related to more serious harm reduction strategies, which predicted fewer alcohol-related negative consequences. Future directions and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Getting acquainted through social networking sites: testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine which uncertainty reduction strategies members of social network sites used to gain information about a person who they had recently met online. The second aim was to investigate whether and how these uncertainty reduction strategies resulted in social

  4. Getting acquainted through social networking sites: Testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine which uncertainty reduction strategies members of social networking sites used to gain information about a person who they had recently met online. The second aim was to investigate whether and how these uncertainty reduction strategies resulted in social

  5. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    Full Text Available The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT. CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours arise from (e.g. correlate with cognitive beliefs (schemas whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505 participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge

  6. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas) as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs) are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours) arise from (e.g. correlate with) cognitive beliefs (schemas) whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505) participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge a core

  7. Prevention of anxiety and depression in the age group of 75 years and over: a randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a generic stepped care programme among elderly community residents at high risk of developing anxiety and depression versus usual care [ISRCTN26474556

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In frail elderly, the effects of depression and anxiety are deep encroaching. Indicated prevention studies, aimed at subjects with subthreshold disorder, have shown that well designed interventions are capable of reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety. In this randomised prevention trial for elderly, living in the community and suffering from subthreshold depression and anxiety, a stepped care programme was put together to be tested versus usual (GP care. Methods/design Design: randomised controlled trial. (See figure 1: organisation chart together with two other projects, this project is part of a national consortium that investigates the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in later life using a stepped care programme. The three projects have their own particular focus. This project is aimed at elderly living in the community. Inclusion: subjects with a high risk for depression and anxiety without clinical evidence of these syndromes. The participants are 75 years of age and over and have subthreshold symptoms of depression and or anxiety: they score above the cut-off point on the self-report Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, but the criteria for a major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder according to a validated interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI are not fulfilled. Outcomes: primary outcome: incidence of a depressive or anxiety disorder over a period of two years (MINI; secondary outcome: a positive influence of the intervention, a stepped care programme, on symptoms of depression and anxiety and on quality of life as assessed with the CES D, the HADS A and the SF36 respectively (i.e. stabilisation or improvement of symptoms [see table 1]. Measurements: Take place at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Trained independent evaluators assess depression and

  8. Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The objectives of this framework are to facilitate the study design and execution to test the effectiveness of bat and eagle impact-reduction strategies at wind energy sites. Through scientific field research, the wind industry and its partners can help determine if certain strategies are ready for operational deployment or require further development. This framework should be considered a living document to be improved upon as fatality-reduction technologies advance from the initial concepts to proven readiness (through project- and technology-specific testing) and as scientific field methods improve.

  9. The Arabic Version of The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: Cumulative scaling and discriminant-validation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amira Mohammed; Ahmed, Anwar; Sharaf, Amira; Kawakami, Norito; Abdeldayem, Samia M; Green, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity of the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in 149 illicit drug users. We calculated α coefficient, inter-item and item-total correlations, coefficients of reproducibility and scalability (CR and CS), item difficulty and discrimination indices. The DASS-21 had an acceptable reliability; but values of the CR and the CS were less than acceptable. Items varied in difficulty and discrimination; some items are candidates for elimination. The DASS-21 is a probabilistic and not a deterministic measure of distress; it has problematic items and needs further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Utilizing Organizational Culture Improvement Model of Patient Education on Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients' Anxiety and Satisfaction: Theory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh Ashghali; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Norouzinezhad, Faezeh; Orak, Roohangiz Jamshidi

    2016-11-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of arteriosclerosis and the mortality caused by this disease, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) has become one of the most common surgical procedures. Utilization of patient education is approved as an effective solution for increasing patient survival and outcomes of treatment. However, failure to consider different aspects of patient education has turned this goal into an unattainable one. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of utilizing the organizational culture improvement model of patient education on CABG patients' anxiety and satisfaction. The present study is a randomized controlled trial. This study was conducted on eighty CABG patients. The patients were selected from the CCU and Post-CCU wards of a hospital affiliated with Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, during 2015. Eshpel Burger's Anxiety Inventory and Patients' Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect the required information. Levels of anxiety and satisfaction of patients before intervention and at the time of release were measured. The intervention took place after preparing a programmed package based on the organizational culture improvement model for the following dimensions: effective communication, participatory decision-making, goal setting, planning, implementation and recording, supervision and control, and improvement of motivation. After recording the data, it was analyzed in the chi-square test, t-independent and Mann-Whitney U tests. The significance level of tests was assumed to be 0.05. SPSS version 18 was also utilized for data analysis. Research results revealed that variations in the mean scores of situational and personality anxiety of the control and experiment group were descending following the intervention, but the decrease was higher in the experiment group (p≤0.0001). In addition, the variations of the mean scores of patients' satisfaction with education were higher in the experiment group

  11. GABA receptors in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus of rats regulate anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test. II. Physiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, A; Sims, L S; Bowsher, R R

    1993-11-05

    In the previous report, we had shown that blockade and enhancement of GABAA receptors in the DMH of rats increased or decreased the level of anxiety, respectively, as measured by the elevated plus-maze test. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of enhancing GABAA neurotransmission in the DMH of rats on the physiological concomitants of anxiety such as increases in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels while the animals were placed on the elevated plus-maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with arterial and venous catheters and stereotaxically implanted with microinjection cannulae in the cardiostimulatory region of the DMH where injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) elicited increases in heart rate under anesthesia. After recovery, rats were injected with either saline or the GABAA agonist muscimol and their HR, BP and plasma NE responses were measured when confined in the open or the closed arm of the elevated plus-maze. Injection of muscimol into the DMH reduced the increases seen in HR, BP and plasma NE when the rats were confined to either the closed or the open arms in addition to decreasing 'anxiety' in the plus-maze. Injection of muscimol into the areas of the hypothalamus surrounding the DMH did not significantly affect the changes in HR, BP and plasma NE in the plus-maze. Blocking the changes in HR and BP elicited by microinjecting GABAergic drugs into the DMH of rats, with systemic injections of a combination of atropine and the beta-blocker atenolol, did not block the behavioral effects of the GABAergic drugs in the plus-maze test.

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  13. Cost and Performance Report for Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT) Treatability Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alleman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced biological reductive dechlorination (EBRD) shows a great deal of promise for efficiently treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, but demonstration sites around the country were reporting mixed results...

  14. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplesi, M. Jr.; Bortoli, V.C. de; Paula Soares, V. de; Nogueira, R.L.; Zangrossi, H. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety

  15. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplesi, M. Jr. [Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Bortoli, V.C. de [Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES (Brazil); Paula Soares, V. de [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nogueira, R.L. [Laboratório de Psicologia Comparada, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zangrossi, H. Jr. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-03

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.

  16. An attempt to target anxiety sensitivity via cognitive bias modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Beard, Courtney; Fisher, Christopher R; Schofield, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    Our goals in the present study were to test an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification program to reduce anxiety sensitivity, and to evaluate the causal relationships between interpretation bias of physiological cues, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. Participants with elevated anxiety sensitivity who endorsed having a panic attack or limited symptom attack were randomly assigned to either an Interpretation Modification Program (IMP; n = 33) or a Control (n = 32) condition. During interpretation modification training (via the Word Sentence Association Paradigm), participants read short sentences describing ambiguous panic-relevant physiological and cognitive symptoms and were trained to endorse benign interpretations and reject threatening interpretations associated with these cues. Compared to the Control condition, IMP training successfully increased endorsements of benign interpretations and decreased endorsements of threatening interpretations at visit 2. Although self-reported anxiety sensitivity decreased from pre-selection to visit 1 and from visit 1 to visit 2, the reduction was not larger for the experimental versus control condition. Further, participants in IMP (vs. Control) training did not experience less anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. In fact, there was some evidence that those in the Control condition experienced less avoidance following training. Potential explanations for the null findings, including problems with the benign panic-relevant stimuli and limitations with the control condition, are discussed.

  17. An attempt to target anxiety sensitivity via cognitive bias modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Clerkin

    Full Text Available Our goals in the present study were to test an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification program to reduce anxiety sensitivity, and to evaluate the causal relationships between interpretation bias of physiological cues, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. Participants with elevated anxiety sensitivity who endorsed having a panic attack or limited symptom attack were randomly assigned to either an Interpretation Modification Program (IMP; n = 33 or a Control (n = 32 condition. During interpretation modification training (via the Word Sentence Association Paradigm, participants read short sentences describing ambiguous panic-relevant physiological and cognitive symptoms and were trained to endorse benign interpretations and reject threatening interpretations associated with these cues. Compared to the Control condition, IMP training successfully increased endorsements of benign interpretations and decreased endorsements of threatening interpretations at visit 2. Although self-reported anxiety sensitivity decreased from pre-selection to visit 1 and from visit 1 to visit 2, the reduction was not larger for the experimental versus control condition. Further, participants in IMP (vs. Control training did not experience less anxiety and avoidance associated with interoceptive exposures. In fact, there was some evidence that those in the Control condition experienced less avoidance following training. Potential explanations for the null findings, including problems with the benign panic-relevant stimuli and limitations with the control condition, are discussed.

  18. Role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, J.T.; Berner, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory study of the bacterial decomposition of Long Island Sound plankton in oxygenated seawater over a period of 2 years shows that the organic material undergoes decomposition via first-order kinetics and can be divided into two decomposable fractions, of considerably different reactivity, and a nonmetabolized fraction. This planktonic material, after undergoing varying degrees of oxic degradation, was added in the laboratory to anoxic sediment taken from a depth of 1 m at the NWC site of Long Island Sound and the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment measured by the 35 S radiotracer technique. The stimulated rate of sulfate reduction was in direct proportion to the amount of planktonic carbon added. This provides direct confirmation of the first-order decomposition, or G model, for marine sediments and proves that the in situ rate of sulfate reduction is organic-matter limited. Slower sulfate reduction rates resulted when oxically degraded plankton rather than fresh plankton was added, and the results confirm the presence of the same two fractions of organic matter deduced from the oxic degradation studies. Near-surface Long Island Sound sediment, which already contains abundant readily decomposable organic matter, was also subjected to anoxic decomposition by bacterial sulfate reduction. The decrease in sulfate reduction rate with time parallels decreases in the amount of organic matter, and these results also indicate the presence of two fractions of organic carbon of distinctly different reactivity. From plots of the log of reduction rate vs. time two first-order rate constants were obtained that agree well with those derived from the plankton addition experiment. Together, the two experiments confirm the use of a simple multi-first-order rate law for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments

  19. Anxiety, Culture, and Expectations: Oncologist-Perceived Factors Associated With Use of Nonrecommended Serum Tumor Marker Tests for Surveillance of Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Erin E; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Wang, Jianjin; Garcia Delgadillo, Jazmine; Schottinger, Joanne E; Mittman, Brian S; Gould, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer offers several opportunities for reducing use of ineffective practices based on American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines. We assessed oncologist-perceived factors associated with use of one such practice-serum tumor markers for post-treatment breast cancer surveillance-focusing on medical oncologists with high, medium, or low test use. Using a mixed-methods design, we identified patients who had been treated for early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012, within Kaiser Permanente Southern California and calculated the number of tests ordered from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. We identified oncologists with high, medium, or low use and subsequently performed semistructured interviews. We used patient satisfaction data to assess association between pattern of use and satisfaction score. We identified 7,363 patients, with 40,114 tests ordered. High-use oncologists were defined as those ordering at least one test annually for 35% of patients or more, low-use oncologists as those ordering at least one test for 5% of patients or less; 42% of oncologists were high, 27% low, and 31% medium users. We interviewed 17 oncologists: six high, eight low, and three medium users. Factors associated with high use included: perceived patient anxiety, oncologist anxiety, belief that there was nothing else to offer, concern about satisfaction, patient competition, peer use, and system barriers. Factors associated with low use included: beliefs about consequences (eg, causes harms) and medical center culture (eg, collective decision to follow guidelines). We found no association between satisfaction score and pattern of use. Barriers to deimplementation are numerous and complex. Traditional strategies of practice change alone are unlikely to be effective. Multifaceted, multilevel strategies deployed to address patient-, clinician-, and system-related barriers may be required.

  20. Comparing Active and Passive Distraction-Based Music Therapy Interventions on Preoperative Anxiety in Pediatric Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Christopher R; Gooding, Lori F

    2018-01-13

    Young children who experience high levels of preoperative anxiety often exhibit distress behaviors, experience more surgical complications, and are at a higher risk for developing a variety of negative postoperative consequences. A significant factor in pediatric preoperative anxiety is the level of anxiety present in their caregivers. Active and passive music therapy interventions addressing anxiety prior to invasive procedures have been met with success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of two distraction-based music therapy interventions on reducing preoperative anxiety in young pediatric surgical patients and their caregivers. A total of 40 pediatric patient and caregiver dyads undergoing ambulatory surgery were included in this study. Pediatric preoperative anxiety was measured pre- and post-intervention using the modified Yale Pediatric Anxiety Scale, while caregiver anxiety was measured through self-report using the short-form Strait-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y6. Participants were randomized to either an active or passive intervention group for a preoperative music therapy session. Results indicated a significant reduction in preoperative anxiety for both patients and their caregivers regardless of intervention type. Neither active nor passive music therapy interventions were significantly more effective than the other. For future studies, the researchers recommend an increased sample size, controlling for various factors such as sedative premedication use, and testing interventions with patients in various stages of development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  2. Study of performance of acoustic fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zam Biabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:One of the recommended methods for evaluation effectiveness of hearing protection is use the acoustic fixture accordance with standard ISO 4869-3. The aim of this study was evaluate the acoustic performance of fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices in the laboratory. Methods: In this cross-sectional study , noise reduction rates of five common ear muffs used in the Iran industries were investigated based on the ISO 11904 standard, microphone in real ear method, using noise dosimeter (SVANTEK , Model SV102 equipped with microphone SV25 model which can install inside the ear on 30 subjects under laboratory conditions. Also, noise reduction rate of earmuffs was determined using the fixture model AVASINA9402 accordance with standard procedures. Data were analyzed using the software SPSS21. Results: The results showed the real noise reduction rates of the earmuffs on the studied subjects are from 59% to 94% nominal reduction rates. That rates for the ear muffs on the studied fixture are from 64% to 92.The results showed that the noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on subjects compared with and noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on fixture were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed the accuracy of noise reduction rate of earmuffs using the fixture compared with real subjects is acceptable. Hence, the fixture is good choice for environments where there’s no possibility of acoustic evaluation on real subjects, also for quality control of productions in the earmuff manufacturers.

  3. The limited role of aquifer heterogeneity on metal reduction in an Atlantic coastal plain determined by push-pull tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Devlin, Stephanie; Fuller, Mark E.; Onstott, T.C.; De Flaun, Mary F.; Choi, K.-H.; Green-Blum, Maria; Swift, Donald J.P.; McCarthy, John; Dong Hailiang

    2007-01-01

    Sixty push-pull experiments were conducted to determine the factors controlling Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in a well-characterized, shallow, coastal plain aquifer near Oyster, VA, USA. The five multi-level samplers each equipped with 12 ports sampled a heterogeneous portion of the aquifer from 4.4 to 8m-bgs. Each multi-level sampler (MLS) was injected with groundwater that contained NO 3 - and Br - along with: (1) just groundwater (control treatment), (2) humics, (3) lactate (conducted twice) and (4) lactate plus humics. Microbially mediated Fe(III) reduction caused the aqueous Fe Tot concentrations to increase at every depth in the lactate treatment with significant increases within 1 day even while NO 3 - was present. Little change in the Fe Tot concentrations were observed in the control and humics treatment. Humics may have acted as an electron shuttle to increase Fe(III) reduction in the lactate plus humics treatment. The amount of Mn(IV) reduction was significantly lower than that of Fe(III) reduction. Geochemical modeling indicated that gas formation, sorption on reactive surfaces, and mineral precipitation were important processes and that Fe(III) and SO 4 2- reduction were co-occurring. Conditions were favorable for the precipitation of Fe-carbonates, Fe-sulfides and Fe-silicates. In the lactate treatment protist concentrations increased then decreased and planktonic cell concentrations steadily increased, whereas no change was observed in the control treatment. Correlations of Fe(III) reduction with physical and chemical heterogeneity were weak, probably as a result of the abundance of Fe(III) bearing minerals relative to electron donor abundance and that the push-pull test sampled a representative elemental volume that encompassed the microbial diversity within the aquifer. This work indicates that stimulating metal reduction in aquifer systems is a feasible method for remediating heterogeneous subsurface sites contaminated with metals and

  4. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17beta estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improv...

  5. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-08-11

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). In addition to the traditional measures from this test we have extracted raw data and analysed time series using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Fifty patients fulfilled criteria for ADHD, while 49 did not, and were given other psychiatric diagnoses (clinical controls). When compared to the clinical controls the ADHD patients had more omission and commission errors, and higher reaction time variability. Analyses of response times showed higher values for skewness in the ADHD patients, and lower values for sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Among the ADHD patients 59 % fulfilled criteria for a cyclothymic temperament, and this group had higher reaction time variability and lower scores on complexity than the group without this temperament. The CPT-II is a useful instrument in the assessment of ADHD in adult patients. Additional information from this test was obtained by analyzing response times using linear and non-linear methods, and this showed that ADHD patients with a cyclothymic temperament were different from those without this temperament.

  6. Isolation and testing the cholesteral reduction ability (in-vitro) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which positively affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Studies have shown probiotic activities of Lactococci isolated from dairy foods, which include the ability to inhibit the growth of other bacteria and the reduction of cholesterol. However, there is ...

  7. [Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. There was a statistically significant decrease (p Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  8. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  9. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  10. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  11. The Neural Correlates of Mindful Awareness: A Possible Buffering Effect on Anxiety-Related Reduction in Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Iwase, Mikio; Kato, Takashi; Senda, Kohei; Inada, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    individuals with a risk for or having anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:24130715

  12. The neural correlates of mindful awareness: a possible buffering effect on anxiety-related reduction in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Iwase, Mikio; Kato, Takashi; Senda, Kohei; Inada, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    anxiety and depressive disorders.

  13. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  14. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  15. Protective levels of canine distemper virus antibody in an urban dog population using plaque reduction neutralization test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Oyedele

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 50 dogs were collected at three veterinary clinics in Ibadan and Abuja, Nigeria and the serum from each sample was evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV by the highly sensitive plaque reduction (PRN neutralization assay. Thirteen dogs had plaque reduction neutralization titres of 0-100, seven had titres of 100-1 000 while 30 had titres ranging from 1 000-6 000. The PRN titres of vaccinated dogs were found to be significantly higher than unvaccinated dogs. The widespread use of the highly reproducible PRN test for the evaluation of antibody response to CDV may be very important in the generation of international CDV positive serum standards that should help to improve pre-and post-vaccination testing of dogs worldwide.

  16. A standalone Internet cognitive behavior therapy treatment for social anxiety in adults who stutter: CBTpsych.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue

    2014-09-01

    Social anxiety is common for those who stutter and efficacious cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for them appears viable. However, there are difficulties with provision of CBT services for anxiety among those who stutter. Standalone Internet CBT treatment is a potential solution to those problems. CBTpsych is a fully automated, online social anxiety intervention for those who stutter. This report is a Phase I trial of CBTpsych. Fourteen participants were allowed 5 months to complete seven sections of CBTpsych. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments tested for social anxiety, common unhelpful thoughts related to stuttering, quality of life and stuttering frequency. Significant post-treatment improvements in social anxiety, unhelpful thoughts, and quality of life were reported. Five of seven participants diagnosed with social anxiety lost those diagnoses at post-treatment. The two participants who did not lose social anxiety diagnoses did not complete all the CBTpsych modules. CBTpsych did not improve stuttering frequency. Eleven of the fourteen participants who began treatment completed Section 4 or more of the CBTpsych intervention. CBTpsych provides a potential means to provide CBT treatment for social anxiety associated with stuttering, to any client without cost, regardless of location. Further clinical trials are warranted. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe that social anxiety is common in those who stutter; (b) discuss the origin of social anxiety and the associated link with bullying; (c) summarize the problems in provision of effective evidence based cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter; (d) describe a scalable computerized treatment designed to tackle the service provision gap; (e) describe the unhelpful thoughts associated with stuttering that this fully automated computer program was able to tackle; (f) list the positive outcomes for individuals who stuttered that participated in this trial such as the

  17. Testing and data reduction of the Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) for Dome A, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xu; Wu Zhenyu; Jiang Zhaoji; Hu Jingyao; Li Qisheng; Ma Jun; Wang Jiali; Wu Jianghua; Yan Jun; Cui Xiangqun; Gong Xuefei; Liu Genrong; Xia Lirong; Yuan Xiangyan; Zhai Fengxiang; Zhang Ru; Feng Longlong; Wang Lifan; Zhu Zhenxi

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) is the first Chinese astronomical instrument on the Antarctic ice cap. The low temperature and low pressure testing of the data acquisition system was carried out in a laboratory refrigerator and on the 4500 m Pamirs high plateau, respectively. The results from the final four nights of test observations demonstrated that CSTAR was ready for operation at Dome A, Antarctica. In this paper, we present a description of CSTAR and the performance derived from the test observations.

  18. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  19. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  20. Installation and testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in 40 eastern Pennsylvania houses. Final report, October 1984-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.; Robertson, A.; Findlay, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the installation and testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in 40 houses in eastern Pennsylvania. Early in 1985, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PDER) started a large radon survey in communities in the Reading Prong (a granite formation) in eastern Pennsylvania, following the discovery of a house with extremely high radon concentrations, greater than 1.2 MBq/cu m. Candidate houses for the program, with radon concentrations in excess of 750 Bq/cu m, were selected from this survey. A total of 40 houses with representative substructure types were chosen from this group, and mitigation methods were selected and installed from June 1985 to June 1987. Initial soil-ventilation installations achieved large reductions in radon concentrations at low cost, but these reductions were not always sustained in colder weather, and several systems were modified during the project to improve their performance. Major reductions in radon concentration were realized in all the houses worked on, with most houses with active soil ventilation systems achieving less than 150 Bq/cu m (4 pCi/L) on an annual average basis in the living areas

  1. Explaining the reductions in US corn ethanol processing costs: Testing competing hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The processing costs of US corn ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983 as production volumes have increased seventeen-fold. We investigate the role of various factors that could explain this, including economies of scale, cumulative experience, induced innovation in response to rising input prices, an autonomous technological change, and trade induced competition from imported ethanol. Using data on dry-mill ethanol processing costs over the 1983–2005 period, we find evidence to show that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale, that learning by doing played an important role in reducing these processing costs with a learning rate of 0.25, and that sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. Other factors such as the rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant. The inclusion of these competing explanations for the reduction in processing costs of US corn ethanol lead to a significantly higher learning rate than otherwise, and this learning rate is found to be robust across specifications. - Highlights: ► We investigate the role of various factors that could explain the reduction in US corn ethanol processing costs over the period 1983–2005. ► We find that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. ► Learning by doing played an important role in reducing these costs with a learning rate of 0.25. ► Sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. ► Rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant.

  2. [Physician's anxiety and physician's elegance. Problems in dealing with cost reduction, education of general practitioners and optimal size of practice networks in a cross-national comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J

    2000-03-01

    The key reason for physicians networking in managed care is to get a better coping with uncertainty on action (treatment) decisions. The second reason for networking in managed care are financial benefits grounds. But this reason is very ambivalent. Three different action problems (role conflicts) in managed care network are to solved, which was also in single practices. In the lecture the decision strategies and decision resources has been compared. Observations are done using expert interviews, patient interviews and analysis of documents in USA, Germany and Switzerland. The first problem is the choosing of a cost reduction strategy which is not reducing the effectiveness. Such "ugly" solution strategies like exclusion of "expensive" patients and a rationing of necessary medical services in a kind of McDonalds network of physicians will fail the target. The optimost way is a saving of all unnecessary medical even injourious performances. The chosen cost reduction strategy is not real visible from outside but in fact limited cognizable and controllable. Evidence based health care can be a resource of treatment decisions and could train such decisions but it will not substitute these decisions. The second problem is the making of real family practitioners as gatekeepers. Knowledge about the care system is still not making a real family practitioner, even if this is the minimum condition of their work. Also contractual relationships between insurance and doctor as a gatekeeper or financial incentives for patients are still making not a real family practitioner as a gatekpeeper. Only throughout the trust of patients supported by second opinions is making the real family practitioner as a gatekeeper. "Doctor hopping" could be the reaction by scarcity of trustworthy family practitioners as gatekeepers. The third problem is the choosing of the optimal scale of a network due to the very different optimal size of networks regarding the requirement of risk spreeds, of the

  3. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  4. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1990-11-01

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  5. Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jerome H; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Coughlin, Catherine; Mulqueen, Jilian; Johnson, Jessica A; Gabriel, Daniel; Reed, Margot O; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. Ketamine is a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 18 adults with DSM-5 SAD and compared the effects between intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) and placebo (normal saline) on social phobia symptoms. Ketamine and placebo infusions were administered in a random order with a 28-day washout period between infusions. Ratings of anxiety were assessed 3-h post-infusion and followed for 14 days. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of ketamine and placebo on anxiety symptoms. Outcomes were blinded ratings on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and self-reported anxiety on a visual analog scale (VAS-Anxiety). We also used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the proportion of treatment responders. Based on prior studies, we defined response as a greater than 35% LSAS reduction and 50% VAS-Anxiety reduction. We found ketamine resulted in a significantly greater reduction in anxiety relative to placebo on the LSAS (Time × Treatment: F 9,115 =2.6, p=0.01) but not the VAS-Anxiety (Time × Treatment: F 10,141 =0.4, p=0.95). Participants were significantly more likely to exhibit a treatment response after ketamine infusion relative to placebo in the first 2 weeks following infusion measured on the LSAS (33.33% response ketamine vs 0% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.24, p=0.025) and VAS (88.89% response ketamine vs 52.94% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.12, p=0.034). In conclusion, this proof-of-concept trial provides initial evidence that ketamine may be effective in reducing anxiety.

  6. Dress anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Salecl, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Each of the contributions to this issue addresses the interplay between conformity and transgression or resistance involved in fashion and fashion choices. Using a range of disciplinary perspectives and critical frameworks, they each explore particular aspects of how the laws of fashion are established, maintained and negotiated, and the social, psychical or political consequences of such negotiations.\\ud \\ud This introductory article examines fashion anxiety, in particular the wedding-dress ...

  7. ERROR REDUCTION IN DUCT LEAKAGE TESTING THROUGH DATA CROSS-CHECKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    One way to reduce uncertainty in scientific measurement is to devise a protocol in which more quantities are measured than are absolutely required, so that the result is over constrained. This report develops a method for so combining data from two different tests for air leakage in residential duct systems. An algorithm, which depends on the uncertainty estimates for the measured quantities, optimizes the use of the excess data. In many cases it can significantly reduce the error bar on at least one of the two measured duct leakage rates (supply or return), and it provides a rational method of reconciling any conflicting results from the two leakage tests.

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Khdour, Hussain Y.; Abushalbaq, Oday M.; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T.; Imam, Aya F.; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of me...

  9. Evaluation of a Proposed Drift Reduction Technology High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    05: “Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light- Scattering Instruments” 15...Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteris- tics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards

  10. Reduction of the number of parameters needed for a polynomial random regression test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Legendre polynomials were used to describe the (co)variance matrix within a random regression test day model. The goodness of fit depended on the polynomial order of fit, i.e., number of parameters to be estimated per animal but is limited by computing capacity. Two aspects: incomplete lactation

  11. Dropouts and Budgets: A Test of a Dropout Reduction Model among Students in Israeli Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Am, Ran; Arar, Osama

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of student dropout during the first year in a higher education institution. To date, no model on a budget has been developed and tested to prevent dropout among Engineering Students. This case study was conducted among first-year students taking evening classes in two practical engineering colleges in Israel.…

  12. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  13. Cueing and Anxiety in a Visual Concept Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip M.

    This study investigated the relationship of two anxiety measures (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form and the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness-Exam Form) to performance on a visual concept-learning task with embedded criterial information. The effect on anxiety reduction of cueing criterial information was also examined, and two levels of…

  14. Reduction in unnecessary red blood cell folate testing by restricting computerized physician order entry in the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Gudgeon, Patrick; Yip, Paul M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2018-05-02

    Red blood cell folate is a laboratory test with limited clinical utility. Previous attempts to reduce physician ordering of unnecessary laboratory tests, including folate, have resulted in only modest success. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and impacts of restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record. This was a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2016 at a large academic healthcare network in Toronto, Canada. All inpatients and outpatients who underwent at least 1 red blood cell folate or vitamin B12 test during the study period were included. Red blood cell folate ordering was restricted to clincians in gastroenterology and hematology and was removed from other physicians' computerized order entry screen in the electronic health record in June 2013. Red blood cell folate testing decreased by 94.4% during the study, from a mean of 493.0 (SD 48.0) tests/month before intervention to 27.6 (SD 10.3) tests/month after intervention (P<.001). Restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record resulted in a large and sustained reduction in red blood cell folate testing. Significant cost savings estimated at over a quarter-million dollars (CAD) over three years were achieved. There was no significant clinical impact of the intervention on the diagnosis of folate deficiency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers’ actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  16. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers' actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  17. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  18. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  19. IMPACT TESTING OF MATERIALS USING AN EIGHT-INCH AIR GUN AND COMPUTER REDUCTION OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, L. F.

    1973-10-01

    A mechanical shock actuator has been converted into an air gun capable of firing 8-inch-·diameter (20.32 cm) projectiles to velocities exceeding 1000 fps (304.8 m/ s). This new capability has been used to study the effect of impact velocity upon the energy.absorbed by crushable materials. Shockpulse data is reduced by computer techniques and test results are displayed in either tabular or graphic format by use of the C DC 6600 Calcomp plotter.

  20. A point-of-care chemistry test for reduction of turnaround and clinical decision time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Jung; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Seong Chun; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Cha, Won Chul

    2011-06-01

    Our study compared clinical decision time between patients managed with a point-of-care chemistry test (POCT) and patients managed with the traditional central laboratory test (CLT). This was a randomized controlled multicenter trial in the emergency departments (EDs) of 5 academic teaching hospitals. We randomly assigned patients to POCT or CLT stratified by the Emergency Severity Index. A POCT chemistry analyzer (Piccolo; Abaxis, Inc, Union City, Calif), which is able to test liver panel, renal panel, pancreas enzymes, lipid panel, electrolytes, and blood gases, was set up in each ED. Primary and secondary end point was turnaround time and door-to-clinical-decision time. The total 2323 patients were randomly assigned to the POCT group (n = 1167) or to the CLT group (n = 1156). All of the basic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The turnaround time (median, interquartile range [IQR]) of the POCT group was shorter than that of the CLT group (14, 12-19 versus 55, 45-69 minutes; P CLT group (46, 33-61 versus 86, 68-107 minutes; P CLT group (P CLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Test Review: March, J. S. (2013), "Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-2nd Edition." Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Stelnicki, Andrea M.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders among school-age children and can lead to impaired academic and social functioning (Keeley & Storch, 2009). Unfortunately, anxiety disorders in this population are often undetected (Herzig-Anderson, Colognori, Fox, Stewart, & Warner, 2012). The availability of psychometrically…

  2. Comparison of the Hemagglutination Inhibition Test and IgG ELISA in Categorizing Primary and Secondary Dengue Infections Based on the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Lukman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary dengue infection by heterotypic serotypes is associated with severe manifestations of disease, that is, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI test to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue infections. Since the HI test has practical limitations and disadvantages, we evaluated the accuracy of WHO HI criteria and compared it with criteria based on an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT as the gold standard. Both WHO HI criteria and IgG ELISA criteria performed strongly (16/16 in determining primary infection. However, to determine secondary infection, the IgG ELISA criteria performed better (72/73 compared to the WHO HI criteria (23/73.

  3. Migraine, Osmophobia, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio; Marques, Karine Sobral; Torres, Rinailda Cascia Santos; Leal, Kamila Nazare Ribas

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between osmophobia and the characteristics of patients and their headaches, among migraine patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who consecutively sought medical attendance in a primary care unit were asked about their headaches over the last 12 months. Those who had migraine were included. A semi-structured interview, the Headache Impact Test and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. 147 patients had migraine; 78 had osmophobia; 60 had significant anxiety symptoms; and 78 had significant depression symptoms. The mean age of these patients was 43.2 years (± 13.7); 91.2% were women. The mean length of time with complaints of headache was 13.8 years (± 12). Among the migraine patients, those with anxiety, more years of headache history, and phonophobia presented significantly more osmophobia (multivariate logistic regression). Osmophobia in migraine patients is associated with significant anxiety symptoms, length of headache history, and phonophobia. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: Outcomes for Patients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Pye, Deidre; Mitchell, Leander K; Byrne, Gerard J; O'Sullivan, John D; Marsh, Rodney; Pachana, Nancy A

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety negatively impacts the quality of life of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and caregivers. Despite high prevalence, there is a paucity of trials investigating effective treatments for anxiety in PD. This uncontrolled study investigated the use of a manualized and tailored Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in PD. Participants completed 6 weekly CBT sessions. Pre-, post- and follow-up (3 and 6 months) assessments were made. Change in outcomes were analysed using t-tests and Reliability Change Index. Of 17 PD patients who agreed to CBT, 12 completed the intervention. This study showed a significant reduction in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores in PD immediately post CBT (t(11) = 3.59, p < .01), maintained at 3-month (t(8) = 2.83, p = .02) and 6-month (t(7) = 2.07, p = .04) follow-up. A reduction in caregiver burden (t(11) = 2.68, p = .03) was observed post intervention. Improvements in motor disability (t(11) = 2.41, p = .04) and cognitive scores (t(11) = -2.92, p = .01) were also observed post intervention and at follow-up. Tailored CBT can be used to treat anxiety in PD. This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that tailored CBT reduces anxiety in PD with persisting benefits, and lowers caregiver burden.

  5. Reduction of space charge effects and tests of larger samples of photomultipliers for the EDDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerstaff, K.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Cloth, P.; Dohrmann, F.; Diehl, O.; Dorner, G.; Drüke, V.; Engelhardt, H. J.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Filges, D.; Fritz, S.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Gross, A.; Gross-Hardt, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Lahr, U.; Langkau, R.; Lippert, G.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Maschuw, R.; Mertler, G.; Metsch, B.; Mosel, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Petry, H. R.; Prasuhn, D.; v. Przewoski, B.; Radtke, M.; Rohdjess, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schwandt, F.; Scobel, W.; Theis, D.; Weber, J.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.; EDDA Collaboration

    1993-10-01

    For the EDDA experiment at COSY, the response of the small, linear focused photomultipliers Hamamatsu R 1450 and R 1355 has been studied with fast light pulses generating yields up to 2 × 10 3 photoelectrons/cm 2 or peak currents of 24 mA. Linearity was obtained with a tapered bleeder chain at a tolerable loss of gain. The serial test of altogether 140 photomultipliers revealed the close correlation between single electron and amplitude resolution. The influence of the photoelectron statistics on this correlation is discussed.

  6. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  7. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, T C; Davies, M J; Farooqi, A M; Jarvis, J; Tringham, J R; Khunti, K

    2005-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; sd = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64% and 61% agreed that diabetes was caused by diet or hereditary factors, respectively. Only 155 individuals (12%) agreed that diabetes was serious, shortens life and causes complications. The results of this study replicate that of previous studies, indicating that screening for diabetes does not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety.

  8. Testing the effects of Delta 9-THC and D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, Floris; Denys, Damiaan; Kenemans, J. Leon; Grillon, Christian; van der Aart, Jasper; Baas, Johanna M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evidence implicates several neurotransmitter systems in the extinction of conditioned fear. These results are of great interest, because the reduction of acquired fear associations is critical in therapies for anxiety disorders. We tested whether findings with respect to the

  9. Testing the effects of Delta9-THC and D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, F.; Denys, D.; Kenemans, J.L.; Grillon, C.; van der Aart, J.; Baas, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evidence implicates several neurotransmitter systems in the extinction of conditioned fear. These results are of great interest, because the reduction of acquired fear associations is critical in therapies for anxiety disorders. We tested whether findings with respect to the

  10. Cognitive bias modification of interpretation in children with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Faith; Apetroaia, Adela; Clarke, Kiri; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Negative (or a lack of positive) interpretation of ambiguous social situations has been hypothesised to maintain social anxiety disorder in children, yet there is currently limited evidence to support this. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) provides a means to explore the causal influence of interpretation bias on social anxiety disorder, and has been associated with a reduction in social anxiety symptoms in adults. Seven to twelve year old children with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder completed CBM-I training, adapted from materials designed for socially anxious children in the community, or no training. Effects on interpretation bias and social anxiety were assessed. The adapted CBM-I training was not associated with significant changes in benign or negative interpretation. Unsurprisingly given the lack of successful interpretation training, there were no significant changes in child or parent reported social anxiety symptoms, clinician-rated severity or diagnoses and change in interpretation was not significantly associated with change in social anxiety. These findings contrast with some studies with community populations although it is possible that more intensive CBM-I training is required to fully test this hypothesis among clinical groups. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. IN SITU DESTRUCTION OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER USING CATALYTIC REDUCTIVE REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION IN A REACTIVE WELL: TESTING AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCES. (R825421)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A groundwater treatment technology based on catalytic reductive dehalogenation has been developed to efficiently destroy chlorinated hydrocarbons in situ using a reactive well approach. The treatment process utilizes dissolved H2 as an electron donor, in...

  12. Demonstration test results of organic materials' volumetric reduction using bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    To discover technologies that can be utilized for decontamination work and verify their effects, economic feasibility, safety, and other factors, the Ministry of the Environment launched the 'FY2011 Decontamination Technology Demonstrations Project' to publicly solicit decontamination technologies that would be verified in demonstration tests and adopted 22 candidates. JAEA was commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment to provide technical assistance related to these demonstrations. This paper describes the volume reduction due to bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning of organic materials in this report. The purpose of this study is that to evaluate a technique that can be used as biomass energy source, while performing volume reduction of contamination organic matter generated by decontamination. An important point of volume reduction technology of contaminated organic matter, is to evaluate the mass balance in the system. Then, confirming the mass balance of radioactive material and where to stay is important. The things that are common to all technologies, are ensuring that the radioactive cesium is not released as exhaust gas, etc.. In addition, it evaluates the cost balance and energy balance in order to understand the applicability to the decontamination of volume reduction technology. The radioactive cesium remains in the carbides when organic materials are carbonized, and radioactive cesium does not transfer to bio-ethanol when organic materials are processed for bio-ethanol production. While plant operating costs are greater if radioactive materials need to be treated, if income is expected by business such as power generation, depreciation may be calculated over approximately 15 years. (authors)

  13. Sequential Test Selection by Quantifying of the Reduction in Diagnostic Uncertainty for the Diagnosis of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to determine the presence or absence of a certain disease, multiple diagnostic tests may be necessary. Performance of these tests can be sequentially evaluated. Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the contribution of the test in each step, in reducing diagnostic uncertainty when multiple tests are sequentially used for the diagnosis. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study Methods: Radiographs of seventy-three patients of the Department of Dento-Maxillofacial Radiology of Hacettepe University Faculty of Dentistry were assessed. Panoramic (PAN, full mouth intraoral (FM, and bitewing (BW radiographs were used for the diagnosis of proximal caries in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions. Diagnostic performance of radiography was sequentially evaluated by using the reduction in diagnostic uncertainty. Results: FM provided maximum diagnostic information for ruling in potential in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions in the first step. FM provided more diagnostic information than BW radiographs for ruling in the mandibular region in the second step. In the mandibular region, BW radiographs provided more diagnostic information than FM for ruling out in the first step. Conclusion: The presented method in this study provides the clinicians with a solution for the decision of the sequential selection of diagnostic tests for the correct diagnosis of the presence or absence of a certain disease.

  14. The effect of CBT national examination policy in terms of senior high school students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics tests in DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of CBT and PBT national examination in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics national examination in DIY province, the influence of major in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics national examination in DIY Province, and the interaction between national examination and major. This research was descriptive explorative and the method was ex-post facto. The population was all of natural and social science high school students in grade XII in DIY province. The number of sample used was 654 students The results showed that there was influence of national examination in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing national examination. CBT and PBT national examination did not influence the cognitive readiness facing national examination, CBT and PBT national examination influence in national examinations in terms of students’ anxiety facing national examination. The average score of the students’ anxiety facing CBT national exam was greater than that of the students’ anxiety facing PBT national examination. There was no effect caused by differences in majoring in terms of cognitive readiness and national examination math anxiety; and there was no interaction between the different types of national examinations and majors.

  15. Loss reduction in axial-flow compressors through low-speed model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic procedure for reducing losses in axial-flow compressors is presented. In this procedure, a large, low-speed, aerodynamic model of a high-speed core compressor is designed and fabricated based on aerodynamic similarity principles. This model is then tested at low speed where high-loss regions associated with three-dimensional endwall boundary layers flow separation, leakage, and secondary flows can be located, detailed measurements made, and loss mechanisms determined with much greater accuracy and much lower cost and risk than is possible in small, high-speed compressors. Design modifications are made by using custom-tailored airfoils and vector diagrams, airfoil endbends, and modified wall geometries in the high-loss regions. The design improvements resulting in reduced loss or increased stall margin are then scaled to high speed. This paper describes the procedure and presents experimental results to show that in some cases endwall loss has been reduced by as much as 10 percent, flow separation has been reduced or eliminated, and stall margin has been substantially improved by using these techniques.

  16. Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawton, Cindy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Amanda M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  17. Dexterity Test Data Contribute To Reduction in Leaded Glovebox Glove Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Lawton, C.M.; Castro, A.M.; Costigan, S.A.; Schreiber, S.

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon R were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented. (authors)

  18. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  19. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  20. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...

  1. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation. The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

  2. The Relationship Between Procrastination, Learning Strategies and Statistics Anxiety Among Iranian College Students: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Results: Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. Conclusion: These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction. PMID:24644468

  3. The relationship between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety among Iranian college students: a canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction.

  4. Systematic Desensitization and the Reduction of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides detailed information on systematic desensitization, describing in detail the procedures of imaginal desensitization. Briefly describes variants of group, in vivo, massed, and self-administered desensitization. Outlines guidelines for appropriate selection and use of desensitization and presents sampling of research findings with diversity…

  5. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  6. Cognitive therapy for performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Chambless, Dianne L

    2004-08-01

    We present and illustrate the major components of cognitive therapy for performance anxiety, focusing on the performance fears of a client treated with a protocol designed for social phobia. The basic supposition of cognitive theory is that a client's thoughts and beliefs about situations maintain distressing feelings, such as anxiety. Changing these beliefs involves detection and disputation of anxiety-provoking thoughts, as well as testing of these thoughts through exposure to feared situations. Through a process of identifying existing beliefs about performance situations and challenging these beliefs, clients can gain a more realistic and less anxiety-producing perspective on performance tasks. Specific techniques, along with common difficulties and potential solutions, are presented in a detailed case study. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salutary effects of an attention bias modification mobile application on biobehavioral measures of stress and anxiety during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A; Denefrio, Samantha; Gelber, Shari

    2017-07-01

    Stress and anxiety during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, but there is an unmet need for low-barrier treatments that target stress and anxiety. One such treatment approach, attention bias modification training (ABMT), targets the anxiety-related threat bias, a disruption in attention to and neural processing of threat-related information. It remains unclear, however, whether reducing treatment barriers via mobile delivery of ABMT is effective and whether ABMT efficacy varies depending on individual differences in neural processing of threat. The present study tested whether mobile, gamified ABMT reduced prenatal threat bias, anxiety and stress, and whether ABMT efficacy varied with individual differences in neural responses to threat. Participants were 29 women in their 19th-29th week of pregnancy, randomized to four weeks of an ABMT or placebo training (PT) version of the mobile app using a double-blind design. Self-report of anxiety, depression, and stress were obtained; salivary cortisol was collected at home and in lab in response to stressors to index biological stress reactivity. Threat bias was measured using a computerized attention assay during which EEG was recorded to generate event-related potentials (ERPs) to threat cues. Results showed lower levels of lab cortisol following ABMT versus PT. Although the main effect of ABMT on subjective anxiety was not significant, the magnitude of cortisol reduction was correlated with lower levels of subjective anxiety and threat bias. Those receiving ABMT also reported less anxiety when showing smaller ERPs to threat (P1, P2) prior to training, but, conversely reported more anxiety when showing larger ERPs to threat. Use of gamified, mobile ABMT reduced biobehavioral indices of prenatal stress and anxiety, but effects on anxiety varied with individual differences in cortisol response and neurocognitive indices of early attention to threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Social Anxiety and Friendship Quality over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Shumaker, Erik A; Levinson, Cheri A; Thompson, Tess

    2015-01-01

    High social anxiety in adults is associated with self-report of impaired friendship quality, but not necessarily with impairment reported by friends. Further, prospective prediction of social anxiety and friendship quality over time has not been tested among adults. We therefore examined friendship quality and social anxiety prospectively in 126 young adults (67 primary participants and 59 friends, aged 17-22 years); the primary participants were screened to be extreme groups to increase power and relevance to clinical samples (i.e., they were recruited based on having very high or very low social interaction anxiety). The prospective relationships between friendship quality and social anxiety were then tested using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Friendship quality prospectively predicted social anxiety over time within each individual in the friendship, such that higher friendship quality at Time 1 predicted lower social anxiety approximately 6 months later at Time 2. Social anxiety did not predict friendship quality. Although the results support the view that social anxiety and friendship quality have an important causal relationship, the results run counter to the assumption that high social anxiety causes poor friendship quality. Interventions to increase friendship quality merit further consideration.

  9. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  10. Friction Reduction Tested for a Downsized Diesel Engine with Low-Viscosity Lubricants Including a Novel Polyalkylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Sander

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing pressure to reduce emissions, friction reduction is always an up-to-date topic in the automotive industry. Among the various possibilities to reduce mechanical friction, the usage of a low-viscosity lubricant in the engine is one of the most effective and most economic options. Therefore, lubricants of continuously lower viscosity are being developed and offered on the market that promise to reduce engine friction while avoiding deleterious mixed lubrication and wear. In this work, a 1.6 L downsized Diesel engine is used on a highly accurate engine friction test-rig to determine the potential for friction reduction using low viscosity lubricants under realistic operating conditions including high engine loads. In particular, two hydrocarbon-based lubricants, 0W30 and 0W20, are investigated as well as a novel experimental lubricant, which is based on a polyalkylene glycol base stock. Total engine friction is measured for all three lubricants, which show a general 5% advantage for the 0W20 in comparison to the 0W30 lubricant. The polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant, however, shows strongly reduced friction losses, which are about 25% smaller than for the 0W20 lubricant. As the 0W20 and the polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant have the same HTHS-viscosity , the findings contradict the common understanding that the HTHS-viscosity is the dominant driver related to the friction losses.

  11. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  12. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  13. Reduction in size of bottom-mounted reactivity control mechanism of research reactor for seismic qualification test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jongoh; Kim, Gyeongho; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jongin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A new research reactor employing bottom-mounted reactivity control mechanism (RCM) is under development and its safety function which is a shutdown of the reactor under earthquake events should be verified through a test. However, the real system is too heavy to be excited artificially, and hence the size of a test rig should be reduced somehow. As a preliminary study for development of a seismic test rig, this paper presents how to reduce the length of an extension shaft which is a main component of RCM while it maintains dynamic characteristics of the real system. In this paper, instead of reduction in length of the shaft, the inner/outer radius of the shaft and water gap size between the shaft and its guide tube will be modified in order to match its natural frequency and displacement due to seismic excitation to those of the real system. Furthermore, a proper mass which does not increase the stiffness will be inserted into the hollow shaft. Then, dynamic equation was derived for the beam model and an optimization problem was defined and solved. The result shows that the design modification is reasonable for description of dynamic characteristics of the real system under earthquake events.

  14. Reduction in size of bottom-mounted reactivity control mechanism of research reactor for seismic qualification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jongoh; Kim, Gyeongho; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jongin

    2013-01-01

    A new research reactor employing bottom-mounted reactivity control mechanism (RCM) is under development and its safety function which is a shutdown of the reactor under earthquake events should be verified through a test. However, the real system is too heavy to be excited artificially, and hence the size of a test rig should be reduced somehow. As a preliminary study for development of a seismic test rig, this paper presents how to reduce the length of an extension shaft which is a main component of RCM while it maintains dynamic characteristics of the real system. In this paper, instead of reduction in length of the shaft, the inner/outer radius of the shaft and water gap size between the shaft and its guide tube will be modified in order to match its natural frequency and displacement due to seismic excitation to those of the real system. Furthermore, a proper mass which does not increase the stiffness will be inserted into the hollow shaft. Then, dynamic equation was derived for the beam model and an optimization problem was defined and solved. The result shows that the design modification is reasonable for description of dynamic characteristics of the real system under earthquake events

  15. Description of Work for Drilling at the 183-DR Site in Support of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Edward C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-06-26

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Prior work suggests that a candidate for application of this approach is the 183-DR site at Hanford. However, deep vadose zone drilling is needed to verify the presence of a hexavalent chromium source and to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of contamination. This document presents the requirements associated with drilling one to two vadose zone boreholes at the 183-DR site to obtain this information. If hexavalent chromium is determined to be present at levels of at least 10 ppm in the vadose zone in one of the initial boreholes, this hole will be completed for gas injection and six additional gas extraction boreholes will be drilled and completed. This network will be used as a flowcell for performing a gas treatment test at the site.

  16. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. The impact of preload reduction with head-up tilt testing on longitudinal and transverse left ventricular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caroline; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-01-03

    Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function however the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change. A focused transthoracic echocardiogram was performed on 10 healthy male participants (23 ± 3 years,) in the supine position and following 1 min and 5 min of HUT testing. Raw temporal longitudinal ε (Ls) and transverse ε (Ts) values were exported and divided into 5% increments across the cardiac cycle and corresponding LV volumes were traced at each 5% increment. This provided simultaneous LV longitudinal and transverse ε and volume-loops (deformation-volume analysis - DVA). There was a leftward- shift of the ε -volume loop from supine to 1 min and 5 min of HUT, ptransverse thickening from supine to 1min, which was further augmented at 5min (p=0.018). Preload reduction occurs within 1 minute of HUT but does not further reduce at 5 minutes. This decline is associated with a decrease in longitudinal ε and concomitant increase in transverse ε. Consequently, augmented transverse relaxation appears to be an important factor in the maintenance of LV filling in the setting of reduced preload. DVA provides information on the relative contribution of mechanics to a change in LV volume and may have a role in the assessment of clinical populations. © 2018 The authors.

  18. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  19. Language Anxiety and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the literature on language learning anxiety in an effort to clarify the relationship between anxiety and second language learning. Suggests that anxiety is indeed a cause of poor language learning in some individuals and discusses possible sources of this anxiety. (Author/VWL)

  20. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  1. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  3. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  4. Critical neuropsychobiological analysis of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents confronted with snakes in polygonal arenas and complex labyrinths: a comparison to the elevated plus- and T-maze behavioral tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto C. Coimbra

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM and T-maze (ETM tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Methods: PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors’ research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents was examined. Results: The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Conclusions: Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

  5. Critical neuropsychobiological analysis of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents confronted with snakes in polygonal arenas and complex labyrinths: a comparison to the elevated plus- and T-maze behavioral tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Norberto C; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Bassi, Gabriel S; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Biagioni, Audrey F; Felippotti, Tatiana T; Elias-Filho, Daoud H; Mendes-Gomes, Joyce; Cysne-Coimbra, Jade P; Almada, Rafael C; Lobão-Soares, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined. The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

  6. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Devine, Amy; Hill, Francesca; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13). We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance. Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety). Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety. There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  7. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Carey

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance.We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13. We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance.Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety. Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety.There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  8. Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000

  9. Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  10. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  11. Pain and Anxiety in Rural Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Awaiting Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; McGillion, Michael; Clarke, Sean P; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas of Canada, people with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) can wait up to 32 hours for transfer for diagnostic cardiac catheterization (CATH). While awaiting CATH, it is critical that pain and anxiety management be optimal to preserve myocardial muscle and minimize the risk of further deterioration. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between clinical management, cardiac pain intensity, and state anxiety for rural ACS patients awaiting diagnostic CATH. In a prospective, descriptive-correlational repeated-measures design involving 121 ACS rural patients, we examined the associations of analgesic and nitroglycerin administration with cardiac pain intensity (numeric rating scale) and state anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory) and also nurses' pain knowledge and attitudes (Toronto Pain Management Inventory-ACS Version and Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain) using linear mixed models. The mean age of patients was 67.6 ± 13, 50% were men, and 60% had unstable angina and the remainder had non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction. During follow-up, cardiac pain intensity scores remained in the mild range from 1.1 ± 2.2 to 2.4 ± 2.7. State anxiety ranged from 44.0 ± 7.2 to 46.2 ± 6.6. Cumulative analgesic dose was associated with a reduction in cardiac pain by 1.0 points (numeric rating scale, 0-10) (t108 = -2.5; SE, -0.25; confidence interval, -0.45 to -0.06; P = .013). Analgesic administration was not associated with state anxiety. Over the course of follow-up, ACS patients reported consistently high anxiety scores. Whereas cardiac pain declines in most patients in the early hours after admission, many patients experience a persistent anxious state up to 8 hours later, which suggest that development and testing of protocols for anxiety reduction may be needed. More urgently, the development and examination of a treatment intervention, early on in the ACS trajectory, are warranted that targets pain and anxiety for those for

  12. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  13. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga improves cardiac autonomic control in patients with anxiety-depression disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Costantino, Giorgio; Sanlorenzo, Roberto; Doria, Stefania; Irtelli, Floriana; Mencacci, Claudio; Montano, Nicola

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that adjuvant therapies as exercise and breathing training are effective in improving cardiac autonomic control (CAC) in patients with affective spectrum disorders. However, the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) on autonomic function in this population is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that SKY training improves CAC and cardiorespiratory coupling in patients with anxiety and/or depression disorders. Forty-six patients with a diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression disorders (DSM-IV) were consecutively enrolled and divided in two groups: 1) conventional therapy (Control) and 2) conventional therapy associated with SKY (Treatment) for 15 days. Anxiety and depression levels were determined using quantitative questionnaires. For the assessment of CAC and cardiorespiratory coupling, cardiorespiratory traces were analyzed using monovariate and bivariate autoregressive spectral analysis, respectively. After 15-days, we observed a reduction of anxiety and depression levels only in Treatment group. Moreover, sympathetic modulation and CAC were significantly lower while parasympathetic modulation and cardiorespiratory coupling were significantly higher in the Treatment compared to Control group. Intensive breathing training using SKY approach improves anxiety and/or depressive disorders as well as CAC and cardiorespiratory coupling. These finding suggest that the SKY training may be a useful non-pharmacological intervention to improve symptoms and reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with anxiety/depression disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Internet Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…

  15. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  16. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  17. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Mitchell, John T.; Kimbrel, Azure D.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity. PMID:28966424

  18. Depression and Anxiety in Greek Male Veterans After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraiou, Aspa; Sarafis, Pavlos; Tsounis, Andreas; Bitsi, Georgia; Andreanides, Elias; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia; Malliarou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Retirement is a turning point in human life, resulting in changes to physical and mental health status. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that are related with depression and anxiety symptoms in Greek male veterans after retirement. A total of 502 veterans participated in a cross-sectional study. Beck Depression Inventory for depression assessment and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for anxiety assessment were used. The Ethics Committee of the Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly granted permission for conducting the research, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Questionnaires were filled in electronically using a platform that was made for the specific research. Mean values, standard deviations, Student t test, nonparametric cluster analysis of variance, Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients, and linear regression were conducted, using the Statistical Program for Social Services version 19.0. Severe depression was found in 3.8% of veterans with a mean score of 6.78, whereas 23.2% displayed mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression. Mean score of state anxiety was found to be 36.55 and of trait anxiety 33.60. Veterans who were discharged because of stressful working conditions, those who have a high body mass index, consume regularly alcohol, smoke and were not satisfied by changes in their everyday life after retirement had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety, although those who retired because of family problems had significantly more symptoms of depression. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that dissatisfaction related to lifestyle changes had statistically significant effect on symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stressful working conditions as a leading cause for retirement had statistically significant effect on depression. Finally, according to linear regression analyses results, those who were satisfied with their professional evolution had 1.80 times lower score in

  19. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, N.W.; Schuurmans, J.; Koot, H.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy

  20. A blunted anxiolytic like effect of curcumin against acute lead induced anxiety in rat: involvement of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benammi, Hind; El Hiba, Omar; Romane, Abderrahmane; Gamrani, Halima

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders sharing extreme or pathological anxiety states as the primary disturbance in mood or emotional tone, with increased fear and exaggerated acute stress responses. Medicinal plants are very variable, but some of them are used as a spice such as curcumin (Curcuma longa). Curcumin shows a wide range of pharmacological potentialities, however, little is known about its anxiolytic properties. The aim of our study was to assess the anti-anxiety potential of curcumin extract against experimental lead induced-anxiety in rats. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats intoxicated acutely with an intraperitoneal injection of Pb (25mg/kg B.W.) and/or concomitantly with administration of curcumin (30 mg/kg B.W.) for 3 days. Using immunohistochemistry and anxiety assessment tests (dark light box and elevated plus maze), we evaluated, respectively, the expression of serotonin (5HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the anxiety state in our animals. Our results showed, for the first time, a noticeable anxiolytic effect of curcumin against lead induced anxiety in rats and this may possibly result from modulation of central neuronal monoaminergic neurotransmission, especially serotonin, which has shown a significant reduction of the immunoreactivity within the DRN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.