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Sample records for tertiary teaching hospital

  1. vanishing bone disease in a tertiary teaching hospital in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not have pathologists or radiologists. We therefore present a case of Gorham's disease which was initially thought to be a malignant disease, diagnosed in Mulago. Teaching Hospital in Uganda. CASE REPORT. A 27 year-old male presented to the Orthopaedic out- patient clinic with a 5 month history of a painful mass.

  2. Culture of Safety among Nurses in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the culture of safety among nurses in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in King Khaled University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A random sample of 492 nurses was included in the survey using a pre-validated instrument, Safety Attitudes ...

  3. Effectiveness of mask ventilation performed by hospital doctors in an Irish tertiary referral teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mask ventilation performed by 112 doctors with clinical responsibilities at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. Participant doctors were asked to perform mask ventilation for three minutes on a Resusci Anne mannequin using a facemask and a two litre self inflating bag. The tidal volumes generated were quantified using a Laerdal skillmeter computer as grades 0-5, corresponding to 0, 334, 434, 561, 673 and > 800 ml respectively. The effectiveness of mask ventilation (i.e. the proportion of ventilation attempts which achieved a volume delivery of > 434 mls) was greater for anaesthetists [78.0 (29.5)%] than for non anaesthetists [54.6 (40.0)%] (P = 0.012). Doctors who had attended one or more resuscitation courses where no more effective at mask ventilation than their colleagues who had not undertaken such courses. It is likely that first responders to in-hospital cardiac arrests are commonly unable to perform adequate mask ventilation.

  4. Avoidable iatrogenic complications of urethral catheterization and inadequate intern training in a tertiary-care teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2009-10-01

    To examine the magnitude of potentially avoidable iatrogenic complications of male urethral catheterization (UC) within a tertiary-care supra-regional teaching hospital, and to evaluate risk factors and subjective feeling of interns in our institution on the adequacy of training on UC.

  5. Factors associated with hand hygiene compliance at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Benjamin; Jefferson, Julie; Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-11-01

    To identify factors associated with hand hygiene compliance during a multiyear period of intervention. Observational study. A 719-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Nursing, physician, technical, and support staff. Light-duty staff performed hand hygiene observations during the period July 2008-December 2012. Infection control implemented hospital-wide hand hygiene initiatives, including education modules; posters and table tents; feedback to units, medical directors and the executive board; and an increased number of automated alcohol hand hygiene product dispensers. There were 161,526 unique observations; overall compliance was 83%. Significant differences in compliance were observed between physician staff (78%) and support staff (69%) compared with nursing staff (84%). Pediatric units (84%) and intensive care units (84%) had higher compliance than did medical (82%) and surgical units (81%). These findings persisted in the controlled multivariate model for noncompliance. Additional factors found to be significant in the model included greater compliance when healthcare workers were leaving patient rooms, when the patient was under contact precautions, and during the evening shift. The overall rate of compliance increased from 60% in the first year of observation to a peak of 96% in the fourth year, and it decreased to 89% in the final year, with significant improvements occurring in each of the 4 professional categories. A multipronged hand hygiene initiative is effective in increasing compliance rates among all categories of hospital workers. We identified a variety of factors associated with increased compliance. Additionally, we note the importance of continuous interventions in maintaining high compliance rates.

  6. Utilization of potentially inappropriate medications in elderly patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

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    Binit N Jhaveri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly inpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for cases of elderly patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2010. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were collected. Prescriptions were assessed for the use of potentially inappropriate medications in geriatric patients by using American Geriatric Society Beer′s criteria (2012 and PRISCUS list (2010. Results: A total of 676 geriatric patients (52.12% females were admitted in the medicine ward. The average age of geriatric patients was 72.69 years. According to Beer′s criteria, at least one inappropriate medicine was prescribed in 590 (87.3% patients. Metoclopramide (54.3%, alprazolam (9%, diazepam (8%, digoxin > 0.125 mg/day (5%, and diclofenac (3.7% were the commonly used inappropriate medications. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in heart and renal failure patients was the commonly identified drug-disease interaction. According to PRISCUS list, at least one inappropriate medication was prescribed in 210 (31.06% patients. Conclusion: Use of inappropriate medicines is highly prevalent in elderly patients.

  7. Improving the postoperative handover process in the intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the postoperative handover process and immediate postoperative patient outcomes. The objective was to implement a postoperative handover protocol in the neurosurgical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. Postoperative handover is a multidisciplinary collaborative medical activity that involves information transfer, sequenced tasks and high-quality teamwork. Evidence suggests that a lack of a standardised postoperative handover protocol adversely influences care quality and potentially compromises patient safety. As there is a lack of such protocols in China, there is an identified need for improvement. This was a pretest/post-test study with follow-up after three months. A postoperative handover protocol that included a postoperative handover checklist, a standardised handover pathway and core team member involvement was developed based on research evidence and expert opinions and was then implemented and evaluated. Following the implementation of this protocol, improved teamwork was achieved, surgeons were more frequently present at bedside handovers, the rate of transferring key messages increased, the rate of ventilator weaning within the first six hours of neurosurgical intensive care unit admission increased, and the ventilation duration per patient decreased without any clinical incident occurring in the first 24 hours after neurosurgical intensive care unit admission. Following the implementation of a tailored standardised handover protocol, communication, teamwork and short-term patient outcomes were improved. This clinically based research highlights the need for policy makers and administrators to create unit-specific protocols for improving postoperative handovers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Postnatal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding using video - experience from a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Poorna, Rachel; Thulasingam, Mahalakshmy; Pournami, Femitha; Joy, Rojo

    2017-04-01

    Adequate antenatal counseling combined with postnatal lactation support is likely to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates. To assess the impact of a postnatal video based health education program in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among primiparous mothers. This interventional study was done in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India. Primiparous mothers in one postnatal ward (group A) received routine lactation counseling. A similar group of primiparous mothers in another postnatal ward (group B) were administered a video based health education program on exclusive breastfeeding in the local language Tamil in addition to the routine lactation counseling. The exclusive breastfeeding rates of these two groups of mothers were compared. Their knowledge and perceptions after intervention were also compared using a pretested questionnaire. Among 878 primiparous mothers, 94% fed colostrum and 43% initiated breastfeeding within one hour of delivery. Correct attachment was noted with 96% and 13% had lactation issues. Group B had marginally better exclusive breastfeeding rate at six months but not statistically significant. Mothers in group B had a statistically significant better knowledge score post-intervention compared to those in Group A. Use of gripe water was more in group A compared to group B. The video based health education program when combined with routine lactation counseling improved the knowledge regarding exclusive breastfeeding among postnatal primiparous mothers better than with routine lactation counseling alone. However, both interventions had similar effect on exclusive breastfeeding rate at six months.

  9. Drug-induced diseases (DIDs: An experience of a tertiary care teaching hospital from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Drug-induced diseases (DIDs are well known but least studied. Data on DIDs from India are not available. Hence, this retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR data collected form Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to evaluate profile of DIDs over two years, in a tertiary care teaching hospital from north India. Methods: The suspected ADRs in the form of DID were evaluated for drug and disease related variables and were classified in terms of causality. Results: DID rate was 38.80 per cent. Mean duration of developing DIDs was 26.05 ± 9.6 days; 25.16 per cent had more than one co-morbid condition. Geriatric population (53.99% accounted for maximum DIDs followed by adult (37.79% and paediatric (8.21%. Maximum events were probable (93.98% followed by possible (6.04%. All DIDs required intervention. Gastritis (7.43%, diarrhoea (5.92%, anaemia (4.79%, hypotension (2.77%, hepatic dysfunction (2.69%, hypertension (1.51%, myalgia (1.05%, and renal dysfunction (1.01% were some of the DIDs. Anti-tubercular treatment (ATT, anti- retroviral treatment (ART, ceftriaxone injection, steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobials and anticancer drugs were found as commonly offending drugs. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that DIDs are a significant health problem in our country, which need more attention.

  10. Puerperal sepsis, the leading cause of maternal deaths at a Tertiary University Teaching Hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonzi, Joseph; Tornes, Yarine Fajardo; Mukasa, Peter Kivunike; Salongo, Wasswa; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Sezalio, Masembe; Wouters, Kristien; Jacqueym, Yves; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-05

    Maternal mortality is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, the WHO- MDG 5 (aimed at reducing maternal mortality by 75 % between 1990 and 2015) has not been attained. The current maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda is 438 per 100,000 live births coming from 550 per 100,000 in 1990. This study sets out to find causes and predictors of maternal deaths in a tertiary University teaching Hospital in Uganda. The study was a retrospective unmatched case control study which was carried out at the maternity unit of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). The sample included pregnant women aged 15-49 years admitted to the Maternity unit between January 2011 and November 2014. Data from patient charts of 139 maternal deaths (cases) and 417 controls was collected using a standard audit/data extraction form. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess for the factors associated with maternal mortality. Direct causes of mortality accounted for 77.7 % while indirect causes contributed 22.3 %. The most frequent cause of maternal mortality was puerperal sepsis (30.9 %), followed by obstetric hemorrhage (21.6 %), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (14.4 %), abortion complications (10.8 %). Malaria was the commonest indirect cause of mortality accounting for 8.92 %. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the factors associated with maternal mortality were: primary or no education (OR 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.3); HIV positive sero-status (OR, 3.6; 95 % CI, 1.9-7.0); no antenatal care attendance (OR 3.6; 95 % CI, 1.8-7.0); rural dwellers (OR, 4.5; 95 % CI, 2.5-8.3); having been referred from another health facility (OR 5.0; 95 % CI, 2.9-10.0); delay to seek health care (delay-1) (OR 36.9; 95 % CI, 16.2-84.4). Most maternal deaths occur among mothers from rural areas, uneducated, HIV positive, unbooked mothers (lack of antenatal care), referred mothers in critical conditions and mothers delaying to seek health care. Puerperal sepsis is

  11. Prevalence rates of infection in intensive care units of a tertiary teaching hospital

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    Toufen Junior Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of infections among intensive care unit patients, the predominant infecting organisms, and their resistance patterns. To identify the related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection and mortality rates. DESIGN: A 1-day point-prevalence study. SETTING:A total of 19 intensive care units at the Hospital das Clínicas - University of São Paulo, School of Medicine (HC-FMUSP, a teaching and tertiary hospital, were eligible to participate in the study. PATIENTS: All patients over 16 years old occupying an intensive care unit bed over a 24-hour period. The 19 intensive care unit s provided 126 patient case reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of infection, antimicrobial use, microbiological isolates resistance patterns, potential related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection, and death rates. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were studied. Eighty-seven patients (69% received antimicrobials on the day of study, 72 (57% for treatment, and 15 (12% for prophylaxis. Community-acquired infection occurred in 15 patients (20.8%, non- intensive care unit nosocomial infection in 24 (33.3%, and intensive care unit-acquired infection in 22 patients (30.6%. Eleven patients (15.3% had no defined type. The most frequently reported infections were respiratory (58.5%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (33.8%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.4%, and Staphylococcus aureus (16.9%; [100% resistant to methicillin]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed 3 risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection: age > 60 years (p = 0.007, use of a nasogastric tube (p = 0.017, and postoperative status (p = 0.017. At the end of 4 weeks, overall mortality was 28.8%. Patients with infection had a mortality rate of 34.7%. There was no difference between mortality rates for infected and noninfected patients (p=0.088. CONCLUSION: The rate of nosocomial infection is high in intensive care

  12. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit

    2013-06-01

    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days. There were 299 operations

  13. Neuroinfection survey at a neurological ward in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital

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    Paulo E Marchiori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 + 13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.

  14. Profile of Under-Five Malnourished Children Admitted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Pune, India

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    Dhrubajyoti J Debnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a major public health problem in a developing country like India. Keeping this in mind a study was carried out to find the proportion of under-five children suffering from malnutrition among the under-five hospitalized children and to study co-morbid illnesses and epidemiological factors associated with malnutrition. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross sectional study carried out in the pediatric ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India. All under-five children suffering from malnutrition were studied over a period of 1 month. Results: Total number of under five children diagnosed as malnourished were 47 (39.83%. Moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was statistically significantly higher in a girl child. The proportion of moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was higher in low birth weight babies, children who were incompletely immunized for age. Faulty infant feeding practice was observed in 28 (59.6% children. Some of the co-morbid illnesses contributing to morbidity in the malnourished child were acute diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infection, anemia, and septicemia. Conclusion: A large proportion of hospitalized children were malnourished. Girl child suffered from moderate to severe forms of malnutrition as compared to male child and this was the only statistically significant association. This may be due to neglect of girl child.

  15. SELF - MEDICATION PRACTICES AMONG NON TEACHING STAFF IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

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    Padma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the prevalence and pattern of self - medication use. Material and methods: It was a cross - sectional questionnaire based survey conducted by the Department of Pharmacology at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital in September 2014. 200 non - teaching staff were included in this study. RESULTS: Headache, common cold, cough and fever were the most common conditions for which people have used OTC drugs. NSAIDs (37.93% were the most commonly used group of drugs for self - medication . Easy availability of OTC drugs was the most common cause for using self - medication . Pharmacists, showing previous prescription were the most common methods for procuring drugs by the people. CONCLUSION: This study shows that majority of the people had poor knowledge about appropriate self - medication . It emphasises the need for specific pharmacovigilance where the patient, pharmacist and physician must be encouraged to report any adverse events. Periodic studies on the knowledge, attitude and practice of self - medication may give insight into the changing pattern of drug use in societies

  16. STUDY ON KAP OF OCULAR COMPLICATIONS DUE TO DIABETES AMONG TYPE II DIABETICS VISITING A TERTIARY TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Jacob Koshy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. Diabetic patients are at risk of developing blindness from diabetic retinopathy. While occurrence of diabetic retinopathy cannot be prevented, its complications can be minimized. This requires awareness of the sight-threatening potential of diabetes and the need for regular eye examinations. Aim: To study the knowledge of ocular complications of diabetes, among type II diabetics visiting a tertiary level hospital. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods and Material: This was a questionnaire based study on 350 type II diabetics. All patients were interviewed by the same investigator. Statistical analysis used: The data was analysed using chi square test. Results: With increase in the duration of illness, the awareness about diabetic retinopathy is more. Even though the awareness of the disease increased with increasing duration of the disease, 51.4% of the diabetics did not know how diabetes can affect the eye, 49.7% of diabetics did not know if diabetic retinopathy can be treated and 67.4% had not heard of any treatment modality for diabetic retinopathy. This shows that lack of knowledge about the disease was significant. Conclusions: Prevention of non-communicable disease through increased awareness needs to be the thrust of the effort in resource poor contexts, where the treatment can be prohibitively costly. These measures would help to bring about more awareness and understanding about the disease among the patients and therefore prevent sight-threatening complications by timely intervention and management.

  17. Assessment of Stress and Depression among Geriatric Inpatients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Rural Area

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    Jayant D Deshpande

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Elderly people are at risk of mental health problems. Recognizing these problems is even a greater issue in a rural community where mental health resources may be lacking or inadequate. The purpose of this study was to assess stress and depression levels among patients above 60 years attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in in rural India. METHOD: A cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in rural India. Patients aged 60 years and above seeking help at the various in-patient departments of Medical College and those who agree with written inform consent were included in study. General health questionnaire (GHQ-12 used for assessment of stress. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30 was used as screening instruments to detect depression among the elderly. RESULT: A total of 229 elderly participated in the study out of which 138 (60.26% were males and 91 (39.73% were females. The mean age of the subjects was 67.68 +/- 6.61 years. The prevalence of mild depression was 25.32% and severe depression was 8.7%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of depression for different gender. Factors like lack of family support, chronic morbidity, lack of economic support, dependence on others for day to day activities and neoplastic conditions were significantly associated with depression. Depression according to marital status was found to be significantly higher in the elderly who were widowed. CONCLUSION: Physical morbidity, lack of family support, lack of economic support, dependence on others for day to day activities and neoplastic conditions seem to be associated with increased depressive symptoms in elderly population over 60 years of age [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 125-132

  18. COMMON ORGANISMS AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF E COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

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    Shanavas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI includes a spectrum of Asymptomatic Bacteruria (ABU, Cystitis, Prostitis and Pyelonephritis. Except in ABU, UTI is represented by symptomatic disease that warrants antimicrobial therapy. 1 Many of the studies have shown increasing antibiotic resistance to these agents. This study consists of a retrospective observational study of culture and sensitivity of 150 urinary samples, collected from patients who presented with symptoms of UTI, in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Northern Kerala, irrespective of their age and sex for a period of six months from June 2015 to November 2015. These results are then analyzed to find common organisms causing UTI in different age groups in either sex and their respective antibiotic resistance are noted. Out of 150 urinary samples 69.34% were sterile, while 30.66% were culture positive. Among the culture positive patients sex distribution was almost equal, with a slight female predominance, having a contribution of 54.35% females and 45.65% males. The most common organism was found to be E.coli, which contributed more than 50 per cent of total culture positivity (54.35%. Others include Staphylococci, Klebsiella Pnuemoniae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Candida Albicans etc. Collateral damage is an ecological adverse effect that resist the use of a highly efficacious drug to be considered as first line agent. Our study shows that drugs causing minimal collateral damages like Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin can be used as first line agent for treatment of UTI.

  19. A cross-sectional evaluation of computer literacy among medical students at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, T S; Dangayach, N S; Mehta, V S; Patankar, C V; Rege, N N

    2011-01-01

    Computer usage capabilities of medical students for introduction of computer-aided learning have not been adequately assessed. Cross-sectional study to evaluate computer literacy among medical students. Tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India. Participants were administered a 52-question questionnaire, designed to study their background, computer resources, computer usage, activities enhancing computer skills, and attitudes toward computer-aided learning (CAL). The data was classified on the basis of sex, native place, and year of medical school, and the computer resources were compared. The computer usage and attitudes toward computer-based learning were assessed on a five-point Likert scale, to calculate Computer usage score (CUS - maximum 55, minimum 11) and Attitude score (AS - maximum 60, minimum 12). The quartile distribution among the groups with respect to the CUS and AS was compared by chi-squared tests. The correlation between CUS and AS was then tested. Eight hundred and seventy-five students agreed to participate in the study and 832 completed the questionnaire. One hundred and twenty eight questionnaires were excluded and 704 were analyzed. Outstation students had significantly lesser computer resources as compared to local students (Pcomputer resources or inadequate training to use computers for learning. Providing additional resources would benefit the subset of outstation students with lesser computer resources. This weak correlation between the attitudes and practices of all students needs to be investigated. We believe that this gap can be bridged with a structured computer learning program.

  20. A survey of hand-washing facilities in the outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Mahesh; Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-03-02

    Inadequate hand-washing facilities have been reported as a barrier to hand washing. This study aimed to evaluate the availability and accessibility of hand-washing facilities and supplies of hand-washing agents in the outpatient department (OPD) complex of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A checklist containing 13 variables was prepared and all rooms of direct patient care in the OPD were assessed on one occasion.  Out of 211 rooms surveyed, a hand-washing facility was available in 209 (99.05%) rooms. Among these, 206 (98.56%) sinks were easily accessible and were placed close to users. Almost all sinks (99.5%) had hand-operated taps. Thirty-five (16.75%) sinks had no soap stand, and at 21 (10.5%) sinks, soap stands were found to be broken. At 14 (6.70%) sinks, soap bars were not available, while an antiseptic agent was available at 6 (2.87%) sinks. Four (1.91%) sinks had no towel stand, and at 8 (3.83%) sinks the towel stands were broken. At 43 (20.57%) sinks no towel was available, and at 23 (11%) sinks the towels provided were dirty. No sink drain was found to be blocked. No sink had hand-washing instructions displayed demonstrating the correct technique of hand washing. Physical facilities required for hand washing were adequate though not perfect. There is a need to shift from hand-operated taps to non-manual taps and from cloth towels to paper towels. Hospital managers in developing countries should continuously strive to provide the best possible hand-washing facilities within their financial resources.

  1. Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions about chronic kidney disease patients without dialysis therapy in a Chinese tertiary teaching hospital

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    Yang P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ping Yang, Na Chen, Rong-Rong Wang, Lu Li, Sai-Ping Jiang Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: With the increasing incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD, inappropriate use of medicine in CKD patients is an important issue, as it may cause adverse effects in patients and progression to chronic renal failure.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of inappropriate medicine use among CKD patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to December 1, 2014 in a Chinese teaching tertiary hospital. All medication prescriptions for CKD patients with serum creatinine level above normal value were enrolled. The prescriptions, including unreasonable dosage, contraindicated, and cautiously used medicines in CKD patients, were evaluated and the related medications were also analyzed and classified.Results: Two hundred and two patients were included, and a total of 1,733 lines of medication prescriptions were evaluated. The prevalence of inappropriate medication prescriptions in CKD patients was 15.18%, of which, unreasonable dosage (n=56, contraindicated (n=46, and cautiously used medicines (n=161 accounted for 3.23%, 2.65%, and 9.29%, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient implied that there was a significant correlation between the severity of renal insufficiency and frequency of inappropriate medication prescriptions (P=0.02, r=0.056. Among the inappropriate medication prescriptions, nutraceutical and electrolytes (n=65, 24.71%, cardiovascular drugs (n=61, 23.19%, and antimicrobial drugs (n=55, 20.91% represented the top three medicine categories in CKD patients.Conclusion: The study confirmed that inappropriate medication prescriptions were prevalent in CKD patients. Improving the quality of medication prescriptions in CKD patients is necessary. Keywords: inappropriateness of

  2. Validation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ankle joint and foot injuries are among the most common injuries seen at the accident and emergency (A&E) department of any hospital. Radiographs are ordered in over 95% of cases yet the prevalence of fractures is in the range of 15-20%. The Ottawa ankle rules have been designed to reduce the need for ...

  3. Medication errors in the adult emergency unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Addis Ababa

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    Gediwon Negash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Incidence and types of medication errors committed in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital Adult Emergency Unit were substantiated; moreover, necessary information on factors within the healthcare delivery system that predispose healthcare professionals to commit errors have been pointed, which should be addressed by healthcare professionals through multidisciplinary efforts and involvement of decision makers at national level.

  4. An analysis of serious adverse drug reactions at a tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Kinjal Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the various aspects of serious adverse drug reactions (serious ADRs such as clinical presentation, causality, severity, and preventability occurring in a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: All serious ADRs reported from January 2010 to May 2015 at ADR Monitoring Centre, Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, were selected as per the World health Organization -Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC criteria. A retrospective analysis was carried out for clinical presentation, causality (as per the WHO-UMC scale and Naranjo′s algorithm, severity (Hartwig and Siegel scale, and preventability (Schumock and Thornton criteria. Results: Out of 2977 ADRs reported, 375 were serious in nature. The most common clinical presentation involved was skin and appendageal disorders (71, 18.9%. The common causal drug group was antitubercular (129, 34.4% followed by antiretroviral (76, 20.3% agents. The criteria for the majority of serious ADRs were intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage (164, 43.7% followed by hospitalization (158, 42.1%. Majority of the serious ADRs were continuing (191, 50.9% at the time of reporting, few recovered (101, 26.9%, and two were fatal. The majority of serious ADRs were categorized as possible (182, 48.8% followed by probable (173, 46.1% in nature. Conclusion: Antitubercular, antiretroviral, and antimicrobial drugs were the most common causal drug groups for serious ADRs. This calls for robust ADR monitoring system and education of patients and prescribers for identification and effective management.

  5. Transfusion-related adverse reactions in pediatric and surgical patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghataliya, Kunal J; Kapadia, Jigar D; Desai, Mira K; Mehariya, K M; Rathod, G H; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Gajjar, M D

    2017-01-01

    Use of blood and its components is lifesaving. However, their use is often associated with adverse events. To analyze the pattern of adverse reactions associated with transfusion of blood and its components in pediatric and surgical patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients receiving transfusion of blood or its components in a randomly selected unit each from Departments of Pediatrics, including thalassemia OPD and surgery, were monitored intensively for a period of 6 months. Clinical course, management, outcome, causality, severity, seriousness, and preventability of observed transfusion reactions (TRs) were analyzed. A total of 411 pediatric and 433 surgical patients received 594 and 745 transfusions respectively during the study period. Of these, TRs were observed in 69 (11.6%) children and 63 (8.4%) surgical patients. Majority of reactions in children (48, 69.5%) and surgical patients (51, 80.9%) were acute, developing within 24 h of transfusion. TRs were observed with packed cells (13.2%), cryoprecipitate (10%), platelet concentrate (14.3%) and fresh frozen plasma (1.3%) in pediatric patients and with packed cells (7.2%), whole blood (25%) and platelet concentrate (62.5%) in surgical patients. Most common TRs included febrile nonhemolytic TRs (FNHTRs) and allergic reactions. Reactions were more frequent in patients with a previous history of transfusion or those receiving more than one transfusion and in children, when transfusion was initiated after 30 min of issue of blood component. Majority of reactions were managed with symptomatic treatment, were nonserious, moderately severe, probably preventable and probably associated with the suspect blood component in both populations. Transfusion reactions in children and surgical patients are commonly observed with cellular blood components. Majority of reactions are acute and nonserious. FNHTRs and allergic reactions are the most common transfusion reactions. Risk of transfusion reactions is more in

  6. A study of drug-drug interactions in cancer patients of a south Indian tertiary care teaching hospital

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    G Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Drug interactions in oncology are of particular importance owing to the narrow therapeutic index and the inherent toxicity of anticancer agents. Interactions with other medications can cause small change in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic agents that could significantly alter their safety and efficacy. Aim : To identify and document the potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions of patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Settings and Design : A tertiary care teaching hospital based prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients admitted in the medical oncology wards with different types of malignancies and receiving cancer chemotherapy during the period of June 2009 to November 2009 were included in the study. A detailed data collection was done in a specially designed proforma with ethical approval and consent of patients and their prescriptions were subjected to drug-drug interaction screening using Drug Interaction Fact Software Version-4 and standard references. Incidence of drug-drug interactions, their types, correlation between age, cancer type, number of drugs prescribed and incidence of drug interactions were analyzed. Statistical Analysis : Logistic regression analysis and Odds ratio were performed to identify the incidence of drug-drug interactions and their correlation with the factors above mentioned. Results : A total of 75 patients (32 males and 43 females; median age 56 years, age range 23-74 were enrolled in the study and their prescriptions were screened. 213 interactions were identified of which, 21 were major, 121 were moderate and 71 were minor. There were 13 (6.1% clinically significant interactions between anticancer drugs and 14 (6.5% drug-drug interactions between anticancer drugs and other drugs prescribed for co-morbidities. There was a positive correlation between number of drugs prescribed and drug interactions (P=0.011; OR 0.903. Conclusion : Though there was not any

  7. Assessment of sleep quality in post-graduate residents in a tertiary hospital and teaching institute

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    Vasantmeghna Srinivasa Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate subjective sleep quality, day-time sleepiness, prevalence of substance use, satisfaction with life among residents at our institute. To evaluate association of sleep qualitywith satisfaction with life and day-time sleepiness. To compare the findings between residents in clinical and para-clinical departments. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four residents filled questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic information and use of substance (s. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Satisfaction With Life scale (SWLS were also used. Association between sleep quality and sleepiness and satisfaction with life was evaluated. From the data collected, comparisons were made between the clinical and para-clinical department residents. Results: A significant number of residents belonging to the clinical faculty were poorsleepers; reported high levels of abnormal day-time sleepiness and less satisfaction with life compared to residents in para-clinical faculties. The differences in correlation between sleepiness and satisfaction with life with sleep quality among the two groups were not found to be significant. A larger percentage of clinical residents reported use of at least one substance during the residency period compared to the para-clinical residents. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is perceived greatly by the resident doctors in our public hospital, especially among clinical faculties. Interventions are thus necessary in order to ensure adequate sleep among them.

  8. Modified supine versus prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Surgical outcomes from a tertiary teaching hospital

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    Madeleine Nina Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The traditional prone positioning of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is associated with various anesthetic and logistic difficulties. We aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of PCNLs performed using our modified supine position with those performed in the standard prone position. Materials and Methods: A prospective group of 236 renal units (224 patients undergoing PCNL were included in this 2 site study: 160 were performed in the modified supine position were compared with 76 undergoing PCNL in the prone position. The outcomes of radiation dose, radiation time, stone free rate, body mass index (BMI, stone size, operative time, length of stay (LOS, in hospital and complications were compared. Chi-square and t-tests were used. Results: There were no significant differences in mean radiation time, radiation dose or stone size between the modified supine and prone groups. The supine group had a higher mean BMI (31 kg/m2 vs. 28 kg/m2 , p=0.03, shorter mean surgical time (93 minutes vs. 123 minutes, p<0.001, shorter mean LOS (2 days vs. 3 days, p=0.005 and higher stone free rate (70% vs. 50%, p=0.005. There were no differences in septic or bleeding complications but the prone group had a higher rate of overall complications. Conclusions: Modified supine PCNL has significantly lower operative time, shorter LOS and higher stone-free rate compared with prone in our series, while remaining a safe procedure.

  9. Pattern, outcome and challenges of neonatal surgical cases in a tertiary teaching hospital

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    Rosemary O Ugwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the major causes of neonatal deaths are birth asphyxia, prematurity and severe infections. Little attention is paid to deaths contributed by surgically amenable conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the burden and types of surgical problems encountered in the neonatal period, their outcome and challenges encountered. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The case notes of all neonates admitted into the newborn unit of our centre between April 2002 and March 2010 with surgical conditions were retrieved and the following information extracted: Sex, diagnosis, age at presentation, surgical intervention and outcome. Results: Out of 7,401 neonates admitted within the study period, 460 (6.2% had a surgical condition. Of the 1,657 babies that died within the same period, 196 (11.8% of them were those with surgical conditions. Congenital abnormalities accounted for 408 (88.7% of all the surgical cases. Intestinal obstruction 129 (31.6%, neural tube defects 101 (24.8% and anterior abdominal wall defect 58 (14.2% were the commonest congenital abnormalities, while fracture of the long bones following birth trauma 15 (28.8% and perforated NEC 14 (26.9% were the commonest acquired conditions. Surgery was performed in 166 (36.1% and 98 (59% had postoperative complications. Significantly, more deaths occurred in preterms than in term babies (P = 0.003 and in those delivered outside the hospital than in in-born babies (P = 0.02. The major cause of death was infection in 92 (47%. Conclusion: Neonatal surgical conditions contributed significantly to both neonatal admissions and overall neonatal mortality and thus highlights the need for investments in newborn surgical care in developing countries.

  10. A study of occupational health and safety measures in the Laundry Department of a private tertiary care teaching hospital, Bengaluru

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shashi Kumar; B. Ramakrishna Goud; Bobby Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Laundry Department plays an important role in preventing the spread of infection and continuously supplying clean linen to various departments in any hospital. Objectives of the Study: To identify existing practices and occupational safety and health (OSH) measures in the Laundry Department and to assess the use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among health care workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a private tertiary care teachin...

  11. Emerging trends of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care unit of a tertiary care public teaching hospital in Western India.

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    Bhadade, Rakesh; Harde, Minal; deSouza, Rosemarie; More, Ashwini; Bharmal, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia poses great challenge to an intensivist. Detailed information about hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is crucial for prevention and optimal management, thus improving quality Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Hence, we aimed to study the current trend of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU. It was a prospective observational cohort study, conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 18 months. We studied clinical profile and outcome of 120 adult patients who developed VAP/HAP during the study period. We also analyzed the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity, and resistance pattern in these patients. Out of 120 patients, 29 patients were HAP and 91 patients were VAP. Mortality was 60% (72), and development of VAP and requirement of mechanical ventilation showed significant association with mortality (P antibiotiques et le modèle de résistance chez ces patients. Résultats: Sur 120 patients, 29 patients étaient HAP et 91 patients étaient VAP. La mortalité était de 60% (72), et le développement du VAP et l'exigence de ventilation mécanique ont montré une association significative avec la mortalité (P antibiotique maximale a été observée chez la pipéracilline + tazobactam (58,8%), suivie de l'imipénème (49,5%) et du méropénem (41,8%), alors que la résistance antibiotique maximale a été observée à cefépime (95,1%), suivie de ceftazidime et de l'amoxicilline (91,2%) . la pneumonie nosocomiale a montré une incidence élevée (17,44%) et la mortalité (60%). Les organismes communs identifiés étaient S. aureus et K. pneumoniae. La résistance était élevée pour les antibiotiques couramment utilisés et une forte sensibilité aux antibiotiques pour la pipéracilline + le tazobactam et le carbapénème.

  12. Biomedical waste management: Study on the awareness and practice among healthcare workers in a tertiary teaching hospital

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    L Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient and the surrounding community. Awareness programmes on their proper handling and management to healthcare workers can prevent the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to assess the impact of training, audits and education/implementations from 2009 to 2012 on awareness and practice of biomedical waste segregation. Our study reveals focused training, strict supervision, daily surveillance, audits inspections, involvement of hospital administrators and regular appraisals are essential to optimise the segregation of biomedical waste.

  13. Incidence and diagnosis of Acute kidney injury in hospitalized adult patients: a retrospective observational study in a tertiary teaching Hospital in Southeast China.

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    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Wu, Buyun; Liu, Yun; Mao, Huijuan; Xing, Changying

    2017-06-24

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) places a heavy burden on the healthcare system in China and is usually misdiagnosed. However, there are limited studies that have described the epidemiology and diagnosis of AKI in China. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and diagnosis of AKI in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in southeast China. All adult patients hospitalized from October 1, 2013 to September 30, 2014 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were screened using the Lab Administration Network. AKI definition and staging were based on the KDIGO AKI criteria. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examination, clinical data, and clinical outcomes of AKI patients were recorded and analyzed. The incidence of AKI was 1.6% (1401/87196). The 30-day mortality was 35.3%. AKI stage 1, 2, 3 and RRT accounted for 38.0% (532/1401), 22.0% (309/1401), 40.0% (560/1401), and 16.3% (228/1401) of patients, respectively. The Renal, other Internal Medicine, Surgery, and ICU Departments accounted for 7.4%, 37.1%, 30.1%, and 25.4% of AKI patients, respectively. The timely diagnosis rate, delayed diagnosis rate, and missed diagnosis rate were 44% (616/1401), 3.3% (46/1401), and 52.7% (739/1401), respectively. Patients hospitalized in the Renal Department had the highest AKI diagnosis rate (89.3%, 88/103), while missed diagnosis rate of the surgical patients was as high as 75.1% (317/422). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that presence of tumors, higher serum albumin, and AKI stage 1 were associated with failure to timely diagnose AKI, whereas presence of chronic kidney disease, oliguria, higher blood urea nitrogen, and greater number of organ failures correlated with earlier diagnosis. AKI was characterized by a high incidence, high short-term mortality, and high missed diagnosis rate in hospitalized adult patients in our hospital. Interventions for improving diagnosis of AKI are urgently needed.

  14. Pattern of liver disease admissions in a Nigerian tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Its pattern varies in different geographical locations. This study aimed to determine the pattern and risk factors of liver disease in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Study Design: Retrospective Study Site: University of Nigeria teaching hospital ...

  15. Hospital-acquired infection rate in a tertiary care teaching hospital in China: a cross-sectional survey involving 2434 inpatients

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    Xiu-Bin Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A single-day hospital-acquired infections (HAIs point prevalence study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in China. The overall prevalence rate of HAIs was 3.53% (95% confidence interval 2.80–4.26% among 2434 inpatients surveyed. Respiratory system infection was the most common type of HAI (49.43%, followed by surgical site infection (22.99%. The pathogen detection results for 50 patients showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to account for 24.00% of isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.00% and Escherichia coli (14.00%.

  16. Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens in a public tertiary teaching hospital of Eastern India.

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    Dasgupta, Sugata; Das, Soumi; Chawan, Neeraj S; Hazra, Avijit

    2015-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality associated with nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a matter of serious concern today. To determine the incidence of nosocomial infections acquired in the ICU, their risk factors, the causative pathogens and the outcome in a tertiary care teaching hospital. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 12 bedded combined medical and surgical ICU of a medical college hospital. The study group comprised 242 patients admitted for more than 48 h in the ICU. Data were collected regarding severity of the illness, primary reason for ICU admission, presence of risk factors, presence of infection, infecting agent, length of ICU and hospital stay, and survival status and logistic regression analysis was done. The nosocomial infection rate was 11.98% (95% confidence interval 7.89-16.07%). Pneumonia was the most frequently detected infection (62.07%), followed by urinary tract infections and central venous catheter associated bloodstream infections. Prior antimicrobial therapy, urinary catheterization and length of ICU stay were found to be statistically significant risk factors associated with nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infection resulted in a statistically significant increase in length of ICU and hospital stay, but not in mortality. Nosocomial infections increase morbidity of hospitalized patients. These findings can be utilized for planning nosocomial infection surveillance program in our setting.

  17. Probiotics in the Prevention of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Pokhara: A Prospective Study

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    Sahisnuta Basnet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhoea is an undesirable side effect when treating common infections in children with antibiotics. Though studies have shown the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhoea, and there is no documented research in Nepal regarding this issue. Aim: The objective of this study was to observe the efficacy of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea when co-administered with an oral antibiotic in children with respiratory tract infections who attended the outpatient department in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study was conducted from January 2016 to October 2016 in which 174 children attending the outpatient department in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal and requiring antibiotics for respiratory tract infection were enrolled using convenient sampling method. Eighty-seven of the subjects received standard antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin and clavulanate (control group and another 87 children received the same antibiotic which was prescribed along with probiotics (probiotic group. Result: Out of the 174 eligible children enrolled in the study, diarrhoea occurred in 11/87 (12.6% of the patients in the control group and in 1/87 (1.1% patient in the probiotic group {relative risk, 12.45, 95% CI(1.57,98.67}. The co-administration of probiotic with amoxicillin and clavulanate significantly decreased the incidence of diarrhoea in the probiotic group (p= 0.003. Conclusion: Co-administration of probiotics in children receiving oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid reduces the risk of diarrhoea.

  18. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Sikkim

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    Supratim Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR reporting is paramount to the success of the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. There has however been minimal and sporadic voluntary reporting of ADR's at the ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC Gangtok, Sikkim. Knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness of health professionals are determinants of reporting practices. This questionnaire study aims at evaluating these indicators in the teaching hospital attached to the Medical Institute and find out methods to improve existing reporting practices. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational study carried out in the Medical, Surgical and Pathology Departments of the Teaching Hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim over a period of 2 months. The questionnaires were filled by the respondents and returned back to us within the next 24 h. Data obtained from filled questionnaires were thereby analyzed. Results: The overall correct response rate to the knowledge-based questions was 56.3%. While 97% of respondents were of the view that ADR reporting was necessary, 35% of the respondents felt that the difficulty in deciding the causality of an ADR discouraged them from reporting. 79% of the respondents were not aware of the presence of an AMC affiliated to the hospital, and 87% of the respondents admitted that they were not sending filled ADR forms to the AMC. Conclusions: The study indicates that the respondents have an average knowledge and positive attitude toward ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. There is however a lack of awareness and poor ADR reporting practices. Efforts are required to enhance awareness and attitude toward pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting.

  19. Evaluation Of Prescription Pattern And Medication Adherence Of Antihypertensive Drugs In Stage 1 Essential Hypertensive Patients At Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Central India.

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    Chetan S. Urade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines.  58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed.  Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively.  No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication. 

  20. Colonoscopy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria | Ismaila | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Results of colonoscopies performed by surgeons in the endoscopic unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical centre in Plateau State, Nigeria were retrospectively analysed for a period of 6 months. The diagnostic yield and findings were analyzed. Results: A total of 43 colonoscopies were ...

  1. Comparison of Nulliparas Undergoing Cesarean Section in First and Second Stages of Labour: A Prospective Study in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

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    Ayhan Sucak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We performed a prospective observational audit study to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes of the primary cesarean sections performed in first stage versus second stage of labour. Methods. One thousand three hundred and eighty-nine nullipara women who had undergone cesarean section in a tertiary teaching hospital between February 1, 2009 and January 31, 2010 were included in the study. Primary maternal outcomes of interest were uterine atonia, transfusion requirement, urinary system injury, requirement for hysterectomy, and duration of hospital stay. Results. A total of 1389 women underwent cesarean section at this 12 month time period. Of these 1389 cesarean sections, 1271 were in the first stage of the labour and 171 were in the second stage of the labour. Urinary injuries, transfusion requirement, and uterine atonia hysterectomy were significantly more frequent in women who underwent cesarean section in the second stage of the labour compared to women undergoing cesarean section in the first stage of the labour. Conclusion. Cesarean section in the second stage of the labour is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidities. Special attention is required to the patients undergoing cesarean section in the second stage of the labour.

  2. Clinical Profile of Suspected and Confirmed H1N1 Influenza Infection in Patients admitted at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

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    Basavaraju Jayadeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical profile and outcomes of adult patients screened and diagnosed with H1N1 influenza infection at a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: This retrospective  study was conducted on all adult patients suspected of H1N1 influenza admitted at a teaching hospital during the epidemic period of January-March 2015. Patients were screened and classified into three categories of A, B, and C based on international guidelines. Home confinement was recommended for patients in category A, and subjects in category B received treatment with Oseltamivir capsules. In addition, patients in category C received inpatient treatment with oseltamivir capsules. Results: In total, 695 patients were screened for H1N1 influenza infection during the epidemic, out of whom 380 patients (54.6% were in category A, 264 (37.9% were in category B, and 51 (7.3% were in category C. Throat swabs were collected and examined for 192 ( 27.6% patients, and 59 ( 8.4% cases were positive for H1N1 infection. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, close vigilance over the symptoms of patients infected with H1N1 influenza is more important than treatment and screening of suspicious cases during the epidemics of this infection. This is a retrospective cross sectional study. Hence, there were no comparative controls. The limitation of this study is,  thus the lack of control.

  3. A retrospective study of the indications and outcomes of capsular tension ring insertion during cataract surgery at a tertiary teaching hospital

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    Wang BZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bob Z Wang, Elsie Chan, Rasik B Vajpayee The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Background: The purpose was to determine preoperative indications, intraoperative procedures, and outcomes of capsular tension ring (CTR insertion during cataract surgery. Methods: A review of all patients undergoing cataract surgery with insertion of a CTR between July 2000 and June 2010 was conducted at The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Victoria, Australia. Information relating to each patient's demographic details, preoperative assessment, surgical procedure, and postoperative assessment were obtained. Results: Eighty-four eyes of 82 patients were included in this study. The main indications for CTR insertion were previous trauma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and mature cataracts. Twenty-one eyes (25.0% did not have any obvious preoperative indication. A posterior capsule tear was the most common intraoperative complication (3.6%. An intraocular lens was successfully implanted in the bag in 72 eyes (85.7%. Postoperatively, the most common complications were a decentered intraocular lens (8.3% and persistent corneal edema (6.0%. Overall, 61 eyes (72.6% had better postoperative visual acuity compared with preoperative acuity, with 67 patients (79.8% achieving vision of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: For the majority of cases, CTR use in complex cataract surgeries is associated with improved postoperative outcomes. CTR implantation is most commonly required in patients with known risk factors for zonular instability. Keywords: capsular tension ring, cataract extraction, indications, outcomes

  4. Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai.

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    Shidhaye, Pallavi R; Giri, Purushottam A; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N; Shidhaye, Rahul R

    2012-01-01

    Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up.

  5. Epidemiology of injuries and outcomes among trauma patients receiving prehospital care at a tertiary teaching hospital in Kigali, Rwanda

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    Gabin Mbanjumucyo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: A linked prehospital and hospital database provided critical epidemiological information describing trauma patients in a low-resource setting. Blunt trauma from motor vehicle collisions involving young males constituted the majority of traumatic injury. Among this cohort, hospital resource utilisation was high as was mortality. This data can help guide the implementation of interventions to improve trauma care in the Rwandan setting.

  6. Adverse cutaneous drug reactions--a clinico-demographic study in a tertiary care teaching hospital of the Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayoom, Seema; Bisati, Shazia; Manzoor, Sheikh; Sameem, Farah; Khan, Kafeel

    2015-04-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs) are caused by a wide variety of agents. The aim was to study the incidence and clinico-demographic profile of ACDRs to identify any potential risk factors and compare the results with other studies. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of one year from October 2012 to October 2013 in the outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care teaching hospital of the Kashmir valley in India and various ACDRs were recorded. The incidence of ACDRs was 0.16%. The mean age of patients was 39.36 ± 16.77 years. The male: female ratio was 0.97:1. The most frequently reported cutaneous reactions were with antimicrobials (57.33%) followed by NSAIDs (21.33%) and antiepileptic drugs (17.33%). Less common groups involved were steroids, antipsychotics and bisphosphonates (1.33% each). Fixed drug eruptions (FDEs) were the commonest (45.33%) followed by maculopapular (17.33%), photoallergic (8%), erythema multiforme (6.66%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (5.33%) and lichenoid eruptions (4%). Less common patterns were urticaria, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome) and acneform eruptions (2.66% each) followed by angioedema, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), exfoliative dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis (1.33% each). Physicians should have adequate knowledge of adverse drug reactions, especially of newer drugs which are increasing every year in order to minimize such events.

  7. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi.

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    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the "three criteria of a safe injection" and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention.

  8. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS AND ITS VACCINE AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS OF TERTIARY TEACHING UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghupathi Mahitha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical cancer in women can be effectively prevented by HPV vaccine. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists have a role in creating awareness about this vaccine to public. In this context, it was decided to study awareness level about HPV among pharmacy students. The aim of the study is to study the knowledge and attitude towards human papilloma virus and it’s vaccine among pharmacy students of tertiary teaching university hospital in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross sectional, questionnaire-based study among pharmacy students. RESULTS 229 pharmacy students participated in the study. The mean total knowledge score among participants was 2.69 (SD=2.260 out of the possible maximum of 11 and the mean total attitude score was 2.67 (SD=2.437 out of the possible maximum of 10. Lack of knowledge about vaccine was the main reason for not taking the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccines improves the attitude towards it (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION There is a need to design education program for pharmacy students to increase awareness about HPV, which in turn will increase the awareness among public positively.

  9. A study of psoriasis and quality of life in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kottayam, Kerala

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    V D Manjula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease which has an impact on health-related quality of life (QoL. The psoriasis disability index (PDI is a simple 15-item questionnaire which is used to assess overall psoriasis disability. Objectives: (1 To assess the health-related QoL among patients with psoriasis, attending dermatology OPD of Medical College Hospital, Kottayam. (2 To find out the association of QoL with age and gender. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive case series study conducted in Dermatology OPD of Medical College Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala. Psoriasis patients attending the Dermatology OPD of Medical College Hospital for 2 months were assessed. Results: Out of the total 32 patients, 56.2% were males, whose mean age was 45; 72% were married, 47% had education above plus two and were employed. Also, 34% had income above Rs. 3000 per month. Among the PDI subsets, daily activities were affected the most (90.6%, followed by work (84.4%, leisure activities (71.9%, problems with treatment (68.7% and the least affected was personal relations (62.5%. Overall PDI score (median 14.5, interquartile range 4.5-22 showed that the QoL was affected in 75% of which 9.4% were mild (score 18. There was no association between the total PDI score and age or gender. Conclusion: QoL was affected in 75% of psoriasis patients. There was no association between QoL and age or gender.

  10. A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar

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    AlSaad D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Doua AlSaad,1 Samah ElSalem,1 Palli Valapila Abdulrouf,1 Binny Thomas,1,2 Tayseer Alsaad,3 Afif Ahmed,1 Moza AlHail4 1Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, 4Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians.Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety.Method: A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women’s Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken.Results: Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6% was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1% and neonatal death (12.9%. The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6. Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting

  11. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  12. Study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue in the urban and rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India

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    Samir Singru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dengue is the most common disease among all the arthropod-borne viral diseases. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for dengue. The sole method of prevention and control is the knowledge attitude and practices (KAP for the same. Although, dengue is considered an urban- and semi-urban disease, in recent years, due to water storage practices and large-scale development activities in rural areas, dengue has become endemic in rural areas of India as well. Aims: To assess the KAP regarding dengue. Settings and Design: Urban and rural field practice area of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding dengue. Stratified random sampling technique was used. A modified B. G. Prasad criterion was used for socio-economic classification. Statistical Analysis Used: KAP represented as proportion (%. Chi-square test was used as a test of significance. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 68.4% in urban areas and 40.4% in rural area knew that dengue is transmitted by mosquito. 62.6% in urban areas and 48% in rural areas respectively stated fever as a symptom of dengue. The use of anti-adult mosquito measures was 48.05% and 51.42% in urban and rural area respectively Conclusions: There is a definite need to increase the information education communication activities for dengue in the study area.

  13. Is This a Drug?" Answers From Medical Students in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ananya; Kundu, Tania Sur; Sengupta, Parama; Ghosh, Arijit; Das, Nina

    2016-08-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) defines what is drug and what is not. Second year MBBS students learn the principles of Pharmacology that they use in their later clinical practice life. The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of preparations they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a brand name or a commercial preparation of a drug would influence their decision in the categorization of the preparation as a 'drug' or 'not a drug'. To assess the knowledge of medical students, if a substance or product is a drug. We surveyed 2 concurrent years of medical students to classify 60 candidate medicinal preparations into "drug" and "not-drug" from a validated questionnaire. The candidate preparations were named either in generic or in their commercially available forms and they were all essential drugs as per WHO definition. The two groups of students, A and B, included 192 and 215 students respectively. Demographically there was little difference in the two groups. Agents like Aspirin, Paracetamol, Amphetamine, Salbutamol, Atropine, Dextromethorphan, Codeine, Diazepam, Ciprofloxacin ear drops, Levonorgestrol, Neosporin eye ointment, Furosemide, Metronidazole, Penicillin, Sorbitrate, Lignocaine, Methotrexate, Penicillin, Zolpidem and Thalidomide received almost unanimous votes as drugs. Arsenic trioxide, Fentanyl and petroleum jelly were considered to be "non-drugs" by most participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in their responses. Some major lacunae were noted in the knowledge of the participating students despite book teaching on the definition of a drug. Drugs used for prophylaxis and those used in physiological conditions or topically, were often missed. These gaps need to be filled by more emphasis on definition of a drug and its clinical applicability based on example and case based studies.

  14. HIV test counselling at a tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS training course presented either by the medical school or an AIDS training centre. In view of the perceived lack of training in general counselling, this would perhaps be most effective as part of a formal general counselling programme for all undergraduates. In a tertiary hospital one has the added benefit of a large.

  15. A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaad, Doua; ElSalem, Samah; Abdulrouf, Palli Valapila; Thomas, Binny; Alsaad, Tayseer; Ahmed, Afif; AlHail, Moza

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE) studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians. The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety. A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women's Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken. Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6%) was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1%) and neonatal death (12.9%). The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6). Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting hypertensive disorder and 58.3% of them were diagnosed as uncontrolled hypertension. The current DUE study found that cabergoline was mainly used to inhibit lactation for patients with stillbirth, abortion, and neonatal death. In mothers who use medications for other medical conditions, benefits and risks of breastfeeding should be carefully balanced before prescribing cabergoline. Current prescribing pattern can be further enhanced through informing health

  16. Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposures to HIV and Hepatitis B: Our Experience of Thirteen Years at a Rural Based Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Sanket Pranjivan; Leuva, Alpa C; Mannari, Jyoti G

    2016-08-01

    Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, which can be minimized by following guidelines for standard precautions as well as taking Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) measures. There are limited studies from India documenting details of PEP for HIV and Hepatitis B. We aimed to study the efficacy, tolerance, details of PEP regimens used among HCWs exposed to HIV and Hepatitis B as well as vaccination status and (Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen) anti-HBS Antibody Titre Level Among HCWs exposed Hepatitis B. This retrospective observational study was done at a rural based tertiary care teaching centre of Western India. Hospital Infection Control Committee of our institute was maintaining a record of all reported incidences of HIV and Hepatitis B positive exposures since 2003. We analysed reported incidences of exposures to HIV and Hepatitis B positive source occurred during the period of January 2003 to December 2015. Of the total 96 exposures, 48 were to HIV and 48 were to Hepatitis B. Of the 48 exposures to HIV, PEP was warranted in 39. Of 39 exposures, only 14 (35.9%) received PEP within two hours. Basic regimen was used in 22 and expanded in 17 exposures. Only 12 (31.6%) reported side effects to PEP. Zidovudine based regimen was less well tolerated. All side effects were reported by female HCWs only. Of the 48 exposed to Hepatitis B, 33 (68.6%) were completely vaccinated. Out of 33, titre result was not available for eight. Three (12.0%) of remaining 25 were having low titre ( 100mIU/ml. Of the 48, in 17 (35.4%) incidences no action was required; 23 (47.9%) were managed with booster dose of Hepatitis B vaccine and eight (16.7%) with Hepatitis B immunoglobulin. No cases of sero-conversion was reported either for HIV or Hepatitis B from available data. Inspite of high incidences of exposures to HIV or Hepatitis B positive source, good efficacy of PEP was observed with no sero-conversion. PEP for HIV was

  17. Impact of human milk banking on neonatal mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and exclusive breastfeeding - experience from a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Banupriya, N; Poorna, Rachel; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to study the impact of a Human Milk Bank (HMB) on neonatal mortality, incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and rate of exclusive breastfeeding. This pre-post intervention study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Data regarding neonatal mortality, incidence of NEC, and exclusive breastfeeding rates were collected for a period of 6 months before and after establishing a modern HMB and compared. The number of deliveries, live births, and incidence of preterm and VLBW neonates during pre- and post-HMB periods were comparable. Neonatal mortality was 11.32/1000 live births pre-HMB compared with 10.77/1000 live births post HMB. The incidence of NEC was 1.26% of live births pre-HMB compared with 1.07% post-HMB. Exclusive breastfeeding rate pre-HMB was 34% compared with 74% post HMB (p Human milk banking significantly improved exclusive breastfeeding rate in the population studied.

  18. MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT . Background: Incisional hernias (IH) represent a breakdown or loss of continuity of a fascial closure. They are thus unique as the only external wall hernias that are iatrogenic in aetiology. Incisional hernias are ...

  19. in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the University of llorin. Teaching Hospital (U1TH) llorin between May and June 2002. The Hospital is a second generation Teaching Hospital es- tablished on 2nd May, 1980. Currently, the hospital has a total bed space of 515 distributed as follows: i. General Hospital Wing, llorin with 304 beds;.

  20. Endourology in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital – current level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endourology is rapidly advancing in developed countries. However, the level of practice in public tertiary hospitals in developing countries is abysmally low. Objective: To review the current practice of endourology in a Nigerian public tertiary hospital and discuss the challenges faced during the study period.

  1. Optimal medical therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome: 18-month follow-up results at a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea

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    Byeon HJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hee Ja Byeon,1,* Young-Mo Yang,2,* Eun Joo Choi21Department of Pharmacy, Chosun University Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a fatal cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque erosion or rupture and formation of coronary thrombus. The latest guidelines for ACS recommend the combined drug regimen, comprising aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, and statin, at discharge after ACS treatment to reduce recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine prescription patterns of secondary prevention drugs in Korean patients with ACS after hospital discharge, to access the appropriateness of secondary prevention drug therapy for ACS, and to evaluate whether to persistently use discharge medications for 18 months.Methods: This study was retrospectively conducted with the patients who were discharged from the tertiary hospital, located in South Korea, after ACS treatment between September 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected through electronic medical record.Results: Among 3,676 patients during the study period, 494 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The regimen of aspirin + clopidogrel + β-blocker + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker + statin was prescribed to 374 (75.71% patients with ACS at discharge. Specifically, this regimen was used in 177 (69.69% unstable angina patients, 44 (70.97% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, and 153 (85.96% ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared with the number of ACS patients with all five guideline-recommended drugs at discharge, the number of ACS patients using them 12 (n=169, 34.21% and 18 (n=105, 21.26% months after discharge tended to be gradually

  2. Prescription patterns and appropriateness of antibiotics in the management of cough/cold and diarrhea in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Akram Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63% and cough and cold (56.4%. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P< 0.05. Cephalosporins (46.2% and penicillins (39.9% were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively. The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05. Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5% in comparison to cough/cold (85% or diarrhea (75% alone. Conclusions: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling

  3. Obstetric intensive care admissions at a tertiary hospital in Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the characteristics of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods. Hospital files of all obstetric patients admitted to the Pietersburg provincial referral hospital ICU from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were ...

  4. [Imported infectious diseases in tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius Gordillo, N; Martín Nalda, A; Otero Romero, S; Soler-Palacín, P; Sulleiro Igual, E; Espiau Guarner, M; Fernández-Polo, A; Figueras Nadal, C

    2014-08-01

    An Imported Diseases Clinic was created in the hospital in 2009. The aim of this study was to asses its contribution in terms of capacity, quality of care and teaching offered. A retrospective study was conducted from 2009 to 2011, analyzing: A) development of knowledge by means of protocols and publications created, and subject taught; B) capacity and quality of care offered by the analysis of patients seen, the adequacy of the protocols and accessibility. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1: immigrant patient screening, group 2: patient consultation after tropical or sub-tropical travel, group 3: screening of vertical transmission of imported disease. Six protocols have been developed and disseminated on the unit website, as well as 5 scientific publications. A total of 316 patients were evaluated: 191 included in group 1 (29 Adopted and 162 Immigrants), 57 in group 2 (94.7% Visiting Friends and Relatives and 81.5% without a pre-travel consultation). They consulted due to, gastrointestinal symptoms (52.6%) and fever (43.8%), with 68 included in group 3 at risk of imported disease by vertical transmission (62 Trypanosoma cruzi, 1 Human T Lymphotropic Virus and 5 Plasmodium spp.). The overall adherence to the protocols was about 77.1%. Infectious Diseases Units must adapt to the reality of the population and be flexible in its structure. Periodic assessment of the quality of care offered is essential, as well as an evaluation on the need for additional studies. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns and Outcomes of Diabetic Admissions in a Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally. It also constitutes one of the common indications for admission into the medical wards of most hospitals. This study is aimed at examining diabetes –related admission and outcomes in a tertiary hospital located in a semi –urban community in Delta state, ...

  6. Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital: a risk factor and presentation analysis. ... Methodology: Information on patients managed at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), Durban, South Africa, between 1 October 2013 and 31 December 2014 was retrieved from a prospective ...

  7. Spectrum of Glaucoma Presentation in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    of African descent to be four times greater than in. Spectrum of Glaucoma Presentation in a. Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Olusola Olawoye1,2, Sarimiye Tarella1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine,. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

  8. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ST787 in clinical isolates from blood in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Hu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the microbiological characteristics of CRAB ST787, which carried high genetic resistance to carbapenem, but remained susceptible to colistin. CRAB ST787 was the predominant clone in our hospital in the study period.

  9. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia over a two-year period in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Pik San; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Idris, Nuryana; Sam, I-Ching; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Sulaiman, Helmi; Thong, Kwai Lin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela

    2017-04-13

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established pathogen that causes hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The prevalence rate of MRSA infections were reported to be the highest in Asia. As there is limited epidemiological study being done in Malaysia, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia. Two hundred and nine MRSA strains from year 2011 to 2012 were collected from a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. The strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Patient's demographic and clinical data were collected and correlated with molecular data by statistical analysis. Male gender and patient >50 years of age (p MRSA acquisition. Fifty-nine percent of MRSA strains were HA-MRSA that carried SCCmec type II, III, IV and V while 31% were CA-MRSA strains with SCCmec III, IV and V. The prevalence of PVL gene among 2011 MRSA strains was 5.3% and no PVL gene was detected in 2012 MRSA strains. All of the strains were sensitive to vancomycin. However, vancomycin MIC creep phenomenon was demonstrated by the increased number of MRSA strains with MIC ≥1.5 μg/mL (p = 0.008) between 2011 and 2012. Skin disease (p = 0.034) and SCCmec type III (p = 0.0001) were found to be significantly associated with high vancomycin MIC. Forty-four percent of MRSA strains from blood, were further subtyped by MLST and PFGE. Most of the bacteraemia cases were primary bacteraemia and the common comorbidities were diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. The predominant pulsotype was pulsotype C exhibited by SCCmec III-ST239. This is a first study in Malaysia that reported the occurrence of MRSA clones such as SCCmec V-ST5, untypeable-ST508, SCCmec IV-ST1

  10. Assessment and evaluation efficacy of a clinical pharmacist-led inpatient warfarin knowledge education program and follow-up at a Chinese tertiary referral teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chinese patients on warfarin therapy should benefit from periodic educational efforts reinforcing key medication safety information. Patient education is not a once-off procedure. A complete patient education program run by a clinical pharmacist in a Cardio-thoracic ward can considerably improve and enhance to reduce the hospital stays and significantly enlighten the role of the patient education in adherence to therapy.

  11. Tertiary Educational Institutions for Teaching, Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Sikiru A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of teaching and research in developing human resources to facilitate the development of tertiary education in the nation. It discusses the challenges and the roles of research in higher education. The author argues that the combination of content and pedagogical knowledge could help to develop human resources for…

  12. Hypospadias Surgery at Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to review experience in the management of hypospadias at a tertiary Paediatric Surgery Centre,Accra,Ghana. This was a prospective study of patientsmanaged for hypospadias at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, between 1st January 2004 and 30th September 2005.

  13. Comparison of the Results of Cox Proportional Hazards Model and Parametric Models in the Study of Length of Stay in A Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zare

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is a set of methods used for analysis of the data which exist until the occurrence of an event. This study aimed to compare the results of the use of the semi-parametric Cox model with parametric models to determine the factors influencing the length of stay of patients in the inpatient units of Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study all 3421 charts of the patients admitted to Obstetrics, Surgery and Oncology units in 2008 were reviewed and the required patient data such as medical insurance coverage types, admission months, days and times, inpatient units, final diagnoses, the number of diagnostic tests, admission types were collected. The patient length of stay in hospitals leading to recoverys was considered as a survival variable. To compare the semi-parametric Cox model and parametric (including exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, log-normal, log-logistic and gamma models and find the best model fitted to studied data, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC and Cox-Snell residual were used. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. AIC and Cox-Snell residual graph showed that the gamma model had the lowest AIC (4288.598 and the closest graph to the bisector. The results of the gamma model showed that factors affecting the patient length of stay were admission day, inpatient unit, related physician specialty, emergent admission, final diagnosis and the number of laboratory tests, radiographies and sonographies (P<0.05. The results showed that the gamma model provided a better fit to the studied data than the Cox proportional hazards model. Therefore, it is better for researchers of healthcare field to consider this model in their researches about the patient length of stay (LOS if the assumption of proportional hazards is not fulfilled.

  14. A non-clinical randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Dinesh Kumar; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Mishra, Pranaya; Alurkar, Vijay M

    2015-02-12

    Patient satisfaction is the ultimate goal of healthcare system which can be achieved from good patient-healthcare professional relationship and quality of healthcare services provided. Study was conducted to determine the baseline satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetics and to explore the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on patients' satisfaction during their follow-ups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal. An interventional, pre-post non-clinical randomised controlled study was designed among randomly distributed 162 [control group (n = 54), test 1 group (n = 54) and test 2 group (n = 54)] newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients by consecutive sampling method for 18 months. Diabetes Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to evaluate patient's satisfaction scores at baseline, three, six, nine and, twelve months' follow-ups. Test groups patients were provided pharmaceutical care whereas control group patients only received their usual care from physician/nurses. The responses were entered in SPSS version 16. Data distribution was not normal on Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Non-parametric tests i.e. Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to find the differences among the groups before and after the intervention (p ≤0.05). There were significant (p patients' satisfaction scores in the test groups on Friedman test. Mann-Whitney U test identified the significant differences in satisfaction scores between test 1 and test 2 groups, control and test 1 groups and, control and test 2 groups at 3-months (p = 0.008), (p satisfaction level of diabetics in the test groups compare to the control group. Diabetic kit demonstration strengthened the satisfaction level among the test 2 group patients. Therefore, pharmacist can act as a counsellor through pharmaceutical care program and assist the patients in managing their disease. This will not only modify the patients' related outcomes and their

  15. Postoperative nausea and vomiting at a tertiary care hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most distressing morbidities associated with surgery. This descriptive prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence, predictors and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting among patients attending a tertiary hospital in north-western ...

  16. Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst doctors in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out ...

  17. Breast Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. ... The sociodemographic data; cytology result, final histology result and the clinical staging for breast cancer were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and ... false negative. Also, multi-disciplinary audits of difficult case should be part of the work routine.

  18. Disease pattern of hospitalized patients in two tertiary healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of communicable diseases is high, now the burden of non-communicable disease is also growing hence it important that the distributions of different disease in Tertiary Hospital is known. Unprecedented changes have occurred in the structure of the society that have impacted on health and ...

  19. Metastatic breast cancer in a Nigerian tertiary hospital | Adisa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metastatic breast cancer in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. ... Background: Late presentation of breast carcinoma is common in resource-limited countries with attendant poor outcome. Objective: To describe the pattern of clinical ... resource limitations. Improved awareness of the disease is advocated to reduce late presentation.

  20. Blood donation trend in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria | Olawumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Voluntary donors who ought to be the main source of donor blood are relatively few in Nigeria. There is therefore a need to study current patterns of blood donation and design strategies for improvement. Objectives: To determine the types , age and sex distribution of blood donors in a tertiary Hospital in ...

  1. Perception of patients attending a tertiary hospital in Nigeria about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... Background: Criteria for a good dental practice as expressed by patients have influence on their behavior in terms of compliance with clinical advice, less pain and anxiety and more utilization of dental care. Objective: To assess the opinion of patients attending the dental clinic of a tertiary hospital ...

  2. Cost analysis of tuberculosis treatment in two tertiary hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost analysis of tuberculosis treatment in two tertiary hospitals in South-East Nigeria. ... Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal ... How free is it? Several governmental and non-governmental agencies support tuberculosis treatment to make the services accessible and affordable to patients.

  3. “Is This a Drug?” Answers From Medical Students in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Tania Sur; Sengupta, Parama; Ghosh, Arijit; Das, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction World Health Organization (WHO) defines what is drug and what is not. Second year MBBS students learn the principles of Pharmacology that they use in their later clinical practice life. The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of preparations they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a brand name or a commercial preparation of a drug would influence their decision in the categorization of the preparation as a ‘drug’ or ‘not a drug’. Aim To assess the knowledge of medical students, if a substance or product is a drug. Materials and Methods We surveyed 2 concurrent years of medical students to classify 60 candidate medicinal preparations into “drug” and “not-drug” from a validated questionnaire. The candidate preparations were named either in generic or in their commercially available forms and they were all essential drugs as per WHO definition. Results The two groups of students, A and B, included 192 and 215 students respectively. Demographically there was little difference in the two groups. Agents like Aspirin, Paracetamol, Amphetamine, Salbutamol, Atropine, Dextromethorphan, Codeine, Diazepam, Ciprofloxacin ear drops, Levonorgestrol, Neosporin eye ointment, Furosemide, Metronidazole, Penicillin, Sorbitrate, Lignocaine, Methotrexate, Penicillin, Zolpidem and Thalidomide received almost unanimous votes as drugs. Arsenic trioxide, Fentanyl and petroleum jelly were considered to be “non-drugs” by most participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in their responses. Conclusion Some major lacunae were noted in the knowledge of the participating students despite book teaching on the definition of a drug. Drugs used for prophylaxis and those used in physiological conditions or topically, were often missed. These gaps need to be filled by more emphasis on definition of a drug and its clinical applicability based on example and case based studies. PMID:27656461

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Geriatric Inpatients at a German Tertiary University Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study of Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current iron supplementation practice in geriatric patients is erratic and lacks evidence-based recommendations. Despite potential benefits in this population, intravenous iron supplementation is often withheld due to concerns regarding pharmacy expense, perceived safety issues, and doubts regarding efficacy in elderly patients. This retrospective, observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject in patients aged >75 years with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. Within a twelve-month data extraction period, the charts of 405 hospitalised patients aged 65–101 years were retrospectively analysed for IDA, defined according to WHO criteria for anaemia (haemoglobin: <13.0 g/dL (m/<12.0 g/dL (f in conjunction with transferrin saturation <20%. Of 128 IDA patients screened, 51 (39.8% received intravenous iron. 38 patient charts were analysed. Mean cumulative dose of intravenous FCM was 784.4 ± 271.7 mg iron (1–3 infusions. 18 patients (47% fulfilled treatment response criteria (≥1.0 g/dL increase in haemoglobin between baseline and hospital discharge. AEs were mild/moderate, most commonly transient increases of liver enzymes (n = 5/13.2%. AE incidence was comparable with that observed in patients <75 years. No serious AEs were observed. Ferric carboxymaltose was well tolerated and effective for correction of Hb levels and iron stores in this cohort of IDA patients aged over 75 years.

  5. A study on the interactions of doctors with medical representatives of pharmaceutical companies in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The promotional activities by medical representatives (MRs of the pharmaceutical companies can impact the prescribing pattern of doctors. Hence, the interaction between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry is coming under increasing scrutiny. Objective: The primary objective was to assess the attitude of the doctors toward the interaction with the MRs of the pharmaceutical company. The secondary objective was to assess the awareness of the doctors about regulations governing their interaction with the pharmaceutical company. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. This study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire containing 10 questions between June and September 2014. The doctors working in the Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu during the study period was included. Results: A total of 100 pretested questionnaires were distributed, and 81 doctors responded (response rate 81%. 37% doctors responded that they interacted with MR once a week whereas 25.9% told that they interact with MRs twice a month. About 69.1% doctors think that MR exaggerate the benefits of medicines and downplays the risks and contraindications of medicine(P = 0.000. 61.7% doctors think that MR has an impact on their prescribing (P = 0.000. 63% doctors stated that they had received promotional tools such as stationery items, drug sample, textbooks or journal reprints from MR in last 12 months (P = 0.0012. Unfortunately, 70.4% doctors have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative (P = 0.000. Conclusion: Rather than forbidding any connection between doctors and industry, it is better to establish ethical guidelines. The Medical Council of India code is a step in the right direction, but the majority of doctors in this study have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative.

  6. A retrospective epidemiologic study to define risk factors, microbiology, and clinical outcomes of infective endocarditis in a large tertiary-care teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghim, Anahita S; Lo, Hoi Yee Annie; Khardori, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to define risk factors as well as their association with microbiology and clinical outcomes in a large US infective endocarditis population. Hospital records were searched for appropriate infective endocarditis-related ICD codes from 16 July 2007 to 13 August 2015. A total of 363 cases were retrospectively identified that met definite Modified Duke Criteria for infective endocarditis and were analyzed by age group, causative organism, and associated risk factors for use of valvular surgical intervention, 30/90/180-day mortality after admission, and embolic phenomena. Chronic hemodialysis was the most common risk factor (26.7% of cases). Of all age groups, those aged 78+ years had the lowest 30-day mortality but those aged 58-77 years had the highest mortality (p = 0.039). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent causative organism. Those aged 78-97 years were more likely to have enterococcal infective endocarditis than those aged 18-27 years (p = 0.0144). Chronic hemodialysis associated infective endocarditis was more likely to be caused by coagulase-negative staphylococcus (p = 0.0121) and have a higher 30-day mortality (p = 0.141) than intravenous drug use associated infective endocarditis. Intravenous drug use and chronic hemodialysis were similarly likely to be caused by S. aureus. Intravenous drug use associated infective endocarditis was more likely to be caused by viridans group streptococci (p = 0.0001). Fungal infective endocarditis was most likely to embolize. Chronic hemodialysis patients were less likely to undergo valvular surgery (p = 0.001) and those with chronic hemodialysis who did had lower mortality than those only managed medically that did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.2991). Infective endocarditis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci had the greatest 30-day mortality at 31.3% but did not reach statistical significance over all other causative organisms (p = 0

  7. Teaching and Researching Anthropology in Tertiary Institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2010-05-14

    May 14, 2010 ... brand of anthropology was an adoption of a British model which gauged other cultures in relation to that .... pological literature in both journals and books, such knowledge produc- tion hardly affects the teaching ..... mainly from the colonial identity of the discipline and the structural underdevelopment of the ...

  8. Patterns of antimicrobial prescribing in a tertiary care hospital in Oman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Yamani, Abdulrahman; Khamis, Faryal; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Noomani, Hamed; Al-Noomani, Jaleela; Al-Abri, Seif

    2016-01-01

    ... in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a fourweek period...

  9. Patterns of Eye Diseases in Children Visiting a Tertiary Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: About 19 million children worldwide live with visual impairments resulting from different ocular morbidities. This study aimed to identify the different causes of eye diseases in children visiting a tertiary eye centre at Jimma University Hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of charts of patients of ...

  10. Pattern of childhood malignant tumours in two tertiary teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer is a public health problem worldwide affecting all categories of persons. It is the second common cause of death in developed countries and among the three leading causes of death in developing countries. Objective: To compare the patterns of malignant childhood tumours in two tertiary hospitals in ...

  11. Benzodiazepine prescribing in a Sydney teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, J B; Ryan, J; Fairbrother, G; O'Neill, K; Howes, L G

    1996-09-16

    To determine the pattern of benzodiazepine prescribing in hospital and at discharge in relation to prior benzodiazepine therapy. Patient interview within 48 hours of admission to determine benzodiazepine, alcohol and other psychotropic drug use before admission and review of medical records after discharge to document drugs prescribed in hospital and at discharge. Tertiary teaching hospital, January to August 1995. 1453 patients (mean age, 60 [SD, 19] years; 52.7% female) were interviewed; 277 patients (19.1%) were taking benzodiazepines regularly (one or more doses per week) before admission. Of these, 28.5% did not have benzodiazepine therapy continued while in hospital and 63.9% did not receive benzodiazepines at the time of discharge. Of the remaining 1176 patients (those not previously taking benzodiazepines), 277 (23.6%) were prescribed them for the first time in hospital and 5.3% received benzodiazepines at the time of discharge. Older age, female sex, marital status (single, divorced or widowed) and the use of antidepressants and Schedule 8 narcotic analgesics were all statistically significant predictors of benzodiazepine use before admission, but alcohol consumption was not. A substantial number of patients do not have their benzodiazepine therapy continued in hospital and at the time of discharge, and are thus at risk of developing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, including delirium. A small but clinically significant number of patients who do not usually take benzodiazepines receive them at the time of discharge and may be at risk of becoming long term users.

  12. Accelerated discharge of patients in the event of a major incident: observational study of a teaching hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Challen, Kirsty; Walter, Darren

    2006-01-01

    ... from PCTs in order to achieve this. Repeated survey over 12 days in 3 months of hospital bed occupancy by type of condition and discharge capacity in an 855-bed UK tertiary teaching hospital also providing secondary care services...

  13. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen; Sahajanand; Rangalakshmi; Kasim

    2015-01-01

    AIMS : The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the rate and chara cteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to adult intensive care unit ( ICU ) in a tertiary care medical college hospital. We report clinical features , demographic data , laboratory results , mortality rate , and the results of our treatment in cases who ca me with the history of poisoning. METHODS: The study was done in patients admitted with his...

  14. University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    110 million with a blindness prevalence rate of 1%. Cataract is responsible ... contribution of teaching hospitals to the prevention of blind- ness. Several factors ... All the adult patients before the age of 40 had extracapsular cataract extraction; those above had intracapsular cataract extraction. The children all had congenital ...

  15. At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_165869.html At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates Researchers assess 30-day survival for older ... dies," said lead author Dr. Laura Burke. If death rates at non-teaching hospitals were similar to ...

  16. An analytical framework for assessing drug and therapeutics committee structure and work processes in tertiary Brazilian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Dellamora, Elisangela da Costa; Caetano, Rosângela; Gustafsson, Lars L; Godman, Brian B; Patterson, Ken; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2014-09-01

    University teaching hospitals usually provide tertiary care and are subject to early adoption of new technologies, which may compromise healthcare systems when uncritically adopted. Knowledge on the decision-making process - drug selection by drug selection committees or DTCs - is crucial to improve the quality of care. There are no models for studying the selection of drugs in Brazilian healthcare services. This study aims to discuss DTC structure and the processes regarding adoption of medicines in tertiary university hospitals in Brazil and to propose an analytical structure for providing direction for the future. State of the art content regarding drug selection processes and DTC procedures was reviewed in three databases. Information on the medicine selection process in a Brazilian gold standard teaching hospital was collected through observations and a review of existing procedures. A structured discussion on medicine selection and DTC procedures in tertiary hospitals ensued. This discussion resulted in findings that were organized in three dimensions, composing an analytical framework for the application in tertiary Brazilian hospitals (i) motivations for the adoption of drugs; (ii) necessary structural and organizational aspects for decision-making; and (iii) criteria and methods employed by the decision-making process. We believe that the suggested framework is compatible with tertiary Brazilian hospitals, because a gold standard in the country was able to conduct all its procedures in the light of WHO and international recommendations. We hope to contribute in producing knowledge which may hopefully be adopted in tertiary hospitals across Brazil. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. [Hospital admissions due to varicella in a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Laura, K P; Periañez Vasco, A; Falcón Neyra, M D; Croche Santander, B

    2014-06-01

    Varicella (chickenpox) can cause serious complications and admission to hospital. Several countries included the varicella vaccine in their immunization schedules. A descriptive and retrospective study of hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications was conducted in a referral center from 2005 to 2011. A total of 1192 children with varicella were seen in the emergency room, of which 99 (8.5%) required admission. The annual incidence of admissions due to varicella and varicella complications was, 19.4 and 15.3 cases per 100,000 children under 14 years, respectively. Complications were more common in children under 5 years (79.5%), and with no underlying disease (78.2%). Infection of skin and soft tissue was the most common complication (62%). The mean hospital stay was 4.5 days (SD 4). Varicella causes high morbidity, and is more frequent in absolute terms in healthy children under 5 years of age. Therefore, routine vaccination recommended by the Immunization Advisory Committee should be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta-Rodríguez, R; Gómez-Correa, J; Rodríguez-Amaya, R; Ariza-Mejia, K A; Toloza-Cuta, N A

    Cirrhosis of the liver is known for its high risk of mortality associated with episodes of acute decompensation. There is an even greater risk in patients that present with acute-on-chronic liver failure. The identification of patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes can aid in making the clinical decisions that will improve the prognosis for these patients. To determine in-hospital mortality and evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with cirrhosis of the liver seen at a tertiary referral hospital. A descriptive, observational, cohort study was conducted on adult patients with cirrhosis of the liver, admitted to a tertiary care center in Bucaramanga, Colombia, within the time frame of March 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016. Eighty-one patients with a mean age of 62 years were included in the study. The main etiology of the cirrhosis was alcoholic (59.3%). In-hospital mortality was 23.5% and the most frequent cause of death was septic shock (68.4%), followed by hypovolemic shock (10.5%). A MELD score≥18, a leukocyte count>12,000/ul, and albumin levels below<2.5g/dl were independent factors related to hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients is high. Sepsis and bleeding are the 2 events leading to acute-on-chronic liver failure and death. A high MELD score, elevated leukocyte count, and low level of albumin are related to poor outcome during hospitalization. Adjusted prevention-centered public health measures and early and opportune diagnosis of this disease are needed to prevent the development of complications and to improve outcome in cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV test counselling at a tertiary hospital | Louw | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire was distributed to 64 of the 78 interns working at a teaching hospital in Cape Town in August 1992 to examine their attitudes and practice in respect of HIV test counselling. The questionnaire was completed by 61 interns. Thirteen per cent of those who responded counselled all patients, 49% counselled ...

  20. Cervical epithelial changes in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted among patients that presented for cervical cancer screening at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria over a Five-year period (1st August, 2006-31st July, 2011). Data was analyzed for frequencies using EPI Info 3.5.1, CDC, ...

  1. Variations in Decision-Making Approach to Tertiary Teaching: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Tien

    2016-01-01

    Although the question of what to teach and how to teach has received much attention from the literature, little was known about the way in which academics in teaching groups make decision on what and how to teach. This paper reports an analysis of variations in the decision-making approach to tertiary teaching through academics' practices of…

  2. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Goal Orientations for Teaching of Tertiary Teachers and Their Teaching Approaches in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a paucity of research into teacher motivation in higher education by exploring the relationship between tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching and their approaches to teaching in China. A questionnaire gathered responses from 262 Chinese tertiary teachers, and the results showed these teachers reporting higher…

  4. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  5. HOSPITAL BASED BIRTH DEFECTS SURVEILLANCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: A STUDY OF ONE YEAR STATISTICS FROM A TERTIARY CARE GOVERNMENT TEACHING HOSPITAL OF NORTH COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies are defined as abnormalities of both structures or functions that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. They contribute to a significant proportion of perinatal, neonatal & childhood mortality as well as morbidity. AIM To study at birth, prevalence of selected birth defects among babies delivered at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from Jan 2015 to December 2015, appropriate management strategy of the most common neural tube defects. RESULTS Among the total deliveries of 6088 in the above period, the incidences of birth defects were 88 (1.44%, the most common among them were neural tube defects. CONCLUSION Birth defect surveillance and standardisation of the data is essential to understand the public health burden and to design appropriate prenatal prevention programs.

  6. Health Literacy Levels among Outpatients at a Tertiary Hospital in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sahoo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health literacy is defined as the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. This study was conducted to determine health literacy levels and the associated factors among patients attending the outpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Delhi over a period of four months. A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Fifty patients from the Diabetes Clinic, 50 patients from the Hypertension Clinic, and 50 patients with anemia from the Antenatal Outpatient Department (OPD were selected using a convenience sampling method. Data was analyzed using Epi Info software. Statistical analysis was conducted with the chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Out of 50 diabetic subjects, 37 (74% understood the information about their blood sugar levels as explained to them by the doctor. Similar results were found among hypertensive subjects as well. Furthermore, education status was significantly associated with health literacy. In terms of understanding the regimen of medications, significant association was seen with age, sex, and education. Conclusion: Education status, age, and gender are important determinants of health literacy. Our results support that innovative strategies of communication should be used to improve health literacy among patients.

  7. Ocular trauma: A tertiary hospital experience from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham H; Al-Harthi, Naila; Al-Wahaibi, Maryam; Hanumantharayappa, Kishore

    2017-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of ocular trauma in a tertiary hospital setting in Muscat, Oman. Medical records of all cases of ocular trauma which presented to the Emergency Department at Al-Nahdha Hospital and were seen by the ophthalmology service from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013 (6 months) were reviewed to collect data on ocular trauma according to the World Eye Injury Registry initial reporting form which uses the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. There were 27,951 patients seen at the Emergency Department and 611 of which were ocular trauma cases (cumulative incidence 2.2% [confidence interval 2.0-2.4]). The mean age of the patients was 23 years and males comprised the majority of the cases (72%). Thirty-two patients had bilateral injury giving a total of 643 eyes injured. More than half of all injuries were caused by either blunt or large sharp objects. The cornea was the most frequently injured tissue (49%), but most injuries were minor in nature. More than three quarters (77%) of all eyes had a visual acuity of 0.3 (LogMAR) or better on presentation. There were 35 eyes (6%) with open globe injuries (OGI) and three-quarters of them occurring in the manual laborers. Ocular trauma is a common presentation at Al-Nahdha Hospital. Although the majority of trauma cases were minor without any visual disability sequelae, OGI could have been prevented with better ocular protection in the workplace.

  8. Survey of visual impairment in an Indian tertiary eye hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herse Peter

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey of 4, 122 consecutive patient records was performed in a tertiary care eye hospital in Hyderabad, India. Data collected included age, gender, visual acuity after completion of treatment and diagnosis. 62.8% of the patients were male. After completion of treatment, 10.8% had low vision (best corrected visual acuity <6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye and 2.6% were blind (best correct visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye. Most cases of low vision were found in the 50 to 70 year age group (42.9%. The most common visual acuity range after treatment amongst patients with vision loss was <6/18 to 6/60 (71%. The 4 main causes of low vision were cataract (21.4% of low vision group, glaucoma (14.0%, diabetic retinopathy (13.0%, and retinitis pigmentosa (10.7%. The 4 main causes of blindness were glaucoma (16.3% of blind group, diabetic retinopathy (13.2%, corneal opacities (11.6% and retinitis pigmentosa (11.6%. It is suggested that patients with low vision at the conclusion of treatment be referred to a vision rehabilitation centre. Referral should be made in cases with a best corrected visual acuity <6/18 to 3/60 or with visual field loss to within 15° of fixation. Patients aged under 50 years of age are expected to achieve maximal rehabilitation success. Motivation and vocational requirements should be assessed in older or more complex cases before referral. The data of this study show that about 10% of patients seen at a tertiary care eye hospital in India could benefit from low vision rehabilitation.

  9. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - Clinicopathological Study at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sunil Vitthalrao; Aher, Vidhya; Gadhiya, Suchi; Jagtap, Swati Sunil

    2017-08-01

    Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These consist of various tumours and tumour like lesions characterized by proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Amongst GTD, hydatidiform moles are the most common form. These lesions sometimes may develop into invasive moles, or, in rare cases, into choriocarcinoma. To study the clinicopathologic characteristics and prevalence of different forms of gestational trophoblastic disease in a tertiary care hospital. The present study was descriptive, observational, analytical type done in Department of Pathology at tertiary care hospital from May 2012 to April 2016. All cases clinically suspected of GTD were included and confirmation was done by histopathological study on H&E stained slides. The cases of GTD were classified according to WHO classification. Detailed histomorphological features and beta human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels were correlated. During study period, 18345 deliveries were reported; out of which 77 cases were diagnosed as GTD. Almost 97.40% cases were of hydatidiform moles, 1.30% cases of choriocarcinoma and 1.30% cases of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumour (PSTT). Among the cases of hydatidiform mole 57.34% were complete mole and 41.33% cases were of partial mole. The common clinical presentation was per vaginal bleeding and amenorrhea. The blood group A was most commonly observed in patient (49.35%). In majority of cases beta hCG levels were between 50,000 to 100000 mIU/ml. The correlation between beta hCG level and GTD were done. Pregnant females clinically presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding must be evaluated for GTD. Histopathological examination is helpful for confirmatory diagnosis. Follow up of such patients is essential for early detection of malignant trophoblastic tumours.

  10. Provision of an emergency theatre in tertiary hospitals is cost-effective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of an emergency theatre in tertiary hospitals is cost-effective: Audit and cost of cancelled planned elective general surgical operations at Pietersburg Hospital, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  11. A study on adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Purpose of this study was to monitor adverse drug reactions reported from various departments of a tertiary care hospital in Northeast India. Reported adverse drug reactions were analysed for causality and severity assessment. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital at ...

  12. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. retrospective epidemiological study. Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

  13. Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals ofthe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals ofthe University ofCape Town . A. J. G~ THOMSON. Abstract In the 15 years 1975-1989, 239 patients attending the associated teaching hospitals ofthe University of Cape Town have been identified retrospectively as having neurocysticercosis. One hundred and.

  14. Survival following orbital exenteration at a tertiary brazilian hospital

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    Juliana Mika Kato

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the epidemiology, clinical features and survival rate of patients undergoing orbital exenteration (OE in a tertiary referral hospital. Methods : we conducted a retrospective study of all patients undergoing OE at the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP between January 2007 and December 2012. We collected data records related to gender, age, origin, length of stay, duration of the disease, other treatments related to the disease, number of procedures outside of the face related to the disease, follow-up and histological diagnosis. Results : we treated 37 patients in the study period. The average survival in one year was 70%, in two years, 66.1%, and 58.3% in three years. There was no significant difference in the one-year survival related to histological diagnosis (p=0.15, days of hospitalization (p=0.17, gender (p=0.43, origin (p=0.78, disease duration (p=0.27 or the number of operations for the tumor (p=0.31. Mortality was higher in elderly patients (p=0.02. The average years of life lost was 33.9 in patients under 60 years, 14.7 in patients in the 61-80 years range and 11.3 in patients over 80 years. Conclusion : the present series of cases is significant in terms of prevalence of orbital exenteration; on the other hand, it shows one of the lowest survival rates in the literature. This suggests an urgent need for improved health care conditions to prevent deforming, radical resections.

  15. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Ather Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    22 and the morphology was normocytic normochromic in 20 cases. Tuberculosis leading to anaemia was seen in 24, Internal haemorrhoids/Fissures 5, Taenia infestation in 3, Haematological Malignancies 2, GI Malignancies 3, Connective tissues disorders 3, Nutritional iron deficiency 8 and Anaemia of chronic diseases in remaining cases. Among the 22 cases having macrocytic anaemia, 11 had vitamin B 12 deficiency, 6 had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 had alcoholism. Among the 20 patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, 4 had haemolytic anaemia, 1 had aplastic anaemia and remaining were having anaemia of chronic disease mainly chronic kidney disease. Regarding treatment, 23 patients were transfused blood. Out of total 100 patients included in the study, in-hospital mortality was 10. CONCLUSIONS Anaemia is associated with a variety of diseases. As Tuberculosis and B 12 Deficiency are among the leading causes of anaemia, hypochromic and microcytic picture was the predominant picture in peripheral blood smear. Among the patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, majority were having chronic kidney disease which may be due to the fact that our hospital is a tertiary referral centre for chronic renal failure. In-hospital mortality due to anaemia alone is lower in tertiary care centres, but the mortality in our study is due to associated comorbid conditions like chronic renal failure and malignancy.

  16. Assessment of the sexually abused female children admitted to a tertiary care hospital: Eight year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Uzunlar, Ozlem; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Ozyer, Sebnem; Besli, Mustafa; Karaca, Mujdegul

    2014-09-01

    To discuss the medical, social and legal characteristics of the child sexual abuse and to provide a perspective for gynecologists on this topic. A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medicolegal records of female children below the age of 18 referred to a tertiary teaching hospital and diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse within the family between the years of 2004 to 2012. One hundred and thirty-nine cases were diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse during the 8 year period, 23 of them (16.5%) had been involved in sexual abuse within the family. Eleven out of 23 had been admitted as part of a legal process while the rest were reported by a third person. Since sexual abuse within the family is a taboo in Islamic societies, the diagnosis can take a long time. Recognition of sexually abused children, providing early performance of medicolegal examinations, and applying standardized medical guidelines are essential to protect these children.

  17. Does one-to-one demonstration with insulin pads by health-care providers improves the insulin administration techniques among diabetic patients of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvasi Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was aimed to capture the effect of using injection pads as a tool in educating the diabetic patients who were on insulin. The attitude and practice of the patients in storage of insulin vials and disposal of insulin syringes were also assessed. Materials and Methods: A facility based Quasi-experimental study was carried out among the diabetic patients on insulin, attending diabetic clinic in endocrinology OPD in a tertiary care hospital, Puducherry. One to one intervention was given to the study participants or their attendants (who were involved in injecting insulin, by a trained investigator regarding all the steps of insulin administration. The insulin administration practices before and immediately after the intervention was assessed using a checklist. Results: In total 91 patients were included for the study with mean (SD age of 53.9 (10.6 years and of them 76% were females. The attitude and practices of the study participants, such as hand washing before handling insulin, checking the expiry date, storage of insulin, inspection of injection site, rolling and cleaning the vial, withdrawal of the syringe up to the required dose, pushing the plunger after inserting the syringe into the vial, checking and removal of air bubbles, cleaning the injection site and allow to dry and injection technique improved significantly after the intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study findings shows that using injection pads for educating patients helps them to practise better insulin administration. The findings from the study can be applied in routine care and has to be explored further in diabetic patient management.

  18. Job satisfaction among anesthesiologists at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrose Rukewe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We assessed job satisfaction among anesthesiologists at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and identified elements of job stress and dissatisfaction. Methods : A cross-sectional study design was employed; a structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed, which focused on sociodemographic data, rating of job satisfaction, identification of stressors, and work relationships. Results : Out of 55 questionnaires distributed, 46 (83.6% completed questionnaires were returned. Overall, 27 (58.7% of the anesthesiologists were satisfied with their job. While 8.7% were very satisfied (grade 5, 6.5% were very dissatisfied (grade 1 with their job. The stressors identified by the respondents were time pressures, long working hours with complaints of insufficient sleep, and employment status. Among the respondents, the medical officers were the most discontented (9 out of 12, 75%, followed by senior registrars (5 out of 9, 56%. A high percentage of participants (54.1% declared that the one change if implemented that would enhance their job satisfaction was having a definite closing time. Conclusion : Our results showed that despite the demanding nature of anesthesiology as a specialty, many anesthesiologists were contented with their job.

  19. Predictors of Patient Satisfaction with Tertiary Hospitals in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Ham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the general and system-related predictors of outpatient satisfaction with tertiary health care institutions in Korea. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was employed. The subjects were 1,194 outpatients recruited from 29 outpatient clinics of a university medical center in Korea. Measurements included 5 outpatient service domains (i.e., doctor service, nurse service, technician service, convenience, and physical environment of facility and patient satisfaction. Of the five domains, nurse service was the domain with the highest mean score M=4.21 and convenience was the domain with the lowest mean score M=3.77. The most significant predictor of patient satisfaction was the constructs of convenience β=0.21. The results of this study suggest that the concept of patient satisfaction with health care institutions in modern hospitals reflects an integrative process that includes not only the concerned health care personnel but also improved convenience such as user-friendly reservation system and comfortable waiting areas.

  20. Needle stick injuries in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanth S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidental needle stick injuries (NSIs are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. A recent increase in NSIs in a tertiary care hospital lead to a 1-year review of the pattern of injuries, with a view to determine risk factors for injury and potential interventions for prevention. Methods: We reviewed 1-year (July 2006-June 2007 of ongoing surveillance of NSIs. Results: The 296 HCWs reporting NSIs were 84 (28.4% nurses, 27 (9.1% nursing interns, 45 (21.6% cleaning staff, 64 (21.6% doctors, 47 (15.9% medical interns and 24 (8.1% technicians. Among the staff who had NSIs, 147 (49.7% had a work experience of less than 1 year ( P < 0.001. The devices responsible for NSIs were mainly hollow bore needles ( n = 230, 77.7%. In 73 (24.6% of the NSIs, the patient source was unknown. Recapping of needles caused 25 (8.5% and other improper disposal of the sharps resulted in 55 (18.6% of the NSIs. Immediate post-exposure prophylaxis for HCWs who reported injuries was provided. Subsequent 6-month follow-up for human immunodeficiency virus showed zero seroconversion. Conclusion: Improved education, prevention and reporting strategies and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase occupational safety for HCWs.

  1. Perceived nursing service quality in a tertiary care hospital, Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashrath, Mariyam; Akkadechanunt, Thitinut; Chontawan, Ratanawadee

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored nurses' and patients' expectations of nursing service quality, their perception of performance of nursing service quality performed by nurses, and compared nursing service quality, as perceived by nurses and patients. The sample consisted of 162 nurses and 383 patients from 11 inpatient wards/units in a tertiary care hospital in the Maldives. Data were collected using the Service Quality scale, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results indicated that the highest expected dimension and perceived dimension for nursing service quality was Reliability. The Responsiveness dimension was the least expected dimension and the lowest performing dimension for nursing service quality as perceived by nurses and patients. There was a statistically significant difference between nursing service quality perceived by nurses and patients. The study results could be used by nurse administrators to develop strategies for improving nursing service quality so that nursing service delivery process can be formulated in such a way as to reduce differences of perception between nurses and patients regarding nursing service quality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Mastalgia: Prevalence at a Sub-Saharan African Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makumbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mastalgia is a common breast condition among women referred to breast clinics worldwide. Whereas the prevalence is known in the Western world and Asia, the prevalence of the disease is unknown in many African countries. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and describe factors associated with mastalgia among women attending a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done in Kampala, Uganda. Mastalgia was defined as self-reported breast pain (unilateral or bilateral for a period not less than two months. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11. Ethical approval was obtained. Results. Out of the 1048 women who presented to the breast clinic during the study period, 168 (16% were diagnosed with mastalgia in the absence of breast cancer. Noncyclical and cyclical mastalgia were 22/168 (13% and 5/168 (3%, respectively. The onset of noncyclical category as compared to the cyclical type of mastalgia was observed to manifest before 24 years of age (P=0.006. Conclusion. Mastalgia was a common condition among women in this sub-Saharan African setting as is elsewhere. The early onset mastalgia in this sub-Saharan African study requires further exploration for determination of its risk factors.

  3. Experience of intravitreal injections in a tertiary Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    To find out statistical data regarding intravitreal injections in an outpatient department setup at a tertiary center in Oman. Retrospective chart review. Data collection of patients who underwent intravitreal injections from November 2009 to May 2013 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Throughout a period of 42 months, a total of 711 intravitreal injections were performed. That included 214 patients (275 eyes). Around one-third of the eyes received two injections or more. The injected agents were bevacizumab (59.8%), ranibizumab (32.3%), triamcinolone (7.5%), and very few patients with endophthalmitis received intravitreal antibiotics and antifungal agents. The three most common indications for the injection therapy were diabetic macular edema (50.9%), choroidal neovascularization (24.3%), and retinal vein occlusive diseases (11.5%). Serious adverse events were rare, and they occurred as ocular (0.9% per patient) and systemic (3.3% per patient). There were 42 eyes received intravitreal triamcinolone, and 24% of them developed intraocular hypertension that required only medical treatment. Different intravitreal agents are currently used to treat many ocular diseases. Currently, therapy with intravitreal agents is very popular, and it carries a promising outcome with more efficiency and safety.

  4. After-hour physiotherapy services in a tertiary general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Edwin C W; Liu, Jinyu; Yeung, Meredith T L; Wong, Wai Pong

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe the after-hour physiotherapy services in a tertiary general hospital, the patients and their demographics, and to determine which independent variables would predict physiotherapists' referrals to after-hour physiotherapy. A retrospective record review from April 1, 2004, to April 30, 2005, identified 992 patients (mean age 63.8 years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 62.6-65.0 years) who were either referred by daytime physiotherapists (68%) or referred by medical practitioners for urgent attendance after hours (32%). Pneumonia was formally diagnosed medically in 20% (n=197) of the patients. Of all the patients who had surgery, upper abdominal or thoracic incisions formed the majority (61%; n=236). Whether patients had upper abdominal/thoracic surgery (estimated odds ratio 3.4; 95% CI 2.3-4.9) and the presence of pneumonia (2.8; 95% CI 1.9-4.2) were two independent factors identified from a logistic regression model predicting daytime physiotherapists' referral of patients to after-hour service. This model correctly predicted 65.5% of the cases. Most patients were seen for mucociliary clearance. Referral behaviour by physiotherapists reflects the basis of their clinical decision making and has implications for practice, training, and further research.

  5. Blended Learning and Team Teaching: Adapting Pedagogy in Response to the Changing Digital Tertiary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée; Jenkins, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Increased accessibility of advanced technology, the targeted use of online learning platforms, student flexible learning expectations and the pressures of faculty budget constraints and priorities have called into question the effectiveness of traditional tertiary teaching and learning models. The tertiary education context must evolve at a pace…

  6. The Teaching of English in Tasmania: Building Links between Senior Secondary and Tertiary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lisa; Clarke, Robert; Crane, Ralph; Gaby, Rosemary; Milthorpe, Naomi; Stark, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article tells the story of two projects initiated by the University of Tasmania's English program, which were designed to investigate and improve the pathway from pre-tertiary to tertiary English studies in the state: the First Year English Survey (2012-2014) and the Teaching of English in Tasmania Community of Practice (TETCoP). The authors…

  7. Tertiary centres have improved survival compared to other hospitals in the Copenhagen area after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholm, Helle; Wachtell, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2013-01-01

    -term mortality after OHCA at tertiary heart centres and non-tertiary university hospitals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Copenhagen OHCA registry from June 2002 through December 2010 included a total of 1218 consecutive patients treated by the same mobile emergency care unit (MECU) with either return...

  8. Perception of pharmacovigilance among doctors in a tertiary care hospital: influence of an interventional lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Dhara R; Dhande, Priti P; Pandit, Vijaya A

    2013-01-01

    One of the important pillars of an efficient pharmacovigilance system is contribution by healthcare professionals in the form of spontaneous reporting. This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge, attitude and practice of spontaneous ADR reporting among doctors in a teaching hospital in Pune, and to analyze the effect of an informative lecture about Pharmacovigilance on the same. This was an interventional study conducted among 220 doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Pune. Each participant was explained the purpose of study and asked to fill in a questionnaire about their knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance. Only 80 of them attended the interventional lecture on Pharmacovigilance and again filled up the questionnaire after a period of one month from this intervention. Merely 7.5% of the participants knew ADR reporting system in India. Majority of the respondents (95%) knew that, as doctors, they could report ADRs but were unaware about the methodology to report (92.5%) which affected their practice of Pharmacovigilance. All (100%) the participants expressed that proper training should be provided to clinicians for ADR reporting & 81% felt ADR reporting should be made mandatory. Only 80 participants (36.4%) attended the interventional lecture which reflected a poor response. Intervention improved their (96%) knowledge about ADR reporting system and now majority of them (92%) agreed that all sort of ADRs should be reported (p pharmacovigilance.

  9. Incidence of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (HAT) in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In spite of guidelines, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilised, and hospital acquired thrombosis (HAT) continues to be a problem. This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of HAT in a tertiary referral centre and to examine whether VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis (TP) were implemented. Patients 18 years and above, with a radiologically-confirmed acute VTE during the study period of 15 weeks were included. Acute VTE was diagnosed in 100 patients and HAT was diagnosed in 48. There were 12,024 admissions over the study period, therefore the incidence of HAT was 0.4%. TP was prescribed in only 35% of patients, and 65% did not receive any or appropriate TP. Hospitals without active implementation of a formal risk assessment tool and TP policy are likely to continue to have increased incidence of HAT.

  10. Mothers’ experiences of labour in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Maputle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore and describe experiences of mothers during childbirth in a tertiary hospital in the Limpopo Province. This was achieved through a qualitative research study which was exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive in nature. A sample of 24 mothers participated in this study. Data obtained from unstructured in-depth interviews were analysed according to the protocol by Tesch (1990, cited in Cresswell, 1994:155. Five themes were identified, namely mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and decision-making; information sharing and empowering autonomy and informed choices; open communication and listening; accommodative/non-accommodative midwifery actions; and maximising human and material infrastructure. The themes indicated experiences that foster or promote dependency on midwifery care. Guidelines on how to transform this dependency into a mother-centered care approach during childbirth are provided. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om moeders se belewenis van kindergeboorte in ’n tersiêre hospitaal in die Limpopo Provinsie te verken en te beskryf. Dit is gedoen deur middel van kwalitatiewe navorsing wat verkennend, beskrywend, en kontekstueel was. ‘n Steekproef van 24 moeders het aan die studie deelgeneem. Inligting is verkry deur middel van ongestruktureerde in-diepte onderhoude. Hierdie inligting is geanaliseer aan die hand van Tesch (1990: aangehaal in Creswell, 1994:155 se protokol. Die volgende kategorieë is geïdentifiseer, wedersydse deelname en gedeelde verantwoordelik- hede, afhanklikheid en besluitneming, deel van inligting, bemagtiging tot outonomie en ingeligte keuse, oop kommunikasie en luister, akkommoderende/nie-akkommoderende vroedvrou-aksies en bevordering van menslike en materiële infrastrukture. Die resultate van die onderhoude het belewenisse blootgelê wat dui op die bevordering van afhanklikheid in vroedvrouversorging. Riglyne om hierdie

  11. A review of stroke admissions at a tertiary hospital in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of stroke admissions at a tertiary hospital in rural Southwestern ... Background: Stroke is a common neurological disorder and is the third leading cause of ... Hypertension (85.2%), diabetes mellitus (23.8%), and tobacco smoking ...

  12. The process, logistics and challenges of implementing clinical supervision in a generalist tertiary referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, Scott; Lamont, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Clinical supervision (CS) has been identified within nursing as a process for improving clinical practice and reducing the emotional burden of nursing practice. Little is known about its implementation across large tertiary referral hospitals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of clinical supervision across several different nursing specialities at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Using a model of nursing implementation science, a process was developed at the study site that facilitated the development, implementation and evaluation of the project. After a 6-month study period, the CS groups were postevaluated using a survey tool developed for the project. A total of nine CS groups were in operation over the 6-month study period. A predominant focus within the sessions was one of the collegial support and developing standards of practice. The process was able to achieve wide hospital-based support for the role of CS from the senior nurse executives to junior nurses. Whilst there was overall positive support for the CS groups, logistical and resource challenges remain, in the effective roll out of CS to large numbers of nurses. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Descriptive analysis of neurological in-hospital consultations in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller-Alvarez, J S; Quintana, M; Santamarina, E; Álvarez-Sabín, J

    2017-04-01

    In-hospital consultations (IHC) are essential in clinical practice in tertiary hospitals. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of neurological IHCs. One-year retrospective descriptive study of neurological IHCs conducted from May 2013 to April 2014 at our tertiary hospital. A total of 472 patients were included (mean age, 62.1 years; male patients, 56.8%) and 24.4% had previously been evaluated by a neurologist. Patients were hospitalised a median of 18 days and 19.7% had been referred by another hospital. The departments requesting the most in-hospital consultations were intensive care (20.1%), internal medicine (14.4%), and cardiology (9.1%). Reasons for requesting an IHC were stroke (26.9%), epilepsy (20.6%), and confusional states (7.6%). An on-call neurologist evaluated 41.9% of the patients. The purpose of the IHC was to provide a diagnosis in 56.3% and treatment in 28.2% of the cases; 69.5% of the patients required additional tests. Treatment was adjusted in 18.9% of patients and additional drugs were administered to 27.3%. While 62.1% of cases required no additional IHCs, 11% required further assessment, and 4.9% were transferred to the neurology department. Of the patient total, 16.9% died during hospitalisation (in 37.5%, the purpose of the consultation was to certify brain death); 45.6% were referred to the neurology department at discharge and 6.1% visited the emergency department due to neurological impairment within 6 months of discharge. IHCs facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with neurological diseases, which may help reduce the number of visits to the emergency department. On-call neurologists are essential in tertiary hospitals, and they are frequently asked to diagnose brain death. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. review article urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital in abuja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN ABUJA, NIGERIA. Iregbu KC*,Nwajiobi-Princewill PI. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, National Hospital Abuja, P.M.B 425, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author: Iregbu KC, Department of Medical Microbiology, National Hospital, Abuja. Nigeria.

  15. Auditing Autopsies: Lagos University Teaching Hospital Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antemortem diagnosis) with autopsies (post-mortem diagnosis) on patients managed at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) between October 1999 and November, 2000. In the study period, a total of 1843 deaths were registered out of which ...

  16. Cancer of the Cervix at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation of cervical cancer in a Nigerian tertiary health institution. Methods: A review of retrieved retrospective data relating to patients managed for cancer of the cervix at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City between January 1991 and December ...

  17. Implementing medical teaching policy in university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F J M

    2017-10-01

    Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have remained underexplored. Knowledge of these factors is needed to develop theory on the successful implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. To explore factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives and to develop a conceptual model for implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. We used the grounded theory methodology. We applied constant comparative analysis to qualitative data obtained from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted at the Radboud University Medical Center. We used a constructivist approach, in which data and theories are co-created through interaction between the researcher and the field and its participants. We constructed a model for the implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals, including five factors that were perceived to promote or inhibit faculty in a university hospital to make use of teaching policy incentives: Executive Board Strategy, Departmental Strategy, Departmental Structure, Departmental Culture, and Individual Strategy. Most factors we found to affect individual teachers' strategies and their use of medical teaching policy lie at the departmental level. If an individual teacher's strategy is focused on medical teaching and a medical teaching career, and the departmental context offers support and opportunity for his/her development, this promotes faculty's use of teaching policy incentives.

  18. Variations in Decision-making Approach to Tertiary Teaching: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tien Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the question of what to teach and how to teach has received much attention from the literature, little was known about the way in which academics in teaching groups make decision on what and how to teach. This paper reports an analysis of variations in the decision-making approach to tertiary teaching through academics’ practices of designing course syllabuses, teaching, and assessing student learning. The study was conducted in three Faculties of business administration of three Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in Vietnam and three different patterns of decision-making approach to tertiary teaching, namely as (i the Given Framework, (ii the Closed Framework, and (iii the Open Framework, were found.

  19. Implementing Medical Teaching Policy in University Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have…

  20. Safer caesarean sections at Juba Teaching Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-02

    May 2, 2012 ... procedures in South Sudan. Following some “powerpoint” teaching on spinal anaesthesia, alongside the provision of practical advice and support, rates of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section at Juba Teaching Hospital increased significantly. Although the rates for emergency caesarean sections did.

  1. Adolescents with sickle cell anaemia: Experience in a private tertiary hospital serving a tertiary institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Olabode, Sarah; Awodele, Ibironke; Oni, Omolade

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) have adjustment difficulties in the transition period from paediatric care to the adult system because they find themselves in unfamiliar waters where they have to learn to manage themselves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalent crises and morbidities associated with SCD in adolescents in Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), to also assess the level of knowledge of these adolescents about SCD and to determine their emotional response to the disease. This was a retrospective review of case notes of adolescents with sickle cell anaemia that were seen in BUTH, from May 2013 to April 2014. Data extracted from the case notes was entered into a Microsoft (MS) Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results were presented in tables. A total of 50 subjects were seen in the department during this study period. Vaso-occlusive crises in the form of bone pains (93.1%) were the commonest crises encountered. Associated morbidities were malaria 34 (85%), tonsilitis 1 (2.5%), pneumonia 1 (2.5%), leg ulcer 1 (2.5%), azotaemia 1 (2.5%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 2 (5%). Majority (88%) had adequate knowledge about general health maintenance while knowledge on nutrition and appropriate analgesia use is still inadequate. Eleven (22%) had symptoms of depression, four (8%) had suicidal ideation while one (2%) had a history of attempted suicide. This study emphasizes the importance of psychosocial intervention as part of a comprehensive health management for people with SCD.

  2. Hospital-based surveillance of Japanese encephalitis at a tertiary hospital in Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alera, Ma Theresa P; Velasco, John Mark S; Ypil-Cardenas, Charity Ann; Jarman, Richard G; Nisalak, Ananda N; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Gibbons, Robert V; Dimaano, Efren M; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in the Philippines but the incidence and burden of disease are not well established. We conducted a prospective hospital-based study at San Lazaro Hospital, a tertiary level hospital in Manila, from September 2005 to December 2006. Cases were determined using an in-house dengue and Japanese encephalitis (JE) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect the proportion of JE cases among the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases admitted to our hospital. Fifteen patients were found to have AES, of whom 6 (40%) had confirmed JE. Of the JE cases, 4 were females and 2 were males with an age range of 3-14 years. Three of the 6 JE cases occurred during July. The most common signs and symptoms on admission among JE cases were: fever, headache, loss of appetite, neck rigidity and altered sensorium. JE likely comprises a significant proportion of hospitalized AES cases among children from Manila and nearby provinces. Further studies on the nation-wide prevalence and distribution of JE in the Philippines are needed to guide health authorities in disease control and prevention strategies.

  3. Third generation cephalosporin use in a tertiary hospital in Port of Spain, Trinidad: need for an antibiotic policy

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    Teemul Karen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tertiary care hospitals are a potential source for development and spread of bacterial resistance being in the loop to receive outpatients and referrals from community nursing homes and hospitals. The liberal use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs in these hospitals has been associated with the emergence of extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBLs presenting concerns for bacterial resistance in therapeutics. We studied the 3GC utilization in a tertiary care teaching hospital, in warded patients (medical, surgical, gynaecology, orthopedic prescribed these drugs. Methods Clinical data of patients (≥ 13 years admitted to the General Hospital, Port of Spain (POSGH from January to June 2000, and who had received 3GCs based on the Pharmacy records were studied. The Sanford Antibiotic Guide 2000, was used to determine appropriateness of therapy. The agency which procures drugs for the Ministry of Health supplied the cost of drugs. Results The prevalence rate of use of 3GCs was 9.5 per 1000 admissions and was higher in surgical and gynecological admissions (21/1000 compared with medical and orthopedic (8 /1000 services (p Conclusions There is extensive inappropriate 3GC utilization in tertiary care in Trinidad. We recommend hospital laboratories undertake continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns so that appropriate changes in prescribing guidelines can be developed and implemented. Though guidelines for rational antibiotic use were developed they have not been re-visited or encouraged, suggesting urgent antibiotic review of the hospital formulary and instituting an infection control team. Monitoring antibiotic use with microbiology laboratory support can promote rational drug utilization, cut costs, halt inappropriate 3GC prescribing, and delay the emergence of resistant organisms. An ongoing antibiotic peer audit is suggested.

  4. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

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    G Bhagawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.

  6. Predicting financial distress in teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prestige and reputation of teaching hospitals, as a group they are in financial distress. If this trend continues, one would expect to see a higher incidence of mergers and acquisitions or divestitures of assets and services, and other strategies designed to combat failing businesses. Nearly one out of every six teaching hospitals sampled was predicted to be near immediate bankruptcy, and the overwhelming majority was not far behind. It will take a significant effort for these hospitals to continue to treat their operations as a clinical and research "business," but they must do just that if they are to survive the continually turbulent market.

  7. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

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    Yogesh Poudyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD, 5398 (22.5% were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1; most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (n=3308; 61.3%. Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%, eczema (14.4%, and acne (10.1%. Fungal infections (n=653; 65.4% and acne (n=284; 51.9% were common in males, whereas eczema (n=402; 51.7% was more common in females. Fungal infection (P<0.001, eczema (P<0.001, pigmentation disorders (P<0.001, and acne (P<0.01 were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (P<0.001. Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively.

  8. Drug utilization study in a burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital

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    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate drug utilization and associated costs for the treatment of patients admitted in burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for a period of 15 months at Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga and the data collected was analyzed for various drug use indicators. Results: A total of 100 prescriptions were collected with 44% belonging to males and 56% to females. The average number of drugs per prescription ranged from 4.5 to 9.5. 9.5% of generics and 92% of essential drugs were prescribed. The opioid analgesics and sedatives were prescribed to all the patients who were admitted in burn care unit. The (Defined daily dose DDD/1 000/day for amikacin (359 was the highest followed by diclofenac sodium (156, pantoprazole (144, diazepam (130, ceftazidime (124, tramadol (115, ceftriaxone (84 and for paracetamol (4 which was the lowest. Conclusions: Significant amount of the money was spent on procurement of drugs. Most of the money was spent on prescribed antibiotics. The prescription of generic drugs should be promoted, for cost effective treatment. Hence the results of the present study indicate that there is a considerable scope for improvement in the prescription pattern.

  9. Challenges associated with the management of gynecological cancers in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria

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    Iyoke CA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 George Onyemaechi Ugwu,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu,2 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,3 Azubuike Kanayo Onyebuchi3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Park Lane, Enugu, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: There are reports of increasing incidence of gynecological cancers in developing countries and this trend increases the need for more attention to gynecological cancer care in these countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the presentation and treatment of gynecological cancers and identify barriers to successful gynecological cancer treatment in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Methods: This study was a retrospective longitudinal analysis of the presentation and treatment of histologically diagnosed primary gynecological cancers from 2000 to 2010. Analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 software. Results: Records of 200 gynecological cancers managed during the study period were analyzed. Over 94% of cervical cancers presented in advanced stages of the disease and received palliative/symptomatic treatment. Only 1.9% of cervical cancer patients had radical surgical intervention, and postoperative mortality from these radical surgeries was 100%. Approximately 76% of patients with ovarian cancer had debulking surgery as the mainstay of treatment followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative mortality from ovarian cancer surgery was 63%. Cutting edge cytotoxic drugs were not used as chemotherapy for ovarian and chorionic cancers. Compliance with chemotherapy was poor, with over 70% of ovarian cancer patients failing to complete the

  10. Septic Abortion Managed in a Tertiary Hospital in West Bengal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Septic abortion is still a challenging problem and a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Aim: The present study was conducted to estimate incidence, causes, risk factors, associated microorganisms, and treatment modalities of cases of septic abortion managed in a tertiary ...

  11. Nurses' communication and patient satisfaction in a tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nurses' communication of nursing care provision in tertiary health facilities and patient satisfaction are closely related. This has remained a yardstick for measuring success of the services provided in many health facilities. This study investigated the influence of nurses' communication of nursing care on patient satisfaction ...

  12. Positive effects of tertiary centres for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on outcome and use of hospital facilities.

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    Chiò, A; Bottacchi, E; Buffa, C; Mutani, R; Mora, G

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of tertiary centres for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on ALS outcome and the use of hospital facilities. The study was based on the data of an epidemiological, prospective, population-based register on ALS (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, PARALS). The 221 patients recruited between 1995 and 1996 were prospectively followed up for outcome and use of hospital-based services. In all, 97 patients were followed up by tertiary ALS centres and 124 by general neurological clinics. Patients followed up by tertiary ALS centres were found to be 4 years younger and underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy and non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation more often. Patients followed up by tertiary ALS centres were found to have a considerably longer median survival time (1080 v 775 days), even when stratifying by age, site of onset and respiratory function at diagnosis. In Cox multivariate analysis, attending a tertiary ALS centre was observed to be an independent positive prognostic factor. Moreover, patients attending a tertiary ALS centre were admitted to hospital less often (1.2 v 3.3) and were more frequently admitted for planned interventions. Conversely, patients followed up by general neurological clinics were more frequently admitted for acute events. Also, the hospital stay was considerably shorter for patients attending tertiary ALS centres (5.8 v 12.4 days). Improved survival was seen in patients with ALS attending tertiary ALS centres, independently from all other known prognostic factors, possibly through a better implementation of supportive treatments. Moreover, because of these centres, the hospitalisation rate was markedly reduced, thus offering a cost-effective service to patients with ALS and to the community as a whole.

  13. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal.

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    Jeevan Acharya

    Full Text Available Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs.A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study.The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%, clothes (9.8% and transport (7.3%. For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of "days of work loss" were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007, employed house head (p = 0.011, monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees (p = 0.014, private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001, C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001, longer duration (>5days of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001, longer distance (>15km from house to hospital (p = 0.0001 and longer travel time (>240 minutes from house to hospital (p = 0.007 showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs.Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time were associated with hidden costs. Hidden costs can be a

  14. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jeevan; Kaehler, Nils; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Subedi, Sudarshan; Adhikari, Bipin

    2016-01-01

    Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study. The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar) and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%), clothes (9.8%) and transport (7.3%). For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of "days of work loss" were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007), employed house head (p = 0.011), monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees) (p = 0.014), private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001), C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001), longer duration (>5days) of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001), longer distance (>15km) from house to hospital (p = 0.0001) and longer travel time (>240 minutes) from house to hospital (p = 0.007) showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs). Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time) were associated with hidden costs. Hidden costs can be a

  15. Obstetric intensive care admissions at a tertiary hospital in Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital files of all obstetric patients admitted to the Pietersburg provincial referral hospital ICU from 1 January 2008 to 31. December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Age, parity, admission diagnosis, length of stay, information on the referring hospitals, and maternal outcomes were analysed. Results. There were 138 ...

  16. Pediatric intussusception in a Saudi Arabian tertiary hospital | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of this, we reviewed the cases and management of intussusception, seen at Aseer Central Hospital over a 7-year period. Materials and methods: Thirty four pediatric patients admitted at Aseer Central Hospital over a 7-year period (from 1993 to 2000) at Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia ...

  17. Provision of an emergency theatre in tertiary hospitals is cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cancellations of planned elective surgical operations increase financial cost to the patient and the hospital. Objectives. ... at PTB Hospital and ZAR2 100 at district hospitals, and the total cost per cancelled operation was ZAR25 860. .... unfortu nate cause of postponement of operations, accounting for two cases ...

  18. Learning to teach mathematical modelling in secondary and tertiary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2017-07-01

    Since 2003 mathematical modelling in Germany is not only a topic for scientific disciplines in university mathematics courses, but also in school starting with primary school. This paper shows what mathematical modelling means in school and how it can be taught as a basis for complex modeling problems in tertiary education.

  19. Reasons for discharge delays in teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Soraia Aparecida da; Valácio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Botelho, Flávia Carvalho; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the causes of delay in hospital discharge of patients admitted to internal medicine wards. We reviewed 395 medical records of consecutive patients admitted to internal medicine wards of two public teaching hospitals: Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and Hospital Odilon Behrens. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol was used to define the moment at which notes in the medical records indicated hospital stay was no longer appropriate and patients could be discharged. The interval between this estimated time and actual discharge was defined as the total number of days of delay in hospital discharge. An instrument was used to systematically categorize reasons for delay in hospital discharge and frequencies were analyzed. Delays in discharge occurred in 60.0% of 207 hospital admissions in the Hospital das Clínicas and in 58.0% of 188 hospital admissions in the Hospital Odilon Behrens. Mean delay per patient was 4.5 days in the former and 4.1 days in the latter, corresponding to 23.0% and 28.0% of occupancy rates in each hospital, respectively. The main reasons for delay in the two hospitals were, respectively, waiting for complementary tests (30.6% versus 34.7%) or for results of performed tests to be released (22.4% versus 11.9%) and medical-related accountability (36.2% versus 26.1%) which comprised delays in discussing the clinical case and in clinical decision making and difficulties in providing specialized consultation (20.4% versus 9.1%). Both hospitals showed a high percentage of delay in hospital discharge. The delays were mainly related to processes that could be improved by interventions by care teams and managers. The impact on mean length of stay and hospital occupancy rates was significant and troubling in a scenario of relative shortage of beds and long waiting lists for hospital admission.

  20. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

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    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  1. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PUERPERAL WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Atmaja Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is the second most populous country in the world after China. In an effort to stabilize the population, National Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951. There has been an increase in contraceptive prevalence and a reduction in total fertility rate since then. For better results, contraceptive use should start right from the post partum period. This also significantly reduces maternal and infant mortality rates. AIM To assess the knowledge and attitude about contraception in post-partum women in a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, IMCH, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, between January 2016 and March 2016, using a prestructured questionnaire, in postpartum women. Their knowledge and attitude about contraception was assessed. RESULTS A total of 1500 postpartum women were included in the study. 80% were aware of some method of contraception. This knowledge increased with increasing education, parity and better socioeconomic class. Major source of information was health worker (46.67%. But only 18.33% had practiced any method of contraception before and 44% only showed willingness to use any contraception. The major reason for non-acceptance of contraception was the need for more children. CONCLUSION Low prevalence seen in the use of contraception can be overcome by promoting spacing methods like PPIUCD, injectables and pills. The couple should be counselled together to alleviate the anxiety in the husband.

  2. A Study of Cervical Pap Smears in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

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    Dr Kruti Bhut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer of the cervix is the leading cancer among females of India. Cancer of cervix is readily preventable, and can be diagnosed at the pre-invasive stage with adequate and repetitive cytological screening with Papanicolaou (Pap smears. Objectives: This is a retrospective study aimed to evaluate all previously conducted cervical smears examined at a teaching tertiary care hospital during one year period. Methods: Detailed clinical data and Pap smear cytology reports were obtained and data noted in a structured proforma. All the smears were reported as per the 2001 Bethesda system. Results: A total of 1436 Pap smears were examined. Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 – 40 years (fourth decade. There were 133(9.2% unsatisfactory or inadequate samples. A total of 1187 smears were reported as Negative for Intraepithelial Lesion or Malignancy (NILM and 390(22.7% were inflammatory. Out of a total of 1436 Pap smears, only 116(8.0% cases were reported to have epithelial cell abnormality. The 116 abnormal cases comprised of 36 cases with ASC-US, 27 cases of LSIL, 36 cases of HSIL, 7 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix can be diagnosed easily by Pap smears. The epithelial cell abnormality rate in our study was 8.0%.

  3. Ectopic Pregnancy: Lagos University Teaching Hospital Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pregnancy remains one of the commonest gynaecological emergencies in developing countries. In a retrospective study of ectopic pregnancy carried out at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria, over a five year period, 272 cases were managed with an incidence of 43.8/1000 deliveries.

  4. Antihypertensive Drug Prescribing in a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the pattern of antihypertensive medication prescription in a referral hospital in Nigeria and its use by patients. Methods: By method of convenience sampling, 4954 prescriptions were collected from 376 files of hypertensive patients (> 18 years) visiting a referral hospital in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria ...

  5. An appraisal of medical waste management in four tertiary hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that waste segregation is carried out in only one hospital. Hospital wastes are collected with wheel barrows and trolleys. Refuse is transported to treatment or disposal site by open trucks in two centres, the other two by Enugu State Waste Management Agency (ESWAMA) refuse trucks. Only one ...

  6. An Overview of Teaching Listening in Islamic Tertiary Level of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Saehu, Andang

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this paper is to depict listening activities in teaching Basic Listening designed by lecturers in an EFL classroom observation of Islamic tertiary level of education in Indonesia. Qualitative methods, used to collect and analyze data gained from observation and interview. The result showed that the lecturer designed various activities in teaching Basic Listening in the EFL class, which they were set up in three stages: pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening. Th...

  7. Assessment of Utilization of ICT Resources in Teaching among Tertiary Institution Business Educators in South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort; Nwadiani, Comfort Onaigho

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the utilization of ICT resources in teaching among business educators in tertiary institutions in south Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population and sample for the study comprised all 240 business educators in colleges…

  8. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

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    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  9. Ocular trauma: A tertiary hospital experience from Oman

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    Haitham H Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a common presentation at Al-Nahdha Hospital. Although the majority of trauma cases were minor without any resultant visual disability, OGI could have been prevented with better ocular protection in the workplace.

  10. Clinico-radiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in pediatric population in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bandana; Mainali, Prabha; Sayami, Sujan; Shrestha, Om Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosisis common in developing countries including Nepal. Clinicalpresentations vary depending on the CT scan findings of head. Adequate information of neurocysticercosis in children from Western Nepal is lacking. This study was conducted with an objective of evaluating the most common clinical and radiological picture in children suffering from NCC at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Western Nepal. Hospital records of all pediatric inpatients, admitted from 16th June 2010 to 15th December 2012, consistent with the diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis were reviewed. Forty nine cases of neurocysticercosis were enrolled. Their age varied 2.6 years to 14 years with the mean age of 10.6 years and the peak age was at 12 years with slight male predominance, ratio being male:female 1.2:1. The commonest presentation was seizures (n=38; 77.5 %); partial seizures being most common. Most of the lesions were single (n=44; 89.8%), predominantly in the parietal region (n=20; 40.8%) and most were in transitional stage (61.22%) in Computed tomography (CT).However, number of lesions from CT scan of head showed no significance in association with seizure types (p=0.84). In addition, perilesional edema and scolex within the lesion were noted in 67.34% and 18.36% of the cases respectively. Any child presenting with acute onset of afebrile seizure should be screened for neurocysticercosis provided other common infective and metabolic causes are ruled out. CT scan is the valuable diagnostic tool to support our diagnosis.

  11. Surface epithelial tumors of ovary - an analysis in a tertiary referral hospital

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    D Ghartimagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer accounts for 3% of all cancers in females. About 80% of these are benign, and they occur mostly in young women between 20 and 45 years. Borderline tumors occur at slightly older ages while incidence of malignant tumors increases with age, occurring predominantly in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. About 190,000 new cases and 114,000 deaths from ovarian cancer are estimated to occur annually worldwide. The aim of the study was to fi nd the incidence of surface ovarian tumor in a tertiary referral centre. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in the department of pathology, Manipal Teaching Hospital from January 2001 to December 2012. Specimens were received from the same and other hospitals. Records were retrieved from the departmental data bank and were analyzed. Results: : A total of 310 cases of ovarian tumors have been reported in the same period. Among them, 180 cases were of surface epithelial origin and out of which 24 cases had bilateral tumors. Benign tumors comprised of 148 cases, 6 were borderline and 44 were malignant. Among these, the commonest was serous cystadenoma (98 cases and the least common was malignant Brenner (2 cases. Combined or mixed tumor was seen in 9 cases. Conclusion: : In our study surface epithelial tumors comprised 58% of all ovarian tumors. In both benign and malignant cases, serous tumor was the commonest followed by mucinous tumors. Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, No.1, Issue 5, 397-402 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i5.7868

  12. A study on adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ratan J. Lihite

    2016-06-27

    Jun 27, 2016 ... Abstract Objective: Purpose of this study was to monitor adverse drug reactions reported from various departments of a tertiary care hospital in Northeast India. Reported adverse drug reactions were analysed for causality and severity assessment. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a ...

  13. Experience with tetanus in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus has for long been an avoidable source of morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to review the experience with managing tetanus in a regional tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients who were admitted with a clinical diagnosis ...

  14. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  15. Gestational age at initiation of antenatal care in a tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational age at initiation of antenatal care in a tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria. ... care is still prevalent in our environment. Therefore, pregnant women should be adequately informed about the concept of early antenatal registration. Keywords: Antenatal care, gestational age, initiation, Nigeria, Southwestern ...

  16. A 5 - year surveillance of wound infections at a rural tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wound infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, aetiology and susceptibility profile of bacterial agents of wound infection among in- and- out patients at a rural tertiary hospital in Nigeria, within a 5 year period. Methods: Wound swabs collected ...

  17. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; B?ttig, Veronika; Kremo, J?rg; Widmer, Andreas F.; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. Methods At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospit...

  18. Profile of children admitted with seizures in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Sudhir; Sathian, Brijesh; Koirala, Deepak Prasad; Rao, Kalipatnam Seshagiri

    2013-01-01

    Background Seizure is one of the common causes of childhood hospitalization with significant mortality and morbidity. There is limited data regarding acute seizures episodes form the developing countries. Current study aims to find the common etiology of seizure and classify seizure types in various age groups presenting to tertiary center in Western Nepal. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study carried out in the data retrieved from the records maintained in the Department of ...

  19. Missed Opportunities for Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children With Influenza at a Tertiary Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suchitra; Williams, Joshua T B; Torok, Michelle R; Cunningham, Maureen A; Glodè, Mary P; Wilson, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    To identify the extent and characteristics of missed opportunities for influenza vaccination among children hospitalized with influenza at a tertiary children's hospital. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza admitted to Children's Hospital Colorado from 2010 to 2014. We reviewed medical records for vaccination status and previous visits. The primary outcome was the proportion of underimmunized patients hospitalized with influenza with at least 1 missed opportunity visit (visit before influenza diagnosis in which an eligible patient did not receive the influenza vaccine). The relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and the primary outcome were examined using χ(2) tests and nonparametric tests, and variables with P vaccination. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high-risk status (adjusted odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence interval 3.8-12.4) was associated with increased odds of having a missed opportunity visit. Most missed opportunity visits were to subspecialty clinics (42%), and most visits (71%) occurred from September to November. More than 40% of hospitalizations for influenza in children are associated with at least 1 missed opportunity visit at a tertiary center. Our findings highlight the potential role of tertiary care institutions in increasing influenza vaccination rates among children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Obstetric Outcome in Twin Gestation in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies. Foetal and maternal complications are common in twin pregnancies. Therefore, periodic review is necessary to improve on the twin pregnancy outcome. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancies in the hospital. MATERIALS AND ...

  1. Economic burden of inflenza at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Quang Vo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate cost of illness based on provider perspective of influenza treatment at Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh city. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 at Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City. Demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records. Treatment cost was composed of cost of hospital bed, diagnosis test, X-ray/imaging, operation, pharmaceuticals and consumable materials. Results: Average cost per episode of all aged group was (112.58 ± 239.60 USD, the highest cost was contributed by adults group [(313.28 ± 560.5 USD],whereas the lowest cost was children group [(80.62 ± 120.80 USD]. According to high risk factor group, the average cost per day is 42.14 USD for any cardiovascular disorders group; diabetes-cardiovascular patient (41.15 USD, and elderly patient groups (48.52 USD. Conclusions: Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations imposes a heavy burden on patients and their families in Vietnam. Further study is needed to provide more comprehensive evidence on the economic burden of influenza.

  2. Lower Limb Amputations at a Nigerian Private Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence is on the rise in Nigeria due mainly to increasing motorcycle accidents and increased prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes complicated by neuropathy, vasculopathy and diabetic foot gangrene. OBJECTIVE: To determine the ... Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 21 to 72 days. CONCLUSION: Most lower ...

  3. Underreporting and overreporting of hepatitis B at a tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer records. Hospital inpatient charts of patients notified for hepatitis 8 as wetl as patients with a discharge diagnosis of hepatitis a were retrieved and examined for corresponding hepatitis B laboratory test results, clinical evidence of hepatitis B virus. Infection and evidence of previous notification. An underreporting ...

  4. Employees' Assessment of Leadership in a Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: There is some evidence that weak leadership in health institutions contributes to underutilization of health services, resulting in high levels of morbidities and mortalities. Employee-rated leadership gaps in a hospital, as done in this study, can promote employee engagement in leadership capacity ...

  5. Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    External cause of injury was classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) guidelines as Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) (irrespective of type), fall from height, assault, gunshot, game or sport related accident and other causes. Road traffic accident accounts for relatively high incidence of hospitalized TBI.

  6. Surgical inpatient mortality in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Aim: The determination of the pattern of mortality in a surgical unit helps in planning, provision of quality surgical care .... Cancer. Surgical complications. Congenital anomalies. GI Obstructions. Others. %. Figure 2: Primary cause of mortality. Table 2: The time between presentation to the hospital and death.

  7. Spectrum of glaucoma presentation in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the types and severity of glaucoma at presentation in patients attending the glaucoma clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. This information will help in designing an awareness and management strategy that will help in reducing glaucoma blindness. Materials ...

  8. Incidence of Epistaxis in a Tertiary Hospital in Ghana | Awuah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epistaxis is defined as bleeding from the nasal cavity. It is a very common Otorhinolaryngological problem that often presents as an emergency to the outpatient departments of most hospitals worldwide. Its true incidence is often very difficult to assess. This study was aimed at analyzing aetiology, treatment and management ...

  9. Bio-Medical Waste Managment in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Ahuja, Sanjiv; Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ajay Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management is of utmost importance as its improper management poses serious threat to health care workers, waste handlers, patients, care givers, community and finally the environment. Simultaneously, the health care providers should know the quantity of waste generated in their facility and try to reduce the waste generation in day-to-day work because lesser amount of BMW means a lesser burden on waste disposal work and cost saving. To have an overview of management of BMW in a tertiary care teaching hospital so that effective interventions and implementations can be carried out for better outcome. The observational study was carried out over a period of five months from January 2016 to May 2016 in Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut by the Infection Control Team (ICT). Assessment of knowledge was carried out by asking set of questions individually and practice regarding awareness of BMW Management among the Health Care Personnel (HCP) was carried out by direct observation in the workplace. Further, the total BMW generated from the present setup in kilogram per bed per day was calculated by dividing the mean waste generated per day by the number of occupied beds. Segregation of BMW was being done at the site of generation in almost all the areas of the hospital in color coded polythene bags as per the hospital protocol. The different types of waste being collected were infectious solid waste in red bag, soiled infectious waste in yellow bag and sharp waste in puncture proof container and blue bag. Though awareness (knowledge) about segregation of BMW was seen in 90% of the HCP, 30%-35% did not practice. Out of the total waste generated (57912 kg.), 8686.8 kg. (15%) was infectious waste. Average infectious waste generated was 0.341 Kg per bed per day. The transport, treatment and disposal of each collected waste were outsourced and carried out by 'Synergy' waste management Pvt. Ltd. The practice of BMW Management was lacking in 30

  10. COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HYDATID DISEASE OF LIVER AND MANAGEMENT AT PERIPHERAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunaharan Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hydatid Disease (HD is a zoonotic disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcosis granulosus, now become a rare clinical entity in teaching medical college hospitals. This is due to the public education about the disease, mode of spread and treatment available. The aim of the study is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods available, organs affected and treatment available in the tertiary hospitals and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data Collection- Patients with upper right abdominal pain with radiological and ultrasound findings are included in the study. About twenty patients are taken for this study. Medical managements, surgical procedure done and outcomes are recorded, tabulated and analysed. Research Design- Prospective Study, Research Setting- KAPV Govt. Medical College and Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Govt. Hospital, Trichy, Tamilnadu. Duration- 7 yrs. (2009 to 2016 Sample Size- Twenty. Inclusion CriteriaPatients between 12 to 70 years of age of both sexes. Patient having right upper abdomen or epigastric pain with positive radiological and ultrasound findings. Patient willing to participate in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients more than 70 years not willing to participate in the study patients absconded in between the management. RESULTS Liver is a commonest solid organ affected by the hydatid disease. Most of the diagnosis are made accidentally when the patients are investigated for some other diseases. The commonest clinical presentation is right abdominal or epigastric pain with hepatomegaly. The average age group is 45 years. X-ray abdomen, ultrasound abdomen are the most useful investigations. Asymptomatic uncomplicated small cyst less than 5 cms are managed with medical treatment. Symptomatic large cysts are submitted for surgical intervention. CONCLUSION The main source of income in majority of rural population is agriculture and sheep and cattle grazing. WHO is working towards the

  11. Bio-Medical Waste Managment in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Sanjiv; Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management is of utmost importance as its improper management poses serious threat to health care workers, waste handlers, patients, care givers, community and finally the environment. Simultaneously, the health care providers should know the quantity of waste generated in their facility and try to reduce the waste generation in day-to-day work because lesser amount of BMW means a lesser burden on waste disposal work and cost saving. Aim To have an overview of management of BMW in a tertiary care teaching hospital so that effective interventions and implementations can be carried out for better outcome. Materials and Methods The observational study was carried out over a period of five months from January 2016 to May 2016 in Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut by the Infection Control Team (ICT). Assessment of knowledge was carried out by asking set of questions individually and practice regarding awareness of BMW Management among the Health Care Personnel (HCP) was carried out by direct observation in the workplace. Further, the total BMW generated from the present setup in kilogram per bed per day was calculated by dividing the mean waste generated per day by the number of occupied beds. Results Segregation of BMW was being done at the site of generation in almost all the areas of the hospital in color coded polythene bags as per the hospital protocol. The different types of waste being collected were infectious solid waste in red bag, soiled infectious waste in yellow bag and sharp waste in puncture proof container and blue bag. Though awareness (knowledge) about segregation of BMW was seen in 90% of the HCP, 30%-35% did not practice. Out of the total waste generated (57912 kg.), 8686.8 kg. (15%) was infectious waste. Average infectious waste generated was 0.341 Kg per bed per day. The transport, treatment and disposal of each collected waste were outsourced and carried out by ‘Synergy’ waste management Pvt. Ltd

  12. The impact of reducing intensive care unit length of stay on hospital costs: evidence from a tertiary care hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jessica; Kobewka, Daniel; Thavorn, Kednapa; D'Egidio, Gianni; Rosenberg, Erin; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo

    2018-02-23

    To use theoretical modelling exercises to determine the effect of reduced intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) on total hospital costs at a Canadian centre. We conducted a retrospective cost analysis from the perspective of one tertiary teaching hospital in Canada. Cost, demographic, clinical, and LOS data were retrieved through case-costing, patient registry, and hospital abstract systems of The Ottawa Hospital Data Warehouse for all new in-patient ward (30,483) and ICU (2,239) encounters between April 2012 and March 2013. Aggregate mean daily variable direct (VD) costs for ICU vs ward encounters were summarized by admission day number, LOS, and cost centre. The mean daily VD cost per ICU patient was $2,472 (CAD), accounting for 67.0% of total daily ICU costs per patient and $717 for patients admitted to the ward. Variable direct cost is greatest on the first day of ICU admission ($3,708), and then decreases by 39.8% to plateau by the fifth day of admission. Reducing LOS among patients with ICU stays ≥ four days could potentially result in an annual hospital cost saving of $852,146 which represents 0.3% of total in-patient hospital costs and 1.2% of ICU costs. Reducing ICU LOS has limited cost-saving potential given that ICU costs are greatest early in the course of admission, and this study does not support the notion of reducing ICU LOS as a sole cost-saving strategy.

  13. Management for the children with otitis media with effusion in the tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Yun-Hoon; Shin, You Ree; Choi, Seong Jun; Park, Keehyun; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Jong Bin; Han, Dong Hee; Kahng, Hison

    2008-12-01

    Recently, new evidence-based recommendations have been introduced for diagnosing and managing otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. However, there are some difficulties to follow the general guidelines in the tertiary hospitals. The purpose is to evaluate the efficiency of antibiotics or antihistamines for treatment of children with OME in the tertiary hospital with a randomized prospective clinical study. Eighty-four children with OME who had been diagnosed in the tertiary hospital were randomized to receive 5 different medications for 2 weeks. We prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin-clavulanate syrup) in Group I (n=16), antibiotics/steroids (prednisolone) in Group II (n=18), antibiotics/antihistamines (ebastine) in Group III (n=15), antibiotics/steroids/antihistamines in Group IV (n=17), and mucolytics (ivy leaf extract) in Group V (n=17) for control. We followed-up children every 2 weeks and evaluated the state of OME at 3 months. Thirty six (42.9%) of 84 children were resolved within average 6.9 weeks after the treatments. Thirty-six (42.9%) were treated with ventilation tube insertion and 12 patients (14.3%) were observed. There was no difference in the resolution rates of OME among the five different protocols (P>0.05). There was no difference in the resolution rates among groups who used steroids, antihistamines, steroids and antihistamines, or other medications to manage 42 children with allergies (P>0.05). In the tertiary hospital, the cure rate of children with OME was not as high as well-known, and antibiotics or anti-allergic medications were not more effective than control. We may, therefore, need any other guidelines which are different from the previous evidence-based recommendations, including early operation in the tertiary hospitals.

  14. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rpo B gene in respiratory and non-respiratory clinical specimens at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somily, Ali M; Barry, Mazin A; Habib, Hanan A; Alotaibi, Fawzia E; Al-Zamil, Fahad A; Khan, Mohammed A; Sarwar, Mohammed S; Bakhash, Nawab D; Alrabiaah, Abdulkarim A; Shakoor, Zahid A; Senok, Abiola C

    2016-12-01

    To assess the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF), against smear microscopy and culture method for diagnosis of MTB infection. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 103 respiratory and 137 non-respiratory patient specimens suspected of tuberculosis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia performed between April 2014 and March 2015. Each sample underwent smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and GeneXpert MTB/RIF test. Results: Fifteen out of 103 respiratory samples were smear and culture positive, whereas 9 out of 137 non-respiratory samples were smear positive. Out of 9 smear positive specimens, 8 were also culture positive. All 15 culture positive respiratory samples were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF (sensitivity  and positive predictive value [PPV]=100%). Similarly, all 8 culture positive non-respiratory specimens were identified by Xpert MTB/RIF (sensitivity 100%; PPV 88.8%). The Xpert MTB/RIF detected only one false positive result in 88 smear negative respiratory specimens (specificity 98.9%; negative predictive value [NPV]= 100%). All 125 smear negative non-respiratory specimens tested negative by culture and Xpert MTB/RIF (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV= 100%). Conclusion: The performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was comparable to the gold standard culture method for identification of MTB in both respiratory and non-respiratory clinical specimens.

  15. Health seeking behavior of physicians at the Jos University Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    P A Agaba; A N Ocheke; M O Akanbi; C A Daniyam; S O Ugoya; E N Okeke; E I Agaba

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physicians who have the task of caring for the sick also need to be cared for when they take ill. Healthseeking habits of physicians have been found to be poor in most developed countries. Utilization of health services by physicians in developing countries is not known. We sought to describe the health seeking habits of physicians in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary referr...

  16. Primary salivary gland tumors in eastern Nepal tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, A; Chettri, S T; Joshi, R R; Bhattarai, M; Ghimire, A; Karki, S

    2010-04-01

    The knowledge of the distribution and pattern of salivary gland tumors in the tertiary care center can provide overview of the disease pattern in the region. It also helps in planning the strategies to treat the disease and launch the awareness program in the community to this largely curable disease. A retrospective observational study of all the salivary gland tumors treated in the department of Otolaryngology, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences during April 2004 to March 2009 was done. Age, sex, presenting features, radiological findings, histopathological type of the tumor and type of surgery were recorded and descriptive analysis was done to calculate frequencies, percentage and their relations. Out of total 51 cases, 81% (n=41) were benign and 19% (n=10) malignant tumors. Male to female ratio was 1:2.1. Mean age for benign and malignant tumors were 32.3 and 46.5 years respectively. Parotid tumor outnumbered all other sites comprising 69%, followed by submandiibular 18% and minor glands 13%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest tumor (76%) of all primary salivary gland tumors. Benign to malignant tumor ratio of parotid, submandibular and minor glands were 6:1, 3.5:1 and 1.3:1 respectively. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (40%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (30%) were commonest malignant tumors. The principal site for salivary gland tumors in eastern Nepal population was the parotid and the pleomorphic adenoma outnumbered all other tumors. Most of the cases in both benign and malignant group presented with painless lump often misleading the gravity of disease.

  17. Threshold Concepts: Impacts on Teaching and Learning at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mira; Harlow, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project explored teaching and learning of hard-to-learn threshold concepts in first-year English, an electrical engineering course, leadership courses, and in doctoral writing. The project was envisioned to produce disciplinary case studies that lecturers could use to reflect on and refine their curriculum and pedagogy, thereby contributing…

  18. Culinary and hospitality teaching as a research-based profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culinary and hospitality teaching is henceforth referred to by the inclusive term hospitality. Hospitality is not currently a research-based profession. If it were, I have no doubt that culinary and hospitality teaching would be more effective and much more satisfying for both teachers and students, and be acknowledged by ...

  19. Acute mesenteric ischemia: experience in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Dildar; Sarfraz, Shahid Latif; Baliga, Suresh K; Hartung, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is an abdominal catastrophe. This has been described as a complex of diseases rather than a single clinical entity. The incidence in United States is 1 in 1000 hospital admissions. The objective of this descriptive study was to determine the clinical presentations and out come after surgery of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. It was conducted at Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. All patients having per operative or histopathological diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia from 2002 to 2006 were included. There were 16 patients in all. Their mean age was 51 years, 12 were male and 4 were female. Abdominal pain was present in 16 patients, vomiting in 12 and anorexia in 9 patients. Abdominal tenderness was present in 16 patients, abdominal distension and rebound tenderness in 12 patients. Five patients had hypertension, 4 had myocardial infarction and 4 had diabetes mellitus as risk factors. X-Ray abdomen was done in 13 patients, Ultrasound in 9 and CT Scan in one patient. Resection of bowel was done in 14 patients. Post operatively 5 patients developed pneumonia, 3 had wound dehiscence, 3 had sepsis, and 3 had Lower GI bleeding. Five patients were expired after surgery in the hospital. Four patients were lost to follow up. We should have a high index of suspicion for mesenteric ischemia in patients with unexplained abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention improves the outcome.

  20. Aggressive periodontitis in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, Solomon Olusegun; Uhunmwangho, Iyobosa; Chukwuma, Benedict; Ikponmwosa, Osagie

    2014-07-01

    These case series were aimed at highlighting late presentations of aggressive periodontitis (AP) in a teaching hospital as well as proffering possible reasons for such presentations which would serve as part of the solution to prevent such presentations in the future. Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of destructive periodontitis traditionally believed to present around puberty. However, many cases seen in a teaching hospital presented much later for yet-to-be explained reasons. Seven patients referred to the specialist periodontal clinic of a Nigerian teaching hospital presented with clinical features consistent with AP. Most of the patients were over twenty and some over thirty years of age. Aggressive periodontitis patients seen in our center were often outside the traditional age brackets. The range of treatment options available to the patients were under-utilized due to serious financial constraints. Aggressive periodontitis comes with serious psychological challenges and severe morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and effective management hold the key to success It is important to investigate why many of the cases seen in our center presented that late. Could be due to ignorance and poverty or could be due to failure of dentists recognize these cases and consequent misdiagnosis? Further studies are needed to answer these questions.

  1. Acute appendicitis in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hospital is a tertiary care facility in competition with a large number of private hospitals with different levels of competence. Objective: The objective of the study is to review the outcome of the surgical management of acute appendicitis in our hospital. Method: A retrospective study of subjects who had appendectomy for ...

  2. The Perception of Tertiary Institutions Prospective Teachers on the Benefits of Teaching Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Olusola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the perception of two tertiary institutions prospective teachers’ on the Benefits of Teaching Practice in Ogun State. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of four hundred students was randomly selected for the study. Prospective Teachers Perception on Teaching practice Benefits Questionnaire (PTPTPBQ with the reliability coefficient of 0.80 was administered on the respondents. Data collected was analyzed using Mean Score, Charts, Percentages and t-test of significance. The study reveals that prospective teachers have low perception on the benefits of teaching practice also, finance and housing were the two major challenges faced by prospective teachers.. It is evident from the findings that there is need for concerted effort by school to orientate prospective teachers on the benefits of teaching practice. Also the major challenges faced by prospective teachers should also be addressed to allow them have good grasp from the benefits of teaching practice.

  3. Study of susceptibility towards varicella by screening for the presence of IgG antibodies among nursing and medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A Singru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that all suffer from chickenpox infection in their childhood. Many studies abroad and some in India clearly indicate that many individuals escape the infection in childhood, and thus, remain susceptible in adulthood. Adulthood chickenpox is a more serious infection than childhood. Prior screening of health care workers for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella will not only prevent hospital outbreaks but also economic and academic loss faced by the students. This will also have an important implication in terms of patient care as there is a threat of spreading Varicella to immuno-compromised patients. Definite history of prior infection of chickenpox is considered as an indicator for immunity towards the same. However, the reliability of this needs to be tested. Aim: A study to assess the susceptibility of nursing and medical students towards Varicella infection by screening for IgG antibodies against Varicella virus and to identify any risk factors for the same. Settings and design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in nursing and medical students. Materials and Methods: Total 78 nursing and medical students participated in the study. They were given prestructured and pretested questionnaires. After obtaining informed consent, blood sample was collected and screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA by using a commercial kit. Statistical analysis: Epi_info 2002 was used for analysis. Age of the study subjects were summarized as mean age and standard deviation. Susceptibility was analyzed as percentage with 95% confidence interval and Chi Square test was used to find association of susceptibility status with sex and region of residence in childhood. Relevance of definite history as an indicator for immunity was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results

  4. Management of traumatic spinal column injury: A tertiary hospital experience

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    Md. Kamrul Ahsan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is the leading cause of disability in the first four decades of life and third most common cause of death. Spinal trauma poses considerable threats to survival and quality of life.Objective: Aims of this study is to assess the demographics, mode of trauma, hospital stay, complications, neurological improvement and mortality.Methods: Retrospective Cross sectional analysis of the records of spinal injury patients admitted in the Spine Unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU Hospital from October 2003 to December 2013 was carried out. The demo­graphics, mode of trauma, involved vertebral level, co-morbid factors; neurological status and its improvement by Ameri­can Spinal Injury Association (ASIA Score, duration of hospital stay and complications during hospital stay was assessed. Results were analyzed by SPSS.Results: Out of 1288 patients admitted, 192(14.90% patients(range, 8-72 years sustained spinal injuries and most (63.02%of them were young (range, 21-40 years. Male to female ratio was 5:1. Cervical spine was most commonly ( 44.66% affected followed by lumbar (35 .41 % , thoracic (13 .54% , thoraco-lumbar (06.25% and Cervico-thoracic (03.13% region. Fracture through intervertebral disc was most common in cervical spine. Among the common causes were road traffic accidents (44.47%, fall from height (29.69%, heavy weight bearing (14.58% and assault with gunshot (07.29%. Paraparesis was most frequent (51.05% clinical presentation followed by quadriparesis (45.83%. Significant number of patients (83.33% required operative treatment (p<0.05 and 09.89% were managed conservatively. Mortality rate (03.64% was insignificant (p>0.05% and 03.12% patient refused to take treatment. Of these patients, 77.01 % had shown neurological improvement of at least one grade according to ASIA Score.Conclusion: Wide varieties of patients are encountered and managed varying from conservative to surgery. Carefully selected

  5. A review of stroke admissions at a tertiary hospital in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    . Olusegun A. Busari1, Adebowale O. Adekoya2, Joshua Oluwafemi Afolayan1. Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, 1Department of Medicine, Federal Medical. Centre Ido- Ekiti, 2Department of ...

  6. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Faizan; Akram, Shahzad; Al-Osaimi, Yousif A; Haider, Nafis

    2017-01-01

    Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical) were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6%) were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%). The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (perror was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%). Lipid-lowering (12.4%) and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17.7% were rated as potentially harmful. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that patients aged ≥65 years

  7. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. Results: A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6% were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%. The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (p<0.001. In both groups, the most frequent reconciliation error was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%. Lipid-lowering (12.4% and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17

  8. Contraceptive Awareness and Practice Among Antenatal Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

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    Aniekan Monday Abasiattai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of effective contraceptive methods has been shown to improve health, sexual life and partner relations and also significantly reduce maternal and infant mortality by protecting against unplanned pregnancy, high fertility and high parity. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of contraception by women in Uyo, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to three hundred and seventy women in the antenatal clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Results: Majority of the respondents were 21-30 years old (64.1%, 53.8% were multiparous and 66.5% had tertiary level education. Three hundred and twenty women (87.6% had heard about contraception (OR=49.6, P< 0.001, while only 49.5% of the respondents had practiced contraception previously (OR=0.96, P=0.76 of which the male condom (40.0% and the safe period/calendar method (31.1% were the most commonly practiced methods. Majority of the respondents (66.8% preferred to have 3 to 4 children and 78.4% of the respondents would want to used a method of contraception to either space their family or limit child bearing (OR=13.14, P< 0.001. Fear of side effects (20.0% and previous bad experience (8.8% were the most common reasons given by those respondents who would not want to practice contraception. Conclusion: This study reveals a high level of awareness of contraception but a significant unmet need among the respondents. There is need to intensify public enlightenment campaigns in our environment emphasizing the benefits and safety of modern contraceptive methods. Community leaders and heads of social groups and women organisations should be co-opted in the dissemination of accurate information on contraception. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 29-34

  9. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

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    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  10. Parental circumcision preferences and early outcome of plastibell circumcision in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

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    Okechukwu Hyginus Ekwunife

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents are central in decisions and choices concerning circumcision of their male children and plastibell circumcision is a widely practiced technique. This study determined parental preferences for male neonatal and infant circumcisions and evaluate the early outcomes of plastibell circumcisions in a tertiary centre. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study on consecutive male neonates and infants who were brought for circumcisions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria and their respective parents between January 2012 and December 2012. Data on demography, parental choices and early outcome of plastibell circumcision were obtained and analysed. Results: A total of 337 requests for circumcisions were made for boys with age range of 2-140 days. Culture and religion were the most common reasons for circumcision requests in 200 (59.3% and 122 (36.2%, respectively, other reasons were medical, cosmesis, to reduce promiscuity and just to follow the norm. Most parents, 249 (73.9% preferred the procedure to be performed on the 8 th day and 88.7% would like the doctors to perform the procedure while 84.6% preferred the plastibell method. Among those who had circumcision, 114 complied with follow-up schedules and there were complications in 22 (19.3% patients. Parents assessed the early outcome as excellent, very good, good and poor in 30.7%, 45.6%, 18.4% and 5.3% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: Parents request for male circumcision in our environment is largely for cultural and religious reasons; and prefer the procedure to be performed by a physician. Plastibell method is well known and preferred and its outcome is acceptable by most parents.

  11. Circumcision: Perspective in a Nigerian teaching hospital

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    L O Abdur-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The practice and pattern of male infants circumcised is influenced by culture, religion and socio-economic classification. The debate about the benefits and risks of circumcision has made a hospital-based practice the most acceptable. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ages, indications, co-morbidity, types and methods of circumcision, usage and mode of anaesthesia and outcome of male circumcision at a tertiary health centre in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of male circumcision in a paediatric surgery unit was done from January 2002 to December 2007. The data was analysed using SPSS software version 15. Results: There were 438 boys with age ranged between 6 days and 10 years (median 28 days, mean 53.6 days standard deviation 74.2. Neonatal circumcision (<29 days was 201 (46% and 318 (72.6% of the children were circumcised by the 3 rd month of live. Religion or tradition were the major indicators in 384 (87.7% patients while phimosis 38 (8.7%, paraphimosis 4 (1%, redundant post circumcision skin 10 (2.3% and defective prepuce in 2 (0.5% were other indications. Plastibel™ (PD was used in 214 (48.9%, classical circumcision 194 (44.2%, guillotine technique (GT and Gomco™ 10 (2.3% cases each while 10 (2.3% had a refashioning/re-excision post previous circumcision. There was an increase in use of PD, drop in the use of GT; and increase in the number of circumcision done over the years. Only 39.7% had anaesthesia administered and complication rate was 6.7%. Conclusion: Neonatal circumcision was highest in the hospital-based circumcision practice, which allowed the expected ideals in the use of devices in a tertiary health centre. However, the low rate of anaesthetic use is unacceptable.

  12. Opinion of hospital pharmacy practitioners toward the Continuing Pharmacy Education program: a study from a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal

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    Poudel RS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Sharma Poudel,1 Rano Mal Piryani,2 Shakti Shrestha,3 Roshan Chaurasiya,1 Bed Prakash Niure1 1Hospital Pharmacy, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal, 2Health Professionals Education and Research Centre, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal, 3Department of Pharmacy, Shree Medical and Technical College, Chitwan, Nepal Background: Meeting participants’ needs and matching their preferences are important prerequisites for an effective Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE program. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the opinion of hospital pharmacy practitioners with respect to the CPE program.Methods: The pretested questionnaires were distributed to 20 pharmacy practitioners working in a pharmacy at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal which asked for their opinions and suggestions with respect to the CPE program. Descriptive statistics were performed using IBM SPSS version 20.Results: Topics related to skills development (75% and recent innovations in pharmacy practice (65% were mostly preferred. Live (in-person presentations (80% and small group discussion (60% were the most suitable methods for delivery. Improving knowledge (75%, improving skills (60% and keeping up-to-date in the latest information (60% were major motivating factors to participate, while lack of time (75% was a major barrier. Approximately 55% of the participants believed that face-to-face interview was a suitable method for evaluating the effectiveness. Allocation of separate time for the program, assessing baseline knowledge and skills of the participants along with delivery of quality materials in an understandable way were the top common suggestions for improving the CPE program.Conclusion: Hospital pharmacy practitioners’ opinions and suggestions were assessed with respect to the CPE program and this was upgraded accordingly to meet their expectations. Keywords: continuing education, opinion, pharmacy, pharmacy

  13. Maternal Death Reviews of a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Indira Upadhyaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All pregnant women are at risk of obstetrical complications which occurs during labour and delivary that lead to maternal death. Here to report a 10 year review of maternal mortality ratio in "Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital (PMWH" Thapathali Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods: Medical records of 66 maternal deaths were reviewed to study the likely cause of each death over the study period. Results: There were a total of 66 maternal deaths. While 192487 deliveries conducted over the 10 year period. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR was 356.64/100000 live birth. The highest MMR of 74.22/100,000 was observed in 2059 and lowest was 17.42/100,000 in 2068 B.S. Leading cause of MMR was remained hemorrhage accounting for 30.30% followed by eclampsia 24.24%. Sepsis, suspected cases of pulmonary embolism and amniotic fluid embolism each contributing 15.15%, 4.54% and 3.03% respectively. Where as anesthetic complication and abortion constiuates 6.06 % each equally for maternal death. The death noted in older women (30+year were 36.36%. Primipara accounted for more deaths (51.51%. Conclusions: The fall in maternal mortality rate has been observed except for year 2063 BS. Haemorrhage is the main contributing cause behind maternal mortality.

  14. Issues of teaching science to nurses in the tertiary sector

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    Strube, Paul

    1991-12-01

    The shift of nurse education from the hospitals to higher education institutions has resulted in a large pool of students within the Universities requiring basic science instruction. Most of these students are female, often mature age, with limited science backgrounds. This paper discusses the type of science education demanded by the nursing profession, the view of science as a subject held by these students, and the key role played by constructivist thinking in dealing with both of these.

  15. Medical tourism in India: perceptions of physicians in tertiary care hospitals.

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    Qadeer, Imrana; Reddy, Sunita

    2013-12-17

    Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians' however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical

  16. Medical tourism in india: perceptions of physicians in tertiary care hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians’ however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical

  17. INCIDENCE OF OCULAR TRAUMA IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN VISAKHAPATNAM

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    Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.

  18. Prescription auditing of griseofulvin in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

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    Bai Kirubha, M Hepsi

    2009-01-01

    Griseofulvin has been the mainstay of treatment for dermatophytosis since many years. Since it is a penicillium antibiotic and used commonly in the outpatient department, the prescription should be audited for its safety and quality. Clinical pharmacists being an important member of the healthcare system have an immense responsibility in delivering pharmaceutical care by auditing prescriptions in order to achieve rational and cost-effective medical care thereby improving patient's Quality of Life (QOL). To study the utilization of griseofulvin by auditing prescriptions, to assess the impact of griseofulvin on the QOL of patients and to emphasize role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist in the treatment outcome of dermatophytosis. 120 patients prescribed with griseofulvin in the dermatology outpatient department were included in the study. On the basis of therapeutic response, improvement was graded at the end of the treatment regimen. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the treatment period were recorded. Laboratory investigations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Quality of Life was measured at baseline and at the end of therapy. 56.7% were females and 43.3% were males. The most common diagnosis was tinea corporis (44.17%) followed by tinea cruris (14.17%) and onychomycosis (9.17%). The most common ADR due to griseofulvin was headache (5.83%). 64.20% patients had complete cure following treatment with griseofulvin. The overall QOL score improved significantly following treatment with griseofulvin (P Griseofulvin can be used extensively for the treatment of dermatophytosis as it has no serious adverse effects and has higher cure rates. Treatment with griseofulvin significantly improves the QOL in patients with dermatophytosis.

  19. Prescription auditing of griseofulvin in a tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Bai Kirubha M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Griseofulvin has been the mainstay of treatment for dermatophytosis since many years. Since it is a penicillium antibiotic and used commonly in the outpatient department, the prescription should be audited for its safety and quality. Clinical pharmacists being an important member of the healthcare system have an immense responsibility in delivering pharmaceutical care by auditing prescriptions in order to achieve rational and cost-effective medical care thereby improving patient′s Quality of Life (QOL. Aims: To study the utilization of griseofulvin by auditing prescriptions, to assess the impact of griseofulvin on the QOL of patients and to emphasize role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist in the treatment outcome of dermatophytosis. Methods: 120 patients prescribed with griseofulvin in the dermatology outpatient department were included in the study. On the basis of therapeutic response, improvement was graded at the end of the treatment regimen. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs during the treatment period were recorded. Laboratory investigations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Quality of Life was measured at baseline and at the end of therapy. Results: 56.7% were females and 43.3% were males. The most common diagnosis was tinea corporis (44.17% followed by tinea cruris (14.17% and onychomycosis (9.17%. The most common ADR due to griseofulvin was headache (5.83%. 64.20% patients had complete cure following treatment with griseofulvin. The overall QOL score improved significantly following treatment with griseofulvin (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Griseofulvin can be used extensively for the treatment of dermatophytosis as it has no serious adverse effects and has higher cure rates. Treatment with griseofulvin significantly improves the QOL in patients with dermatophytosis.

  20. [Delays in the arrival of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage at a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Nellar, J; Scherle-Matamoros, C E; Montes de Oca, F; González-González, J L; Hierro-Garcia, D

    Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage should be referred to a tertiary hospital as early as possible. The aim of this research was to study how long these patients take to reach a tertiary care centre in Havana. We conducted a prospective study of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage who were admitted to the Stroke Unit at the Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras between January 2005 and December 2007. The time of arrival at the hospital was determined and a comparison was carried out between patients who arrived after 72 hours and those who reached the hospital sooner. The sample studied comprised 94 patients. Only 34 (36%) arrived during the first three days, whereas 13 (13.8%) reached the hospital within the first 24 hours. None of the sociodemographic and clinical variables that were studied was associated with early remission. The length of time spent in hospital by patients admitted during the first 72 hours was 14.9 days, while in the other cases it was 17.57 days (p = 0.248). The greatest impact on early remission to the tertiary centre was on the outcome at discharge on the Rankin scale, which was lower in those who arrived early compared to the rest of the cases (p = 0.05); the same was true of mortality, which was 5.9% in those who arrived within the first 72 hours versus 11.7% in the others (p = 0.04). Only a third of the cases reached hospital during the first 72 hours and this group had a more favourable course.

  1. Major limb amputations: A tertiary hospital experience in northwestern Tanzania

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    Chalya Phillipo L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major limb amputation is reported to be a major but preventable public health problem that is associated with profound economic, social and psychological effects on the patient and family especially in developing countries where the prosthetic services are poor. The purpose of this study was to outline the patterns, indications and short term complications of major limb amputations and to compare our experience with that of other published data. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre between March 2008 and February 2010. All patients who underwent major limb amputation were, after informed consent for the study, enrolled into the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 computer software. Results A total of 162 patients were entered into the study. Their ages ranged between 2–78 years (mean 28.30 ± 13.72 days. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2:1. The majority of patients (76.5% had primary or no formal education. One hundred and twelve (69.1% patients were unemployed. The most common indication for major limb amputation was diabetic foot complications in 41.9%, followed by trauma in 38.4% and vascular disease in 8.6% respectively. Lower limbs were involved in 86.4% of cases and upper limbs in 13.6% of cases giving a lower limb to upper limb ratio of 6.4:1 Below knee amputation was the most common procedure performed in 46.3%. There was no bilateral limb amputation. The most common additional procedures performed were wound debridement, secondary suture and skin grafting in 42.3%, 34.5% and 23.2% respectively. Two-stage operation was required in 45.4% of patients. Revision amputation rate was 29.6%. Post-operative complication rate was 33.3% and surgical site infection was the most common complication accounting for 21.0%. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.4 days and mortality

  2. Major limb amputations: a tertiary hospital experience in northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalya, Phillipo L; Mabula, Joseph B; Dass, Ramesh M; Ngayomela, Isdori H; Chandika, Alphonce B; Mbelenge, Nkinda; Gilyoma, Japhet M

    2012-05-11

    Major limb amputation is reported to be a major but preventable public health problem that is associated with profound economic, social and psychological effects on the patient and family especially in developing countries where the prosthetic services are poor. The purpose of this study was to outline the patterns, indications and short term complications of major limb amputations and to compare our experience with that of other published data. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre between March 2008 and February 2010. All patients who underwent major limb amputation were, after informed consent for the study, enrolled into the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 computer software. A total of 162 patients were entered into the study. Their ages ranged between 2-78 years (mean 28.30 ± 13.72 days). Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2:1. The majority of patients (76.5%) had primary or no formal education. One hundred and twelve (69.1%) patients were unemployed. The most common indication for major limb amputation was diabetic foot complications in 41.9%, followed by trauma in 38.4% and vascular disease in 8.6% respectively. Lower limbs were involved in 86.4% of cases and upper limbs in 13.6% of cases giving a lower limb to upper limb ratio of 6.4:1 Below knee amputation was the most common procedure performed in 46.3%. There was no bilateral limb amputation. The most common additional procedures performed were wound debridement, secondary suture and skin grafting in 42.3%, 34.5% and 23.2% respectively. Two-stage operation was required in 45.4% of patients. Revision amputation rate was 29.6%. Post-operative complication rate was 33.3% and surgical site infection was the most common complication accounting for 21.0%. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.4 days and mortality rate was 16.7%. Complications of diabetic foot ulcers and trauma

  3. Tertiary paediatric hospital admissions in children and young people with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, E; Freed, G L; Reid, S M; Williams, K; Sewell, J R; Rawicki, B; Reddihough, D S

    2015-11-01

    Many previous studies that have investigated hospital admissions in children and young people with cerebral palsy lack information on cerebral palsy severity and complexity. Consequently, little is known about factors associated with the frequency and type of hospital admissions in this population. This study used hospital admission data available for all children and young people known to a population-based cerebral palsy register to describe the patterns of use of tertiary paediatric hospital services over a 5-year period. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected admission data from the two tertiary paediatric hospitals in the Australian state of Victoria. Data on admissions of individuals born between 1993 and 2008 registered on the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register were analysed (n = 2183). Between 2008 and 2012, 53% of the cohort (n = 1160) had at least one same-day admission, and 46% (n = 996) had one or more multi-day admissions. Those with a moderate to severe motor impairment and those with a co-diagnosis of epilepsy had more admissions, and for multi-day admissions, longer lengths of stay, P children and young people with cerebral palsy. This study highlights priority areas for prevention, early diagnosis and medical management in this group. Improved primary and secondary prevention measures may decrease non-elective hospital admissions and readmissions in this group and reduce paediatric inpatient resource use and healthcare expenditure attributable to cerebral palsy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India

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    Pravin K. Nair

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The emergence of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE in recent times has become a serious threat to public health due to the high mortality, potential dissemination rates and limited treatment options associated with these organisms. Thus, the present study was conducted in our tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CRE in the hospital. Methods: The study was carried out in the microbiology department of the tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. The samples tested were clinical samples from hospitalized and Out-Patient Department (OPD patients sent to the department for microbiological testing. CRE isolates were identified using the Vitek 2- Compact system (BioMérieux, France. Results: A CRE prevalence rate of 12.26% was obtained from the study, from which the majority of the isolates were detected in urine samples (46%. Although most of the CRE isolates were detected in patient samples from the wards (42% and the ICU (26%, a significant number of isolates was also detected from the OPD patients (19%. Conclusion:Thus, the study shows a significant rate of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized and OPD patients. This emphasizes the urgent need for CRE control at the hospital and community level, and to rationalize the use of antibiotics. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 207-210

  5. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh Poudyal; Annu Ranjit; Santosh Pathak; Nagendra Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical Colleg...

  6. Explaining the uptake of paediatric guidelines in a Kenyan tertiary hospital--mixed methods research.

    OpenAIRE

    Irimu, GW; Greene, A; Gathara, D; Kihara, H; Maina, C; Mbori-Ngacha, D; Zurovac, D; Santau, M; Todd, J; English, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based standards for management of the seriously sick child have existed for decades, yet their translation in clinical practice is a challenge. The context and organization of institutions are known determinants of successful translation, however, research using adequate methodologies to explain the dynamic nature of these determinants in the quality-of-care improvement process is rarely performed. METHODS: We conducted mixed methods research in a tertiary hospital in a l...

  7. Drug utilization study on antidiabetic medications at SIMS-Shimoga a tertiary care hospital

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    H. Vedavathi; Shreenivas P. Revankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. DM is a leading cause of blindness, end stage renal disease, and nontraumatic lower extremity amputations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the drug utilization pattern of antidiabetic medications at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Demographic details of the patient were noted. Evaluation of the written prescription was carried out according to the requ...

  8. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of Candida species in a Brazilian public tertiary hospital

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    Montelli Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out on 212 Candida isolates obtained from bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis, from cases attended at a Brazilian public tertiary hospital from January 1998 to January 2005. Findings Candida albicans represented 33% of the isolates, Candida parapsilosis 31.1%, Candida tropicalis 17.9%,Candida glabrata 11.8%, and others species 6.2%. In blood culture, C. parapsilosis was the most frequently encountered species (48%. The resistance levels to the antifungal azoles were relatively low for the several species, except for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance was observed in 1 isolate of C. parapsilosis. Conclusions The species distribution and antifungal susceptibility herein observed presented several epidemiological features common to other tertiary hospitals in Latin American countries. It also exhibited some peculiarity, such as a very high frequency of C. parapsilosis both in bloodstream infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis. C. albicans also occurred in an important number of case infections, in all evaluated clinical sources. C. glabrata presented a high proportion of resistant isolates. The data emphasize the necessity to carry out the correct species identification accompanied by the susceptibility tests in all tertiary hospitals.

  9. Six-month outcome in patients with myocardial infarction initially admitted to tertiary and nontertiary hospitals. RESCATE Investigators. Recursos Empleados en el Síndrome Coronario Agudo y Tiempos de Espera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugat, J; Sanz, G; Masiá, R; Valle, V; Molina, L; Cardona, M; Sala, J; Serés, L; Szescielinski, L; Albert, X; Lupón, J; Alonso, J

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the degree of accessibility to coronary angiography and revascularization results in differing usages or outcomes, or both, in the setting of a high coverage national health system. The selective use of coronary angiography and revascularization procedures in the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. A cohort of 1,460 consecutive patients with a first MI admitted to four referral teaching hospitals (one with tertiary facilities) were followed up for 6 months after admission. Only patients initially admitted to each of the study hospitals were retained for analysis in the original hospital's cohort. End points were 6-month mortality and readmission for reinfarction, unstable angina, heart failure or severe ventricular arrhythmia. Patients admitted to the tertiary hospital were more likely to undergo coronary angiography (adjusted relative risk 4.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.37 to 5.45) than those admitted to the nontertiary sites (use rate: 22.1% for nontertiary care, 55.5% for tertiary care). Revascularization procedures were performed in 21.2% of patients in the tertiary hospital and in 8.3% in the nontertiary hospitals (p < 0.0001). Median delay for emergency coronary angiography was shorter in the tertiary hospital (within 1 vs. 2 days, p < 0.0001). Six-month mortality or readmission rates were similar (23.7% and 24.7% for tertiary and nontertiary care, respectively). After adjustment for comorbidity and disease severity, the relative risk of death or readmission for the tertiary hospital was 1.03 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.53) times that of the nontertiary hospitals. Selective use of coronary angiography and revascularization procedures may be as effective as less restricted use in the management of acute MI.

  10. Prognostic Implications of Level-of-Care at Tertiary Heart Centers Compared With Other Hospitals After Resuscitation From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholm, Helle; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have found higher survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and admission to tertiary heart centers. The aim was to examine the level-of-care at tertiary centers compared with nontertiary hospitals and the association with outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (n=1078) without ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction admitted to tertiary centers (54%) and nontertiary hospitals (46%) were included (2002-2011). Patient charts were reviewed focusing on level-of-care and comorbidity....... The adjusted odds of predefined markers of level-of-care were higher in tertiary centers: admission to intensive care unit (odds ratio [OR], 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5]), temporary pacemaker (OR, 6.4 [2.2-19]), vasoactive agents (OR, 1.5 [1.1-2.1]), acute (

  11. Prevalence and covariates of polypharmacy in elderly patients on discharge from a tertiary care hospital in Oman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hashar, Amna; Al Sinawi, Hamed; Al Mahrizi, Anwar; Al-Hatrushi, Manal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy in relation to gender, comorbidity, and age among elderly patients upon discharge from an academic tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman. Methods...

  12. Healthcare associated infections in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in India: Hospital stay & extra costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Jitender; Satpathy, Sidhartha; Sharma, D K; Lodha, Rakesh; Kapil, Arti; Wadhwa, Nitya; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) increase the length of stay in the hospital and consequently costs as reported from studies done in developed countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of HAIs on length of stay and costs of health care in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India. This prospective study was done in the seven bedded PICU of a large multi-specialty tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A total of 20 children with HAI (cases) and 35 children without HAI (controls), admitted to the PICU during the study period (January 2012 to June 2012), were matched for gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Each patient's length of stay was obtained prospectively. Costs of healthcare were estimated according to traditional and time driven activity based costing methods approach. The median extra length of PICU stay for children with HAI (cases), compared with children with no HAI (controls), was seven days (IQR 3-16). The mean total costs of patients with and without HAI were ' 2,04,787 (US$ 3,413) and ' 56,587 (US$ 943), respectively and the mean difference in the total cost between cases and controls was ' 1,48,200 (95% CI 55,716 to 2,40,685, pcosts for PICU patients, especially costs due to prolongation of hospital stay, and suggests the need to develop effective strategies for prevention of HAI to reduce costs of health care.

  13. Severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM in postpartum period requiring tertiary Hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Bibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum period is the critically important part of obstetric care but most neglected period for majority of Pakistani women. Only life threatening complications compel them to seek for tertiary hospital care. We describe the nature of these obstetric morbidities in order to help policymakers in improving prevailing situation. Objective: To find out the frequency and causes of severe post-partum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care and to identify the demographic and obstetrical risk factors and adverse fetal outcome in women suffering from obstetric morbidities. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, between April 2008-July 2009. The subjects comprised of all those women who required admission and treatment for various obstetrical reasons during their postpartum period. Women admitted for non-obstetrical reasons were excluded. A structured proforma was used to collect data including demographics, clinical diagnosis, obstetrical history and feto-maternal outcome of index pregnancy, which was then entered and analyzed with SPSS version 11. Results: The frequency of severe postpartum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care was 4% (125/3292 obstetrical admissions. The majority of them were young, illiterate, multiparous and half of them were referred from rural areas. Nearly two third of the study population had antenatal visits from health care providers and delivered vaginally at hospital facility by skilled birth attendants. The most common conditions responsible for life threatening complications were postpartum hemorrhage (PPH (50%, preeclampsia and eclampsia (30% and puerperal pyrexia 14%. Anemia was associated problem in 100% of cases. Perinatal death rate was 27.2% (34 and maternal mortality rate was 4.8%. Conclusion: PPH, Preeclampsia, sepsis and anemia were important causes

  14. Severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in postpartum period requiring tertiary Hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Seema; Ghaffar, Saima; Memon, Shazia; Memon, Shaneela

    2012-03-01

    Postpartum period is the critically important part of obstetric care but most neglected period for majority of Pakistani women. Only life threatening complications compel them to seek for tertiary hospital care. We describe the nature of these obstetric morbidities in order to help policymakers in improving prevailing situation. To find out the frequency and causes of severe post-partum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care and to identify the demographic and obstetrical risk factors and adverse fetal outcome in women suffering from obstetric morbidities. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, between April 2008-July 2009. The subjects comprised of all those women who required admission and treatment for various obstetrical reasons during their postpartum period. Women admitted for non-obstetrical reasons were excluded. A structured proforma was used to collect data including demographics, clinical diagnosis, obstetrical history and feto-maternal outcome of index pregnancy, which was then entered and analyzed with SPSS version 11. The frequency of severe postpartum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care was 4% (125/3292 obstetrical admissions). The majority of them were young, illiterate, multiparous and half of them were referred from rural areas. Nearly two third of the study population had antenatal visits from health care providers and delivered vaginally at hospital facility by skilled birth attendants. The most common conditions responsible for life threatening complications were postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (50%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (30%) and puerperal pyrexia 14%. Anemia was associated problem in 100% of cases. Perinatal death rate was 27.2% (34) and maternal mortality rate was 4.8%. PPH, Preeclampsia, sepsis and anemia were important causes of maternal ill health in our population. Perinatal mortality was high.

  15. Patterns of Antimicrobial Prescribing in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yamani, Abdulrahman; Khamis, Faryal; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Noomani, Hamed; Al-Noomani, Jaleela; Al-Abri, Seif

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been designed to measure and improve the use of antimicrobials to achieve optimal clinical outcomes and reduce bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to review patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for hospitalized patients in the acute care setting and assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial use among prescribers in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a four-week period (1 November to 28 November 2012). The data of all discharged patients were retrieved from the department databases. Patient records and prescriptions were reviewed by an infectious disease consultant. The rationality of antimicrobial use was evaluated, analyzed, and judged based on local standard guidelines and the experience of the evaluating consultant. There were 178 patients discharged from acute medical teams over the study period. Sixty-four percent of the patients received a total of 287 antimicrobial agents during admission. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient in those prescribed antimicrobials was 2.5±1.1. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent was piperacillin/tazobactam. Most patients had infections from gram-negative organisms, and high rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms were observed. Cultures were obtained before antimicrobial initiation in 25% of patients. Variability in antimicrobial selection for common infections was observed. National guidelines for the management of common infections are needed to minimize the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in tertiary care hospitals. A large surveillance study on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in different hospital settings is warranted.

  16. Validity of subjective global assessment as a screening method for hospital malnutrition. Prevalence of malnutrition in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Miriam; Civera, Miguel; Artero, Ana; Real, Jose T; Caro, Juan; Ascaso, Juan F; Martinez-Valls, Jose F

    2014-04-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a highly prevalent problem that affects patient morbidity and mortality resulting in longer hospital stays and increased healthcare costs. Although there is no single nutritional screening method, subjective global assessment (SGA) may be a useful, inexpensive, and easily reproducible tool. A cross-sectional, observational, randomized study was conducted in 197 patients in a tertiary hospital. SGA, anthropometric data, and biochemical parameters were used to assess the nutritional status of study patients. Fifty percent of subjects were malnourished according to SGA. A higher prevalence of malnutrition was found in medical (53%) as compared to surgical departments (47%). Half the subjects (50%) had malnutrition by SGA, but only 37.8% received nutritional treatment during their hospital stay. Mean hospital stay was longer for patients malnourished (13.5 days) or at risk of malnutrition (12.1 days) as compared to well nourished subjects (6.97 days). SGA significantly correlated (Pmalnutrition parameters. Prevalence of hospital malnutrition is very high in both medical and surgical departments and is inadequately treated. SGA is a useful tool for screening hospital malnutrition because of its high degree of correlation with anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Good and Caring Teaching Behaviours as Perceived by Business Education Students in Tertiary Institutions in the North Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Magnus P.; Samson, Agatha; Baraya, Abdulmutallib Umar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated good and caring teaching behaviours as perceived by Business Education students in Tertiary Institutions in the North Eastern Nigeria. The latter needed good and caring teaching behaviours to reform the education sector that had been devastated by Boko Haram insurgency. The design of the study was survey. The research…

  18. Multiple hospitalizations at the Department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria-Lekuona, D; Casas Fernández de Tejerina, J M; Méndez López, I; Oteiza Olaso, J; Arteaga Mazuelas, M; Jarne Betran, V

    2015-01-01

    Patient who require multiple hospitalizations result in a considerable consumption of healthcare resources. In this study, we analyzed the factors associated with the multiple hospitalizations of a cohort of patients treated at a department of internal medicine. A total of 613 consecutive hospitalizations were analyzed. A multiple-hospitalization patient was defined as one who at the time of admission had been hospitalized 3 or more times in the past year. We analyzed the relationship between demographic, clinical and societal factors on one hand and having been hospitalized on multiple occasions on the other. We also analyzed readmissions in the 6 months after discharge, as well as mortality during the hospitalization and in the 6 and 12 months after discharge. When compared with patients who have not been hospitalized on multiple occasions, multiple-hospitalization patients are more likely to be male, younger and to have greater comorbidity, greater consumption of medicines and higher Katz Index scores. The main cause for admission for multiple-hospitalizations patients was chronic disease decompensation (87.3%). The diseases that were most obviously associated with multiple hospitalizations were heart failure, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the first 6 months after discharge, multiple-hospitalization patients had a greater number of readmissions. During the study period, 40.4% of the multiple-hospitalization patients died, and 28.8% of the nonmultiple-hospitalization patients died. Multiple-hospitalization patients have a greater clinical complexity than nonmultiple-hospitalization patients, and multiple hospitalizations are associated with chronic diseases, polypharmacy, functional impairment and high mortality rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Geriatric patients' expectations of their physicians: findings from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidwai Waris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geriatric health is a neglected and under-explored area internationally and in Pakistan. We aimed to ascertain the expectations of the geriatric patients from their physicians and the factors associated with patient satisfaction in this particular age bracket. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Data collection was carried out via face-to-face interviews based on structured, pre-tested questionnaires. All consenting individuals aged 65 years or above were recruited into the study. Convenience sampling was used to draw the sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Geriatric patient's expectations from physicians were elicited using a set of 11 questions that were graded on a scale of 1-3 where 1 = not important, 2 = important, 3 = very important. Results Three hundred and eighty geriatric patients were interviewed. The response rate of this study was 89.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 73.4 ± 6.8 years. Two hundred and forty eight respondents (65.3% were female. Diabetes mellitus (53.7%, hypertension (59.5%, arthritis (40.5% and renal disease (32.1% were common ailments among geriatric patients. More than 50% of the patients were visiting their physicians once every two to three months. Discussing treatment options and letting patients make the final decision (79.2%, prescribing minimum possible medications (84.5%, physician's holistic knowledge about the spectrum of care issues for geriatric patients (79.2%, being given a realistic but optimistic picture of future health by physicians (85.5% were ranked as very important expectations by patients from their physicians. Cumulative household income (p = 0.005, most important health complaint (p = 0.01 and frequency of experiencing health complaint (p Conclusion We have documented the expectations of the geriatric patients from their physicians in a developing country. Physicians belonging

  20. CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW - ONSET EPILETIC SEIZURES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalapathi Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most familiar neurological disorders which can cause bodily injury and death from inadequately treated or untreated cases. The imaging and EEG of new onset seizures is done with different indications, to identify an acute illness as the underline course for the seizure and possible neurological deficit. To this purpose we have evaluated new onset seizures in adult patients in correlation with their clinical profile, Electroencephalography (EEG and Computerized tomography (CT imaging of brain. METHODS: This cro ss sectional study was studied in 100 adult patients, presenting with seizures attending the Emergency department, General Medicine and Neurology wards and OPD of Tertiary care teaching hospital during the period of March 2006 to March 2008. All the patien ts were examined clinically and subjected to CT imaging of brain and EEG. Other necessary blood investigations were also done. Correlation between various seizures and CT scan brain and EEG were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data . RESULTS: 63% of patients were in the age group of 20 - 39 years, 63% were males and 37% were females. 65% presented with GTCS, 35% with partial seizures. CT scan was found abnormal in 49.2% patients in GTCS, 71.4% in partial seizures. EEG showed abnormal p attern in 39% patients. 40% of the patients with partial seizures had epileptic form discharges. 33% patients had focal lesions on CT brain with normal EEG. CONCLUSION: Generalized Tonic clonic seizures were the commonest type of seizures was present, seen mostly in male patients. CT scan brain was abnormal in 57% of the patients. Neurocysticercosis and calcified granuloma were the commonest causes for seizures up to 3 rd decade of life. Majority of the patients with focal lesions on CT scan brain had epileptic form discharges on EEG which indicate a strong correlation of EEG with CT findings. Initiating the treatment with antiepileptic drugs was

  1. Caesarean delivery-related blood transfusion: correlates in a tertiary hospital in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlusi, Fatimat M; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Durojaiye, Idayat A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawaqualit A; Oshodi, Yusuf A

    2018-01-10

    Caesarean delivery carries a risk of major intra-operative blood loss and its performance is often delayed by non-availability of blood and blood products. Unnecessary cross-matching and reservation of blood lead to apparent scarcity in centres with limited supply. This study set out to identify the risk factors for blood transfusion in women who underwent caesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric unit with a view to ensuring efficient blood utilization. A prospective cohort analysis of 906 women who had caesarean deliveries at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January and December, 2011. A comparison was made between 188 women who underwent blood transfusion and 718 who did not. Data were obtained on a daily basis by investigators from patients, clinical notes and referral letters using structured pre-tested data collecting form. Socio-demographic characteristics; antenatal, perioperative and intraoperative details; blood loss; transfusion; and puerperal observations were recorded. EPI-Info statistical software version 3.5.3 was used for multivariable analysis to determine independent risk factors for blood transfusion. Of the 2134 deliveries during the study period, 906 (42.5%) had caesarean deliveries and of which 188 (20.8%) were transfused. The modal unit of blood transfused was 3 pints (41.3%). The most common indication for caesarean section was cephalo-pelvic disproportion (25.7%).The independent risk factors for blood transfusion at caesarean section were second stage Caesarean Section (aOR = 76.14, 95% CI = 1.25-4622.06, p = 0.04), placenta previa (aOR = 32.57, 95% CI = 2.22-476.26, p = 0.01), placental abruption (aOR = 25.35, 95% CI = 3.06-211.02, p blood transfusion (aOR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.09-0.61, p = 0.0024). The overall risk of blood transfusion in cesarean delivery is high. Paturients with the second stage Caesarean section, placenta previa, abruptio placentae and

  2. A study of antimicrobial use in children admitted to pediatric medicine ward of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, Sandip; Hazra, Avijit; Datta, Supratim; Das, Amal Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used in tertiary care hospitals. We conducted an observational study on children admitted to a teaching hospital in Eastern India, to generate a profile of antimicrobial use and suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) attributable to them. Hospitalized children of either sex, aged between 1 month and 12 years, were studied. Baseline demographic and clinical features, duration of hospital stay, antimicrobials received in hospital along with dosing and indications and details of suspected ADRs attributable to their use were recorded. Every patient was followed up till discharge, admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, or death. Over the 1 year study period, 332 admissions were screened. The prevalence of antimicrobial use was 79.82%. The majority of the 265 children who received antimicrobials were males (61.10%) and hailed from rural and low socioeconomic background. Median age was 36 months. Six children died, 43 were transferred out, and the rest discharged. In most instances, either 2 (40%) or a single antibiotic (39.6%) was used. Ceftriaxone, co-amoxiclav, amikacin, vancomycin, and ampicillin were predominantly used. Antivirals, antimalarials, and antiprotozoals were used occasionally. Average number of antimicrobials per patient was 2.0 ± 1.27; the majority (84.1%) were by parenteral route and initial choice was usually empirical. Prescriptions were usually in generic name. The antimicrobial treatment ranged between 1 and 34 days, with a median of 7 days. Six ADRs were noted of which half were skin rash and the rest loose stools. The profile of antimicrobial use is broadly similar to earlier Indian studies. Apparent overuse of multiple antimicrobials per prescription and the parenteral route requires exploration. Antimicrobials are being used empirically in the absence of policy. ADRs to antimicrobials are occasional and usually mild. The baseline data can serve in situation analysis for antibiotic prescribing guidelines.

  3. Lessons learned from the development of health applications in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Guna; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Hye-Won; Kwon, Tae-Wan; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of smart devices for hospital use has been increasing with the development of health applications (apps) for patient point-of-care and hospital management. To promote the use of health apps, we describe the lessons learned from developing 12 health apps in the largest tertiary hospital in Korea. We reviewed and analyzed 12 routinely used apps in three categories-Smart Clinic, Smart Patient, and Smart Hospital-based on target users and functions. The log data for each app were collected from the date of release up until December 2012. Medical personnel accessed a mobile electronic medical record app classified as Smart Clinic an average of 452 times per day. Smart Hospital apps are actively used to communicate with each other. Patients logged on to a mobile personal health record app categorized as Smart Patient an average of 222 times per day. As the mobile trend, the choice of supporting operating system (OS) is more difficult. By developing these apps, a monitoring system is needed for evaluation. We described the lessons learned regarding OS support, device choice, and developmental strategy. The OS can be chosen according to market share or hospital strategic plan. Smartphones were favored compared with tablets. Alliance with an information technology company can be the best way to develop apps. Health apps designed for smart devices can be used to improve healthcare. However, to develop health apps, hospitals must define their future goals and carefully consider all the aspects.

  4. Molecular epidemiology and spatiotemporal analysis of hospital-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Rivera, J I; Silpapojakul, K; Singkhamanan, K; McNeil, E; Doi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a major hospital-acquired pathogen in Thailand that has a negative effect on patient survival. The nature of its transmission is poorly understood. To investigate the genotypic and spatiotemporal pattern of A. baumannii infection at a hospital in Thailand. The medical records of patients infected with A. baumannii at an 800-bed tertiary care hospital in southern Thailand between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. A. baumannii was identified at the genomospecies level. Carbapenemase genes were identified among carbapenem-resistant isolates associated with A. baumannii infection. A spatiotemporal analysis was performed by admission ward, time of infection and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups of A. baumannii. Nine PFGE groups were identified among the 197 A. baumannii infections. All A. baumannii isolates were assigned to International Clonal Lineage II. blaOXA-23 was the most prevalent carbapenemase gene. Outbreaks were observed mainly in respiratory and intensive care units. The association between PFGE group and hospital unit was significant. Spatiotemporal analysis identified 20 clusters of single PFGE group infections. Approximately half of the clusters involved multiple hospital units simultaneously. A. baumannii transmitted both within and between hospital wards. Better understanding and control of the transmission of A. baumannii are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidência de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, em hospital universitário de atendimento terciário: estudo prospectivo entre 1996 e 2002 Incidencia de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, en hospital universitario de servicio terciario: estudio prospectivo entre 1996 y 2002 Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a tertiary teaching hospital: prospective survey from 1996 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gobbo Braz

    2004-12-01

    ,3%, aspiración pulmonar (18,2% e hidratación excesiva (9,1%. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de PC durante la anestesia aún continúa elevada. La mayoría de las PC y fallecimientos asociados a la anestesia fue relacionada al manoseo de las vías aéreas y a la administración de medicamentos y anestésicos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest (CA incidence and causes during anesthesia are variable and difficult to be compared due design variations of major studies. This survey aimed at evaluating all intra and postoperative CA from 1996 to 2002 at a tertiary teaching hospital to determine CA incidence and causes. METHODS: The prospective incidence of CA during 40,941 anesthesias was identified from a database. All CA and deaths were reviewed by a Committee in order to determine triggering factors. CA cases were studied as to age, gender, ASA physical status, type of treatment, triggering factors, such as changes in patients physical status and surgical and anesthetic complications, type of anesthesia and evolution to death. RESULTS: There were 138 CA (33.7:10,000, being most of them neonates, children aged less than 1 year, elderly people, males (65.2%, physical status ASA III or poorer, in emergency surgeries and during general anesthesia. Physical status changes were the major CA factor (23.9:10,000 followed by surgical complications alone (4.64:10,000 or associated to physical status changes (2.44:10,000 and anesthetic complications alone (1.71:10,000 or associated to physical status changes (0.98:10,000. The risk of anesthesia-related death as major or contributing factor was similar for both (0.49:10,000. Major anesthesia-related death causes were ventilatory problems (45.4%, drug-related events (27.3%, pulmonary aspiration (18.2% and fluid overload (9.1%. CONCLUSIONS: CA incidence during anesthesia is still high. Most anesthesia-related cardiac arrests and deaths were related to airway management and drug and anesthetic administration.

  6. * Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State,. Nigeria. **Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Fibular hemimelia is the congenital absence of the fibula and it is the most common congenital absence of long.

  7. Stroke Risk Factors among Patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have identified modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors in stroke patients admitted in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital in ...

  8. Presentation of Colorectal Cancer in Khartoum Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the age and gender distribution in Sudanese patients with colorectal cancer, as seen in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, and to study its emergency presentation. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Khartoum Teaching Hospital (Sudan). Two hundred and seventy seven (277) ...

  9. Elective Hysterectomy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elective Hysterectomy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital: A 3-Year Review. AM Abasiattai, EA Bassey, AJ Umoiyoho. Abstract. A 3-year review of elective hysterectomies performed at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital was carried out. The aim was to determine the indications and outcome of elective ...

  10. Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals of the University of Cape Town. AJG Thomson. Abstract. In the 15 years 1975-1989, 239 patients attending the associated teaching hospitals of the University of Cape Town have been identified retrospectively as having neurocysticercosis. One hundred and ...

  11. Gynecological malignancies in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the pattern of gynecological malignancies in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study carried out in the Gynecology Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, Nigeria between October 2008 and September 2011. Case

  12. Frequency of endodontic treatment in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of endodontic treatment in dental patients treated in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Method: A survey of 470 patients undergoing endodontic treatment at the conservative clinic of the department of restorative dentistry of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was conducted to determine ...

  13. Hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano teaching hospital, northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study is aimed at determining the incidence of hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), its age distribution, complication and outcome. Study Design: A retrospective review of case of hydatidiform mole managed in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between 1st January, 2009 and 31st ...

  14. Is It Possible to Teach Music Composition Today? A Search for the Challenges of Teaching Music Composition to Student Composers in a Tertiary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Moreno, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Our aim is to identify the challenges of teaching music composition to today's students of composition at a tertiary or professional level. We undertake this by two different approaches: on one level, by establishing a context through reviewing literature on the teaching practices of three renowned teachers from the twentieth century; on a second…

  15. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective review of 194 cases at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Chandir, Subash; Hussain, Hamidah; Salahuddin, Naseem; Amir, Mohammad; Ali, Farheen; Lotia, Ismat; Khan, Amir Javed

    2010-02-01

    To describe the types and treatment outcomes of the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in a tertiary care hospital in a high burden tuberculosis country. A retrospective case series study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital (LNH), the largest private tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. All cases diagnosed and treated as EPTB between November 2005 and February 2007 were included. Data was retrieved from medical records on demographics, clinical, laboratory, and outcome status. A total of 194 patients treated for EPTB were identified. Mean age of patients was 34 +/- 16.4 years, and 75% of patients were female. Lymph nodes and spine were the most common sites involved (60%). The cure rate was 40.7%. There was no difference in cure rate of males and females (p=0.99). EPTB is an important clinical problem in Pakistan. Due to lack of guidelines for diagnosis and duration of treatment in EPTB most physicians in Pakistan treat patients based on clinical symptoms and for prolonged duration of 12, to even as long as 24 months. The National TB Program, and chest and infectious disease societies must develop standardized guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of EPTB.

  16. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  17. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbati, Zena; Hallas, Claire; Al-Zadjali, Hazar; Al-Sharbati, Marwan

    2012-02-01

    There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. The majority of referrals were females (59%), aged 18-34 years, employed (38%), had ≤12 years of formal education (51%), and were single (54%). A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn), contemptuous envy (Hassad), evil eye (Ain) and sorcery (Sihr) which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  18. The perception of safety culture among nurses in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Noufa A; Alonazi, Aisha A; Saeed, Elshazaly; Mohamed, Sarar

    2016-01-01

    Developing a patient safety culture was one of the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assist hospitals in improving patient safety. Nurses are the key to safety improvements in hospitals. It is necessary to know their awareness and perception regarding institutional safety climate. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia in different discipline units. The current study was conducted at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), a tertiary center in Riyadh, Central Saudi Arabia. In November 2014, five hundred nurses were randomly selected to participate in this study. A survey questionnaire with Likert scale was adopted covering characteristics of participants together with their views on patient safety issues. Two hundred and twenty-four participants filled the questionnaire with a response rate of 44.8%. The overall perception of patient safety among participants was (57.9%). The majority (74.1%) thought that the existing system is good at preventing errors and only one third indicated that they have patient safety problems. Most of the participants were happy with the existing patient safety culture including organizational learning/continuous improvement (95.5%), and errors feedback and communication (76.64%). In conclusion, this study showed that perception of patient safety was sub-optimal among nurses and there are several areas for improvement regarding safety culture.

  19. AN AUDIT OF PRESCRIPTION FOR ANTIBIOTIC IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLKATA, INDIA

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    Anjan Adhikari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are most commonly prescribed drugs in tertiary care hospitals; more than 30% of the hospitalised patients were treated with antibiotics. Rational use of antibiotics is very important to ensure the optimum treatment outcomes and to limit the emergence of bacterial resistance. Present study is a hospital based cross-sectional study carried out for a period of three months in different clinical departments of a tertiary care hospital to find out the antibiotics prescribing pattern. Out of total 551 evaluated prescriptions, an antibiotic was prescribed in 45.5% cases. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were Moxifloxacin 19.5%, Metronidazole 10.4% and Amoxicillin+Cloxacillin 10.2%, broad spectrum antibiotics usage was higher & 87.7% of the antibiotics were prescribed by brand names. The appropriate use of antibiotic is a greatest need of the current situation all over the world. The rising antibiotic resistance is a global problem which is directly related with the irrational prescription of antibiotics.

  20. Monitoring of antibiotic consumption and development of resistance by enterobacteria in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković-Radovanović, R; Stefanović, N; Damnjanović, I; Kocić, B; Antić, S; Dinić, M; Petrović, J; Mitić, R; Catić-Djordjević, A

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotics are the most frequently used drugs in hospitalized patients, but studies have shown that the prescribed antibiotics may be inappropriate and may contribute to antibiotic resistance. We carried out a survey of antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance in our tertiary care university hospital, from 2005 to 2013. We focus on cephalosporins, one of the most prescribed groups of antibiotics in the tertiary health care. The objective was to identify any relationship between ceftriaxone consumption and resistance by enterobacteria. Antibiotics consumption and antimicrobial resistance were monitored in the tertiary care university hospital from 2005 to 2013. Data on the use of antibiotics in surgical inpatients were obtained and expressed as defined daily doses per 100 bed days. Bacterial resistances were given as percentages of resistant isolates. There was an increasing trend in cephalosporins consumption from 9·56 DBD (2005) to 23·32 DBD (2013), with ceftriaxone as the most frequently used cephalosporin, 3·6 DBD (2005) to 10·78 DBD (2013). E. coli and P. mirabilis resistance to ceftriaxone increased significantly from 22% in 2005 to 47% in 2013 and from 31% in 2005 to 60% in 2013, respectively. We found a significant correlation between ceftriaxone consumption and E. coli resistance (r = 0·895, P < 0·05). Our study shows that cephalosporin consumption increased from 2005 to 2013, with ceftriaxone as the most prescribed antibiotic. E. coli and P. mirabilis resistance to ceftriaxone increased significantly over the study period. E. coli resistance increased with ceftriaxone consumption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Educational Environment for Medical Students of a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Using DREEM Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Masoud Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Masoud Mohammad; Agharahimi, Zahra; Daryabeigi, Maede; Yaghmaei, Bahareh; Ashrafi, Mahmoud-Reza; Rabbani, Ali; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-10-01

    Tertiary pediatric hospitals usually provide excellent clinical services, but such centers have a lot to do for educational perfection. This study was performed to address under-graduate educational deficits and find feasible solutions. This cross-sectional study was done in a target population of 77 sixth year undergraduate medical students (response rate = 78%) who spent their 3-month pediatric rotation in the Children's Medical Center, the Pediatrics Center of Excellence in Tehran, Iran. The Dundee ready educational environment measure (DREEM) instrument was used for assessing educational environment of this subspecialized pediatric hospital. Among 60 students who answered the questionnaires, 24 were male (40%). Participants' age ranged from 23 to 24 years. The mean total score was 95.8 (48%). Comparison of scores based on students' knowledge showed no significant difference. Problematic areas were learning, academic self-perception, and social self-perception. Having an accurate schedule to train general practitioner, using new teaching methods, and providing a non-stressful atmosphere were suggested solutions.

  2. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

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    Claudia Maria Desgualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasindice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased.

  3. Treatment of self-poisoning at a tertiary level hospital in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Vasundhara; Paul, Sujat; Ghose, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Approximately 10,000 people die from suicide annually in Bangladesh, many from pesticide poisoning. We aimed to estimate financial costs to patients and health services of treating patients with self-poisoning. METHODS: Data on direct costs to families, sources of funds for treatment...... and family wealth were collected prospectively over a one-month period in 2016 at the tertiary Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. Aggregate operational costs to the government were calculated using annual budget, bed occupancy and length-of-stay data. RESULTS: Agrochemicals were the most common...

  4. Study on organophosphate poisoning analysis and pharmacotherapeutic outcome in tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shreenivas P. Revankar; H. Vedavathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and suicides in rural India as it is easily available and more often used in agriculture as a pesticide. In the present days, death due to OP is mainly due to draught, scarcity of rains and debt. Methods: The main objective of the study was to know the sociodemographic patterns, mode of presentation and outcome of treatment in the OP poisoning case that were admitted and treated in the tertiary care hospital a...

  5. Trainees' feedback on the prevailing teaching methods in postgraduate medical institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Irum Sabir; Khan, Mumtaz; Khan, Atifullah; Shah, Muhammad Fahd; Ali, Gohar

    2012-05-01

    To determine the feedback of postgraduate (PG) trainees on their current teaching methods and their level of satisfaction with those at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Department of Surgery, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from January to May 2010. A semi-structured proforma was filled by the trainees regarding teaching methods and preferences. Level of satisfaction was measured by five points Likert scale. Results were processed through SPSS 17.0 for descriptive statistics. The response rate was 260 out of the total 268 trainees. Lecture / tutorials were reported as the major method of teaching by 239 (91.9%), bedside teaching by 229 (88.1%), journal club by 217 (83.5%), e-learning by 157 (60.4%), audit meetings by 152 (58.5%), interactive sessions by 144 (55.4%), radiology meeting by 101 (38.8%) and TOACS by 39 (15%) trainees. Out of 28 units, TOACS were practised as a teaching method in 3 units. It was noted that 47 trainees (18.1%) graded the current training to be unsatisfactory, 127 as fair (48.8%), 77 as good (29.6%), 9 as very good (3.5%) while none considered it to be excellent. TOACS was the most preferred method of teaching, reported by 239 PGs (91.9%). Excessive work load as a cause for the dissatisfaction was reported by 229 trainees (88.1%), inadequate teaching by 157 (60.4%), lack of motivation 124 (47.7%), inappropriate teaching 122 (46.9%) and personal problems by 118 (45.4%). Lecture is the most commonly used method of teaching in the Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, while TOACS is the most preferred method amongst trainees, but it is the least practiced.

  6. Plasma electrolytes in patients with asthma in a tertiary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We compared plasma electrolytes in patients with and without asthma. Methods: Subjects for the study comprised of 17 male and 45 female asthmatics attending the Chest Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. These patients had questionnaires administered and the ...

  7. Ocular disorders in stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cerebrovascular accident, ocular disorders, stroke. Date of Acceptance: 06-Aug-2015. Address for correspondence: Dr. OM Uhumwangho,. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Benin Teaching. Hospital, P.M.B 1111, Benin City, Nigeria. E-mail: odarosa.uhumwangho@uniben.edu. Introduction. Stroke or ...

  8. Implementation of subcutaneous insulin protocol for non-critically ill hospitalized patients in andalusian tertiary care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Brocca, María Asunción; Morales, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Ortega, Pilar; González-Aguilera, Beatriz; Montes, Cristina; Colomo, Natalia; Piédrola, Gonzalo; Méndez-Muros, Mariola; Serrano, Isabel; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Moreno, Alberto; Fernández, Ignacio; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Domingo; Palomares, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, the Andalusian Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition designed a protocol for subcutaneous insulin treatment in hospitalized non-critically ill patients (HIP). To analyze implementation of HIP at tertiary care hospitals from the Andalusian Public Health System. A descriptive, multicenter study conducted in 8 tertiary care hospitals on a random sample of non-critically ill patients with diabetes/hyperglycemia (n=306) hospitalized for ≥48 hours in 5 non-surgical (SM) and 2 surgical (SQ) departments. Type 1 and other specific types of diabetes, pregnancy and nutritional support were exclusion criteria. 288 patients were included for analysis (62.5% males; 70.3±10.3 years; 71.5% SM, 28.5% SQ). A scheduled subcutaneous insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction protocol was started in 55.9% (95%CI: 50.5-61.2%) of patients, 63.1% SM vs. 37.8% SQ (P<.05). Alternatives to insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction included sliding scale insulin (43.7%), diet (31.3%), oral antidiabetic drugs (17.2%), premixed insulin (1.6%), and others (6.2%). For patients previously on oral antidiabetic drugs, in-hospital insulin dose was 0.32±0.1 IU/kg/day. In patients previously on insulin, in-hospital insulin dose was increased by 17% [-13-53], and in those on insulin plus oral antidiabetic drugs, in-hospital insulin dose was increased by 26.4% [-6-100]. Supplemental insulin doses used for<40 IU/day and 40-80 IU/day were 72.2% and 56.7% respectively. HbA1c was measured in 23.6% of patients (95CI%: 18.8-28.8); 27.7% SM vs. 13.3% SQ (P<.05). Strategies are needed to improve implementation of the inpatient subcutaneous insulin protocol, particularly in surgical departments. Sliding scale insulin is still the most common alternative to insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction scheduled insulin. Metabolic control assessment during hospitalization should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff perception on biomedical or health care waste management: a qualitative study in a rural tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Joshi, Rita; Shah, Harshada; Sharma, Megha; Pathak, Ashish; Macaden, Ragini; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Health care or biomedical waste, if not managed properly, can be of high risk to the hospital staff, the patients, the community, public health and the environment, especially in low and middle income settings where proper disposal norms are often not followed. Our aim was to explore perceptions of staff of an Indian rural tertiary care teaching hospital on hospital waste management. A qualitative study was conducted using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs), with different professional groups, cleaning staff, nurses, medical students, doctors and administrators. The FGD guide included the following topics: (i) role of Health Care Waste Management (HCWM) in prevention of health care associated infections, (ii) awareness of and views about HCWM-related guidelines/legislation, (iii) current HCWM practices, (iv) perception and preparedness related to improvements of the current practices, and (v) proper implementation of the available guidelines/legislation. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated to English (when conducted in Hindi) and analysed using content analysis. Two themes were identified: Theme (A), 'Challenges in integration of HCWM in organizational practice,' with the categories (I) Awareness and views about HCWM, (II) Organizational practices regarding HCWM, and (III) Challenges in Implementation of HCWM; and Theme (B), 'Interventions to improve HCWM,' with three categories, (I) Educational and motivational interventions, (II) Organizational culture change, and (III) Policy-related interventions. A gap between knowledge and actual practice regarding HCWM was highlighted in the perception of the hospital staff. The participants suggested organizational changes, training and monitoring to address this. The information generated is relevant not merely to the microsystem studied but to other institutions in similar settings.

  10. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

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    N.F. Foster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has changed over time and between countries. It is therefore essential to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk of infection and the circulating strains to recognize local and global trends, and improve patient management. From December 2011 to May 2012 we conducted a prospective, observational epidemiological study of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI at two tertiary teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia to determine CDI incidence and risk factors in an Australian setting. The incidence of CDI varied from 5.2 to 8.1 cases/10 000 occupied bed days (OBDs at one hospital and from 3.9 to 16.3/10 000 OBDs at the second hospital. In total, 80 patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI met eligibility criteria and consented to be in the study. More than half (53.8% had hospital-onset disease, 28.8% had community-onset and healthcare facility-associated disease and 7.5% were community-associated infections according to the definitions used. Severe CDI was observed in 40.0% of these cases but the 30-day mortality rate for all cases was only 2.5%. Besides a shorter length of stay among cases of community-onset CDI, no characteristics were identified that were significantly associated with community-onset or severe CDI. From 70 isolates, 34 different ribotypes were identified. The predominant ribotypes were 014 (24.3%, 020 (5.7%, 056 (5.7% and 070 (5.7%. Whereas this study suggests that the characteristics of CDI cases in Australia are not markedly different from those in other developed countries, the increase in CDI rate observed emphasizes the importance of surveillance.

  11. Staff perception on biomedical or health care waste management: a qualitative study in a rural tertiary care hospital in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandra Joshi

    Full Text Available Health care or biomedical waste, if not managed properly, can be of high risk to the hospital staff, the patients, the community, public health and the environment, especially in low and middle income settings where proper disposal norms are often not followed. Our aim was to explore perceptions of staff of an Indian rural tertiary care teaching hospital on hospital waste management.A qualitative study was conducted using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs, with different professional groups, cleaning staff, nurses, medical students, doctors and administrators. The FGD guide included the following topics: (i role of Health Care Waste Management (HCWM in prevention of health care associated infections, (ii awareness of and views about HCWM-related guidelines/legislation, (iii current HCWM practices, (iv perception and preparedness related to improvements of the current practices, and (v proper implementation of the available guidelines/legislation. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated to English (when conducted in Hindi and analysed using content analysis.Two themes were identified: Theme (A, 'Challenges in integration of HCWM in organizational practice,' with the categories (I Awareness and views about HCWM, (II Organizational practices regarding HCWM, and (III Challenges in Implementation of HCWM; and Theme (B, 'Interventions to improve HCWM,' with three categories, (I Educational and motivational interventions, (II Organizational culture change, and (III Policy-related interventions.A gap between knowledge and actual practice regarding HCWM was highlighted in the perception of the hospital staff. The participants suggested organizational changes, training and monitoring to address this. The information generated is relevant not merely to the microsystem studied but to other institutions in similar settings.

  12. Discovery of outpatient care process of a tertiary university hospital using process mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Seok; Song, Minseok; Kim, Seongjoo; Yoo, Donghyun; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung

    2013-03-01

    There is a need for effective processes in healthcare clinics, especially in tertiary hospitals, that consist of a set of complex steps for outpatient care, in order to provide high quality care and reduce the time cost. This study aimed to discover the potential of a process mining technique to determine an outpatient care process that can be utilized for further improvements. The outpatient event log was defined, and the log data for a month was extracted from the hospital information system of a tertiary university hospital. That data was used in process mining to discover an outpatient care process model, and then the machine-driven model was compared with a domain expert-driven process model in terms of the accuracy of the matching rate. From a total of 698,158 event logs, the most frequent pattern was found to be "Consultation registration > Consultation > Consultation scheduling > Payment > Outside-hospital prescription printing" (11.05% from a total cases). The matching rate between the expert-driven process model and the machine-driven model was found to be approximately 89.01%, and most of the processes occurred with relative accuracy in accordance with the expert-driven process model. Knowledge regarding the process that occurs most frequently in the pattern is expected to be useful for hospital resource assignments. Through this research, we confirmed that process mining techniques can be applied in the healthcare area, and through detailed and customized analysis in the future, it can be expected to be used to improve actual outpatient care processes.

  13. Clinicians and their cameras: policy, ethics and practice in an Australian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kara; Belton, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    Medical photography illustrates what people would prefer to keep private, is practiced when people are vulnerable, and has the power to freeze a moment in time. Given it is a sensitive area of health, lawful and ethical practice is paramount. This paper recognises and seeks to clarify the possibility of widespread clinician-taken medical photography in a tertiary hospital in northern Australia, examining the legal and ethical implications of this practice. A framework of Northern Territory law, state Department of Health policy and human rights theory were used to argue the thesis. Clinicians from 13 purposively chosen wards were asked to participate in an anonymous survey and confidential in-depth interviews. Questions were generated from the literature and local knowledge on the topics of 'occurrence', 'image use', 'quality of consent', 'cameras and technology', 'confidentiality', 'data storage and security', 'hospital policy and law' and 'cultural issues'. One hundred and seventy surveys and eights interviews were analysed using descriptive statistics and theme and content analysis, then triangulated for similarity, difference and unique responses. Forty-eight percent of clinicians surveyed take medical photographs, with the majority using hospital-owned cameras. However, one-fifth of clinicians reported photographing with personal mobile phones. Non-compliance with written consent requirements articulated in policy was endemic, with most clinicians surveyed obtaining only verbal consent. Labeling, storage, copyright and cultural issues were generally misunderstood, with a significant number of clinicians risking the security of patient information by storing images on personal devices. If this tertiary hospital does not develop a clinical photography action plan to address staff lack of knowledge, and noncompliance with policy and mobile phone use, patients' data is at risk of being distributed into the public domain where unauthorised publication may cause

  14. Incidência e profilaxia de náuseas e vômitos na recuperação pós-anestésica de um hospital-escola terciário Incidencia y profilaxis de náuseas y vómitos en la recuperación postanestésica de un hospital -escuela terciario Incidence and prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in post-anesthetic recovery in a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Martins Patti

    2008-10-01

    that increases the length of anesthetic recovery and causes patient dissatisfaction. The evaluation of the risk of PONV and institution of prophylactic measures aiming the well-being of patients and cost reduction are frequent in the medical literature. This observational study evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and adjustment and effectivity of the prophylaxis of PONV in the recovery room of a tertiary teaching school. METHODS: Information obtained from patients' records and questionnaires answered by patients included age, major predictive factors for PONV (female gender, history, absence of smoking, and postoperative use of opioids, prophylactic drugs administered, development of PONV, type of surgery and anesthesia, use of nitrous oxide, clinical status, and length of stay in the recovery room. RESULTS: An incidence of 18.5% of nausea and 8.5% of vomiting in the immediate postoperative period was observed. A correlation between major risk factors and the development of PONV was also observed. A correlation between those factors and prophylactic anti-emetic drugs, as well as between their use and the development of PONV, was not observed. However, a tendency to administer prophylactic medication to young female patients was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The concerns of the anesthesiologists of the institution with PONV were evident. However, the absence of correlation between risk and prophylaxis suggests an empirical and ineffective procedure. Factors that were not evaluated were suggested by the absence between PONV and the use of anti-emetic drugs. The orientation for anesthesiologists regarding more effective prophylactic measures can improve care of the population assisted.

  15. CO-MORBIDITIES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL OF KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Musthaque

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To manage patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD optimally, it requires appropriate knowledge of markers and stages of CKD and early disease recognition. Replacing the terms such as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, chronic renal insufficiency, chronic renal disease, chronic renal failure, the National Kidney Foundation, Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative has defined the all-encompassing term, CKD. An understanding of Estimated Glomerular Filtration (eGFR is required as it is still considered the best overall index of kidney function in stable, non-hospitalised patients. There are multiple risk factors and comorbid diseases, which modify the natural course and prognosis of CKD and alter the necessity to change the management. The present study is conducted to study the co-morbidities in patients with CKD. The aim of the study is to study the co-morbidities in patients with chronic kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was a retrospective observational study on consecutive new patients with CKD who attended the dialysis unit of a tertiary teaching hospital in northern part of Kerala. 89 consecutive new patients with CKD who attended the dialysis unit of a tertiary teaching hospital were included. Co-morbid diseases, demographic data and eGFR were recorded. RESULTS Out of 89 patients, 63 were males and the remaining 26 were females. Patients belonged to the age group ranging from 35 to 80 years with a mean age of 54.42 ± 6.30. Among the various causes of primary kidney diseases, diabetic nephropathy was found in 47/89 (52.80% of the patients, chronic glomerulonephritis in 19/89 (21.34%, hypertensive nephropathy in 8/89 (8.98%. CONCLUSION Among the various causes of primary kidney diseases, diabetic nephropathy was found to be the commonest followed by chronic glomerulonephritis in this study. Among the co-morbid conditions, co-morbid diabetes mellitus was observed the commonest, hypertension presenting the form of

  16. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.

  17. Low Prevalence of VRE Gastrointestinal Colonization of Hospitalized Patients in Manitoba Tertiary Care and Community Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Zhanel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE bowel colonization in hospitalized patients in Manitoba who had stool specimens collected for Clostridium difficile toxin and/or culture testing.

  18. PRISMA Analysis of 30 Day Readmissions to a Tertiary Cancer Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooksley, Tim; Merten, Hanneke; Kellett, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital readmissions are increasingly used as a quality indicator. Patients with cancer have an increased risk of readmission. The purpose of this study was to develop an in depth understanding of the causes of readmissions in patients undergoing cancer treatment using PRISMA...... methodology and was subsequently used to identify any potentially preventable causes of readmission in this cohort. METHODS: 50 consecutive 30 day readmissions from the 1st November 2014 to the medical admissions unit (MAU) at a specialist tertiary cancer hospital in the Northwest of England were analysed...... retrospectively. RESULTS: Q25(50%) of the patients were male with a median age of 59 years (range 19-81). PRISMA analysis showed that active (human) factors contributed to the readmission of 4 (8%) of the readmissions, which may have been potentially preventable. All of the readmissions were driven by a medical...

  19. Distribution of HIV among pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Manish Rijal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV among the pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu. Methods: A total of 1 440 blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for antiHIV antibodies using rapid screening assay kits and ELISA in Paropakar Maternity and Women ’s Hospital during May to November, 2011. Results: The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.62%, the prevalence being highest (1.4% in age group 35-39 years old, and during second trimester of gestation (0.75%. Similarly, it was found to be highest among the illiterates (1.92%, commercial sex worker (10.00% and those having multiple sexual partners (30.00%. Conclusions: Sero-prevalence of HIV infection was higher among the pregnant women of Kathmandu.

  20. Factors contributing to nursing team work in an acute care tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Suzanne; Higgs, Megan; Manning, Vicki; Netto, Gayle; Fernandez, Ritin

    Effective nursing teamwork is an essential component of quality health care and patient safety. Understanding which factors foster team work ensures teamwork qualities are cultivated and sustained. This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with team work in an Australian acute care tertiary hospital across all inpatient and outpatient settings. All nurses and midwives rostered to inpatient and outpatient wards in an acute care 600 bed hospital in Sydney Australia were invited to participate in a cross sectional survey between September to October 2013. Data were collected, collated, checked and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Factors reporting a significant correlation with where p team leadership were 3.6 (S.D. 0.57) and 3.8 (SD 0.6) respectively. Leadership and communication between nurses were significant predictors of team work p team work.

  1. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India

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    Papori Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  2. Estimation of Need for Palliative Care among Noncancer Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Parvathy; Sarkar, Sonali; Dubashi, Biswajit; Adinarayanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care services, until recently, were mainly restricted to cancer patients with incurable diseases. Hence, evaluative studies of palliative care are sparse in areas other than oncology. To estimate what proportion of patients attending the Departments of Neurology, Cardiology, and Nephrology of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, required palliative care and to identify the palliative care needs of those patients. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted in the three departments of JIPMER. There was no predetermined sample size for the study. The participants were all adult inpatients and outpatients who were in need of palliative care in the departments of Cardiology, Nephrology, and Neurology on the day of study. Percentage distribution was used to analyze the categorical variables such as education, gender, age, patients in need of palliative care, and their needs. The study showed that one in ten non-cancer patients in tertiary care hospitals may require palliative care services. Apart from issues in physical domain, a substantial proportion of participants also had issues in the psychological, emotional, and financial domains. This study highlights the need for incorporation and initiation of palliative care services in other non-cancer specialties in tertiary care hospitals to ensure holistic management of such cases. Counseling service has also to be rendered as part of palliative care since a good share of the patients had psychological and emotional issues.

  3. Antibiotic-Related Adverse Drug Reactions at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Korea

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    In Young Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are any unwanted/uncomfortable effects from medication resulting in physical, mental, and functional injuries. Antibiotics account for up to 40.9% of ADRs and are associated with several serious outcomes. However, few reports on ADRs have evaluated only antimicrobial agents. In this study, we investigated antibiotic-related ADRs at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated ADRs to antibiotics that were reported at a 2400-bed tertiary care hospital in 2015. ADRs reported by physicians, pharmacists, and nurses were reviewed. Clinical information reported ADRs, type of antibiotic, causality assessment, and complications were evaluated. Results. 1,277 (62.8% patients were considered antibiotic-related ADRs based on the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Center criteria (certain, 2.2%; probable, 35.7%; and possible, 62.1%. Totally, 44 (3.4% patients experienced serious ADRs. Penicillin and quinolones were the most common drugs reported to induce ADRs (both 16.0%, followed by third-generation cephalosporins (14.9%. The most frequently experienced side effects were skin manifestations (45.1% followed by gastrointestinal disorders (32.6%. Conclusion. Penicillin and quinolones are the most common causative antibiotics for ADRs and skin manifestations were the most frequently experienced symptom.

  4. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase types in a Brazilian tertiary hospital

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    Keite da Silva Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are scarce in Brazil despite the fact that these data are essential for empirical treatment and control measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different ESBLs by type and distribution in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated 1,827 enterobacterial isolates between August 2003 and March 2008 isolated from patients at a tertiary hospital. Samples were identified using a Vitek automated system and were confirmed by biochemical testing. The identified ESBL strains were characterized by phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and sequencing. Genetic similarities were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: It was 390 (21.3% ESBL-producing strains, which expressed the ESBLs CTX-M (292, SHV (84, CTX and SHV (10, TEM (2, and PER (2. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ESBL-expressing strains was high, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. CTX-M was the predominant type of ESBL observed, and its genetic variability indicates a polyclonal distribution.

  5. Self esteem and organizational commitment among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran.

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    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ebrahimi, Kamal

    2014-12-12

    Self esteem (SE) and organizational commitment (OC)? have significant impact on the quality of work life. This study aims to gain a better understanding of the relationships between SE and OC among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran (Iran). This was a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study conducted on the health information management staff of tertiary care hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 155 participants were randomly selected from 400 staff. Data were collected by two standard questionnaires. The SE and OC was measured using Eysenck SE scale and Meyer and Allen's three component model, respectively. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using statistical tests of of independent T-test, Pearson Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and F tests. The OC and SE of the employees' were 67.8?, out of 120 (weak) and 21.0 out of 30 (moderate), respectively. The values for affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment were respectively 21.3 out of 40 (moderate), 23.9 out of 40 (moderate), and 22.7 out of 40 (moderate). The Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant OC and SE was statistically significant (Porganizational improvement. Therefore, applying appropriate human resource policies is crucial to reinforce these measures.

  6. A multicenter study on experience of 13 tertiary hospitals in Turkey in patients with infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbey, Mehmet Ali; Akdağ, Serkan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Kaya, Mehmet G; Sayın, M Raşit; Karapınar, Hekim; Bulur, Serkan; Ulus, Taner; Akıl, M Ata; Elbey, Hatice Köprü; Akyüz, Abdurrahman

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, microbiological profile, echocardiographic findings and management strategies of infective endocarditis (IE) in Turkey. The study population consisted of 248 Turkish patients with IE treated at 13 major hospitals in Turkey from 2005 to 2012 retrospectively. All hospitals are tertiary referral centers, which receive patients from surrounding hospitals. Data were collected from the medical files of all patients hospitalized with IE diagnosed according to modified Duke Criteria. One hundred thirty seven of the patients were males. Native valves were involved in 158 patients while in 75 participants there was prosthetic valve endocarditis. Vegetations were detected in 223 patients (89%) and 52 patients had multiple vegetations. Mitral valve was the most common site of vegetation (43%). The most common valvular pathology was mitral regurgitation. The most common predisposing factor was rheumatic valvular disease (28%). Positive culture rate was 65%. Staphylococci were the most frequent causative microorganisms isolated (29%) followed by enterococci (11%). In-hospital mortality rate was 33%. Compared to IE in developed countries younger age, higher prevalence of rheumatic heart disease, more frequent enterococci infection and higher rates of culture negativity were other important aspects of IE epidemiology in Turkey.

  7. Costs of vaginal delivery and Caesarean section at a tertiary level public hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan

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    Zaman Shakila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public hospitals in developing countries, rather than the preventive and primary healthcare sectors, are the major consumers of healthcare resources. Imbalances in rational, equitable and efficient allocation of scarce resources lie in the scarcity of research & information on economic aspects of health care. The objective of this study was to determine the average cost of a spontaneous vaginal delivery and Caesarean section in a tertiary level government hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan and to estimate the out of pocket expenditures to households using these services. Methods This hospital based cost accounting cross sectional study determines the average cost of vaginal delivery and Caesarean section from two perspectives, the patient's and the hospital. From the patient's perspective direct and indirect expenditures of 133 post-partum mothers (65 delivered by Caesarean section & 68 by spontaneous vaginal delivery admitted in the maternity general ward were determined. From the hospital perspective the step down methodology was adopted, capital and recurrent costs were determined from inputs and cost centers. Results The average cost for a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the hospital's side was 40 US$ (2688 rupees and from the patient's perspective was 79 US$ (5278 rupees. The average cost for a Caesarean section from the hospital side was 162 US$ (10868 rupees and 204 US$ (13678 rupees from the patient's side. Average monthly household income was 141 ± 87 US$ for spontaneous vaginal delivery and 168 ± 97 US$ for Caesarean section. Three fourth (74% of households had a monthly income of less than 149 US$ (10000 rupees. Conclusion The apparently "free" maternity care at government hospitals involves substantial hidden and unpredicted costs. The anticipated fear of these unpredicted costs may be major factor for many poor households to seek cheaper alternate maternity healthcare.

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric otolaryngology patients attending a tertiary hospital in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M; Little, S A; Bruce, J; Ah-See, K W

    2007-11-01

    Little data is available on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children attending otolaryngology services. We investigated the prevalence and pattern of CAM use among children attending the pediatric otolaryngology department in a tertiary pediatric teaching hospital in Scotland. A cross-sectional survey conducted by administering an anonymous questionnaire to the parents accompanying patients attending the pediatric otolaryngology department. Elective admissions and clinic attendees were included over a 3-month period in 2005/2006. Academic tertiary care referral centre in North-East Scotland. Five hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients aged less than 16 years were eligible. The response rate was 59% (n=327). Prevalence of CAM use in children. Secondary measures include types of CAM used, indications for use and communication with family physicians. Based on 327 responses, 93 patients (29%) had ever used CAM, 20% within the last year. Commonly used CAM preparations were cod-liver oil, echinacea, aloe vera, cranberry, primrose oil and herbal vitamin supplements. The popular non-herbal CAM included homeopathy, massage, aromatherapy, chiropractic, yoga and reiki. Nineteen percent used CAM for their admission illness. Sixty-one percent of parents thought that CAM was effective and 65% would recommend it to others. Fifty-one percent of parents stated that the family physician was unaware of CAM use by the child. Despite concerns regarding the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine, its use among the pediatric otolaryngology population is more common than many providers may realize. This has implications for all healthcare workers involved in their care.

  9. English as a Foreign Language Instructors’ Induction: Early Practices of Language Teachers Teaching at Tertiary Level

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    Mustafa Öztürk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the nature of the induction process of English as a foreign language (EFL teachers teaching at tertiary level through individual interviews. In order to gather intended data, fifteen novice instructors teaching at four different public universities in Ankara were interviewed on a basis of two criteria: (a having 1 to 3 years of teaching experience, and (b teaching at higher education level. The data gathered from the interviews were transcribed, coded, and categorized under themes in a qualitative research tradition. Subsequently the Şndings were interpreted. The findings were organized around research questions and there appeared four main themes: (1 nature of induction process; (2 common concerns of novice teachers; (3 possible adaptation challenges; and (4 practices to overcome difŞculties. The results revealed that pre-service education, especially of the graduates of nonEducation Faculties, did not adequately respond to the needs of the novice teachers in induction period. Considering this insufŞcient preparation and unsatisfactory pedagogical formation processes, an effective teacher education program as well as a contributing teacher induction program was claimed to be adopted by higher education institutions

  10. English as a Foreign Language Instructors’ Induction: Early Practices of Language Teachers Teaching at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Öztürk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the nature of the induction process of English as a foreign language (EFL teachers teaching at tertiary level through individual interviews. In order to gather intended data, fifteen novice instructors teaching at four different public universities in Ankara were interviewed on a basis of two criteria: (a having 1 to 3 years of teaching experience, and (b teaching at higher education level. The data gathered from the interviews were transcribed, coded, and categorized under themes in a qualitative research tradition. Subsequently the findings were interpreted. The findings were organized around research questions and there appeared four main themes: (1 nature of induction process; (2 common concerns of novice teachers; (3 possible adaptation challenges; and (4 practices to overcome difficulties. The results revealed that pre-service education, especially of the graduates of non-Education Faculties, did not adequately respond to the needs of the novice teachers in induction period. Considering this insufficient preparation and unsatisfactory pedagogical formation processes, an effective teacher education program as well as a contributing teacher induction program was claimed to be adopted by higher education institutions.

  11. Juba Teaching Hospital College of Nursing and Midwifery Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    more trained staff, particularly nurses and midwives. In March 2008 a team from the St Mary's Hospital, Isle of Wight,. UK working with staff at Juba Teaching Hospital identified several problems related to nursing and midwifery in the hospital. Apart from the lack of sufficient trained staff, particularly midwives, the most serious ...

  12. How Do Patients Perceive and Expect Quality of Surgery, Diagnostics, and Emergency Services in Tertiary Care Hospitals? An Evidence of Gap Analysis From Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Iram; Humayun, Ayesha; Anwar, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Adil; Aslam, Muhammad; Shafiq, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Service quality is one of the important gears to appraise services and determine the gray areas that need improvement. In countries with a resource-poor health system, the first step of measuring quality is yet to be taken. This study seeks to inform policy makers in developing contextual service quality models by identifying service quality gaps in tertiary care teaching hospitals using patients’ perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using multistage cluster sampling, and a modified version of the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument was administered to determine patient’s expectations and perceptions. A total of 817 completed questionnaires were obtained from patients and/or their attendants using convenience sampling. Results Data analysis revealed statistically significant negative quality gaps between expectations and perceptions of tangibility, reliability, empathy, assurance, responsiveness, and communication. The difference in mean expectation and perception for responsiveness across the sexes was significant (p quality were independent of sex. Educational status showed significant difference in expectation and perception in responsiveness (p service quality: p service departments showed no relationship with any of the perceived or expected dimension of service quality of hospitals. Conclusions Tertiary care hospitals failed to meet patients’ expectations in all major areas of service quality, posing a question of how hospitals implement and evaluate their quality assurance policy. PMID:28804582

  13. How Do Patients Perceive and Expect Quality of Surgery, Diagnostics, and Emergency Services in Tertiary Care Hospitals? An Evidence of Gap Analysis From Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Iram; Humayun, Ayesha; Anwar, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Adil; Aslam, Muhammad; Shafiq, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Service quality is one of the important gears to appraise services and determine the gray areas that need improvement. In countries with a resource-poor health system, the first step of measuring quality is yet to be taken. This study seeks to inform policy makers in developing contextual service quality models by identifying service quality gaps in tertiary care teaching hospitals using patients' perspective. A cross-sectional study was performed using multistage cluster sampling, and a modified version of the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument was administered to determine patient's expectations and perceptions. A total of 817 completed questionnaires were obtained from patients and/or their attendants using convenience sampling. Data analysis revealed statistically significant negative quality gaps between expectations and perceptions of tangibility, reliability, empathy, assurance, responsiveness, and communication. The difference in mean expectation and perception for responsiveness across the sexes was significant (p quality were independent of sex. Educational status showed significant difference in expectation and perception in responsiveness (p quality: p quality of hospitals. Tertiary care hospitals failed to meet patients' expectations in all major areas of service quality, posing a question of how hospitals implement and evaluate their quality assurance policy.

  14. Burden of Hospitalized Pediatric Morbidity and Utilization of Beds in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata, India

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    Rabindra Nath Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood morbidity consumes a substantial portion of health care resources in terms of hospital bed utilization, and overload in hospital ward remains a major concern in many countries, including India. A possible way to minimize the problem of scarcities of bed is to analyze the pattern of bed utilization by causes and plan services accordingly. Objectives: To determine the burden of pediatric morbidity and utilization pattern of pediatric beds in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of pediatric inpatient′s records was conducted over a period of 1 year from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007. Results: Of 3983 total admitted cases, about one-third were infants, of which neonatal and post-neonatal age group constituted 45% and 55% of the cases, respectively. In terms of bed-day utilization, infants, 1-4 years and 5-11 years age group accounted for 35.10%, 32.58% and 32.32% of total days of admission, respectively. Utilization of pediatric beds by major causes of morbidity was respiratory tract infection (22.23%, convulsive disorder (12.68%, accident and poisoning (6.07%, diarrheal disease (4.97% and chronic hemolytic anemia (4.42%. Conclusion: A minor change in admission policy through provision of day care unit for management of certain cases would allow efficient use of hospital beds.

  15. Practices and challenges of infectious waste management: A qualitative descriptive study from tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Somrongthong, Ratana; Chapman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Infectious waste management practices among health care workers in the tertiary care hospitals have been questionable. The study intended to identify issues that impede a proper infectious waste management. Besides direct observation, in-depths interviews were conducted with the hospital administrators and senior management involved in healthcare waste management during March 2014. We looked at the processes related to segregation, collection, storage and disposal of hospital waste, and identified variety of issues in all the steps. Serious gaps and deficiencies were observed related to segregation, collection, storage and disposal of the hospital wastes, hence proving to be hazardous to the patients as well as the visitors. Poor safety, insufficient budget, lack of trainings, weak monitoring and supervision, and poor coordination has eventually resulted in improper waste management in the tertiary hospitals of Rawalpindi. Study has concluded that the poor resources and lack of healthcare worker's training in infectious waste results in poor waste management at hospitals.

  16. Safe abortion – Still a neglected scenario: A study of septic abortions in a tertiary hospital of Rural India

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    Shritanu Bhattacharya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In spite abortion has been legalized in India over three decades, unsafe abortion continues to be a significant contributor of maternal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to assess the magnitude of septic abortion in a tertiary care hospital over a period of three years with a special emphasis on maternal mortality and morbidity and various surgical complications. Settings and Design: Retrospective study of patients who were admitted with unsafe abortions over a three year period from 2005 to 2008 in a tertiary teaching Hospital of Rural India. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of the patients who were admitted with unsafe abortion in three years (2005-2008 were reviewed to evaluate the demographic and clinical profile in relation to age, parity, marital status, indication of abortion , the methods of abortion ,qualification of abortion provider complications and maternal mortality. Results: Unsafe abortion constitutes 11.6% ( n=132 of total abortion cases admitted over 3 years. Majority of women (70.45% were in their thirties, married (89%.Sixty percent wanted abortion for birth spacing. Abortion methods included various primitive methods (30% but majority by dilatation and evacuation. About 60% of abortionists were unqualified. Majority of women admitted with serious complications like peritonitis (70%, visceral injuries (60%, hemorrhagic and septic shock, renal failure (17.4%, and life threatening conditions like DIC, hepatic failure and encephalopathy. A total of 231 women died of unsafe abortion making it 12.55% of total maternal mortality in our institution. Out of 73 women requiring laparotomy, 22% were done within 24 hours of admission and majority (49% were performed beyond 24-48 hours. Interestingly no women died when early aggressive surgery was done. Conclusion: The present study confirms that unsafe abortion is a great neglected health care problem leading to a considerable loss of

  17. High Burden of Antimicrobial Resistance among Bacteria Causing Pyogenic Wound Infections at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Basista Prasad Rijal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic wound infections are one of the most common clinical entities caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Prompt and aggressive antimicrobial therapy is needed to reduce the burden and complications associated with these infections. In this study, we intended to investigate the common pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the pyogenic wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. A laboratory based cross-sectional study was carried out among the pyogenic clinical specimens of the patients visiting Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Processing of clinical specimens and isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens were carried out using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistant profiles were determined by following the standard guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. About 65% of the clinical specimens were positive for the bacterial growth and Gram positive bacteria (57.4% were the leading pathogens among pyogenic wound infections. Staphylococcus aureus (412, 49.28%, Escherichia coli (136, 16.27%, Klebsiella spp. (88, 10.53%, and Pseudomonas spp. (44, 5.26% were the common pathogens isolated. High level of drug resistance was observed among both Gram positive bacteria (51.9% and Gram negative bacteria (48.7%. Gram positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, and cloxacillin. Gram negative isolates were resistant to cephalosporins but were well susceptible to amikacin and imipenem. Pyogenic wound infections are common in our hospital and majority of them were associated with multidrug resistant bacteria. The detailed workup of the prevalent pathogens present in infected wounds and their resistance pattern is clearly pertinent to choosing the adequate treatment.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary surgical and trauma hospital in Benghazi, Libya.

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    Buzaid, Najat; Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Taher, Ibrahim; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2011-10-13

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant organism that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide and causes a threat almost exclusively in hospitals and long-term care settings. This study investigated the prevalence of MRSA strains and their sensitivity patterns against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized patients in a major tertiary surgical hospital in Benghazi, Libya. We investigated 200 non-duplicate S. aureus strains isolated from different clinical specimens submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Aljala Surgical and Trauma Hospital, Benghazi, Libya from April to July 2007. Isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by the oxacillin disc-diffusion assay according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. MRSA strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance (i.e., vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and fusidic acid) using commercial discs. Information on patient demographics and clinical disease was also collected. Of the isolates examined 31% (62/200) were MRSA. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus from females or males or from different age groups. Most MRSA were isolated from burns and surgical wound infections. Antibiotic resistance patterns of 62 patients with MRSA to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and erythromycin were 17.7%, 33.9%, 41.9%, 38.7% and 46.8% of cases, respectively. MRSA prevalence in our hospital was high and this may be the case for other hospitals in Libya. A sound surveillance program of nosocomial infections is urgently needed to reduce the incidence of infections due to MRSA and other antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Libyan hospitals.

  19. Safety and cost savings of reducing adult dengue hospitalization in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Earnest, Arul; Carrasco, Luis R; Thein, Tun L; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2013-01-01

    Previously, most dengue cases in Singapore were hospitalized despite low incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or death. To minimize hospitalization, the Communicable Disease Centre at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) in Singapore implemented new admission criteria which included clinical, laboratory, and DHF predictive parameters in 2007. All laboratory-confirmed dengue patients seen at TTSH during 2006-2008 were retrospectively reviewed for clinical data. Disease outcome and clinical parameters were compared over the 3 years. There was a 33.0% mean decrease in inpatients after the new criteria were implemented compared with the period before (p accumulation (15.5% vs 2.9% of outpatients), while most DHF outpatients had hypoproteinemia (92.7% vs 81.3% of inpatients). The eight intensive care unit admissions and five deaths during this time period all occurred among inpatients. The new criteria resulted in a median cost saving of US$1.4 million to patients in 2008. The new dengue admission criteria were effective in sustainably reducing length of hospitalization, yielding considerable cost savings. A minority of DHF patients with mild symptoms recovered uneventfully through outpatient management.

  20. Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O'SHEHU

    Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary care centre. Constance E SHEHU. Joel C OMEMBELEDE. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu. Danfodiyo, University. Teaching Hospital Sokoto. NIGERIA. Author for Correspondence. Constance E SHEHU. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu.

  1. Assessment of hospital processes using a process mining technique: Outpatient process analysis at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Cho, Minsu; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Seok; Sim, Yerim; Yoo, Donghyun; Hwang, Hee; Song, Minseok

    2016-04-01

    Many hospitals are increasing their efforts to improve processes because processes play an important role in enhancing work efficiency and reducing costs. However, to date, a quantitative tool has not been available to examine the before and after effects of processes and environmental changes, other than the use of indirect indicators, such as mortality rate and readmission rate. This study used process mining technology to analyze process changes based on changes in the hospital environment, such as the construction of a new building, and to measure the effects of environmental changes in terms of consultation wait time, time spent per task, and outpatient care processes. Using process mining technology, electronic health record (EHR) log data of outpatient care before and after constructing a new building were analyzed, and the effectiveness of the technology in terms of the process was evaluated. Using the process mining technique, we found that the total time spent in outpatient care did not increase significantly compared to that before the construction of a new building, considering that the number of outpatients increased, and the consultation wait time decreased. These results suggest that the operation of the outpatient clinic was effective after changes were implemented in the hospital environment. We further identified improvements in processes using the process mining technique, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for analyzing complex hospital processes at a low cost. This study confirmed the effectiveness of process mining technology at an actual hospital site. In future studies, the use of process mining technology will be expanded by applying this approach to a larger variety of process change situations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Retrospective analysis of nosocomial infections in an Italian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Alessio; Verdini, Daniele; La Vigna, Giorgio; Recanatini, Claudia; Lombardi, Francesca Elena; Barocci, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Nosocomial infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Studies of their prevalence in single institutions can reveal trends over time and help to identify risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the nosocomial infections trend and identify the prevalence of predominant bacterial microorganisms and their drug resistance patterns in an Italian tertiary care hospital. Infections were classified according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. A retrospective study was carried out from March 2011 to June 2014, based on the bacterial isolate reports of a hospital located in Central Italy. During the 40-month study period, a total of 1547 isolates were obtained from 1046 hospitalized patients and tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. The most common isolates belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family (61.7%), followed by Enterococcus species (12.4%), Pseudomonas species (10.7%) and S. aureus (10.0%). The incidence density rate of nosocomial infections was 7.4 per 1000 patient days, with a significant difference among the 3 annual infection rates (Pinfection prevalence rate was found in Internal Medicine Unit (41.3%), followed by Intensive Care Units (12.4%), Surgical Units (9.0%,) and Cardiology (7.1%).

  3. Socioeconomic status and utilization of amblyopia services at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Wong, Agnes M F; Colpa, Linda; Chow, Amy H Y; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate whether socioeconomic status is associated with equal utilization of amblyopia services at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), a pediatric tertiary hospital in Canada. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. The medical records of children aged under 7 years diagnosed with amblyopia at SickKids from 2007 to 2009 were reviewed. Socioeconomic status was derived from patients' residential postal codes through linking with income data in the 2006 Canadian census report. Patients were divided into 5 income quintiles to compare with amblyopia service utilization. The main outcome measure was the observed distribution of amblyopia patients by socioeconomic status versus the expected distribution of 20% for each quintile. The analyses included 336 patients. Children with amblyopia at SickKids were more likely to come from the richest neighbourhood (32.5%), whereas children from each of the 3 lowest quintiles (14.6%-15.5%) were less likely to present at SickKids. These results differed significantly from the expected 20% for each quintile (p amblyopia were significantly under-represented for children from the lower socioeconomic groups. When analyses were stratified by travel distance to the hospital, a significant inequality between the lower and higher income quintiles remained for nonmetropolitan Toronto patients, but not for metropolitan Toronto patients. Despite a publicly funded health-care system in Canada, children from lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods in distant areas utilize the amblyopia services in a tertiary pediatric centre less often than those from higher socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Burnout among middle-grade doctors of tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Adnan; Mordy, Ayedh; Anwar, Eram; Saleh, Noha; Rashid, Imran; Saeed, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Burnout Syndrome is a mental condition caused by chronic exposure to work related stress and is identified by the presence of any of the three distinct elements of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. Middle grade doctors are the backbone of any tertiary care hospital / medical institution, partaking in unscheduled and inpatient care. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of burnout syndrome in the middle grade doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Khamis Mushyt, from August to October 2012 in departments with at least fifty inpatient admissions per month and with at least five middle grade (Resident, Registrar and Senior Registrar) doctors. The departments were Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Emergency, General Surgery and Nephrology. This was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Services Survey and a self-reported stressor-identifying questionnaire to ascertain possible precursors of, or contributing factors to, Burnout Syndrome. A total of 96 proformas/questionnaires were collected anonymously to maintain confidentiality and burnout syndrome was identified in as high as 88.5% of the respondents with high emotional exhaustion in 68.8%, high depersonalization in 63.6% and low personal accomplishment in 38.5%. The authors concluded that burnout syndrome is high among the middle-grade doctors in this medical facility and that urgent steps are needed to address this problem to ensure that these physicians remain physically and mentally healthy.

  5. Perception of leadership among health managers working in tertiary level hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Saadia; Zareen, Humaira

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical knowledge has created major changes in technology which in turn has created greater demand of the client for better health services, and health sector is constantly under pressure of great internal and external demands. Quality of services, largely depend on to what extent managers are well versed with the concept of evidence based management, team and group approach in achieving organizational objectives. Making an effective health system, addressing the double burden of diseases coupled with resource crunch in developing countries is a big challenge for policy makers and health managers. Comprehensive concepts and application knowledge of leadership is very important for health managers in the present day in order to get best output that satisfies all the stake holders. Present anthropological study was done to assess the perception and knowledge of leadership among the health managers working in tertiary level hospitals. This qualitative study was conducted in two public sector tertiary level hospitals of Lahore chosen randomly out of a total of seven such hospitals in the same city. Convenient sampling technique was used. Observation and in- depth interviews were conducted for data collection. Open ended questionnaire on the lines of MLQ was used. One main domain of leadership was developed and categorisation of the themes was done in the two evolved categories of transformational and transactional leadership. In the domain of leadership 10 of the health managers showed positive themes for transactional leadership, 6 showed positive themes for transformational leadership, and still 1 health manager showed overall negative response for the concept of leadership; he was totally in favour of dictatorship. Health managers with degrees in management/administration had better concept about the key idea of leadership and its variables. Female health managers were more inclined towards transformational leadership behaviour.

  6. Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Kalipatnam Seshagiri; Adhikari, Sudhir; Gauchan, Eva; Sathian, Brijesh; B. K., Ganesh; Basnet, Sahisnuta; Tiwari, Prabhat Kumar; Bahadur, Namraj; Mishra, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizure disorders in children of Western Nepal. The clinical presentation is variable. The incidence varies depending on the food habits and ethnicity of the population. The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying the mode of presentation, radiological findings and to determine the recent trend of the disease in children of Western Nepal. Methods Records from the Department of Pediatrics, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokha...

  7. Perception, attitude and usage of complementary and alternative medicine among doctors and patients in a tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vandana; Gupta, Monica; Ghosh, Raktim Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been practiced in India for thousands of years. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of use, perception and attitude of doctors and patients utilizing the same healthcare facility. This study was conducted among 200 doctors working at a tertiary care teaching Hospital, India and 403 patients attending the same, to determine the extent of usage, attitude and perception toward CAM. The use of CAM was more among doctors (58%) when compared with the patients (28%). Among doctors, those who had utilized CAM themselves, recommended CAM as a therapy to their patients (52%) and enquired about its use from patients (37%) to a greater extent. CAM was used concomitantly with allopathic medicine by 60% patients. Very few patients (7%) were asked by their doctors about CAM use, and only 19% patients voluntarily informed their doctors about the CAM they were using. Most patients who used CAM felt it to be more effective, safer, less costly and easily available in comparison to allopathic medicines. CAM is used commonly by both doctors and patients. There is a lack of communication between doctors and patients regarding CAM, which may be improved by sensitization of doctors and inclusion of CAM in the medical curriculum.

  8. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom

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    Liam Toner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Results: Of these cultures, 542 (9.8% were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin- resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. Conclusions: The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus sp.

  9. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital

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    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care. Study Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Patients and Methods: Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the “Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health” of the “JHPIEGO.” The outcomes of the study were birth preparedness, knowledge of severe illness, and emergency readiness. Results: Six hundred pregnant women were in the study. Mean age of respondents was 25.2 (±4 years. The mean gestation at enrolment was 18.7 ± 8 weeks. Among the women who participated in the survey, 20% were illiterate, 70% were homemakers and nearly 70% had a monthly family income >Rs. 15,197 (n = 405. Three hundred and sixteen mothers (52% were primigravida. As defined in the study, 71.5% were birth prepared. However, 59 women (9.8% did not identify a place of delivery, 102 (17% had not started saving money, and 99 mothers (16.5% were not aware of purchasing materials needed for delivery. The predictors of birth preparedness are multiparity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–3.1, registration in the antenatal clinic in the first trimester (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2–6.1, educational status of women (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, and pregnancy supervison by a doctor (OR: 5, 95% CI: 2.8–6.6. One hundred and sixty-four women (27% made no arrangements in the event of an emergency, 376 women (63% were not aware of their blood group

  10. HOSPITALIZATIONS DUE TO RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS DURING DIWALI FESTIVAL IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

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    Raghu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The burning of firecrackers during Diwali festival produces an adverse respiratory outcome. However, there are no published articles on the impact of fireworks on hospital admission due to acute respiratory issues, hospital stay, and respiratory mortality during Diwali in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, open label, observational study. It was conducted in patients admitted to the pulmonary emergency unit with respiratory symptoms 15 days before and after Diwali. It was conducted after the approval of ethics committee and written informed consent. RESULTS The number of admissions post-Diwali were significantly more compared to pre-Diwali from both rural and urban locations (p<0.001. The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly less pre-Diwali (7.59±0.74 days compared to post-Diwali (9.46±0.44 days. Also, significantly increased number of patients required ventilator support post Diwali. CONCLUSION The findings from the present study validate the deterioration of respiratory health during Diwali festival in India. There should be more awareness campaigns about the harmful effects of fire-crackers. Patients suffering from respiratory problems should be advised to avoid heavy exposure to fireworks

  11. The use of amiodarone for in-hospital cardiac arrest at two tertiary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, P Timothy; Wee, Vinnie; Al-Hazmi, Ahmed; Martin, Janet; Zarnke, Kelly B

    2006-03-01

    Although amiodarone significantly increases survival to hospital admission when used in resuscitation of out-of-hospital pulseless ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, there are limited data on its utility for in-hospital arrests. To determine whether the use of amiodarone, as recommended by the year 2000 American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidelines, improved survival following its introduction to the resuscitation algorithm at two tertiary care institutions. Charts of 374 cardiac resuscitations were retrospectively studied at the two institutions. Basic survival outcomes and demographic data were recorded for cardiac arrests with ventricular tachyarrhythmias qualifying for administration of antiarrhythmic agents. Qualifying rhythms were present in 95 patients. Clinical uptake of amiodarone was limited. In the 36 patients who received amiodarone, survival of resuscitation was 67% versus 83% (P=0.07) in the 59 patients receiving only other antiarrhythmic agents (chiefly lidocaine [94%]), while survival to discharge was 36.1% and 55.9% (P=0.06) in these two groups, respectively. Following two years' experience with the introduction of intravenous amiodarone for resuscitation in the institutions, use was less than 50% and no clinically observable survival benefit could be documented. Possible explanations for the difference between this experience and that found in out-of-hospital resuscitation trials include differing patient populations and operator bias during resuscitation. These results should provoke other institutions to question whether amiodarone has improved survival of cardiac arrest under the conditions prevailing in their hospitals. A patient registry or prospective, randomized trial will be required to assess what parameters affect the success of intravenous amiodarone for resuscitation in-hospital.

  12. Comorbidities are frequent in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in a tertiary health care hospital

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    Joaquim Prado P Moraes-Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD have been studied, but the frequency of comorbidities is not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of GERD comorbidities in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We prospectively studied 670 consecutive adult patients from the outpatient department of our facility. A diagnosis was established using clinical, endoscopic and/or pHmetry-related findings. Each patient's medical file was reviewed with respect to the presence of other medical conditions and diagnoses. RESULTS: Of the 670 patients, 459 (68.6% were female, and the mean age was 55.94 (17-80 years. We registered 316 patients (47.1% with the erosive form of GERD and 354 patients (52.9% with the non-erosive form. A total of 1,664 instances of comorbidities were recorded in 586 patients (87.5%, with the most common being arterial hypertension (21%, hypercholesterolemia (9%, obesity (9%, type II diabetes mellitus (5% and depression (4%. Two or more comorbidities were present in 437 individuals (64.8%. The occurrence of comorbidities increased with age and was higher in patients with the non-erosive form of GERD. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral population, comorbidities were very common, and these may have worsened the already impaired health-related quality of life of these patients. Clinicians caring for GERD patients in this setting must be aware of the likelihood and nature of comorbid disorders and their impact on disease presentation and patient management.

  13. Prevalence of multidrug resistance among retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis cases in a tertiary care hospital, Hyderabad, India

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    Subhakar Kandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB burden countries in the world. India ranks second in harboring multi drug resistant (MDR-TB cases. About 50,000 of MDR cases are recorded in retreatment pulmonary TB cases. This study was conducted in a tertiary care facility (Government General and Chest Hospital in Hyderabad, India. Objectives: Toassess: Proportion of the TB patients having MDR-TB at the initiation of retreatment regimen; the prevalence of isoniazid (INH resistance in this geographical area. Materials and Methods: An analytical, observational, prospective cohort study of patients attending the out-patient department from December 2010 to March 2011. Results: Sputum samples from 100 patients were subjected to acid fast bacilli (AFB culture and drug sensitivity testing. Of these, 28 (28% were MDR-TB, 42 (42% were non-MDR-TB and 39% being INH resistance. Conclusions: In conclusion, one third of the retreatment pulmonary TB cases attending a tertiary care institute for TB will be MDR-TB at the initiation of treatment and there is a need to include ethambutol in the continuation phase of new TB case treatment in view of high INH resistance.

  14. The Implication of Large Class Size in the Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institution in Ekiti State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Olapade Grace; Olowe, Modupe Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Large class size is one of the problems in the educational sector that developing nations have been grappling with. Nigeria as a developing nation is no exception. The purpose of this study is to provide views of both lecturers and students on large class size and how it affects teaching and learning in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State of…

  15. Overnight Emergency CT Imaging: A 10-Year Experience at an Irish Tertiary Referral Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased utilisation of computed tomography (CT) imaging in developed countries, however there is a paucity of data regarding the utilisation of CT in the emergency overnight setting. We retrospectively analysed trends in ‘overnight’ (midnight to 8am) CT utilisation over a ten-year period at a single Irish tertiary referral hospital. Over the study period, we observed a significant increase in the proportion of CT imaging that was carried out overnight. There was no significant variation in the yield of pathological findings over the study period, which remained low (64% of CT studies were normal or had non-critical findings). The multiple factors which have contributed to the increased utilization of overnight emergency CT in recent years, the potential for reporting errors overnight and the implications therein for patient safety warrant consideration.

  16. Usutu virus in cerebrospinal fluid: A 2-year survey in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, Samuel; Vieille, Gael; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent

    2017-10-04

    In 2009, the Usutu virus (USUV) was first reported as a cause of human neuroinvasive disorders. In Switzerland, USUV has been detected in wild birds with a seroprevalence of up to 6.59% in captive specimens sampled from zoo enclosures. This study investigates the clinical prevalence of USUV in human acute neuroinvasive disorders in Switzerland. Two hundred and fifty-eight cerebrospinal fluid samples collected between 2015 and 2017 for routine clinical care in a tertiary level hospital (Geneva) were tested for USUV by rRT-PCR. No samples were found positive, suggesting the absence, or the extremely low circulation of USUV in Western Switzerland. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Indicators and outcomes of transfer to tertiary pediatric hospitals for patients with testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Janae; Ching, Christina; Yackey, Katelyn; Jayanthi, Venkata; McLeod, Daryl; Alpert, Seth; DaJusta, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Testicular torsion threatens testicular viability with increased risk of loss with delayed management. Still, healthy adolescents continue to be transferred from community hospitals to tertiary hospitals for surgical management for torsion even though adult urologists may be available. We sought to determine reasons behind patient transfer and to evaluate whether transfer to tertiary centers for testicular torsion leads to increased rates of testicular loss. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients presenting to our free-standing pediatric tertiary care facility with surgically confirmed testicular torsion during the 5-year period between January 2011 and January 2016. Data was collected regarding transfer status, patient demographics, time of presentation to our facility, duration of symptoms, patient workup, and surgical outcomes. Patients with perinatal or intermittent torsion were excluded. One-hundred and twenty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six of those were transferred from outside facilities while 89 presented directly to our hospital. A greater proportion of the transferred patients presented during nights or weekends than those presenting directly to our facility (77.8% versus 51.7%, p = 0.009). Eighty-nine patients presented with symptom duration of less than 24 h and had potentially viable testicles. Of those, 23 were transferred and 66 presented directly to our hospital. Differences are shown in the Table. Transferred patients had twice the rate of testicular loss as those not transferred, although the results were not significant (30.4% versus 15.2%, p = 0.129). Patients undergoing ultrasound prior to transfer had prolonged symptom duration and faced higher rates of testicular loss when compared with patients not transferred, although the latter was not significant (mean duration 8.0 versus 4.9 h, p = 0.025, and testicular loss 40.0% versus 15.2%, p = 0.065, respectively). Patients transferred over 30 miles

  18. Antihistamines prescribed off-label among paediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital setting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rou Wei; Mohamed Shah, Noraida

    2016-10-01

    Background Antihistamines are widely prescribed to children but should be used with caution in young children. Objective To determine the paediatric prescribing pattern of antihistamines with a focus on the off-label prescribing and factors that influence such prescribing. Setting Paediatric wards of a tertiary care hospital setting in Malaysia. Methods The pharmacy-based computer system and medical records were used to collect the required data. Labelling status of each antihistamine was determined based on the information provided in the product leaflets. Main outcome measure Antihistamines prescribed off-label and factors associated with such prescribing. Results Of the 176 hospitalised children aged higher than the recommended dose (30.2 %). Binary logistic regression showed that children aged studied locations and warrants further investigation on the consequences of such prescribing.

  19. Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Providencia rettgeri in a tertiary hospital

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    V S Tshisevhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents in pathogenic bacteria is a significant public health threat, as there are limited effective antimicrobial agents for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria. Several MDR bacteria are now frequently detected. Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is often plasmid mediated, necessitating stringent infection control practices. We describe an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Providencia rettgeri involving 4 patients admitted to intensive care and high-care units at a tertiary hospital. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 4 patients with carbapenem-resistant P. rettgeri were documented. All P. rettgeri isolated in these cases had a carbapenem-resistant antibiogram, with resistance to imipenem, ertapenem and meropenem. These cases could be epidemiologically linked. A multiprong approach, simultaneously targeting antibiotic stewardship, universal precautions and appropriate transmission-based precaution practices, is integral to prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

  20. Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (ptobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.

  1. Factors associated with perceived participation three months after being discharged from a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; He, Yanan; Meng, Xianmei; Zhou, Lanshu

    2017-09-01

    To describe how first-stroke survivors perceive their participation and the problems with such participation in life and to determine the factors associated with perceived participation at three months after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China and they were followed up in their homes. Two hundred and fifty-seven first-stroke survivors discharged for three months participated in this study. The Chinese version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, Barthel Index, Chinese Stroke Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. One hundred thirty-four (52.1%) and 147 (57.2%) participants perceived their participation as poor to very poor in the domains of family role and autonomy outdoors, respectively. Conversely, 208 (80.9%) and 228 (88.7%) participants perceived their participation to be fair to good in the domains of social relations and autonomy indoors, respectively. The ability to perform activities of daily life was the strongest correlate of participation in the domains of autonomy indoors, family role, and autonomy outdoors, whereas anxiety was the strongest correlate of participation in the domain of social relations. Activities of daily living were significantly associated with perceived participation in almost all domains. In contrast, anxiety was an important factor in predicting participation in the domain of social relations. These findings suggest the need to explore different strategies of promoting participation for each domain.

  2. Profile of injured patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharrafieh, Umayya; Rahi, Amal C; Taha, Assaad; Shamseddine, Wael; Steitieh, Suzanne; Jamali, Faek; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    In most developing countries including Lebanon, trauma research is lacking and warranted. Objectives of the current study were to describe trauma patients referred to a tertiary care center during one year and identify outcomes and patterns of injury. Review of hospital charts of every 12th consecutive patient presenting to the emergency unit (ED) after a traumatic event during the year 2001-2002. Data collected include: demographics, injury description, and hospital data. A total of 736 patients were included, 212 pediatric, 455 young, and 62 geriatric patients. The most common body regions injured were the extremities followed by the face. The most encountered mechanism of injury was fall from less than 15 feet (38.2%) followed by penetrating/gunshot injury (14.8%), and road traffic accidents (11.8%). The rates of hospital admission and surgical intervention were highest among geriatric patients (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001). Most injuries occurred during the evening shift and the average time spent in the ED was 86 minutes. The police was informed in 6.6% of the cases. Falls represent a worrisome mechanism across all age groups. This may be an indication for unaddressed occupational hazards for the working young and lack of awareness about the need for more children supervision. More rigorous investigation of intentional and unintentional firearm injuries, and their predisposing factors are needed.

  3. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (pmigration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  4. An Audit of Rational Use of Antibiotics in a Tertiary Hospital

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    Tanzima Begum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug can cure ailment when used rationally on the other hand they may become harmful or even may threaten a life when used irrationally. Absence of guidelines for antibiotic use, protocols for rational therapeutics and infection control committees, have led to overuse and misuse of antimicrobials even in different specialized units in hospitals. Objective: The study has been designed to get a picture of use of antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Materials and method: Cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Medicine of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, for 3 months from 1st January 2009 to 31st March 2009. Admitted patients of Medicine unit-1 who got antibiotics were included in the study. Total number of patients was 1563. Results: Five hundred out of 1563 patients were prescribed antibiotics (38%. Out of 500 prescriptions, 68(14% prescriptions were found irrational. Conclusion: Continuous surveillance should be carried out to reduce the irrational use of antibiotics.

  5. The epidemiology and outcomes of infective endocarditis in a tertiary care hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abri, Seif Salem; Zahedi, Faisal Iqbal; Kurup, Padmamohan J; Al-Jardani, Amina K; Beeching, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    We undertook this study to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of infective endocarditis (IE) and to study the complications and management of IE in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. This is a retrospective study of 58 adult patients (>13 years of age) admitted to the Royal Hospital with IE from June 2006 to June 2011. Of the 58 patients, 40 (69%) were males, and 18 (31%) were females (ratio 2.2). The median age was 43.6 years (range: 14-85). Forty-eight cases (82.7%) had native valves, nine patients (15.6%) had prosthetic valves, and one case (1.7%) had a pacemaker. The most commonly involved valves were mitral (33, 56.9%) and aortic (23, 39.7%). The blood cultures were positive in 47 (81%) patients, and the most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococci spp., which were found in 20 (34.5%) patients, and Staphylococci spp., which were found in 19 (32.8%) patients. The complication rate was 21%. A total of 15 (25.9%) patients underwent surgical intervention, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 27.6%. Native-valve IE is the predominant type of endocarditis and is more of an acute disease. The prevalence of Staphylococci spp. IE is similar to that of Streptococci spp. IE, and its associated mortality remains high. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of Maternal "Near-Miss" Events in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Central Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Niyati T; Parmar, Ajay G; Mazumdar, Vihang S

    2016-10-01

    Constant decline in maternal mortality ratio has given rise to the need of a new indicator. This search has motivated investigation of severe maternal morbidity-"maternal near-miss" (MNM) event. World Health Organization (WHO) defines MNM as "a woman who, being close to death, survives a complication that occurred during pregnancy, delivery or up to 42 days after the end of her pregnancy". A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out at Sir Sayajirao General Hospital (SSGH), a tertiary care referral hospital in Vadodara, Central Gujarat, from May to September 2012. MNM events were identified according to either WHO or Mantel et al. criteria or both. During study period, 1929 live births, 18 maternal deaths and 46 "near-miss" cases were recorded. Among these 46 near-miss cases, 57 near-miss events were identified. Calculated MNM ratio was 23.85/1000 live births, MNM rate was 20.6/1000 obstetric admissions, the ratio of maternal death to MNM event was 1:2.6, and overall Mortality index was 28.1 %. Among near-miss cases, percentage of preterm delivery was 42 % and stillbirth rate was 35 % (16/46). Out of 46 MNM, pregnancies were continued in 3 while 43 pregnancies were terminated. (25 live births, 16 stillbirths, 2 abortions). Identification of preventable factors and special preventive actions should be taken for management of complications in such near-miss cases.

  7. Needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, Sumathi; Singh, Prashnat Kumar; Jain, R K; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Bala, Manju

    2010-03-01

    Percutaneous injuries caused by needlesticks, pose a significant risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Their incidence is considerably higher than current estimates, and hence a low injury rate should not be interpreted as a non existent problem. The present study was carried out to determine the occurrence of NSI among various categories of health care workers (HCWs), and the causal factors, the circumstances under which these occur and to, explore the possibilities of measures to prevent these through improvements in knowledge, attitude and practice. The study group consisted of 428 HCWs of various categories of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, and was carried out with the help of an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire structured specifically to identify predictive factors associated with NSIs. The commonest clinical activity to cause the NSI was blood withdrawal (55%), followed by suturing (20.3%) and vaccination (11.7%). The practice of recapping needles after use was still prevalent among HCWs (66.3%). Some HCWs also revealed that they bent the needles before discarding (11.4%). It was alarming to note that only 40 per cent of the HCWs knew about the availability of PEP services in the hospital and 75 per cent of exposed nursing students did not seek PEP. The present study showed a high occurrence of NSI in HCWs with a high rate of ignorance and apathy. These issues need to be addressed, through appropriate education and other interventional strategies by the hospital infection control committee.

  8. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Study in a Tertiary Hospital

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    Ho Siew Eng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression could reduce the quality of life, and exacerbate physical symptoms and even mortality amongst patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of anxiety and depression in patients with acute CHD. In a period from March to December 2008, the views of 108 CHD patients, hospitalized in a tertiary hospital, were solicited using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and sociodemographic questionnaires. Patients with CHD had a low level anxiety and depression scores. There was significant differences in the total HADS score of participants stratified for marital status (P=0.027 or co-morbidity of diseases (P=0.012. Also, there were significant differences in the scores of depression subscale stratified for marital status (P=0.021 or co-morbidity of disease (P=0.007. However, there was no significant difference between the total HADS score or depression subscale score of the participants stratified based on age, gender, race, education, or income. Moreover, unmarried CHD respondents possessed higher depression level compared to the married respondents, and CHD respondents with co-morbid diseases showed a high level of depression. The findings might be taken as evidence to suggest that CHD patients should be evaluated early for the detection of anxiety and depression for appropriate referral and support

  9. [Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in a tertiary care university hospital according to the RIFLE criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thorir Einarsson; Sigurdsson, Martin Ingi; Indridason, Olafur Skuli; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Sigurdsson, Gísli Heimir

    2013-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in hospitalized patients, requiring extensive treatment and carries a high mortality rate. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology of AKI, and risk factors and outcome of patients with severe AKI in a tertiary care university hospital in Iceland. All adult patients with measured serum creatinine (SCr) in Landspitali University Hospital from January 2008 to December 2011, who had a measured baseline SCr in the preceeding six months, were included. Patients were categorized according to the RIFLE-criteria into risk (stage 1), injury (stage 2) and failure (stage 3) groups based on their highest SCr, using the lowest SCr in the previous six months as baseline. A total of 17,693 individuals (out of 74,960) had a baseline SCr and their data were used for analysis. AKI occurred in 3,686 (21%) with 12%, 5% and 4% of stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There were more females in stage 1 and stage 2 and more males in stage 3 (p 90 days. One year survival was 52%. Acute kidney injury is common in Iceland and the prognosis of those with severe AKI is dismal. Majority of those patients were taking drugs that increase risk of AKI, providing a target for preventive measures.

  10. Point Prevalence of Chronic Wounds at a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Ayodele O; Ademola, Samuel A; Olawoye, Olayinka A; Michael, Afie I; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds are a drain on resources both for the patient and health institution. Management of chronic wounds based on evidence-based practice requires baseline data for adequate planning. This study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of chronic wounds in a tertiary hospital (University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria) and utilize this information for subsequent wound care planning. The study was carried out within a 1-month period and included all patients seen in the hospital with chronic wounds. The data obtained was entered into a designed form and was subsequently analyzed. There were 48 patients with 78 wounds representing approximately 11% of patients seen in the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery each month. Their ages ranged from 3 months to 80 years; the median age was 48 years. The male to female ratio was 1.6 to 1. The duration of the wounds ranged from 6 weeks to 780 weeks; the median duration of the wounds was 10 weeks. The area of the wounds ranged from 1 cm(2) -1,248 cm(2) (median 24 cm(2)). The most common chronic wounds were diabetic wounds, followed by pressure ulcers, postinfection ulcers, posttraumatic ulcers, burn wounds, malignant ulcers, and venous ulcers. The point prevalence data serves as a basis for wound care planning. This, in turn, should result in improved wound management grounded in evidence-based practices.

  11. Open globe injury in a tertiary hospital in Northern Taiwan: A 10-year review

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    Hsu-Chieh Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major ocular trauma is an injury with potential blindness in ophthalmology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and etiologic factors of major ocular trauma in a tertiary hospital in Northern Taiwan. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who suffered from open globe injuries and underwent management in a tertiary hospital between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, was conducted. Patients with prior ocular trauma, preexisting ocular conditions affecting the visual acuity (VA and those with a history of previous intraocular or refractive surgery was excluded from this study. Results: Totally 199 eyes of 195 patients were enrolled in this study. Open globe injury occurred more frequently in males than in females (136 vs. 63 patients, P < 0.0001. Workplace is the most common place of injury (56.3%, followed by home (23.1%. Among patients younger than 18-year-old, domestic-related injury was the predominant cause (78.6%, while among those aged above 18 years, occupational injuries were the most common cause (62.0%. Compared with VA measured on admission, final VA was improved in 38.6%, unchanged in 48%, and worse in 13.4%. The visual outcome was found to be significantly associated with the initial VA, posterior extent injury, length of wound, and presence of vitreous prolapse. Conclusions: Unfavorable prognostic factors for final visual outcome in these patients are related to initial VA, posterior extent injury, length of wound, and presence of vitreous prolapse. Results of this study help predict visual outcomes of open globe-injured patients in emergent counseling.

  12. Factors predicting quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, N; Akkadechanunt, T; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the level of quality of work life and predictability of years of education, monthly income, years of experience, job stress, organizational commitment and work environment on quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals in the People's Republic of Bangladesh. There is an acute shortage of nurses worldwide including Bangladesh. Quality of work life is important for quality of patient care and nurse retention. Nurses in Bangladesh are fighting to provide quality care for emerging health problems for the achievement of sustainable development goals. We collected data from 288 randomly selected registered nurses, from six tertiary-level hospitals. All nurses were requested to fill questionnaire consisted of Demographic Data Sheet, Quality of Nursing Work Life Survey, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale, Questionnaire of Organizational Commitment and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The quality of work life as perceived by nurses in Bangladesh was at moderate level. Monthly income was found as the best predictor followed by work environment, organizational commitment and job stress. A higher monthly income helps nurses to fulfil their personal needs; positive work environment helps to provide quality care to the patients. Quality of work life and predictors measured by self-report only may not reflect the original picture of the quality of work life among nurses. Findings provide information for nursing and health policymakers to develop policies to improve quality of work life among nurses that can contribute to quality of nursing care. This includes the working environment, commitment to the organization and measures to reduce job stress. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Perception of intellectual stimulation, creativity and innovation among health managers working in tertiary level hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Saadia; Zareen, Humaira

    2011-01-01

    Management in health sector is becoming focus of attention world over being an important subject due to resource crunch particularly in developing countries. Beside sociodemographic factors, poor management in health sector is also an important factor responsible for poor health in developing countries. Moreover, there is gross lack of effective leadership in our national setup. It is necessary for health managers to be well versed with the knowledge about emerging theories, concepts and new philosophies of management/administration and leadership. This anthropological study was done to assess the perception and knowledge of Intellectual stimulation, creativity and innovation among the health managers working in the tertiary level hospitals of Lahore. This qualitative study was conducted in two public sector tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Observation and in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. Open ended questionnaire, developed on the lines of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was used. One main domain of Intellectual stimulation and its variables were developed and emergence of different themes was noted. In the domain of Intellectual stimulation all the participants of the study showed positive themes for the variable of creativity. Seven of the health managers showed positive themes for the variable of innovation, where as three health managers showed negative responses. Health managers with management/administration qualification had better concept about the key ideas of Intellectual stimulation, creativity and innovation; as compared to those who were working at these managerial posts on the basis of their long term experience only. Female health managers were stronger in building their team members on a broader horizon as a wholesome personality and not just taking the daily routine work.

  14. Ambient Noise Levels in Acute Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Referral Hospital

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    Sonia R. B D'Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of neonates admitted to the intensive care of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. However, the NCU may be an inappropriate milieu, with presence of overwhelming stimuli, most potent being the continuous presence of noise in the ambience of the NICU. Aim and Objectives: To determine and describe the ambient noise levels in the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Material and Methods: The ambient noise, in this study was the background sound existing in the environment of the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital in South India. The ambient noise levels were analyzed by an audiologist and acoustical engineer using a standardized and calibrated Sound Level Meter (SLM i.e., the Hand Held Analyzer type 2250, Brüel and Kjær, Denmark on a weighted frequency A and reported as dB (A. Results: The ambient noise levels were timed measurements yielded by the SLM in terms of L eq, L as well as L exceeded the standard A 10 Aeqmax levels (Leq< 45 dB, L ≤ 50 dB, and Lmax ≤ 65 10 dB.The L eq ranged from 59.4 to 62.12 dB A. A Ventilators with alarms caused the maximum amount of ambient noise yielding a L Sound Pressure Level AF (SPL of 82.14 dB A. Conclusion: The study has found high levels of ambient noise in the acute NICU. Though there are several measures to reduce the ambient noise levels in the NICU, it is essential to raise awareness among health care personnel regarding the observed ambient noise levels and its effects on neonates admitted to the NICU.

  15. Assessment of medication errors and adherence to WHO prescription writing guidelines in a tertiary care hospital

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    Dilnasheen Sheikh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to assess the medication errors and adherence to WHO prescription writing guidelines in a tertiary care hospital. A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of 8 months from June 2015 to February 2016 at tertiary care hospital. At inpatient department regular chart review of patient case records was carried out to assess the medication errors. The observed medication errors were assessed for level of harm by using NCCMERP index. The outpatient prescriptions were screened for adherence to WHO prescription writing guidelines. Out of 200 patients, 40 patients developed medication errors. Most of the medication errors were observed in the age group above 61 years (40%. Majority of the medication errors were observed with drug class of antibiotics 9 (22.5% and bronchodilators 9 (22.5%. Most of the errors were under the NCCMERP index category C. Out of 545 outpatient prescriptions, 51 (9.37% prescriptions did not have prescriber’s name and all of the prescriptions lack prescriber’s personal contact number. Eighteen prescriptions did not have patient’s name and 426 (78.2% prescriptions did not have patient’s age. The prevalence of medication errors in this study was relatively low (20% without any fatal outcome. Omission error was the most frequently observed medication errors 31 (77.5%. In the present study, the patient’s age was missing in 78.2% of the prescriptions and none of the prescriptions had patient’s address and the drug names were not mentioned by their generic names.

  16. A Survey of Hand Hygiene Facilities in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

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    Olusegun Adesola Busari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand hygiene causes a significant reduction in the carriage of potential pathogen in the hand. Inadequate hand hygiene facilities is one of the factors affecting compliance with hand hygiene by health care workers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the availability and accessibility of hand hand hygiene facilities and supplies of hand hygiene agents in the inpatient wards of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted in a federal tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A modified survey checklist that assessed the condition of hand hygiene sink and other facilities was adapted and pretested. Direct observations of existing hand hygiene facilities in all the inpatient wards were carried out by one of the authors. Results: Of the 28 sinks, 22 (78.6% were accessible but 13 (46.4% had blocked drain. All the taps were hand operated with only 4 (14.3% working. Majority of the sinks (67.9% had no soap and no sink had antiseptic solution. Only 8 (28.6% sinks had hand drying material which was a cloth towel. No sink had hand hygiene instructions displayed on or close to it. Conclusion: There is gross inadequacy of hand hygiene facilities in Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. There is an urgent need for health managers to give priority to provision of hand hygiene facilities at all levels of health care delivery. Infection Control Unit should be established and strengthened in each facility for effective implementation of infection control policies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 571-576

  17. Prescription writing practices in a rural tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalke, Vaishali D; Phalke, Deepak B; Syed, M M Aarif; Mishra, Anjeney; Sikchi, Saudamini; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2011-01-01

    Prescription is a written order from physician to pharmacist which contains name of drug, its dose and its method of dispensing and advice over consuming it. The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Prescribing error contributes significantly towards adverse drug events. The present study was undertaken to understand the current prescription writing practices and to detect the common errors in them at a tertiary health care centre situated in a rural area of Western Maharashtra, India. A cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary level hospital located at a rural area of Maharashtra state, India during October 2009-March 2010. 499 prescriptions coming to medical store during period of one month were considered for data analysis. Important information regarding the patient, doctor, drug and the general description of the prescription were obtained. All the prescriptions were on the hospital pad. A significant number of the prescriptions (n=88, 17.6%) were written in illegible handwriting and not easily readable. The name, age and sex of the patient were mentioned is majority of the prescriptions. All the prescriptions (100%) failed to demonstrate the presence of address, height and weight of the patient. Only the brand name of the drugs was mentioned in all the prescriptions with none of them having the generic name. The strength, quantity and route of administration of the drug were found on 73.1%, 65.3% and 75.2% prescriptions. There are widespread errors in prescription writing by the doctors. Educational intervention programs and use of computer can substantially contribute in the lowering of such errors. A short course on prescription writing before the medical student enters the clinical field and strict monitoring by the administrative authorities may also help alleviate the problem.

  18. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Health Seeking Behaviour of patients at a tertiary care hospital.

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    Aman Deep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a widely prevalent conditionaffecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasinglife expectancy, there has been a rise in the percentage ofelderly men and so for this disease across the globe. There islack of information about health seeking behaviour of patientswith Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Therefore the study wasdesigned with the objectives of assessing health-seekingbehaviour and the effect of literacy on it among adult andolder subjects suffering from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiaattending a tertiary care hospital.MethodA series of 81 patients suffering from Benign ProstaticHyperplasia above the age of 50 years, attending surgical OutPatient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, wereassessed for their health seeking behaviour using a pre-testedand a modified questionnaire designed for assessing healthseeking behaviour.ResultsPositive health seeking behaviour of patients was observed in44%, who reported to a doctor within a month of noticingtheir problem. A greater proportion of the literates was awareabout the symptoms suggestive of enlarged prostate andconsulted a qualified health care practitioner as their firstaction. More literates approached the higher level of healthcare facility on being referred and had maximum faith inallopathic system of medicine. Also, lesser number of literateshad performed pooja (Hindi word for worship or othertraditional rituals for relief of their problems.ConclusionWe concluded that majority of subjects suffering fromBenign Prostatic Hypertrophy were not aware of theirdisease and their health-seeking behaviour was poor andcould be related to literacy. Our data highlights the needfor public awareness program targeting the younger malepopulation so that early detection and treatment can beoffered.

  19. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Oman: 10-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamemi, Salem; Naseem, Shafiq Ur Rehman; Al-Siyabi, Nabila; El-Nour, Ibtisam; Al-Rawas, Abdulhakim; Dennison, David

    2016-11-01

    Primary immunodeficiency (PID) diseases are rare, complex medical disorders that often are overlooked in clinical settings. There are emerging reports of PID from Middle Eastern populations. This study describes the features of PID patients in a tertiary care setting in Oman and compares them with regional and worldwide reports. Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) is an academic tertiary care-level hospital for specialized healthcare, including PID patients. At the time of diagnosis, patients' sociodemographics, clinical features, laboratory investigations, and management were entered in electronic form. This study included patients seen between August 2005 and July 2015. One hundred forty patients were registered with a minimum estimated population prevalence of 7.0/100,000. The male/female ratio was 1.6:1, the median age of onset of symptoms was 8 months, and diagnosis was 21 months with a delay of 13 months. Family history was positive in 44 %, consanguinity was present in 76 %, death of a previous sibling was present in 36 %, and there was an overall mortality in 18 %, with an 85 % probability of survival 10 years following diagnosis. The most common type of immunodeficiency was phagocytic disorders (35.0 %), followed by predominantly antibody disorders (20.7 %), combined immunodeficiency (17.8 %), other well-defined PID syndromes (15.0 %), immune dysregulation syndromes (3.5 %), complement deficiencies (3.5 %), and unclassified immunodeficiency (4.2 %). The commonest presenting infection was pneumonia (47.1 %). PID is not a rare condition in Oman. The prevalence is in concordance with reports from the region but higher than in Western populations. The findings of the current study would help to improve the awareness and management of, and policy making for PID.

  20. Inpatient dermatology: Characteristics of patients and admissions in a tertiary level hospital in Eastern India

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    Arpita Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermatology is primarily a non-acute, outpatient-centered clinical specialty, but substantial number of patients need indoor admission for adequate management. Over the years, the need for inpatient facilities in Dermatology has grown manifold; however, these facilities are available only in some tertiary centers. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of the diseases and outcomes of patients admitted in the dermatology inpatient Department of a tertiary care facility in eastern India. Materials and Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of the admission and discharge records of all patients, collected from the medical records department, admitted to our indoor facility from 2011 to 2014. The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed with special emphasis on the patient's demographic profile, clinical diagnosis, final outcome, and duration of stay. Results and Analysis: A total of 375 patients were admitted to our indoor facility during the period. Males outnumbered females, with the median age in the 5th decade. Immunobullous disorders (91 patients, 24.27% were the most frequent reason for admissions, followed by various causes of erythroderma (80 patients, 21.33% and infective disorders (73 patients, 19.47%. Other notable causes included cutaneous adverse drug reactions, psoriasis, vasculitis, and connective tissue diseases. The mean duration of hospital stay was 22.2±15.7 days; ranging from 1 to 164 days. Majority of patients (312, 83.2% improved after hospitalization; while 29 (7.73% patients died from their illness. About 133 patients (35.64% required referral services during their stay, while 8 patients (2.13% were transferred to other departments for suitable management. Conclusion: Many dermatoses require inpatient care for their optimum management. Dermatology inpatient services should be expanded in India to cater for the large number of cases with potentially highly severe dermatoses.

  1. Microbial profile of corneal ulcers in a tertiary care hospital in South India

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    Chittur Y Ranjini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the prevalence and microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a tertiary eye care hospital, and to test for the in vitro antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. Methods: A total of 312 patients presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital with infected corneal ulcer were enrolled in this study. Their socio-demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Corneal scrapings collected from the edge of the ulcer were processed for direct gram stain and KOH mount. Culture was recovered on blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud′s dextrose (SDA agar in multiple C shaped streaks. After overnight incubation, bacterial culture was followed by standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial sensitivity according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI guidelines. Inoculated SDA was inspected daily for up to 10 days and the growth was identified by its colony morphology, pigment production and lacto-phenol cotton blue mount examination. Results: Of 312 patients, a microbial etiology was established in 117 cases (37.5%. Of these, 72 (61.5% were male. The age range of 41-60 years was the most affected group. Of 117 positive cases, 52 (44.5% were bacterial, 58 (49.5% were fungal and 7 (6% patients showed mixed bacterial and fungal infection. The most common isolated fungus was Fusarium which was detected in 36 (31% cases, followed by Aspergillus spp in 13 (11% subjects. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated bacteria. All Gram positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin followed by gatifloxacin, whereas all Gram negative bacilli were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Conclusion: Routine microbiological examination of patients with corneal ulcer is necessary in order to analyze and compare the changing trends of the etiology and their susceptibility patterns.

  2. EVALUATION OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MULTI-SPECIALITY TERTIARY HOSPITAL

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    Shalini Srivastav

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical Waste (BMW, collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community The scientific “Hospital waste Management “is of vital importance as its improper management poses risks to the health care workers ,waste handlers patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i To assess current practices of Bio-medical Waste management including generation, collection, transportation storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii To assess health andsafetypracticesfor the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in tertiary care-centre was studied during May 2010 June 2010. The information/data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi structured interview, proforma being the one used for WASTE AUDITING QUESTIONNAIRE. The information collected was verified by personal observations of waste management practices in each ward of hospital. Results : SRMS-IMS generates 1. 25Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in each ward for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory it was not due to unavailability of Personal protective measures but because of un-awareness of health hazards which may occur due to improper waste management practices. Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute, training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standard of bio-medical waste management.

  3. Impact of a Local Low-Cost Ward-Based Response System in a Canadian Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Andrea Blotsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical emergency teams (METs or rapid response teams (RRTs facilitate early intervention for clinically deteriorating hospitalized patients. In healthcare systems where financial resources and intensivist availability are limited, the establishment of such teams can prove challenging. Objectives. A low-cost, ward-based response system was implemented on a medical clinical teaching unit in a Montreal tertiary care hospital. A prospective before/after study was undertaken to examine the system’s impact on time to intervention, code blue rates, and ICU transfer rates. Results. Ninety-five calls were placed for 82 patients. Median time from patient decompensation to intervention was 5 min (IQR 1–10, compared to 3.4 hours (IQR 0.6–12.4 before system implementation (p<0.001. Total number of ICU admissions from the CTU was reduced from 4.8/1000 patient days (±2.2 before intervention to 3.3/1000 patient days (±1.4 after intervention (IRR: 0.82, p=0.04 (CI 95%: 0.69–0.99. CTU code blue rates decreased from 2.2/1000 patient days (±1.6 before intervention to 1.2/1000 patient days (±1.3 after intervention (IRR: 0.51, p=0.02 (CI 95%: 0.30–0.89. Conclusion. Our local ward-based response system achieved a significant reduction in the time of patient decompensation to initial intervention, in CTU code blue rates, and in CTU to ICU transfers without necessitating additional usage of financial or human resources.

  4. Profile of Acute Poisoning Cases Treated in a Tertiary Care Hospital: a Study in Navi Mumbai

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    Amit Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic epidemiological studies are necessary to understand the pattern of poisoning in each region. This study was designed to evaluate the pattern of acute poisoning cases treated in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre during July 2012 to July 2013. All cases of poisoning admitted to the hospital were included in this study. The patients’ data were obtained from medical records and were documented on a pre-structured proforma. Results: A total of 74 cases of acute poisoning were studied, of which 51.4% were men. Most of the patients aged 20 to 29 years (44.6%. In majority of cases, the route of exposure to poison was oral (86.5%. Most of the patients reside in urban areas (52.7%. Most of the patients were Hindus (85.1% followed by Muslims (14.9%. The exposure mostly occurred between 6:00 pm to 12:00 am (30% of cases. The majority of poisonings (44.6% was due to consumption of household products followed by pesticides (14.9% and pharmaceutical agents (13.5%. Neurologic manifestations were the most common clinical findings (64.8% followed by gastrointestinal manifestations (37%. All patients were treated successfully with no mortality. There was a significant correlation between gender and intention of poisoning (P < 0.001, as the suicidal attempts were higher in women (69.4%. Moreover, a significant relationship existed between marital status and intention of poisoning (P = 0.016 as the suicidal poisonings were most common among married individuals (45.7%.  Conclusion:The trend in poisoning is never static. Household products were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.   How to cite this article: Patil A, Peddawad R, Verma VCS, Gandhi H. Profile of Acute

  5. Case control study of episiotomy in the University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and identify the factors influencing the practice of episiotomy during delivery in the University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde. It is a retrospective review of all vaginal deliveries conducted in this hospital between January 2001 and December 2002 was undertaken to identify ...

  6. Post-neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is a public health problem in Nigeria. This study examines the demographic and clinical profile of postneonatal tetanus (PNT) seen in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), North- eastern Nigeria. Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective study of PNT. All children beyond the neonatal ...

  7. Monitoring of Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogens on the Hands of Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Hospital

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    Tselebonis Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor microbes, focusing on drug resistance, on the hands of the personnel of four departments of a tertiary hospital (ICU, neonatal unit, internal medicine ward and surgical ward and explore differences between departments, professions and genders.

  8. Three-year follow-up of implementation of evidence-based transfusion practice in a tertiary hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Astrid; Stensballe, J; de Lichtenberg, T H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, Denmark has had a high rate of allogeneic red blood cell transfusion caused by a liberal transfusion practice despite the existence of restrictive guidelines. We established a Patient Blood Management programme in a tertiary hospital and report the result...

  9. Hospital malnutrition and inflammatory response in critically ill children and adolescents admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical illness has a major impact on the nutritional status of both children and adults. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of hospital malnutrition at a pediatric tertiary intensive care unit (PICU). Serum concentrations of IL-6 in subgroups of well-nourished and malnou...

  10. [Functional echocardiography in the neonatal intensive care unit; experience in a tertiary level hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Rodrigo; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario

    The Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gómez is a tertiary level hospital with a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), which is one of the most important units in the treatment of newborn's diseases in México. In this unit, the decisions are taken based on some clinic parameters such as respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial pressure, urinary output and lactate levels. The functional echocardiography is a useful tool which improves the hemodynamic evaluation and decisions in neonatal care. Data on its use in neonatal units in Mexico is lacking. A prospective study conducted in NICU patients during 3 months from August to October 2015 at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gómez. Gestational age, birth weight, admission criteria, days of life at examination, indication for functional echocardiography and changes in treatment were evaluated and finally, we performed a new study 24hours later. Echocardiographic evaluation included: assessment of presence/hemodynamic significance of PDA; myocardial function: ejection fraction/shortening fraction, left ventricular output, right ventricular output, systemic blood flow; and signs of pulmonary hypertension. 30 echocardiographic studies were performed in 15 patients. The average age was 9.6 days, the variability in gestational ages were 37 to 42 weeks; the average weight was 2.583kg. The most frequent diagnosis was respiratory distress, and the principal indications for echocardiography were hemodynamic instability and sepsis (53.3%). In 11 cases (73.3%), the treatment was modified posteriorly to functional echocardiography, and in 10 cases we observed improvements in the 24hours after control. Functional echocardiography is a useful tool in NICU, which may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised children in tertiary hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwenzi, Marcelyn T; Gudza-Mugabe, Muchaneta; Mujuru, Hilda A; Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Mutsa; Robertson, Valerie; Aiken, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization. Disc-based, selective and enrichment methods were used to detect carriage of these two forms of resistance. Standard methods were used to confirm resistance status and determine the susceptibility of resistant isolates to other commonly-used antibiotics. One hundred and sixty four paediatric inpatient admissions (median age = 1.0 year, IQR = 0.2-2.2years) were enrolled, and an average of 1.9 faecal samples per patient were collected. On admission, 68/164 (41%) patients had both ESBL and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae detected, 18 (11%) had ESBL only, 17 (10%) had gentamicin resistance only and 61 (37%) had negative screening for both forms of resistance. During hospitalisation, 32/164 (20%) patients were found to have a type of resistant organism which was not present in their admission sample. We found that faecal samples and use of a selective enrichment broth enhanced the detection of resistant organisms. Amongst resistant bacteria isolated, there were high levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol, but not ertapenem. More than half of children had enteric carriage of a clinically-relevant form of antibiotic resistance on admission to public-sector hospitals in urban Zimbabwe. Additionally, a fifth of children acquired a further form of resistance during hospitalisation. Urgent action is needed to tackle the spread of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in African hospitals.

  12. Experiences of health professionals with nutritional support of critically ill patients in tertiary hospitals in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyani, A; Mtimuni, B; Kalimbira, A; Kamalo, P

    2015-03-01

    Nutritional support is a recognized determinant of outcome in critically ill patients. Development of critical care services in low-income countries has not been accompanied by certain appropriate ancillary services and interventions, such as adequate nutritional support. This study was designed to investigate the experiences of health professionals who have provided nutritional supportive care to critically ill patients admitted to two major central hospitals in Malawi, with the aim of identifying the common practices in nutritional support in these settings. A cross-sectional study in which 50 health professionals working in intensive care and high dependency units, admitting both adult and pediatric patients, were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were coded and then analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Responses between the two hospitals were compared using Fisher's exact test. There was no difference in the composition of respondents from the two hospitals. About 60% of respondents had had experience with nutritional supplementation in their patients-mainly enteral. The most commonly used formulations were the "ready-to-use therapeutic feeds," followed by modified milk. A high percentage of respondents (40%) reported having used dextrose solution as the sole nutritional supplement. Lack of in-service training, nonexistent nutrition protocols pertaining to acutely and critically ill patients, and a lack of clinical nutritionists were the major challenges identified. Knowledge of nutrient supplementation was poor among the respondents. The use of ready-to-use therapeutic feeds was quite common, although there is no evidence of its effectiveness in care of acutely critically ill patients. There is a need to establish nutritional support teams in these tertiary hospitals. Clinical nutritionists would ideally help train and play leadership roles in such teams, who would be responsible for assessing patients for their nutritional needs, and

  13. NEEDLESTICK INJURY AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, KERALA

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    Chintha Sujatha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Needlestick Injury (NSI is a major occupational health and safety issue among Healthcare Workers (HCWs. In India, incidence of NSI is high, but surveillance is poor with scarce authentic data. The aim of the study is to determine the occurrence of NSI, its associated factors and assessment of knowledge and practice of preventive measures and post exposure prophylaxis among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 515 HCWs who included doctors, house surgeons, final year medical students, nurses, student nurses and lab technicians of a government sector tertiary care hospital in Kerala. All HCWs of the institution present during the study time were included and only those unwilling to participate excluded. Ethical clearance and administrative permission was obtained along with informed consent from subjects after ensuring confidentiality. Content validated, structured questionnaire consisting of questions regarding demographic data, incidence and prevalence of needlestick injury, circumstances leading to it, response of subjects to NSI and knowledge of study subjects on post exposure prophylaxis was administered to the study subjects. The technique of data collection was self-reporting by the study subjects. Data collected was analysed using statistical software Epi Info 7. RESULTS Overall, 55.7% HCWs had sustained at least one NSI in this hospital, while 35% of them had a NSI during the current year. NSIs were sustained during blood withdrawal (34%, injections (20.5%, suturing (20.2% and cannula insertion (12%. Recapping the needle (26% was the most frequent cause followed by collision with others (24%, manipulation of needle in patient (23% and during/in transit to disposal (10%. Majority (84% did not report the incident, 8.4% underwent post exposure follow up, 82% of the HCWs were fully hepatitis B vaccinated, 44% had received training, 62% used gloves, 49

  14. Level of adherence to an extravasation protocol over 10 years in a tertiary care hospital.

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    Molas-Ferrer, Gloria; Farré-Ayuso, Elisabet; doPazo-Oubiña, Fernando; deAndrés-Lázaro, Ana; Guell-Picazo, Jaume; Borrás-Maixenchs, Núria; Corominas-Bosch, Lourdes; Valverde-Bosch, Montserrat; Creus-Baró, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Extravasation of chemotherapy is an undesirable complication related to the administration of antineoplastic therapy. Establishing the real incidence is difficult. Because of the importance of a quick intervention after an extravasation, every hospital should have an extravasation protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of observance of an extravasation protocol by nursing staff and to determine extravasation incidence. This descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study was set in a tertiary-level hospital. The researchers reviewed 117 extravasation notification forms received by the pharmacy department during a 10-year period. Nursing actuation, particularly observance of the extravasation protocol, was analyzed. Protocol adherence was 89%. Twelve deviations from the protocol in the application of recommended measures were detected. An antidote was used in 41 patients, and temperature measures were applied in 14 cases. Ninety-nine patients had at least one episode of reported follow-up. No cases of necrosis or skin ulcers were described, except by one patient, who developed a delayed skin ulcer to vinorelbine. Drugs most frequently reported were etoposide, carboplatin, and paclitaxel. Nursing staff should be continuously trained in extravasation protocol because a rapid actuation can prevent skin lesions.

  15. Initiation of a medical toxicology consult service at a tertiary care children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Monte, Andrew; Hatten, Benjamin; Brent, Jeffrey; Buchanan, Jennie; Heard, Kennon J

    2015-05-01

    Currently, only 10% of board-certified medical toxicologists are pediatricians. Yet over half of poison center calls involve children toxicology consultation is not common at children's hospitals. In collaboration with executive staff from Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, regional poison center, and our toxicology fellowship, we established a toxicology consulting service at our tertiary-care children's hospital. There were 139 consultations, and the service generated 13 consultations in the first month; median of 11 consultations per month thereafter (range 8-16). The service increased pediatric cases seen by the fellowship program from 30 to 94. The transition to a consult service required a culture change. Historically, call center advice was the mainstay of consulting practice and the medical staff was not accustomed to the availability of bedside medical toxicology consultations. However, after promotion of the service and full attending and fellowship coverage, consultations increased. In collaboration with toxicologists from different departments, a consultation service can be rapidly established. The service filled a clinical need that was disproportionately utilized for high acuity patients, immediately utilized by the medical staff and provided a robust pediatric population for the toxicology fellowship.

  16. Improving the utilization of medical crisis teams (Condition C) at an urban tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraida, Mohamed I; DeVita, Michael A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Stuart, Susan A; Brooks, Maria Mori; Simmons, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Serious clinical deterioration precedes most cardiopulmonary arrests, and there is evidence that organized responses to this deterioration may prevent a substantial proportion of in-hospital deaths. We aimed to increase the utilization of our medical crisis response team (Condition C) to impact this source of mortality. We have examined the change in numbers of Condition Cs and the main alternative response strategy (sequential stat pages) after the implementation of 4 strategies to increase Condition C utilization: (1) immediate reviews of all sequential STAT pages, (2) feedback to caregivers responsible for delays in Condition C activation, (3) creation of objective criteria for invoking a crisis response, and (4) dissemination of objective criteria through posting in units, e-mail, and in-service oral presentations. Over a 3-year period, interventions were followed by increased use of organized responses to medical crises (Condition Cs) and decreased numbers of disorganized responses (sequential STAT pages). The interventions that involved objective definition and dissemination of criteria for initiating the Condition C response were followed by 19.2 more Condition Cs monthly (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.1-26.3; Pinterventions that involved giving feedback to medical personnel based on review of their care were not associated with changes in the measures. Utilization of an important patient safety measure may be increased by focused interventions at an urban tertiary care hospital. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand hygiene compliance in the intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital

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    Sarit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hand hygiene (HH is the most important measure to prevent hospital-acquired infections but the compliance is still low. Aims: To assess the compliance, identify factors influencing compliance and to study the knowledge, attitude and perceptions associated with HH among health care workers (HCW. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in 42 bedded Medical (Pulmonary, Medicine and Stroke intensive care units (ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: HCWs (doctors and nurses were observed during routine patient care by observers posted in each ICU and their HH compliance was noted. Thereafter, questionnaire regarding knowledge, perception and attitudes toward HH was filled by each HCW. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and χ2 test. Results: The overall compliance was 43.2% (394/911 opportunities. It was 68.9% (31/45 in the intensivists, 56.3% (18/32 in attending physicians, 40.0% (28/70 in the postgraduate residents and 41.3% (301/728 in the nurses. Compliance was inversely related to activity index. Compliance for high, medium and low risk of cross-transmission was 38.8% (67/170, 43.8% (175/401 and 44.7% (152/340, respectively. Conclusions: Compliance of the study group is affected by the activity index (number of opportunities they come across per hour and professional status. The HCWs listed less knowledge, lack of motivation, increased workload as some of the factors influencing HH.

  18. 46. Nurses perception of rapid response team in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia

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    Emad Mraweh Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the last 30 years, the goal of improving the survival rate for patients post cardiopulmonary arrest has remained unattainable. This apparent failure to rescue opened the door to devise new strategies to improve patient outcomes at the onset of subtle deterioration, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI introduced the Rapid Response Team (RRT as one of the six preventative steps to save lives. Nurses’ perceptions of the RRT influenced by the content and process support provided. Nurses are responsible to detect the early signs of deterioration, and activate the RRT service. The aim of this cross sectional descriptive study was to examine nurses’ perceptions about the effect of the RRT and perceived content and process support in managing patient deterioration by using mental model maintenance and building at individual, group and hospital levels in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 300 nurses were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The study findings showed that the overall perceptions about the RRT were high. There was a significant positive correlation between the frequent utilization of the RRT and the perceived content support. The analysis of the open ended questions indicated that there were more advantages to have the RRT service than disadvantages. This study suggested that RRT service is influential in improving nurses’ perceptions about managing Patients’ deterioration. Training program about RRT utilization should include both content and process support, which may enhance building and maintaining mental model.

  19. Awareness and practices of standard precautions for infection control among nurses in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anita S; Khandekar, Jyoti; Sharma, Amit; Tilak, H R; Kataria, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Nursing personnel are at a greater risk of acquiring and transmitting blood-borne pathogens. Knowledge about standard precautions and practicing them is very critical in preventing blood borne transmitted infections. This cross sectional hospital-based study sought to assess the level of knowledge and practices regarding standard precautions for infection control amongst nurses and to determine their source of information. In a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, 293 nurses were administered a semi structured questionnaire in December 2011. Questions were asked on knowledge and practices about standard precautions, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, use of gloves, hand washing. Data was entered and analysed in SPSS version 12. The study revealed that the nurses had poor knowledge about standard precautions (97.9%). 189 (64.5%) nurses had inadequate knowledge about the transmission of blood-borne pathogens; more than three-fourth (77.5%) were aware about hepatitis-B vaccine; majority (72.7%) practiced washing soiled hands immediately; and more than half (58.7%) used Gowns and Gloves very often. Refresher training (34.5%) was the major source of information. This study has highlighted major gaps between the knowledge and practices of nurses regarding standard precautions.

  20. High Frequency of Acinetobacter soli among Acinetobacter Isolates Causing Bacteremia at a Tertiary Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hisakazu; Kanamori, Hajime; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is generally the most frequently isolated Acinetobacter species. Sequence analysis techniques allow reliable identification of Acinetobacter isolates at the species level. Forty-eight clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were obtained from blood cultures at Tohoku University Hospital. These isolates were identified at the species level by partial sequencing of the RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB), 16S rRNA, and gyrB genes. Then further characterization was done by using the PCR for detection of OXA-type β-lactamase gene clusters, metallo-β-lactamases, and carO genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing were also performed. The most frequent isolate was Acinetobacter soli (27.1%). Six of the 13 A. soli isolates were carbapenem nonsusceptible, and all of these isolates produced IMP-1. PFGE revealed that the 13 A. soli isolates were divided into 8 clusters. This study demonstrated that A. soli accounted for a high proportion of Acinetobacter isolates causing bacteremia at a Japanese tertiary hospital. Non-A. baumannii species were identified more frequently than A. baumannii and carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates were found among the non-A. baumannii strains. These results emphasize the importance of performing epidemiological investigations of Acinetobacter species. PMID:24403303

  1. Unintentional injuries among children admitted in a tertiary care hospital in North Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Akbar; Rahim, Asma; Lailabi, M P; Gopi, Jibin

    2011-01-01

    World Health Organization global disease update (2004) points out injuries as the sixth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. A descriptive hospital based study was conducted to find out the common types of unintentional injuries among children admitted for management of unintentional injuries in Pediatric Surgery department and Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital of North Kerala and to find out the contributing risk factors. A total of 400 children admitted during the study period of 6 months of 2009 constituted the study population. Mechanical injuries comprising of Road traffic accidents and accidental fall were the major cause of unintentional injuries (36%), followed by Poisoning (22.3%). A higher proportion of unintentional injuries were noted to occur among children of younger mothers, overactive child, children belonging to extended or joint families, child left alone or with friends, pre-school children, male child and from urban dwellings. The study highlights the need to identify the different types of unintentional injuries and the risk factors of childhood injuries which require hospitalisation. Identification of risk factors will help to formulate strategies aimed at risk reduction and prevention of childhood injuries.

  2. Patient Complaints Emphasize Non-Technical Aspects of Care at a Tertiary Referral Hospital

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    John King

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Patient concerns represent opportunities for improvement in orthopaedic care. Thisstudy’s objectiveis to identify the nature and prevalence of unsolicited patient complaints regarding orthopaedic care ata tertiary referral hospital. The primary null hypothesis that there are no demographic factors associatedwith complaint types was tested. Secondarily we determined if the overall complaint number and typesdifferedby year.Methods:Complaints to the hospital ombudsperson by orthopaedic patients between January 1997 and June 2013 werereviewed. All 1118 complaints were categorized: access and availability, humaneness and disrespect, communication,expectations of care and treatment, distrust, billing and research.Results:Patients between 40 and 60 years of age filed the most complaints in all categories except distrust(more common in patients over age 80 and research. Women were slightly more likely to address access andavailability, humaneness, disrespect, and billing compared to men. The overall number of complaints peakedin 1999. The most common issue was access and availability followed by communication, and humaneness/disrespect.Conclusion:Half of concerns voiced by patients addressed interpersonal issues. The largest category was related toaccess and availability. Quality improvement efforts can address technology to improve access and availability as wellas empathy and communication strategies.

  3. Assessment of cost of illness for diabetic patients in South Indian tertiary care hospital

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    Leelavathi D Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society.

  4. An overview of the health status of Syrian refugee children in a tertiary hospital in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Almis, Habip; Benli, Samet; Turgut, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Migration is a problem affecting all family members, but particularly children. Child refugees are the highest risk group for the health systems of receiving countries. We investigated the health of 104 Syrian child refugees presenting to a tertiary hospital in Turkey. A retrospective study was conducted in the pediatric clinic. The medical files of Syrian refugee children (0-18 years) presenting to Adiyaman University Hospital, Pediatric Clinic between 01 and 30 November 2015, were investigated. Demographic data, body measurements, and laboratory results obtained from patients' medical records were evaluated. Mean age of patients was 53.5 ± 49.6 (2-198) months; 63 were male and 41 were female. Seventy-two patients (69.2%) were under 5 years of age. Weight in 20 patients (19.2%), height in 33 (31.7%), head circumference in 2 (1.9%), and body mass index in 7 (6.7%) were below the third percentile. All patients with body weight below the third percentile had chronic malnutrition. Anemia was present in 35 (50%) of the 70 patients for whom complete blood count data were available. Health workers involved with Syrian refugee children must consider the two preventable conditions; malnutrition and anemia.

  5. Survey of complementary and alternative medicine use at a tertiary children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Alissa; Cranswick, Noel; Skull, Susan; South, Mike

    2005-08-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within the Australian community is common. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of CAM usage in children attending a tertiary children's hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Children were identified by consecutive acute admissions and attendance at outpatient clinics. A structured questionnaire with items about the use of CAM in the preceding year was administered by means of a face-to-face interview. Based on the 503 children surveyed, 51% reported CAM use in the preceding year. Forty-three percent had used at least one CAM medication. The most common medicinal CAM used were multivitamins, vitamin C, herbal remedies and homeopathic treatments. Non-medicinal CAM was used by 23% of the participants. The most commonly used therapies were chiropractic, naturopathy, aromatherapy, therapeutic massage and dietary restriction. The main reasons stated for CAM usage included promotion of general health and treatment of colds. Sixty-three percent of those reporting CAM use had not discussed this with their treating doctor. The use of CAM by children is common. Complementary and alternative medicine is particularly used for the treatment of common illnesses and conditions of childhood. Importantly, use is not always conveyed to treating physicians. Given the potential risk of adverse events associated with the use of CAM or interactions with conventional management, doctors should ask about their use as a part of routine history taking.

  6. STUDY OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN SELECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN INDIA

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    Anjan Adhikari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed drugs in hospitals and their irrational use is one of the important factors for the development and spread of resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic prescription pattern in the patient attending the tertiary care hospital. It was found that a total of 333 antibiotics where prescribed in 245 prescriptions. The average number of antibiotics per prescription was approximately1.4. The most commonly used antibiotics were moxifloxacin 19.5%, metronidazole 10.4%, amoxicillin + cloxacillin 10.2% and ciprofloxacin 6%. antibiotics were almost equally prescribed to both male and female. 45.5% of the antibiotics shows adherence with the National List of Essential Medicines of India. 76.6% of the antibiotics were single products while 23.4% were fixed dose combination. The most commonly used dosage forms were tablets (57%, drops (23.5% and creams (11.7%.57.3% were prescribed irrationally. Quinolones (48.2% and antifungals (21.5% were the most common types of prescribed antibiotics in which irrationality was found.

  7. Frequency of IgA Nephropathy Presenting at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Shahana; Nasir, Humaira; Butt, Ghias-Ud-Din; Niazi, Aasiya; Mamoon, Nadira; Qamar, Sana Roshan; Mushtaq, Rabia

    2016-08-01

    To determine the frequency of IgAnephropathy presenting at a tertiary care hospital. Across sectional, observational study. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from November 2008 to November 2014. This was a retrospective analysis of renal biopsies for the diagnosis of nephropathy during the study period. Biopsies were stained with fluorescence isothyocyanate (FITC) labelled antibodies against IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4 and C1q for fluorescent microscopy. For histopathological examination, the specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid Schiff and methanamine silver stains for light microscopy. Out of total 1,658 renal biopsy cases, 142 (8.6%) were diagnosed as IgA nephropathy on light and immunofluorescence microscopy. Majority of IgAnephropathy patients were young (mean age = 33.2) and presented with proteinuria. The frequency rose from 2% in 2008 to 9.4% in 2014. IgAnephropathy was present in younger population and has a rising trend in our population.

  8. Ertapenem resistance in 2 tertiary-care hospitals: Microbiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Natalia; Castro, Bibiana; Berrio, Indira; Manjarrés, Miguel; Robledo, Carlos; Robledo, Jaime

    2017-10-01

    Carbapenems resistance is a growing phenomenon and a threat to public health because of the reduced therapeutic options for resistant infections. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Fifty patients infected with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were compared with a control group consisting of 100 patients with infections caused by ertapenem susceptible enterobacteriaceae. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors that best explain ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections. The factors associated with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections were prior exposure to carbapenems (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% IC 1.08-10.87) and prior exposure to cefepime (adjusted OR 6.46; 95% IC 1.08-38.38). Prior exposure to antibiotics is the factor that best explains the ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infection in this population, highlighting the importance of antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Job stress, satisfaction, and coping strategies among medical interns in a South Indian tertiary hospital.

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    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Edwin, Natasha C; Braganza, Deepa

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. A modified version of the health consultant's job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ) was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical interns doing a rotating internship at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. After completion of 6 months of internship, the modified version of the HCJSSQ was administered to all participants. The data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 9 by double data entry technique. Percentages of interns reporting high levels of stress, satisfaction were calculated. While 63.4% of interns reported high levels of satisfaction, 45.2% of the interns experienced high levels of stress, 17.6% coped with work stress by using alcohol and nicotine, and 37% coped through unhealthy eating habits. More people found internship satisfying than stressful. However, a high proportion found it stressful, and many reported unhealthy coping mechanisms.

  10. Validation of the palliative performance scale in the acute tertiary care hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Oludamilola; Hanson, Laura; Usher, Barbara M; Qaqish, Bahjat F; Schwartz, Robert; Bernard, Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Physicians are often asked to prognosticate patient survival. However, prediction of survival is difficult, particularly with critically ill and dying patients within the hospitals. The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) was designed to assess functional status and measure progressive decline in palliative care patients, yet it has not been validated within hospital health care settings. This study explores the application of the PPS for its predictive ability related to length of survival. Other variables examined were correlates of symptom distress in a tertiary academic setting. Patients were assigned a score on the PPS ranging from 0% to 100% at initial consultation. Standardized symptom assessments were carried out daily, and survival was determined by medical record review and search of the National Death Index. Of 261 patients seen since January 2002, 157 had cancer and 104 had other diagnoses. PPS scores ranged from 10% to 80% with 92% of the scores between 10% and 40%. Survival ranged from 0 to 30 months, with a median of 9 days. By 90 days, 83% of patients had died. Proportional hazards regression estimates showed that a 10% decrement in PPS score was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-1.92). Proportional odds regression models showed that a lower PPS was significantly associated with higher levels of dyspnea. The PPS correlated well with length of survival and with select symptom distress scores. We consider it to be a useful tool in predicting outcomes for palliative care patients.

  11. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

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    Hari Shanker Joshi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%, Cryptospridiosis (13.33% and candidasis (11.11% are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%.

  12. Prescription writing practices in a rural tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra, India

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    Vaishali D Phalke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrescription is a written order from physician to pharmacistwhich contains name of drug, its dose and its method ofdispensing and advice over consuming it. The frequency ofdrug prescription errors is high. Prescribing errorcontributes significantly towards adverse drug events. Thepresent study was undertaken to understand the currentprescription writing practices and to detect the commonerrors in them at a tertiary health care centre situated in arural area of Western Maharashtra, India.MethodA cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary levelhospital located at a rural area of Maharashtra state, Indiaduring October 2009-March 2010. 499 prescriptions comingto medical store during period of one month wereconsidered for data analysis. Important informationregarding the patient, doctor, drug and the generaldescription of the prescription were obtained.ResultsAll the prescriptions were on the hospital pad. A significantnumber of the prescriptions (n=88, 17.6% were written inillegible handwriting and not easily readable. The name, ageand sex of the patient were mentioned is majority of theprescriptions. All the prescriptions (100% failed todemonstrate the presence of address, height and weight ofthe patient. Only the brand name of the drugs wasmentioned in all the prescriptions with none of them havingthe generic name. The strength, quantity and route ofadministration of the drug were found on 73.1%, 65.3% and75.2% prescriptions.ConclusionThere are widespread errors in prescription writing by thedoctors. Educational intervention programs and use ofcomputer can substantially contribute in the lowering ofsuch errors. A short course on prescription writing beforethe medical student enters the clinical field and strictmonitoring by the administrative authorities may also helpalleviate the problem.Word count: 2980Tables: 2

  13. Spectrum of antihypertensive therapy in South Asians at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

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    Ehtamam Anabia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite available guidelines on hypertension (HTN, use of antihypertensives is variable. This study was designed to ascertain frequency of patients on monotherapy and > 1 antihypertensive therapy and also to ascertain proportion of patients on diuretic therapy. Methods It was a crossectional study conducted on 1191 adults(age > 18 yrshypertensive patients selected by computerized International Classification of Diseases -9-coordination and maintenance (ICD-9-CM presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Data on demographics, comorbids, type of antihypertensive drug, number of antihypertensive drug and mean duration of antihypertensive drug was recorded over 1.5 year period (2008-09. Blood pressure was recorded on admission. Primary outcome was use of combination therapy and secondary outcome was use of diuretic therapy. Results A total of 1191 participants were included. Mean age(SD was 62.55(12.47 years, 45.3%(540 were males. Diabetes was the most common comorbid; 46.3%(551. Approximately 85% of patients had controlled hypertension. On categorization of anti hypertensive use into 3 categories;41.2%(491 were on monotherapy,32.2%(384 were on 2 drug therapy,26.5%(316 were on ≥3 drug therapy. Among those who were on monotherapy for HTN;34%(167 were on calcium channel blockers,30.10%(148 were on beta blockers, 22.80%(112 were on Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors,12%(59 were on diuretics and 2.20%(11 were on Angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB. Use of combination antihypertensive therapy was significantly high in patients with ischemic heart disease(IHD(p Conclusion Most patients presenting to our tertiary care center were on combination therapy. Calcium channel blocker is the most common anti hypertensive drug used as monotherapy and betablockers are used as the most common antihypertensive in combination. Only a third of patients were on diuretic as an antihypertensive therapy.

  14. Supply chain management with cost-containment & financial-sustainability in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Hem; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Shuchita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, R K

    2013-01-01

    Financial crunch in the present recession results in the non-availability of the right materials at the right time in large hospitals. However due to insufficient impetus towards systems development, situation remains dismal even when funds are galore. Cost incurred on materials account for approximately one-third of the total recurring expenditures in hospitals. Systems development for effective and efficient materials management is thus tantamount to cost-containment and sustainability. This scientific paper describes an innovative model, Hospital Revolving Fund (HRF), developed at a tertiary care research institute in Asia. The main idea behind inception of HRF was to ensure availability of all supplies in the hospital so that the quality of healthcare delivery was not affected. The model was conceptualized in the background of non-availability of consumables in the hospital leading to patient as well as staff dissatisfaction. Hospital supplies have been divided into two parts, approximately 3250 unit items and 1750 miscellaneous items. This division is based on cost, relative-utility and case-specific utilization. 0.1 Million USD, separated from non-planned budget, was initially used as seed money in 1998. HRF procures supplies from reputed firms on concessional rates (8-25%) and make them available to patients at much lesser rates vis-à-vis market rates, levying minimal maintenance charges. In 2009-10, total annual purchases of 14 Million USD were made. The balance sheet reflected 1.4 Million USD as fixed deposit investment. The minimal maintenance charges levied on the patients along with the interest income were sufficient to pay for all recurring expenses related to HRF. Even after these expenses, HRF boosted of 0.2 Million USD as cash-in-hand in financial year 2009-10. In-depth analysis of 'balance sheet' and 'Income and Expenditure' statement of the fund for last five financial years affirms that HRF is a self-sustainable and viable supply chain

  15. Prevalence and causes of blindness at a tertiary hospital in Douala, Cameroon

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    Eballé AO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,4, Côme Ebana Mvogo1,3, Godefroy Koki2, Nyouma Mounè3, Cyrille Teutu5, Augustin Ellong2,3, Assumpta Lucienne Bella2,41Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3General Hospital of Douala, Ophthalmology Unit, Douala, Cameroon; 4Cameroon National Blindness Control Programme, Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 5Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Mountain University, Banganté, CameroonPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in the town of Douala and its environs based on data from the ophthalmic unit of a tertiary hospital in Douala.Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological survey of consultations at the eye unit of the Douala General Hospital over the last 20 years (from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2009.Results: Out of the 1927 cases of blindness, 1000 were unilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.84% and 927 cases were bilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.71%. No statistically significant difference was noted between the two (P = 0.14. The leading causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50.1%, glaucoma (19.7%, and diabetic retinopathy (7.8% while the leading causes of unilateral blindness were cataract (40.4%, glaucoma (14.1%, and retinal detachment (9.1%. Cataract (51.2%, cortical blindness (16.3%, and congenital glaucoma (10% were the leading causes of bilateral blindness in children aged less than 10 years.Conclusion: Blindness remains a public health problem in the Douala region with a hospital prevalence which is relatively higher than the national estimate given by the National Blindness Control Program.Keywords: bilateral blindness, unilateral blindness, prevalence, Douala, Cameroon

  16. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F.; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. Methods At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Results Hundred ninety five of 2’544 and 516 of 6’243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001) and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017) in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4) and bacterial skin infections (n = 2) in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9), pneumonia (n = 6), Chickenpox (n = 5), other viral infections (n = 5) and bacterial skin infections (n = 5) in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6–9.5 days in both study periods. Conclusions The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges. PMID:28617860

  17. Stroke-related mortality in a tertiary care hospital in Andalusia: Analysis and reflections.

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    Maestre-Moreno, J F; Fernández-Pérez, M D; Triguero-Cueva, L; Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, R; Herrera-García, J D; Espigares-Molero, A; Mínguez-Castellanos, A

    Stroke is a very common cause of death, especially in southern Spain. The present study analyses in-hospital mortality associated with stroke in an Andalusian tertiary care hospital. We gathered the files of all patients who had died at Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves in Granada in 2013 and whose death certificates indicated stroke as the cause of death. We also gathered stroke patients discharge data and compared them to that of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A total of 825 patients had a diagnosis of stroke (96 deaths, 11.6%); of these, 562 had ischaemic stroke (44 deaths, 7.8%) and 263 haemorrhagic stroke (52 deaths, 19.7%). Patients with haemorrhagic stroke therefore showed greater mortality rate (OR=2.9). Patients in this group died after a shorter time in hospital (median, 4 vs 7 days; mean, 6 days). However, patients with ischaemic stroke were older and presented with more comorbidities. On the other hand, 617 patients had a diagnosis of ACS (36 deaths, 5.8%). The mortality odds ratio (MOR) was 2.1 (stroke/SCA). Around 23% of the patients who died from stroke were taking anticoagulants. 60% of the deceased patients with ischaemic stroke and 20% of those with haemorrhagic stroke had atrial fibrillation (AF); 35% of the patients with ischaemic stroke and AF were taking anticoagulants. Stroke is associated with higher admission and in-hospital mortality rates than SCA. Likewise, patients with haemorrhagic stroke showed higher mortality rates than those with ischaemic stroke. Patients with fatal stroke usually had a history of long-term treatment with anticoagulants; 2 thirds of the patients with fatal ischaemic stroke and atrial fibrillation were not receiving anticoagulants. According to our results, optimising prevention in patients with AF may have a positive impact on stroke-related in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

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    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  19. A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Snake bite remains major public health problem worldwide. We present our experience with cases of snake bites managed in our tertiary care teaching center of South India. Materials and Methods:The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from. 2010 to 2012 were ...

  20. A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Snake bite remains major public health problem worldwide. We present our experience with cases of snake bites managed in our tertiary care teaching center of South India. Materials and Methods: The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from 2010 to 2012 were ...

  1. Cost-minimization analysis of antimicrobial therapy in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost Minimization Analysis of antimicrobial therapy in a tertiary health care institution in a developing economy country was carried out. The most applicable tool for generic equivalent drugs was used in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary healthcare Institution in Nigeria, between 2005 and 2007. Relevant ...

  2. Review of contributory factors in maternity admissions to intensive care at a New Zealand tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lynn C; Austin, Diana M; Masson, Vicki L; McArthur, Colin J; McLintock, Claire; Rhodes, Sharon P; Farquhar, Cindy M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contributed to severe maternal morbidity, defined by admission of pregnant women and women in the postpartum period to the intensive care unit (ICU) from 2010-2011 at Auckland City Hospital (ACH), a tertiary hospital that delivers 7500 women/year, and to determine potentially avoidable morbidity with the use of local multidisciplinary review. All admissions of pregnant women and women in the postpartum period (to 6 weeks) to the ICU at ACH from 2010-2011 were identified from hospital databases. Case notes were summarized and discussed by a multidisciplinary team. The presence of contributory factors and potentially avoidable morbidity were determined by consensus with a tool that was developed by the New Zealand Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee for the review of maternal and perinatal deaths. Specific recommendations for clinical management were identified by the multidisciplinary group. Nine pregnant women and 33 women in the postpartum period were admitted to the ICU from 2010-2011. Contributory factors were identified in 30 cases (71%); 20 cases (48%) were considered to be potentially avoidable; personnel factors were the most commonly identified avoidable causes. Specific recommendations that resulted from the study included the need for the development of guidelines for puerperal sepsis, improved planning for women at known risk of postpartum hemorrhage, enhanced supervision of junior staff, and enhanced communication through multidisciplinary meetings. Forty-eight percent of severe maternal morbidity, which was defined as admission to the ICU at ACH from 2010-2011, was considered to be potentially avoidable by a local multidisciplinary review team; priorities were identified for improvement of local maternity services. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotyping of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus from tertiary care hospitals in Coimbatore, South India

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    Toms John Peedikayil Neetu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogens that causes hospital- and community-acquired infections. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for determining the origin of the isolates, their clonal relations, and also epidemiological investigations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant MRSA investigate the accessory gene regulator (agr and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types and perform multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of MRSA isolates was determined for vancomycin and daptomycin. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine MRSA isolates were collected from Tertiary Care Hospitals in Coimbatore. Disk diffusion method was employed to assess the sensitivity of MRSA isolates to selected antibiotics and genetic analysis was performed using SCCmec, agr, and MLST typing by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction strategy. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using Ezy MIC (vancomycin and Biomerieux (daptomycin E-test strip. Results: Of 259 MRSA isolates, 209 (80.7% were confirmed as methicillin resistant. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed that all the MRSA isolates were 100% sensitive to linezolid, rifampicin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. MIC results showed that of 209 MRSA isolates, 10 were found to be vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and 100% of the MRSA isolates were daptomycin-susceptible. The agr group I and SCCmec Type III were the major type among MRSA isolates. In addition to these MLST typing revealed the prevalence of sequence type (ST 239 (SLV of ST8 among the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: This study confirms that ST239 (Brazilian clone of MRSA is predominant in this region which is responsible for the hospital-acquired MRSA infections. Thus, the study also suggests that vancomycin and daptomycin can still be used as an

  4. Blood Culture Contaminants in a Paediatric Population Retrospective study from a tertiary hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggari, Mohamed A; Al-Mulaabed, Sharef W; Al-Muharrmi, Zakaria; Mani, Renjith; Abdelrahim, Rana; Abdwani, Reem

    2017-05-01

    Most children presenting with febrile illness require a blood culture to determine the causative organism as well as its sensitivity to antibiotics. However, false-positive results lead to unnecessary hospitalisations, prescriptions and tests. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of false-positive blood cultures among a paediatric population at a tertiary hospital in Oman. This retrospective study included all 225 children Oman, between July 2011 and December 2013. Blood cultures were reviewed to determine whether they were true-positive or contaminated. A total of 344 positive blood cultures were recorded during the study period, of which 185 (53.8%) were true-positive and 159 (46.2%) were contaminated. Most true-positive isolates (26.5%) were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CONS) followed by Escherichia coli (9.7%), while the majority of contaminated isolates were CONS (67.9%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (6.9%). Children with contaminated cultures were significantly younger (P <0.001) while those with true-positive cultures required significantly more frequent hospital admissions, longer hospital stays and more frequent antibiotic prescriptions (P <0.001 each). Chronic illness and mortality was significantly more frequent among those with true-positive cultures (P <0.001 and 0.04, respectively). While white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts were significantly higher in true-positive cultures (P <0.001 each), there was no significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.791). In this population, CRP level was not an adequate marker to differentiate between true- and false-positive cultures. A dedicated well-trained phlebotomy team for paediatric patients is essential.

  5. Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in a Neonatal Unit of a Greek Tertiary Hospital: Clinical Characteristics and Genotypes.

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    Dimitra Koukou

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV infection in neonatal age can be mild or even asymptomatic. Several studies have reported that RV is responsible for 31%-87% of pediatric nosocomial diarrhea and causes gastroenteritis outbreaks in pediatric and neonatal units.Study clinical characteristics, genotypes and risk factors of RV infection in neonatal age.A prospective study was conducted from April 2009 till April 2013 in the neonatal special care unit of the largest tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece. Fecal samples and epidemiological data were collected from each neonate with gastrointestinal symptoms. RV antigen was detected with a rapid immunochromatography test. RV positive samples were further genotyped with RT PCR and sequencing using specific VP7 and VP4 primers.Positive for RV were 126/415 samples (30.4%. Mean age of onset was 18 days. Seventy four cases (58% were hospital acquired. Seasonality of RV infection did not differ significantly throughout the year with the exception of 4 outbreaks. Genotypes found during the study period were G4P[8] (58.7%, G1P[8] (14.7%, G12P[8] (9.3%, G3P[8] (9.3%, G12P[6] (5.3%, G9P[8] (1.3% and G2P[4] (1.3%. RV cases presented with: diarrhea (81%, vomiting (26.2%, fever (34.9%, dehydration (28.6%, feeding intolerance (39.7%, weight loss (54%, whilst 19% of cases were asymptomatic. Comparing community with hospital acquired cases differences in clinical manifestations were found.Significant incidence of nosocomially transmitted RV infection in neonatal age including asymptomatic illness exists. Genotypes causing nosocomial outbreaks are not different from community strains. Circulating vaccines can be effective in prevention of nosocomial RV infection through herd immunity.

  6. Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in a Neonatal Unit of a Greek Tertiary Hospital: Clinical Characteristics and Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, Dimitra; Chatzichristou, Panagiota; Trimis, Georgios; Siahanidou, Tania; Skiathitou, Anna-Venetia; Koutouzis, Emmanouil I; Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Lourida, Athanasia; Michos, Athanasios G; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infection in neonatal age can be mild or even asymptomatic. Several studies have reported that RV is responsible for 31%-87% of pediatric nosocomial diarrhea and causes gastroenteritis outbreaks in pediatric and neonatal units. Study clinical characteristics, genotypes and risk factors of RV infection in neonatal age. A prospective study was conducted from April 2009 till April 2013 in the neonatal special care unit of the largest tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece. Fecal samples and epidemiological data were collected from each neonate with gastrointestinal symptoms. RV antigen was detected with a rapid immunochromatography test. RV positive samples were further genotyped with RT PCR and sequencing using specific VP7 and VP4 primers. Positive for RV were 126/415 samples (30.4%). Mean age of onset was 18 days. Seventy four cases (58%) were hospital acquired. Seasonality of RV infection did not differ significantly throughout the year with the exception of 4 outbreaks. Genotypes found during the study period were G4P[8] (58.7%), G1P[8] (14.7%), G12P[8] (9.3%), G3P[8] (9.3%), G12P[6] (5.3%), G9P[8] (1.3%) and G2P[4] (1.3%). RV cases presented with: diarrhea (81%), vomiting (26.2%), fever (34.9%), dehydration (28.6%), feeding intolerance (39.7%), weight loss (54%), whilst 19% of cases were asymptomatic. Comparing community with hospital acquired cases differences in clinical manifestations were found. Significant incidence of nosocomially transmitted RV infection in neonatal age including asymptomatic illness exists. Genotypes causing nosocomial outbreaks are not different from community strains. Circulating vaccines can be effective in prevention of nosocomial RV infection through herd immunity.

  7. Traumatic haemoperitoneum at Butare University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time interval between the trauma and the patient arrival at the hospital and management varied between 30 minutes and 24 hours with the medium of 12.7 hours. The majority (71.6%) of the patients were received in hospital within the first 6 hours after the trauma. Abdominal paracentesis or diagnostic peritoneal lavage ...

  8. Characteristics of patients presenting to the vascular emergency department of a tertiary care hospital: a 2-year study

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    Kotsikoris Ioannis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of health care in Greece is receiving increased attention to improve its cost-effectiveness. We sought to examine the epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting to the vascular emergency department of a Greek tertiary care hospital during a 2-year period. We studied all patients presenting to the emergency department of vascular surgery at Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2010. Results Overall, 2452 (49.4% out of 4961 patients suffered from pathologies that should have been treated in primary health care. Only 2509 (50.6% needed vascular surgical intervention. Conclusions The emergency department of vascular surgery in a Greek tertiary care hospital has to treat a remarkably high percentage of patients suitable for the primary health care level. These results suggest that an improvement in the structure of health care is needed in Greece.

  9. [Device associated infection in medical surgical intensive care unit inpatients of an A level, tertiary class hospital in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-li; An, Wei-hong; Li, Hong-liang; Yuan, Xiao-ning; Zhu, Xi; Yang, Xue-song

    2011-11-01

    To understand the situation of the device-associated infection (DAI) in the medical-surgical intensive care unit(ICU)inpatients in an A-level tertiary class hospital in Beijing. DAI date were collected through a surveillance on the medical-surgical ICU inpatients in an A-level tertiary class hospital in Beijing from January 2008 to December 2010. In 2279 patients admitted to the medical-surgical ICU (with a 15,332 days total hospitalization stay), 283 were found infected. The incidence for in-hospital infection was 12.42%, and 2.452% for the incidence per patient-day. The device utilization ratios for ventilator, central venous catheter and urinary catheter were 56.76%, 59.01% and 80.07% respectively while the incidence for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were 1.632%, 0.409% and 0.350% respectively. The predominant bacteria species found in these cases were Gram-negatives and the main stay of pathogenic species were A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. albicans etc. The incidence of DAI in the surveyed hospital is close to other hospitals in China and other developing countries but higher than hospitals in United States. More efforts should be made for its prevention / control by hospital stuff, with the cooperation from the patients.

  10. DRUG UTILISATION STUDY IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Amol Chandrakant Deshmukh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension, a common clinical problem is considered as an ‘iceberg disease’ because its unknown morbidity far exceeds the known morbidity. In terms of attributable deaths, it is one of the leading behavioural and physiological risk factors amounting to 13% of global deaths. Drug selection is based on efficacy in lowering BP (blood pressure and in reducing Cardiovascular (CV endpoints like stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. This study was carried out to evaluate the pattern, extent, rationality and frequency of the use of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the study is to analyse drug utilisation in the treatment of hypertension in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted during January 2014 to December 2015 in Medicine OPD (Outpatient Department in a tertiary care hospital. The sample size was selected as per the WHO recommendations on conducting Drug Utilisation Studies (DUS. Statistical Analysis- The collected data was numerically coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed by SPSS version 16. Settings and Design- Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS Out of 612 patients, 262 (42.81% were in the age group of 60 and above. Considering gender distribution, 328 (53.59% were males and 284 (46.41% were females. Of these, 274 (44.78% were prescribed monotherapy, 256 (41.83% were prescribed two-drug therapy, 72 (11.76% were prescribed three-drug therapy and 10 (1.63% were prescribed four-drug therapy. Among 274 (44.78% patients prescribed with monotherapy, 112 (40.87% were prescribed with CCB (calcium channel blocker, 76 (27.73% were given BB (B-blocker, 45 (16.42% were prescribed ACEI (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, 35 (12.77% were prescribed with ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker and 6 (2.18% were prescribed with Diuretics (D. Of the total antihypertensive drugs prescribed, 68.30% were prescribed by generic name

  11. ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN PAEDIATRICS OUTPATIENT IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Budhia Majhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The invention of antimicrobials emerged as a transformational turning point in the reduction of the burden of communicable disease in the 20 th century. Antimicrobials are among the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents across the world. The use of antibiotics among children is different from adults due to a number of reasons like a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum among different age groups- preterm neonates, full-term neonates, infants and toddlers, older children and adolescents, paediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses and the adverse effect of irrational use of antimicrobials being more serious among children than adults. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. Existing reports of population-based antibiotic use in children are relatively few, so the present study was carried out in Berhampur city with the objectives of finding out the pattern of oral antibiotic use in children in the outpatient setting of a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 216 patients treated with oral antibiotics in the Paediatrics Outpatient Department in MKCG Medical College, Berhampur. Data was collected and analysed from the prescriptions after obtaining informed written consent of the patient’s attendant and there was no interaction with the patients. Any prescription with an oral antibiotic prescribed was included for the study. The main outcome measures were the pattern of oral antibiotic prescription. The data were expressed as proportions and analysed using GraphPad Prism software (trial version. RESULTS Of the 216 prescriptions analysed, the most common disease entity for which a prescription with an oral antibiotic was made was acute respiratory infections (68.05%. Cefpodoxime was the commonly prescribed antibiotic

  12. Prevalence and characterization of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for diarrheal disease in a tertiary care hospital, Pune

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    Sae Satish Pol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea remains the second most common cause of death among children below 5 years globally. Among various enteric pathogens, rotavirus appears to be the most important aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Increased understanding of epidemiology of rotavirus infections is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy. Aim: This study aims to determine prevalence rotavirus infection and prevalent circulating strains of rotavirus in and around Pune. Setting and Design: Prospective hospital-based study. The study was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee. Materials and Methods: Stool samples (n = 100 were collected from children aged <5 years, hospitalised for acute diarrhoea in paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital. Samples were subjected for rotavirus antigen capture ELISA. The viral RNA was subjected to multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to amplify VP7 genotypes G1–G4, G8–G10 and G12 and VP4 genotypes P[4], P[6], P[8], P[9], P[10] and P[11]. Nontypable rotavirus strains were sequenced. Results: About 35% stool samples were positive for rotavirus antigen by ELISA. G9P[4] (28.6% was found to be the most prevalent rotavirus strain. The detection of emerging strain G12P[6] (14.3% and rare reassortant strain G9P[4] was the significant finding. Conclusion: Genotypes found in circulation are not present in the currently used vaccine. Thus, an emergence of newer genotypes over a period calls for the continued surveillance and genomic characterisation of rotaviruses to improve the vaccine efficacy.

  13. Use of physical restraint in hospital patients: A descriptive study in a tertiary hospital in South Africa

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    Sebastiana Z. Kalula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of physical restraint in patient management is a common and emotive issue, and has legal and ethical dimensions.Objective: To document the prevalence of physical restraint use, patient characteristics associated with physical restraint use, and nurses’ and doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards the practice.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 572 patients, of whom 132 were physically restrained, was conducted in acute wards of a tertiary hospital. Data were collected on the 132 physically restrained patients. Fifty-nine doctors and 159 nurses completed a specially constructed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were derived and expressed as numbers and percentages.Results: Prevalence of restraint use was 23% (132/572. The distribution in acute wards was: medical 54.5%; surgical 44.7%; maternity 0.8%; psychiatry none. Mean age (SD of the restrained patients was 49 years (20.5; 53.8% were male. The commonest types of restraints used were bed rails 93% and wrist belts 12%. Restraints were used largely to protect medical devices and as protection from harm. Less than 15% of the nurses reported having received training and 36% of the doctors reported having received some guidance on the use of restraints. Only a minority of nurses and doctors knew of a hospital policy on restraint use. Documentation on the prescription and indication for the use of restraint was poor.Conclusion: Prevalence of restraint use is high and poorly coordinated. A policy on the use of restraint and comprehensive guidelines should be developed to guide health care practitioners in the management of patients where restraint cannot be avoided.

  14. Temporomandibular Joint Pain: Clinical Presentations and Response to Conservative Treatments in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Adesina, Olufunlola Motunrayo; Oluwadaisi, Adeniyi; Adewale, Adedotun; Adewole, Opeyemi; Anizoba, E

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, pattern of presentation, and response to conservative (medical) interventions among patients who presented with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Consecutive patients who presented in Oral Medicine and Periodontology Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex on account of TMJ pain from January 2015 to December 2015 were recruited for the study. They were all interviewed and examined. The severity of pain was recorded using visual analog scale (VAS). Patients were treated with medications and physiotherapy. They were reviewed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Those who could not make the appointment were contacted through phone. The findings were recorded and analyzed using STATA version 11. A total of 401 participants were seen, 55 presented on account of TMJ pain. The mean age of patients with TMJ pain was 54 ± 16.9 with 60% being female. Pain was present in all participants; other signs include clicking joint sound (85%), jaw deviation (64%), attrition (24%), and reduced mouth opening (23%). The left joint was more frequently affected (75%). Following 6 weeks of conservative treatments, none of the respondents had VAS score of more than 3. The prevalence of TMJ pain was 13%. TMJ was found to be more common in participants above 50 years with female predilection. Pain was most common symptom seen, and response to conservative treatments as assessed using VAS following 6-week of treatment showed complete remission of the pain.

  15. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN A PERIPHERAL TERTIARY HOSPITAL

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    Thomas Karunahara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Acute pancreatitis (AP is one of the most common diseases in gastroenterology. Two percent of all patients admitted to hospital are diagnosed with AP. During the last decade, an increasing incidence was observed, mostly because of a higher sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis is still symptomatic and no specific medication is available today. As a result of popular belief that the pancreas should be put to rest during acute pancreatitis, the parenteral route for nutrition is still predominantly used in Acute Pancreatitis. There has been increasing evidence; however, about gut being main source of microorganisms causing infectious pancreatic complications and multiorgan failure. In patients with severe pancreatitis, oral intake is inhibited by nausea and subileus. Although some reports show that enteral feeding is possible in acute pancreatitis and associated with fewer septic complications. Although the evidence is inconclusive to support enteral nutrition in all patients with severe acute pancreatitis, the enteral route may be used if tolerated. Supportive treatment is the most important line of management in acute pancreatitis. The aim is to study the management of acute pancreatitis in a peripheral tertiary hospital and to assess the outcome of the management. METHODS & MATERIALS Data Collection: Patients with acute abdominal pain are admitted in hospital and diagnosed as acute pancreatitis based on blood investigations and radiological findings. Patients categorised- Revised Atlanta Classification. Different medical management modes followed and outcomes recorded, tabulated and analysed. Research Design: Retrospective study. Research Settings: Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Government Hospital, Trichy, Tamilnadu. Duration: 5 yrs. (2010-2015 Sample Size: 186. Inclusion Criteria: Patients between 12 and 75 yrs. of age, patients admitted to the hospital as a case of acute pancreatitis, both sexes

  16. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria.

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    Ordinioha, B; Brisibe, S

    2015-01-01

    As efforts to reduce maternal and childhood mortality rates continue to yield results in Nigeria, it is time to put more emphases on the health of children. Alcohol consumption is one of the few modifiable risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome. This study assessed the consumption of alcohol among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This study was carried out using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, with data collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to collect information on the knowledge of the harmful effects of alcohol on the fetus, attitudes toward alcohol use by pregnant women, and alcohol use by the respondents. A total of 221 subjects were studied. The respondents had an average age of 29.5 ± 4.6 years, were mostly married (96.83%), Christians (94.57%), and had tertiary education (73.76%). Only, 51.58% of the respondents knew of the harmful effects of alcohol on the fetus; of whom, 62.29% were told by a health professional. More than half (59.28%) of the respondents had taken alcohol during the index pregnancy, about a third (39.40%) of whom drank alcohol on a regular basis, whereas 25.79% were binge drinkers. There were no statistically significant differences in the marital (P = 0.16) and educational status (P = 0.15) of the respondents who abstained from alcohol in the index pregnancy, compared with those who drank alcohol; although, statistically significant differences were observed in the age (P alcohol consumption among the pregnant women is high. Health education is, therefore, required to change the attitude of the public and the knowledge and behavior of the pregnant women.

  17. The impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behavior outcome of children in a tertiary care hospital

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    Jasmeet Sidhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a pivotal role in upbringing a child and shaping their future. However, children of alcoholics (COAs suffer due to their parent′s dependence pattern. The various domains affected encompass cognitive, behavioural, psychological, emotional and social spheres. This study was designed to assess the impact of alcohol dependence in the parent on the development and behavior of their children, so that further steps could be taken to minimize the negative influences. Aims: To study the impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behaviour outcome of children in various domains, alongwith the effect of the family environment. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 25 children between 6 and 18 years of age, whose atleast one parent was diagnosed as alcohol dependant. The other parent was assessed using a general health questionnaire-28. Child behaviour checklist and family evaluation scale (FES were then applied. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis was done according the manuals provided with the respective scales to calculate the score. Results: Both male and female COAs had high externalizing and internalizing scores. The girls have higher internalizing scores while the boys of such parents have higher externalizing scores. The FES showed dysfunction in all the three dimensions, namely the relationship, personal growth and the system maintenance. Conclusions: Our study corroborates the findings of the studies done in the past on COAs. The COAs face various affective, anxiety, somatic, attention deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional defiant conduct problems.

  18. A SURVEY OF DISPOSITION OF PHYSICIANS TOWARDS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION AT TWO TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, A Y; Usman, R B; Oyeyemi, A L

    2016-12-01

    A general presumption is that any advice from physicians would likely be taken seriously by patients, and patients are more likely to see their doctors in the event of any health complaints than any other health professionals. The perceptions and practice of Nigerian physicians on their role in physical activity promotion are not well known. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of physical activity message, confidence, role perceptions, barriers and feasibility of physical activity promotion among physicians in two tertiary health institutions in North-Eastern Nigeria. A total of 153 (84.5% response) physicians at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center Yola completed a previously developed questionnaire that elicited information on their knowledge, barrier, feasibility, role and confidence in physical activity promotion. Physicians in this study reported fairly good knowledge (mean score=14.7±2.2/20), minimal or little barrier to physical activity promotion (mean score=24.4±3.5/30), perceived physical activity promotion as their role (mean score=12.9±1.6/15), were confident in their ability to discuss and recommend exercises for physical activity promotion (mean score=7.9±1.3/ 10) and believed promoting physical activity was feasible for them (mean score=15.0±2.5/20). The physicians had good disposition to physical activity promotion (Mean score=78.5±6.7/100), but male physicians showed better disposition than their female counterparts. Overall these cohorts of physicians are somewhat knowledgeable on physical activity promotion and are positively disposed to promoting physical activity among their patients. These findings can be leveraged upon to optimize outcome of campaigns or interventions to change physical activity behaviour in Nigerian populace.

  19. Twin versus singleton pregnancies: the incidence, pregnancy complications, and obstetric outcomes in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

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    Obiechina NJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available NJ Obiechina1, VE Okolie1, GU Eleje1, ZC Okechukwu1, OA Anemeje21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Family Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH, Nnewi, Anambra State, NigeriaBackground: Twin pregnancy is associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer pregnancy outcome than singleton pregnancy. Hence periodic review is necessary to improve on the pregnancy outcome.Objective: To determine the incidence and compare pregnancy complications and obstetric outcomes of twin pregnancies and singleton pregnancies.Materials and methods: The twin pregnancies (study group that were delivered at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH, Nnewi, South-East Nigeria from 1st February 2005 to 31st January 2010 were compared with singleton deliveries (control group that occurred in the same hospital during the same period.Results: A total of 3351 deliveries were conducted during the study period, of which 113 were twin deliveries, giving an incidence of 1:29.6 deliveries. Only 100 case files could be retrieved for analysis. The mean parities for the twins and singletons were 2.7 ± 2.33 weeks and 1.96 ± 1.87 weeks whereas the mean gestational age at delivery for twin and singleton deliveries were 34 ± 5.2 weeks and 38.7 ± 2.4 weeks respectively (P < 0.05. The mean birth weights were 3.14 ± 0.73 kg and 2.3 ± 1.0 kg for singletons and twins respectively (P < 0.05. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cord prolapse, malpresentation, premature rupture of membranes, low Apgar scores, cesarean section rate, and perinatal death were significantly higher in twin pregnancies than in singleton.Conclusion: The incidence of twin pregnancy over the study period was high and was significantly associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer obstetric outcomes. Close antenatal and intrapartum care are needed in order to

  20. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... present study, we describe in detail maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric characteristics associated with PTB at the Lagos University. Teaching Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods. Data for this study was obtained from the labor ward records of the. Lagos University Teaching Hospital ...

  1. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of potentially inappropriate medications in hospitalized elderly at a teaching hospital: a comparison between Beers 2003 and 2012 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Taufik G; Pandya, Rushi N; Rana, Devang A; Patel, Varsha J

    2013-01-01

    To detect the prevalence and pattern of use of Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized elderly patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital using Beers 2012 criteria and to compare the same with Beers 2003 criteria. Prescriptions of the elderly patients aged 65 years and above were collected from the medicine ward and analyzed. PIMs were identified with help of Beers 2003 and Beers 2012 criteria and comparison was made between the two criteria. Predictors associated with use of PIM were identified using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 210 patients received 2,267 drugs. According to Beers 2003 criteria, 60 (28.57%) elderly patients received at least one PIM and 2.9% drugs were prescribed inappropriately. According to Beers 2012 criteria, 84 (40%) elderly received at least one PIM while 22 (10.47%) received multiple PIMs and about 5% drugs were prescribed inappropriately. The most commonly prescribed PIM was mineral oil-liquid paraffin (30, 14.3%) followed by spironolactone (25, 11.9%), digoxin (19, 9%), and benzodiazepines (14, 6.7%). There was a significant association between the number of patients receiving more than six drugs and the use of PIMs (P PIMs in the elderly. The study shows high prevalence of prescribing PIMs in hospitalized elderly patients. Beers 2012 criteria are more effective in identifying PIMs than Beers 2003 criteria.

  3. Retrospective chart review of elderly patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy in a tertiary general hospital

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    Mosam Phirke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is the one of the oldest and effective treatments in psychiatry today. It has been used in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders in both young and old patients. Aims of the study: The present study is a retrospective chart review of geriatric patients receiving ECT as a treatment option in a tertiary care general hospital psychiatry setting. Methodology: The study evaluated ECT records over a 5-year period between the years 2010 and 2014, and it was observed that 23 elderly patients (aged ≥60 years had received ECT. Results: The patients received modified bitemporal ECT using a brief pulse ECT machine and had no major complications. A total of 184 ECT treatments were administered at an average of 8 treatments per case. The major diagnoses of patients were schizophrenia and major depression. The main indications of ECT were intolerance to medication, suicidal behavior and aggression. Out of the 23 elderly patients, 18 (78.26% showed a good response to ECT. The only complication noted was memory loss and confusion in 3 cases. Patients with medical illnesses like hypertension, diabetes and both together received ECT without any complications. Conclusions: This study adds to the scarce database on the use of ECT in elderly patients in India and adds evidence to the fact that ECT is a safe and effective treatment in the elderly.

  4. Pediatric referrals to psychiatry in a Tertiary Care General Hospital: A descriptive study

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    Bheemsain Tekkalaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with chronic physical illnesses frequently have psychiatric comorbidities, which often go un-noticed and may lead to more resource utilization and morbidity. Pediatric liaison services can be effectively used to bridge this gap. Literature on pediatric liaison services is sparse. Aims: To study the referral patterns, reasons for referrals, psychiatric diagnoses and interventions in children and adolescents referred to psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of all children and adolescents below 19 years of age, referred to psychiatry department from 2010 to 2015, was done. Data was collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: Two hundred and nine subjects were included in the study. Mean age of sample was 12.15 (±4.20 years, with about 66.02% being males. About 54.06% of the participants were referred from pediatricians. Almost three fourth (72.25% of children had no diagnosable physical illness. Intellectual disability (19.62% was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, followed by depressive disorders (14.35%, and dissociative disorders (12.92%. Conclusions: In our study, majority of the referrals were the adolescent males from pediatric department. Intellectual disability, depressive disorder, and stress-related disorders were the common diagnoses. The fact that three-fourth of the referred children had no physical illness implies lack of awareness, stigma toward mental illness, and pathway of care.

  5. Surgical safety checklist and operating room efficiency: results from a large multispecialty tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstantinou, Harry T; Smythe, William R; Reznik, Scott I; Sibbitt, Stephen; Wehbe-Janek, Hania

    2013-12-01

    The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) improves patient safety and outcomes; however, barriers to effective use include the perceived negative impact on operating room (OR) efficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SSC implementation on OR efficiency. All operations at our large multispecialty tertiary care hospital were reviewed for 1-year pre- and 1-year post-SSC implementation. OR efficiency included operating room time, operation time, first starts on time, same-day cancellations, and OR disposable cost. A total of 35,570 operations were reviewed: 17,204 pre-SSC and 18,366 post-SSC. There was no difference between groups for operating room time (P = .93), operation time (P = .66), first starts on time (P = .15), and same-day cancellations (P = .57). The mean OR disposable cost was significantly lower ($70/operation) for the post-SSC group (P efficiency and should not be considered a barrier to effective use. Our data suggest that SSC use can reduce overall cost per surgical procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Detection of Hearing Impairment Among High Risk Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Gurudutt Joshi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing impairment has a devastating, detrimental and an invariably adverse impact on the development of the newborns and the psychological well-being of their families. It also adversely affects development of the central auditory nervous system, and can affect speech perception that interferes with growth in social, emotional, behavioural and cognitive spheres, academic achievement, vocational options, employment opportunities and economic selfsufficiency. Objectives: To find out incidence of hearing impairment in high risk neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, prevalence of hearing impairment with and without high risk factors in newborns and to correlate the risk factors with hearing impairment. Material and Methods: A cohort study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Surat, Gujarat, India consisting of 190 normal newborns and 163 newborns with high risk factors. These newborns underwent a systematized Transient Otoacoustic Emissions Examination (TOAE and Brain Stem Evoked Audiometry (BERA examination according to designed protocol and were followed up with repeated ear examinations. Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: The incidence of hearing impairment in NICU, newborns were 3.6% and the prevalence of hearing impairment was 13%. Hearing impairment was statistically significant in newborns with high risk factors such as low birth weight, preterms 5 days when compared to normal newborns. Conclusion: Presence of risk factors in newborns predisposes them to hearing impairment more as compared to normal newborns and the more the number of risk factors they are exposed to, the more will be the chances of hearing impairment.

  7. Induction of Labor using Misoprostol in a Tertiary Hospital in the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tácito Augusto Godoy; Borges Júnior, Luciano Eliziário; Tahan, Luisa Almeida; Costa, Taynná Ferreira Arantes; Magalhães, Fernanda Oliveira; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To assess cases of labor induction with vaginal 25-µg tablets of misoprostol and maternal outcomes in a tertiary hospital in southeastern Brazil. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 412 pregnant women with indication for labor induction. Labor induction was performed with vaginal 25-µg tablets of misoprostol in pregnant women with Bishop scores induction that could be used as predictors of successful labor induction. Results A total of 69% of the pregnant women who underwent labor induction progressed to vaginal delivery, and 31% of the women progressed to cesarean section. One or two misoprostol tablets were used in 244 patients (59.2%). Of the 412 patients, 197 (47.8%) required oxytocin later on in the labor process, after induction with misoprostol. The stepwise regression analysis showed that only Bishop scores of 4 and 5 and previous vaginal delivery were independent factors with statistical significance in the prediction of successful vaginal labor induction (β = 0.23, p induction with vaginal 25-µg tablets of misoprostol. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH PITUITARY TUMOURS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.

  9. Complications of hypospadias surgery: Experience in a tertiary hospital of a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeadu-Mensah, William; Hesse, Afua Adwo Jectey; Glover-Addy, Hope; Osei-Nketiah, Samuel; Etwire, Victor; Sarpong, Pokua Ama

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over 300 different operations have been described for the management of hypospadias. In recent times, the numbers of operations used in various centres have gradually reduced as the principles necessary to ensure adequate cosmetic and functional results with minimum complications are better understood. The aim of this article was to review the different types of operations used for managing hypospadias in a tertiary hospital in a developing country, to analyse the complications of surgery and discuss the factors that contribute to complications. Materials and Methods: Patient folders, theatre, and ward records were used to obtain the required information. The age at surgery, types of hypospadias at presentation, types of operations done and complications were analysed. Results and Conclusion: With three main types of operations, tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated for anterior hypospadias (glanular, coronal, subcoronal, distal, midpenile), and lateral based flap urethroplasty for posterior hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal, scrotal, perineal), most hypospadias were corrected with acceptable complication rates. PMID:26712282

  10. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes of Triplet Gestation in a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

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    Maryam Al-Shukri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the fetal and maternal outcomes of triplet gestation and to report on the maternal characteristics of those pregnancies in a tertiary care centre in Oman. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of all triplet pregnancies delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 2009 and December 2011. Results: Over the three-year study period, there were 9,140 deliveries. Of these, there were 18 triplet pregnancies, giving a frequency of 0.2%. The mean gestational age at delivery was 31.0 ± 3.0 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1,594 ± 460 g. The most common maternal complications were preterm labour in 13 pregnancies (72.2%, gestational diabetes in 7 (39% and gestational hypertension in 5 (28%. Of the total deliveries, there were 54 neonates. Neonatal complications among these included hyaline membrane disease in 25 neonates (46%, hyperbilirubinaemia in 24 (43%, sepsis in 18 (33% and anaemia in 8 (15%. The perinatal mortality rate was 55 per 1,000 births. Conclusion: The maternal and neonatal outcomes of triplet pregnancies were similar to those reported in other studies.

  11. Analysis of surgically treated gastric cancers: a tertiary hospital experience in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Orhan; Sisik, Abdullah; Eren, Tunc; Aktas, Suat; Basak, Fatih; Leblebici, Metin; Bas, Gurhan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, and in Turkey, GC is placed among the 10 most frequently seen cancers. However, analyzing the epidemiology of cancers and improving screening programs for cancers are not still the top priorities for healthcare professionals. This study aims to show distribution of GC based on stages in a tertiary hospital of Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: All surgically treated GC cases in the General Surgery Department, between January 2009 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Data including the operation year, the demographic, clinical and histopathological parameters were recorded and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 111 patients. Seventy-four (66.66%) patients were men, and 37 (33.33%) patients were women with a mean age of 63.49±11.83 years. Stage 3 and 4 were the most frequently observed stages with 62 and 18 cases, respectively. Stage 3 was the most common stage found during the study period (p<0.05). During 5 years of the study period, GC was less frequently located on the cardia (n=31) when compared with other locations (n=75) for GC (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Turkey’s population has generally advanced stage GC disease. New strategies are needed for achievement of early diagnosis and better outcomes. PMID:28058349

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE AND COMMON CAUSES OF HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

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    Jog Antony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of haemolytic anaemia were identified and studied for a period of one year. RESULTS Maximum number of cases were seen in the age group of 20-40 years. The overall male-female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were features of anaemia like breathlessness, easy fatigability, headache and tiredness. Family history of anaemia was present in 34.1%. The most common signs observed were pallor and jaundice. The most common causes were autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia. CONCLUSION Haemolytic anaemia mostly affects individuals in their 3rd and 4th decade. There is no significant difference in gender distribution of haemolytic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia most commonly presents with symptoms of anaemia and jaundice. Commonest causes of haemolytic anaemia are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia.

  13. Enteric Fever in a Tertiary Paediatric Hospital: A Retrospective Six-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Hatib, Nur Adila; Chong, Chia Yin; Thoon, Koh Cheng; Tee, Nancy Ws; Krishnamoorthy, Subramania S; Tan, Natalie Wh

    2016-07-01

    Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore. A retrospective review of children diagnosed with enteric fever in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore was conducted from January 2006 to January 2012. Patients with positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi were identified from the microbiology laboratory information system. Data was extracted from their case records. Of 50 enteric fever cases, 86% were due to Salmonella typhi, with 16.3% being multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Sixty-two percent of S. typhi isolates were of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS). Five cases were both MDR and DCS. The remaining 14% were Salmonella paratyphi A. There were only 3 indigenous cases. Ninety-four percent had travelled to typhoid-endemic countries, 70.2% to the Indian subcontinent and the rest to Indonesia and Malaysia. All patients infected with MDR strains had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. Anaemia was a significant finding in children with typhoid, as compared to paratyphoid fever (P = 0.04). Although all children were previously well, 14% suffered severe complications including shock, pericardial effusion and enterocolitis. None had typhoid vaccination prior to their travel to developing countries. Enteric fever is largely an imported disease in Singapore and has contributed to significant morbidity in children. The use of typhoid vaccine, as well as education on food and water hygiene to children travelling to developing countries, needs to be emphasised.

  14. SPECTRUM OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN BHUBANESWAR, ORISSA, INDIA

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    Nihar Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study was carried out for creating a profile in cases of hemoglobinopathies coming to our Hospital and comparing the results with other Indian studies. SETTING: The study was carried out at a premier tertiary care center in Orissa. A total of 820 referred cases of Anemia were examined between March 2010 to July 2015. METHODS: Hematological indices and hemoglobin HPLC with quantification of the bands was done in all cases. Hematological indices were measured on SYSMEX Cell Counter (XT - 1800i and Hemoglobin HPLC was performed on BIORAD D10. RESULTS: Out of 820 referred cases 453 was found to be normal and 367 had one or other form of haemoglobinopathy. The data shows the prevalence of Sickle cell Trait to be 18.6%, β Thalassemia - Trait 10.8% & Sickle cell disease 8.7% in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hemoglobinopathy is found to be very high. It is present in a proportion of 1:2.25 in patients coming for anemia for investigation or clinically suspected cases of hemoglobino pathies. Hence, all the cases of anemia should undergo HPLC screening in this part of the country. There should be an initiative towards population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to counter the magnitude of problem

  15. Factors associated with Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, India

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    Vijay Kumar Tiwari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide increasing prevalence of DM may counteract the positive effects of improved curative services for TB. Aims & Objectives: To identify factors associated with Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi. Material & Methods: This study was conducted among 220 TB patients. Results: It was found that 16% were co-morbid. Among co-morbid patients, the age distribution skewed towards higher age groups as compared with only TB patients. Co-morbidity was higher among females (64% as compared to males (36%. Higher percentage among Co-morbid patients (78% belonged to lower socio-economic class compared to TB patients (58%. Statistically significant association of comorbidity was found with physical activity, dietary habits and tobacco/alcohol consumption. However, only one third of patients who were aware about DM, knew that diabetic patients are more prone to acquire TB infection. Among co-morbid cases, only 50% were aware that uncontrolled DM delays the cure of TB. Findings also suggested that the sputum conversion rate among the co-morbid patients was low compared with the only TB patients. Conclusion: The study concludes that counseling of patient with DM against higher risk of contracting TB and TB patients against delayed cure should be made as a part of national strategy to manage DM-TB comorbidity.

  16. Clinical neurophysiology referral patterns to a tertiary hospital--a prospective audit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Cork University Hospital (CUH) provides a tertiary service for all neurophysiology referrals in the Southern Health Board region. AIM: To ascertain the number, source, symptoms and diagnosis of neurophysiology referrals at CUH. METHODS: We did a prospective audit of the referral patterns to the neurophysiology department over a 12 -week period. RESULTS: Of 635 referrals, 254 had electromyograms (EMG), 359 had electro-encephalograms (EEG), 18 had visual evoked potentials (VEP), three had somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and one had multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We analysed the demographic pattern, reason for referrals, the average waiting time for neurophysiology tests and the patterns of diagnosis in this audit. CONCLUSIONS: Patients from County Cork are making more use of the neurophysiology services than patients from other counties within the Southern Health Board. The average waiting time for an EEG was 32 days and for an EMG was 74 days. However, more than 35% of those patients waiting for an EEG or an EMG had their tests done within four weeks of referral. The appointments of EEG and EMG were assigned on the basis of clinical need.

  17. Psychosocial Factors in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Australia

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    Charan Bale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study seeks to review the psychosocial factors affecting patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD from a tertiary hospital in Australia. Methods. We audited patients with ESKD, referred to social work services from January 2012 to December 2014. All patients underwent psychosocial assessments by one, full-time renal social worker. Patient demographics, cumulative social issues, and subsequent interventions were recorded directly into a database. Results. Of the 244 patients referred, the majority were >60 years (58.6%, male (60.7%, born in Australia (62.3%, on haemodialysis (51.6%, and reliant on government financial assistance (88%. Adjustment issues (41%, financial concerns (38.5%, domestic assistance (35.2%, and treatment nonadherence (21.3% were the predominant reasons for social work consultation. Younger age, referral prior to start of dialysis, and unemployment were significant independent predictors of increased risk of adjustment issues (p=0.004, <0.001, and =0.018, resp.. Independent risk factors for treatment nonadherence included age and financial and employment status (p=0.041, 0.052, and 0.008, resp.. Conclusion. Psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with treatment nonadherence and adjustment difficulties. Additional social work support and counselling, in addition to financial assistance from government and nongovernment agencies, may help to improve adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment plans as patients approach ESKD.

  18. Obstetric Characteristics and Management of Patients with Postpartum Psychosis in a Tertiary Hospital Setting

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    C. E. Shehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postpartum psychosis is the most severe and uncommon form of postnatal affective illness. It constitutes a medical emergency. Acute management emphasizes hospitalization to ensure safety, antipsychotic medication adherence, and treatment of the underlying disorder. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the obstetric characteristics and management of patients with postpartum psychosis in a tertiary centre in North-Western Nigeria. Methodology. This was a 10-year retrospective study. Records of the patients diagnosed with postpartum psychosis from January 1st, 2002, to December 31st, 2011, were retrieved and relevant data extracted and analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 16.0. Results. There were 29 cases of postpartum psychosis giving an incidence of 1.1 per 1000 deliveries. The mean age of the patients was 20.6 ± 4 years. Twelve (55% were primiparae, 16 (72.7% were unbooked, and 13 (59% delivered at home. All had vaginal deliveries at term. There were 12 (52.2% live births, and 11 (47.8% perinatal deaths and the fetal sex ratio was equal. The most common presentation was talking irrationally. Conclusion. There is need for risk factor evaluation for puerperal psychosis during the antenatal period especially in primigravidae and more advocacies to encourage women to book for antenatal care in our environment.

  19. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH SEXUAL PRECOCITY TO A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Precocious puberty is a common paediatric endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentations of patients presenting with sexual precocity to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 24 consecutive patients who presented to our department from January 2014 to December 2015 for evaluation of sexual precocity. RESULTS Most of the patients presenting to us had evidence of precocious puberty (n=16, followed by premature adrenarche (n=5 and premature thelarche (n=3 respectively. The females outnumbered males in our study (68.75% of total cases. Females presenting with central precocious puberty had no appreciable cause (idiopathic in majority (85.72% of cases. While, males presenting with central precocious puberty had an organic cause (60% in majority of cases. CONCLUSIONS Precocious puberty is more common among females as compared to males. Organic lesion must be ruled out in all patients presenting with central precocious puberty especially in males.

  20. Healthcare-seeking behavior of patients with epileptic seizure disorders attending a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata

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    Abhik Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.

  1. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation for Refractory Glaucoma in a Tertiary Hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ricardo Yuji; Tavares, Carla Melo; Schimiti, Rui Barroso; Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; Costa, Vital Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation in patients with refractory glaucoma in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Methods. Retrospective case series of patients who underwent AGV implantation. Primary outcome was to assess the rate of failure, which was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) in two consecutive visits greater than 18 or lower than 5 mmHg (criterion 1) or IOP greater than 15 or lower than 5 mmHg (criterion 2). The secondary outcome was to investigate risk factors for failure. Results. 112 eyes from 108 patients underwent AGV implantation between 2000 and 2012. Mean follow-up time was 2.54 (±1.52) years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed cumulative probabilities of success of 80.3%, 68.2%, and 47.3% at 1, 3, and 5 years using 18 mmHg as endpoint. When adopting 15 mmHg as endpoint, cumulative success rates were 80.3%, 60.7%, and 27.3% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis with generalized estimating equations revealed that African American ancestry and early hypertensive phase were risk factors for failure (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, resp.). Conclusion. A success rate of approximately 50% was obtained 5 years after the implantation of an AGV. African American ancestry and early hypertensive phase were associated with increased risk of failure.

  2. Current trends in treatment outcomes of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria

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    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital cellulitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the soft tissues of the orbit located behind the orbital septum. Aim: To determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis from January 2008 to December 2014 was conducted. The age, sex, duration of symptoms, predisposing factors, clinical findings, laboratory/radiological investigations, treatment provided, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Results were analyzed with SPSS Version 21 program. Results: Forty-two patients were seen made of 17 (40.5% males and 25 (59.5% females with a mean age of 18.2 ± 18.7 years of which children 6/18 at presentation, 38 (82.6% and at discharge, 39 (84.8%. The mean duration of presenting complaints was 15.5 ± 31.6 days. Patients who presented early were less likely to develop complications, P = 0.003. The most common complication was exposure keratopathy in 8 (44.4% eyes. The only surgical intervention performed was incision and drainage of abscess in 3 (7.1% eyes. No patient came for follow-up. Conclusion: Prompt institution of effective antibiotics and management of complications that may arise improves prognosis of orbital cellulitis.

  3. Lyme Borreliosis in Children: A Tertiary Referral Hospital Based Retrospective Analysis.

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    Rashid, Amara Nassar-Sheikh; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Kolader, Marion; Hovius, Joppe W; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is an endemic disease in adults in Western countries. Although children may also be infected, paediatric studies on LB are scarce. This study aims to estimate the incidence of LB among children with a clinical suspicion for Lyme in a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands. Patient chart data on medical history, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic test results and diagnoses were collected using standardized case record forms. Patients were categorized based on clinical and laboratory findings using a modified, previously published classification system. We included 325 children, with a median age of 11.9 years, of whom 61.8% were female. LB was diagnosed in 38 (11.7%) of the referred children. However, of the 85 patients who were specifically referred to the Lyme clinic, 28 (32.9%) were diagnosed with LB. Of the specifically referred Lyme positive patients, eleven (39.3%) had a definitive LB diagnosis. Twelve children had a post-treatment LB syndrome (PTLBS). In line with previous reports in adults, only a small proportion of children referred with a suspicion of LB were diagnosed with definite or probable LB, which illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing LB by the general practitioner or paediatrician in a district hospital.

  4. Palliative care in advanced cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand

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    Manisha Bisht

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Advanced cancer, irrespective of the site of the cancer, is characterized by a number of associated symptoms that impair the quality of life of patients. The management of these symptoms guides palliative care. The present study aims to describe the symptoms and appropriate palliation provided in patients with advanced cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand. Methods: This was an observational study. A total of 100 patients with advanced cancer were included in the study. The data obtained from the patients included symptoms reported by the patients, currently prescribed treatments and the site of cancer. Results: The average number of symptoms reported per patient was 5.33 ± 0.67 (mean ± SE. The most common symptoms were pain, weakness/fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, constipation and cough. Polypharmacy was frequent. Patients consumed approximately 8.7 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE drugs on average during the 2-month period of follow-up. Conclusion: The result gives insight into the varied symptomatology of patients with advanced cancer. Polypharmacy was quite common in patients with advanced cancer, predisposing them to complicated drug interactions and adverse drug reactions.

  5. Intensity of interprofessional collaboration among intensive care nurses at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M

    To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Injuries Evaluated with Electrodiagnostic Studies in a Tertiary Care Hospital Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gerardo E; Torres, Ruben Y

    2016-06-01

    To describe the etiologies and frequency of traumatic peripheral nerve injury (TPNI) seen in the electrodiagnostic laboratory of a tertiary care hospital in Puerto Rico. The charts of patients who underwent an electrodiagnostic study for a TPNI were revised. The main outcome measure was the frequency of each injury by anatomic location, specific nerve or nerves affected, injury mechanism, and injury severity. One hundred forty-six charts were included, and in them were listed a total of 163 nerve injuries; 109 (74.7%) cases were men and 37 (25.3%) were women. The mean age was 33.6 years. The facial nerve, the brachial plexus, and the ulnar nerve were more frequently injured than any other nerve or nerve bundle. The ulnar, sciatic, median, and radial nerves and the lumbosacral plexus were more commonly injured as a result of gunshot wounds than of any other mechanism of injury. The brachial plexus was most frequently injured in motor vehicle accidents and the facial nerve injuries most commonly had an iatrogenic cause. In terms of injury severity, 84.2% were incomplete and 15.8% were complete. TPNIs are common in young individuals and potentially can lead to significant disability. Further studies are needed to assess the socioeconomic impact of these injuries on our population.

  7. Epidemiology of Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Injuries Evaluated by Electrodiagnostic Studies in a Tertiary Care Hospital Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ruben Y; Miranda, Gerardo E

    2015-01-01

    Describe the etiology and frequency of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries (TPNI) in the electrodiagnostic laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. The charts of patients who underwent an electrodiagnostic study for a TPNI were revised. The main outcome measure was the frequency of each injury by anatomic location, involved nerve, mechanism, and severity. 146 charts were included for a total of 163 injured nerves; 109 (74.7%) males and 37 (25.3%) females. The mean age was 33.6 years. The facial nerve and the brachial plexus followed by the ulnar nerve were more frequently involved. The ulnar, sciatic, median, radial nerve, and the lumbosacral plexus were more commonly injured by gunshot wounds, the brachial plexus by motor vehicle accidents, and the facial nerve by iatrogenic causes. The majority of the injuries were incomplete or partial (84.2% were incomplete and 15.8% complete injuries). TPNIs can lead to significant disability, but further investigation is needed to better understand their socio-economic impact.

  8. Evolving strategy for HCV testing in an Italian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora; Ferraglia, Francesca; Pinardi, Federica; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Bernasconi, Daniela; Galli, Claudio; Calderaro, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should be adapted according to the clinical status of the patient. We exploited the application of different HCV diagnostic algorithms in a tertiary care hospital practice. The laboratory clinical reports to the medical orders for HCV testing during three years were clustered by different combinations of assays for anti-HCV antibodies (HCV Ab) (screening and confirmatory), HCV nucleic acid (HCV-RNA), HCV core antigen (HCV Ag). The latter was the first-line assay in acute HCV infections requiring a rapid assessment of the infectious state. The majority (91.9%) of the 2726 subjects whose samples were analyzed were inpatients. Most of the patients/subjects were tested for clinical suspicion of viral hepatitis (49.2%), or occupational accident to health care professionals (20.0%). On 66% of samples HCV Ag test alone was performed and resulted positive in 116 cases (6%), while it was detected in 50.3% of anti-HCV positive samples. The agreement between HCV Ag and HCV-RNA was very high (k=0.97); HCV Ag positivity rates increased according to the signal of the HCV Ab screening test. The use of different testing strategies according to the patients' history and clinical status allowed a significant reduction of the number of tests performed and the time needed to provide a diagnostic response useful for patients' management without compromising the overall diagnostic accuracy for HCV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Complications of hypospadias surgery: Experience in a tertiary hospital of a developing country

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    William Appeadu-Mensah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 300 different operations have been described for the management of hypospadias. In recent times, the numbers of operations used in various centres have gradually reduced as the principles necessary to ensure adequate cosmetic and functional results with minimum complications are better understood. The aim of this article was to review the different types of operations used for managing hypospadias in a tertiary hospital in a developing country, to analyse the complications of surgery and discuss the factors that contribute to complications. Materials and Methods: Patient folders, theatre, and ward records were used to obtain the required information. The age at surgery, types of hypospadias at presentation, types of operations done and complications were analysed. Results and Conclusion: With three main types of operations, tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated for anterior hypospadias (glanular, coronal, subcoronal, distal, midpenile, and lateral based flap urethroplasty for posterior hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal, scrotal, perineal, most hypospadias were corrected with acceptable complication rates.

  10. Occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens in a tertiary hospital: benchmarking using patient days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, Waleed; Senok, Abiola C; Assiri, Abdullah M; Kazem, Najla; Abato, Avigail Tan

    2015-03-01

    Incidence and risk factors for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens (OEBBPs) in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia was assessed. Reported sharps injuries from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed and benchmarked using patient days. OEBBPs caused by sharps injuries increased from 41 in 2009 to 65 in 2010, with an incidence rate of 4.09/10 000 patient days in 2009 and 5.9/10 000 patient days in 2010. Most episodes (41%) occurred during recapping of hollow bore needles after obtaining blood specimens. The highest incidence was among nursing staff(n/N = 87/106; 82%), and injuries also occurred in housekeeping staff (3.7%). A correlationbetween morning shift and OEBBPs was observed, and the highest number of episodes occurred in the emergency room (21.5%) and renal dialysis unit (16.9%). There was exposure to HCV (n = 13) and HBV (n = 4) but not to HIV (n = 0), and no seroconversions were documented. Education on adherence to universal precaution measures and use of safety engineered devices as well as the introduction of an OEBBP notification hotline are recommended. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. The HIV care cascade in Buenos Aires, Argentina: results in a tertiary referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Blugerman, Gabriela; Valiente, José Antonio; Rebeiro, Peter; Sued, Omar; Fink, Valeria; Soto, Mariana Romero; Cillis, Roberto; Yamamoto, Cleyton; Falistocco, Carlos; Cahn, Pedro; Pérez, Héctor

    2016-12-01

    To determine rates of retention, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, and viral suppression in an adult cohort from a public tertiary referral hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. HIV-positive ART-naïve patients ≥ 18 years old starting care 2011-2013 contributed data until the end of 2014. Three outcomes were assessed in 2014: retention in care, ART use, and viral suppression. Patient characteristics associated with each outcome were assessed through logistic regression. A total of 1 031 patients were included. By the end of 2014, 1.5% had died and 14.8% were transferred to a different center. Of the remaining 859 patients, 563 (65.5%) were retained in 2014. Among those retained, 459 (81.5%) were on ART in 2014. Of those 459 on ART, 270 (58.8%) were virologically suppressed. Younger age was associated with lower retention (OR (odds ratio): 0.67; 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.44-0.92 for ≥ 35 vs. ART use or viral suppression. Low CD4 count at first visit was associated with ART use (OR: 35.72 for CD4 ART use and viral suppression. We found a major gap in retention in care. Identifying younger age as being associated with worse retention will help in the design of targeted interventions.

  12. Factors influencing macrosomia in pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2014-02-01

    To identify the risk factors influencing the development of macrosomia among pregnant women and to develop a regression model to predict macrosomia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia involving 2332 pregnant women. The data was retrospectively collected from the obstetrics and gynecology department. The factors that influence fetal weight were collected from the antenatal cards and any additional information was collected by face-to-face interview using a questionnaire. A multiple regression model was developed to predict macrosomia using SPSS ver.18. The significant variables that influence macrosomia in this study were mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain, parity, mother's ethnicity, father's BMI, gestational week, diabetes during pregnancy and neonatal sex. Diabetes during pregnancy is an important risk factor for macrosomia; by using this parameter alone the risk of macrosomia can be predicted with a sensitivity rate of 70% and specificity of 70%. By including other maternal factors such as maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, parity, ethnicity, as well as father's BMI, gestational weeks and neonate sex, the sensitivity and specificity were improved to 80% and 75%, respectively. A regression model was developed and this could be used in health centers to predict macrosomia for purpose of referral to higher centers. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Evaluation of bone marrow in cases of pancytopenia in a tertiary care hospital

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    S Vaidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A spectrum of primary and secondary disorders that affect the bone marrow may manifestwith pancytopenia. This study was carried out to identify the various causes of pancytopenia in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Lalitpur, Nepal.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 83 cases of pancytopenia was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal over a two year period from August 2010 to July 2012.Results: Eighty three patients underwent bone marrow examination. Mean age of the patients was 34 years (range: 4 to 75 years. Maximum number of patients (31.33% was seen in the age group of 16 - 30 years. The commonest cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia which was seen in 34.94% (29/83 cases followed by aplastic anemia and hematological malignancies in 31.32% (26/83 and 14.46% (12/83 cases, respectively.Conclusion: This study concluded that megaloblastic anemia and aplastic anemia were the two most common causes of pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration is an established diagnostic modality in the evaluation of pancytopenia.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 691 - 695

  14. The pattern of the discovery of medication errors in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2013-06-01

    The primary goal of reducing medication errors is to eliminate those that reach the patient. We aimed to study the pattern of interceptions to tackle medication errors along the medication use processes. Tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. The 'Swiss Cheese Model' was used to explain the interceptions targeting medication error reporting over 5 years (2006-2010). Proportions of prescribing, dispensing and drug administration errors intercepted by pharmacists and nurses; proportions of prescribing, dispensing and drug administration errors that reached the patient. Our analysis included 1,268 in-patient medication errors, of which 53.4% were related to prescribing, 29.0% to administration and 17.6% to dispensing. 34.1% of all medication errors (4.9% prescribing, 26.8% drug administration and 2.4% dispensing) were not intercepted. Pharmacy staff intercepted 85.4% of the prescribing errors. Nurses detected 83.0% of dispensing and 5.0% of prescribing errors. However, 92.4% of all drug administration errors reached the patient. Having a preventive measure at each stage of the medication use process helps to prevent most errors. Most drug administration errors reach the patient as there is no defense against these. Therefore, more interventions to prevent drug administration errors are warranted.

  15. Antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired uropathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan

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    Smita Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are amongst the most common infections described in outpatients setting. Objectives : A study was conducted to evaluate the uropathogenic bacterial flora and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile among patients presenting to the out-patient clinics of a tertiary care hospital at Jaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : 2012 consecutive urine specimens from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the outpatient clinics were processed in the Microbiology lab. Bacterial isolates obtained were identified using biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL production was determined by the double disk approximation test and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS confirmatory method. Results: Pathogens were isolated from 346 (17.16% of the 2012 patients who submitted a urine sample. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated community acquired uropathogen accounting for 61.84% of the total isolates. ESBL production was observed in 23.83% of E. coli strains and 8.69% of Klebsiella strains. With the exception of Nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empiric oral treatments for UTI was quite high. Conclusion : The study revealed E. coli as the predominant bacterial pathogen for the community acquired UTIs in Jaipur, Rajasthan. An increasing trend in the production ESBLs among UTI pathogens in the community was noted. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for primary, uncomplicated UTIs.

  16. Carbapenem Resistance among Enterobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

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    Atul Khajuria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detect genes encoding carbapenem resistance among Enterobacter species in a tertiary care hospital in central India. Methods. Bacterial identification of Enterobacter spp. isolates from various clinical specimens in patients admitted to intensive care units was performed by routine conventional microbial culture and biochemical tests using standard recommended techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. PCR amplification and automated sequencing was carried out. Transfer of resistance genes was determined by conjugation. Results. A total of 70/130 (53.84% isolates of Enterobacter spp. were found to exhibit reduced susceptibility to imipenem (diameter of zones of inhibition ≤13 mm by disc diffusion method. Among 70 isolates tested, 48 (68.57% isolates showed MIC values for imipenem and meropenem ranging from 32 to 64 mg/L as per CLSI breakpoints. All of these 70 isolates were found susceptible to colistin in vitro as per MIC breakpoints (<0.5 mg/L. PCR carried out on these 48 MBL (IP/IPI E-test positive isolates (12 Enterobacter aerogenes, 31 Enterobacter cloacae, and 05 Enterobacter cloacae complex was validated by sequencing for beta-lactam resistance genes and result was interpreted accordingly. Conclusion. The study showed MBL production as an important mechanism in carbapenem resistance in Enterobacter spp. and interspecies transfer of these genes through plasmids suggesting early detection by molecular methods.

  17. Treatment pathways of extrapulmonary patients diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India

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    Manoj Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to put extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients early on treatment, it is important to study pathways, which these patients adopt in for seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: In order to study the treatment pathways of extrapulmonary patients and assess appropriate points for intervention, a cross-sectional study was conducted in chest clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Results: Factors associated with longer paths included reason for going to first health facility (nearness and known provider, availing more than one health facilities, presenting symptoms of fever, joint pain, nodular skin swelling and skin lesion. Self-referral to the chest clinic was associated with shorter paths. Lower level of education, occupation, non-serious perception of the disease and visiting five health facilities were significantly associated with patient delay of more than 3.5 weeks. Symptoms of fever, joint pain and skin lesion, visiting private health facility first, availing more than two health facilities and travelling distance of more than 100 km to reach chest clinic were significantly associated with the health facility delay of more than 4.5 weeks. Conclusions: Increasing public awareness, training of private practitioners and capacity building of government facilities will help in reducing delay.

  18. Analysis Of 1058 Lumbar Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc Cases In Two Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Rashid, Mamoon Ur; Afsheen, Afeera; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad; Kalsoom, Anisa

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in two tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. The objective of this was to study the demographic characteristics of lumbar PID by age, gender, clinical presentation, levels of spinal column involvement, treatment options and post-operative complications for lumber disc prolapse. One thousand and fifty eight cases (708 males, 350 females) of prolapsed intervertebral disc over six years between January 2009 and December 2014 were studied for location of prolapsed disks, gender, age, clinical presentation, treatment options and complications of surgery. Of the determined locations L5/S1 was the commonest (34.6%), followed by L4/L5 (33.4%). 24.2%of the patients had prolapsed disks at 2 levels (L3/L4, L4/L5 andL4/L5, L5/S1). Prolapsed disc was commonest in the 31-49 year age group. Male were mostly affected with male to female ratio of 2.02%. Most common surgery performed was discectomy with fenestration (60.64% of total surgeries performed) and most common postoperative complication being mechanical backache (4.8%). Prolapsed intervertebral disc is common in the lower lumbar region at the level of L4/L5 and L5/S1. The outcome of the patients who underwent surgery is very good with 92.19% of patients, being free of postoperative complications.

  19. Outcomes of Short-Course Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Program in Tertiary Hospital: A Pilot Study.

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    Suksathien, Rachawan; Chaiyaphan, Yaowaluk; Roongyoosiri, Chantana; Muangkham, Phuwadol

    2015-11-01

    Stroke is one of the most common cause of disabilities in Thailand. Full-course comprehensive rehabilitation to achieve maximum goalfor each patient was uncommon in secondary and tertiary hospitals because of limited resources and budget, so short-course inpatient stroke rehabilitation program was developed for service in these circumstances. To evaluate the efficiency and cost of the short-course inpatient stroke rehabilitation in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital. This prospective study included stroke patients with aged over 18 years old, able tofollow one-step command and admitted in rehabilitation ward for short-course rehabilitation program between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Patient's characteristic data, Barthel Index (BI) scores, BI effectiveness, BI efficiency, length of stay (LOS), Thai HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (THAI HADS), WHOQOL-BREF-THAI, cost, and details oftraining were recorded Fifty stroke patients were included in the present study. The mean interval from onset of stroke to admission for this program was 29.9 days (1-143, SD 31.18). The mean age was 57 years (19-86, SD 12.7). Seventy-two percent of cases were ischemic stroke. The impairments of the patients were hemiparesis (100%), aphasia (36%), dysarthria (32%), incontinence (14%), cognitive problem or neglect (12%), and dysphagia (10%). The mean LOS was 9.38 days (3-27, SD 5.31). Mean BI score on admission and at discharge were 8.12 (0-18, SD 4.52) and 13.12 (2-20, SD 4.28). The mean of BI score change was 5 (2-10, SD 2.25): The BI efficiency was 0.56 points/day. Eight cases (22%) had anxiety and 10 cases (28%) had depression. The mean total cost was 7,729 baht (1,828-22,450, SD 4,330) or about 240 US dollar The short-course inpatient rehabilitation program could improve functional ability in stroke patients with low cost but high efficiency. This program is suitable for subacute stroke patients in hospitals with limited resources and budget.

  20. HIV counseling and testing in a tertiary care hospital in Ganjam district, Odisha, India

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    M Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV counseling and testing (HCT conducted at integrated counseling and testing centers (ICTCs is an entry point, cost-effective intervention in preventing transmission of HIV. Objectives: To study the prevalence of HIV among ICTC attendees, sociodemographic characteristics, and risk behaviors of HIV-seropositive clients. Materials and Methods: It was hospital record-based cross-sectional study of 26,518 registered ICTC clients at a tertiary care hospital in Ganjam district, Odisha, India over a 4-year period from January 2009 to September 2012. Results: A total of 1732 (7.5% out of 22,897 who were tested for HIV were seropositive. Among HIV-seropositives, 1138 (65.7% were males, while 594 (34.3% were females. Majority (88.3% of seropositives were between the age group of 15-49 years. Client-initiated HIV testing (12.1% was more seropositive compared to provider-initiated (2.9%. Among discordant couples, majority (95.5% were male partner/husband positive and female partner/wife negative. Positives were more amongst married, less educated, low socioeconomic status, and outmigrants (P<0.0001. Risk factors included heterosexual promiscuous (89.3%, parent-to-child transmission 5.8%, unknown 3.1%, infected blood transfusion 0.8%, homosexual 0.5%, and infected needles (0.5%. Conclusions: There is need to encourage activities that promote HCT in all health facilities. This will increase the diagnosis of new HIV cases. The data generated in ICTC provide an important clue to understand the epidemiology in a particular geographic region and local planning for care and treatment of those infected with HIV and preventive strategies for those at risk especially married, young adults, and outmigrants to reduce new infections.

  1. A survey of contact lens-related complications in a tertiary hospital in China.

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    Li, Weiwei; Sun, Xuguang; Wang, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yang

    2017-10-12

    To describe the type of complications related to contact lens (CL) wear in a tertiary hospital in XX, China. A retrospective study of 141 patients who complained discomfort after wearing contact lens on an outpatient basis of XX Hospital were conducted from the January 2012 to December 2015. The data included patients' demographics, lens type, history, slit-lamp examination, reports of corneal scrapings, culture, and examination of in vivo confocal microscopy. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the possible factors which were associated with more severe corneal complications and superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK). About 86.52% were female and 13.48% were male, the age varied between 12 and 56 years old. Of the 141 patients, 82.27% were soft CL wearers, 2.84% were rigid gas permeable lens (RGP) wearers, and 14.89% patients used overnight orthokeratology. The most common complication was dry eye (36.88%), followed by SPK (36.17%) during these cases. Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) were noted in 31.91% of cases. Microbial keratitis was seen in 15 patients including 7 cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Age was a significant factor to be a case of corneal infection or inflammation [Exp (B)was 0.918, p=0.030], MGD and blepharitis was found to be significantly associated with being a case of SPK [Exp(B)was2.276, p=0.047]. The commonest complication was dry eye in this study, followed by SPK. Lid margin and meibomain gland should be paid attention to before contact lens prescription. Younger CL wearers need follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Patient knowledge and intension to use the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD at a tertiary level hospital.

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    Nadia van der Westhuizen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intrauterine device (IUCD is a highly effective and safe method of contraception. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies has made its use a matter of national priority in certain countries.Despite numerous advantages and suitability the uptake of the IUCD is poor. Patients in South Africa seem to lack knowledge regarding this contraceptive. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the quantity and quality of knowledge of the IUCD, and to evaluate its acceptability for future use. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Pelonomi Tertiary Hospital. 201 consecutive patients were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of the IUCD was found in almost half (49%, n=95 of our patients. Its use was very low, with only one patient having used it before. Overall qualitative knowledge was poor, even among those that were aware of the IUCD. There was a significant association between level of education and knowledge, with patients having passed Grade 12 or higher significantly more likely to have knowledge of the IUCD than those at lower levels (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.08. Forty-five percent (n=86 of patients indicated a desire for future IUCD use. Conclusion: Despite the availability of the IUCD in South African clinics and hospitals, its uptake is still poor. Awareness of this method seemed to have improved over the past few years, but the qualitative knowledge still lacks considerably. Education plays a major role in the knowledge of contraception and better educational aids in all facilities will increase its use and reduce unwanted pregnancies.

  3. The HIV care cascade in Buenos Aires, Argentina: results in a tertiary referral hospital

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    Cesar, Carina; Blugerman, Gabriela; Valiente, José Antonio; Rebeiro, Peter; Sued, Omar; Fink, Valeria; Soto, Mariana Romero; Cillis, Roberto; Yamamoto, Cleyton; Falistocco, Carlos; Cahn, Pedro; Pérez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine rates of retention, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, and viral suppression in an adult cohort from a public tertiary referral hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods HIV-positive ART-naïve patients ≥ 18 years old starting care 2011–2013 contributed data until the end of 2014. Three outcomes were assessed in 2014: retention in care, ART use, and viral suppression. Patient characteristics associated with each outcome were assessed through logistic regression. Results A total of 1 031 patients were included. By the end of 2014, 1.5% had died and 14.8% were transferred to a different center. Of the remaining 859 patients, 563 (65.5%) were retained in 2014. Among those retained, 459 (81.5%) were on ART in 2014. Of those 459 on ART, 270 (58.8%) were virologically suppressed. Younger age was associated with lower retention (OR (odds ratio): 0.67; 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.44–0.92 for ≥ 35 vs. < 35 years), but unrelated with ART use or viral suppression. Low CD4 count at first visit was associated with ART use (OR: 35.72 for CD4 < 200, 7.13 for CD4 200–499 vs. ≥ 500, P < 0.001) and with virologic suppression (OR: 2.17 for CD4 < 200, 2.46 for CD4 200–499 vs. ≥ 500, P: 0.023). Conclusions Our hospital in Buenos Aires is still below the recommended 90-90-90 targets of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for ART use and viral suppression. We found a major gap in retention in care. Identifying younger age as being associated with worse retention will help in the design of targeted interventions. PMID:28718494

  4. Evaluating quality indicators of tertiary care hospitals for trauma care in Japan.

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    Nakahara, Shinji; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Takashi; Uchida, Yasuyuki; Katayama, Yoichi; Tanabe, Seizan; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the associations between trauma mortality and quality of care indicators currently used in Japan. This is a retrospective two-level discrete-time survival analysis. Quality indicators were derived from the 2012-2013 annual hospital survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Trauma mortality data were derived from the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period of April 2012 to March 2013. Tertiary care centers designated as emergency and critical care centers (ECCCs) in Japan. The analysis included 12 378 patients aged ≥15 years with blunt trauma and an Injury Severity Score ≥9, registered to the data bank from 91 ECCCs. Quality of care indicators examined in the annual hospital survey. Deaths within 30 days. Of the 12 378 patients, 660 (5%) died within 30 days. Higher indicator score was significantly associated with lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] for the second, third and fourth quartiles vs. lowest quartile 0.61, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively). Factors significantly associated with lower mortality risk were, higher patient volume (HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile, 0.74), director's qualification as specialist (HR 0.57) or consultant (HR 0.58), review of patient arrival process (HR 0.68), triage functions (HR 0.69), availability of psychiatrists (HR 0.75) and operating room being ready 24-h (HR 0.81). The study identified certain indicators associated with trauma patient mortality. Further refinement of indicators is required to specifically identify what needs changing.

  5. Ocular knowledge and practice among type 2 diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

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    Ahmed, Kazi Rumana; Jebunessa, Fatema; Hossain, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter

    2017-09-19

    Diabetes mellitus is likely to have a major effect on vision, and adequate knowledge of its ocular manifestations is of substantial importance to diabetic patients. The study aimed to assess the ocular knowledge and practices among Type 2 diabetic patients of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study included 122 diabetic patients from the outpatient department (OPD) of the apex diabetic healthcare hospital of the country under the sponsorship of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BIRDEM). A questionnaire was used for collecting data on knowledge on and practices relating to diabetes mellitus with particular emphasis on ocular issues. A predefined score was used for categorizing levels of knowledge and practices as poor, average, and good. Of the 122 respondents, 63%, 55%, 40%, 44%, and 30% reported, blindness, retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, and double vision respectively, as complications of diabetes mellitus. About 50% were aware of the need for eye screening for people with the complications. Only 8% monitored their blood glucose levels daily, 15% monitored weekly, and 10% reported checking their blood pressure daily and 43% took their medications as prescribed. The level of diabetic knowledge was poor, moderate and good, respectively, among 24%, 56%, and 20% of the respondents, whereas the practice standards showed that 47%, 31%, and 22% had poor, average, and good levels respectively. The knowledge score was significantly associated with the practice score (r = 0.460, p = 0.001). The results indicate that the ocular knowledge and practices among diabetic patients attending a tertiary-care hospital in Bangladesh is average. Health and eye-care practitioners need to expand diabetic health education and promotion among diabetic patients.

  6. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital.

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    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B

    2015-01-01

    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  7. A clinical and microbiological study of puerperal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in India.

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    Vanukuru, Jayasree; Bagga, Rashmi; Muthyala, Tanuja; Gautam, Vikas; Sethi, Sunil; Jain, Vanita; Sikka, Pooja

    2018-01-07

    This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the clinical profile and bacterial isolates among women with puerperal sepsis in a tertiary hospital in North India. Women with puerperal sepsis (n = 45) admitted from January 2015 to April 2016 were followed prospectively. Cultures were obtained from cervix, blood, urine, and pyoperitoneum. Initial antibiotics were cefotaxime or piperacillin with tazobactam plus amikacin plus clindamycin or metronidazole and were changed according to sensitivity. Out of 7887 deliveries during this period, 45 (0.2%) women had puerperal sepsis. 16 (35.5%) delivered in the present hospital, 25 (55.5%) at another health care facility, and 4 (8.9%) at home. Delivery was by cesarean section (CS) in 24/45 (53.3%) and vaginal in 21/45 (46.6%). Grade 1 sepsis occurred in 21, grade 2 in two, and grade 3 in 22 women. Majority (29/45 or 64.5%) had no risk factor for puerperal sepsis. There were two (4.4%) deaths and 13/45 (28.8%) had near-miss morbidity. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 33/45 (73.3%) in cervical swab (69%), blood, urine, or pus culture with no significant difference in the bacterial yield or species isolated between cotton or polyester swabs (p > .05). Escherichia coli were the commonest isolate and was sensitive to amikacin in all. Five had stillbirths and 4/40 neonates developed sepsis but recovered. Escherichia coli was the commonest pathogen and was uniformly sensitive to amikacin, which may be included among the initial antibiotics to treat puerperal sepsis in India.

  8. Antimicrobial drugs usage in a tertiary care hospital –A descriptive study

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    Priestly Vivekkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence of resistant organisms is alarmingly high all over the world. Irrational and inappropriate prescription of antimicrobials is the major contributing factor for developing drug resistance in addition to poor patient compliance. It is the high time to create awareness of antimicrobial resistance among physicians and patients. Encouraging physicians/surgeons to undergo training programmes on infectious disease control periodically would be beneficial to combat the resistant organisms, so called super bugs.Objectives: To assess the pattern of antimicrobial usage in a tertiary care hospital, to determine whether antimicrobials are prescribed judiciously.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to determine the current antimicrobial prescribing practices at Tagore Medical College Hospital. A randomised sample of 100 inpatient case sheets of General Medicine, OBG, General Surgery, Paediatrics, Chest Medicine, Skin, and ENT from Medical Records Department was analysed with respect to oral and parenteral (iv administration of antimicrobials.Results: In this study, 53% were males and 47% were females. Majority of patients were middle aged (17-60yrs. A total of 16 antimicrobials were prescribed for 100 inpatients. The most frequently used were Metronidazole and Ciprofloxacin. Duration of treatment was minimum 3 days, maximum of 13 days and mean duration was 5.5 days. The common route by which antimicrobials were administered was Parenteral as the patients were inpatients. The Parenteral (iv drugs were Metronidazole (52%, Ciprofloxacin (42%, Cefotaxime (27%, Amikacin (7%, Ceftriaxone (7%. Among 100 prescriptions, 63% were empirical prescriptions, 12% were directed and 25% were targeted prescriptions.Conclusions: The most frequently used antimicrobials were Metronidazole and Ciprofloxacin and the condition for which the antimicrobials were commonly used was acute gastroenteritis. The proportion of targeted prescriptions was low

  9. Awareness and practices regarding needle stick injuries among nurses in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

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    Priyanka .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Needle stick injuries are an important occupational hazard for nursing personnel as they form an important mechanism for transmission of blood borne pathogens. Hence the knowledge of nurses about the prevention and management of needle stick injuries and practicing standard precautions is critical. Methodology: This was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted among nursing staff during the month of December, 2011. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to 320 nurses working in a tertiary care hospital of New Delhi by adopting systematic random sampling methodology. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 12. Percentages of categorical variables were computed. Results: Only 31.1% nurses had adequate knowledge about steps for prevention of needle stick injuries. 259(88.4% nurses had adequate knowledge about the authority to whom they should report needle stick injuries while almost three fourth i.e. 73.4% had adequate knowledge about management of needle stick injuries. Majority of nurses (69.6% reported the use of gloves very often before venipuncture, 80.2% never recapped needles while 77.5% disposed sharps in puncture proof containers very often. Only one fourth (24.6% nurses always used personal protective equipment in case of emergencies. 85.7% of nurses had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. 51(17.4% had a history of needle stick injury in the last one year out of which 49(96.1% took adequate measures immediately after the injury and 37 (72.5% reported the incidence to the concerned authority. Conclusion:  The knowledge and practices of nurses regarding prevention and management of needle stick injuries were found to be unsatisfactory

  10. Nutritional status and nosocomial infections among adult elective surgery patients in a Mexican tertiary care hospital.

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    Judith Rodríguez-García

    Full Text Available Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI. According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS distribution in the hospital setting.The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI.We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82 adult ES patients (21-59 years old who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test, and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios.The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%, normal-weight (28.05%, overweight (35.36%, and obese (32.93%. The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001 for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs.

  11. Outcomes of a nutrition audit in a tertiary paediatric hospital: implications for service improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J; Youde, L S; Allen, J R; Hanson, R M; Baur, L A

    2004-01-01

    To examine the process of anthropometric assessment of nutritional status in a tertiary paediatric hospital, to identify the barriers and to make recommendations for service improvement. The accuracy of height and weight scales in wards was checked. Dietitians measured height and weight of a representative sample of 245 inpatients and checked whether these measurements had been recorded on bed charts. Patients were classified as overweight, obese or under-nourished. Diagnoses and procedures were obtained for each patient. Funding implications were modelled for inappropriate coding of nutritional status. The barriers to nutritional assessment and management of nutritional comorbidities were: (i) inaccurate height scales in seven out of 12 wards; (ii) under-recording of height and weight on patient bed charts (73% height missing, 12% both height and weight missing); (iii) under-reporting of obesity and under-nutrition in medical notes (one of eight obese patients, and none of 28 undernourished patients, reported); and (iv) low referral rate of obese or under-nourished children to dietetic services (two of 42 overweight/obese patients referred, five of 28 undernourished patients referred). Funding simulation showed that if under-nourished patients were correctly diagnosed then the potential facility reimbursement would have increased by $A52 326. Barriers to nutritional assessment can lead to failure to diagnose and treat both over- and under-nutrition, thereby affecting quality of patient care, and may have financial implications for hospitals. Suggestions for service improvement include provision of accurate equipment, adequate training of staff undertaking nutritional assessments and clear definitions of staff responsibilities in all aspects of the process.

  12. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains from a Pediatric Tertiary Care Hospital in Serbia.

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    Haowa Madi

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen usually associated with healthcare-associated infections, which has recently been recognized as a globally multi-drug resistant organism. The aim of this study was genotyping and physiological characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolated in a large, tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia, hosting the national reference cystic fibrosis (CF center for pediatric and adult patients.We characterized 42 strains of cystic fibrosis (CF and 46 strains of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF origin isolated from 2013 to 2015 in order to investigate their genetic relatedness and phenotypic traits. Genotyping was performed using sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and Multi locus sequencing typing (MLST analysis. Sensitivity to five relevant antimicrobial agents was determined, namely trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline. Surface characteristics, motility, biofilm formation and adhesion to mucin were tested in all strains. Statistical approach was used to determine correlations between obtained results.Most of the isolates were not genetically related. Six new sequence types were determined. Strains were uniformly sensitive to all tested antimicrobial agents. The majority of isolates (89.8% were able to form biofilm with almost equal representation in both CF and non-CF strains. Swimming motility was observed in all strains, while none of them exhibited swarming motility. Among strains able to adhere to mucin, no differences between CF and non-CF isolates were observed.High genetic diversity among isolates implies the absence of clonal spread within the hospital. Positive correlation between motility, biofilm formation and adhesion to mucin was demonstrated. Biofilm formation and motility were more pronounced among non-CF than CF isolates.

  13. DORSAL AND DORSOLUMBAR SPINE TUBERCULOSIS: A STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Raja Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Tuberculosis has been a major public health problem. The development and the introduction of antituberculous chemotherapeutic agents in the 1940’s reduced the death rate. Of all the patients with tuberculosis nearly 1 - 3% have involvement of the skeletal system. Vertebral tubercul osis is the most common form of skeletal tuberculosis with a reported incidence of up to 50%. Tuberculosis of the spine (Pott’s disease is the most common and most dangerous from of tuberculosis infection. Modification of surgical techniques and newer che motherapeutic agents has revolutionized the treatment of spinal tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study and analyse the surgical and radiological results of patients who have been operated for dorsal and dorsolumbar caries. MATERIALS AND METHOD : It is a prospective study done in the Department of Neurosurgery, Government General Hospital,Kakinada from July 2014 to July 2015. It is a tertiary care hospital. 50 patients diagnosed with dorsal and dorsolumbar tuberculosis were recruited into the study and w ere managed. RESULTS: 50 patients with dorsal and dorsolumbar tuberculosis, with different symptoms were managed by a combination of surgical techniques and the improvement was assessed by various parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was found that al l patients who underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord there was improvement in the neurological status. The surgical approach and type of surgery is planned based on how the cord is compressed and the amount of instability. No single surgery w as found superior or inferior to any other and the results remain the same as far as neurological recovery is concerned

  14. Impact assessment of an automated drug-dispensing system in a tertiary hospital

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    Débora de-Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the costs and patient safety of a pilot implementation of an automated dispensing cabinet in a critical care unit of a private tertiary hospital in São Paulo/Brazil. METHODS: This study considered pre- (January-August 2013 and post- (October 2013-October 2014 intervention periods. We considered the time and cost of personnel, number of adverse events, audit adjustments to patient bills, and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. Costs were evaluated based on a 5-year analytical horizon and are reported in Brazilian Reals (R$ and US dollars (USD. RESULTS: The observed decrease in the mean number of events reported with regard to the automated drug-dispensing system between pre- and post-implementation periods was not significant. Importantly, the numbers are small, which limits the power of the mean comparative analysis between the two periods. A reduction in work time was observed among the nurses and administrative assistants, whereas pharmacist assistants showed an increased work load that resulted in an overall 6.5 hours of work saved/day and a reduction of R$ 33,598 (USD 14,444 during the first year. The initial investment (R$ 206,065; USD 88,592 would have been paid off in 5 years considering only personnel savings. Other findings included significant reductions of audit adjustments to patient hospital bills and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the positive impact of this technology on personnel time and costs and on other outcomes of interest is important for decision making by health managers.

  15. [Classification and monitoring of the appropriateness of emergency admissions in a tertiary hospital].

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    López-Picazo Ferrer, J J; Tomás García, N; Cubillana Herrero, J D; Gómez Company, J A; de Dios Cánovas García, J

    2014-01-01

    To measure the appropriateness of hospital admissions, to classify its Clinical Services (CS) according to the level of inappropriateness, and to determine the usefulness of applying rapid assessment techniques (lot quality assurance sampling) in these types of measurements. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital to assess the clinical records of emergency admissions to the 12 CS with a higher volume of admissions, using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP). A four-level («A» to «D») increasingly inadequate admissions scale was constructed setting both standard and threshold values in every stratum. Every CS was classified in one of them using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). A total of 156 cases (13 cases from every CS) were assessed. The assessment effort (devoted time) was also estimated. There were 22.4±6.3% of inadequate admissions. In the CS classification, 9 (75%) got a good or acceptable appropriateness level, and only 1 (8%) got an inacceptable level. The time devoted was estimated at 17 hours. AEP is useful to assess the admission appropriateness and may be included in the «Emergencies» process management, although its variability prevents the use for external comparisons. If both LQAS and the appropriateness classification level and the global estimation (by unifying lot samples) are combined, the monitoring is affordable without a great effort. To extend these tools to other quality indicators requiring direct observation or clinical records, manual assessment could improve the monitoring efficiency. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Candida orthopsilosis fungemias in a Spanish tertiary care hospital: incidence, epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Blanco, María Teresa; Gómez-García, Antonio Cándido; Hurtado, Cipriano; Galán-Ladero, María Angeles; Lozano, María del Carmen; García-Tapias, Ana; Blanco, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Few studies exist on prevalence of fungemia by Candida orthopsilosis, with variable results. To study the incidence, epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of C. orthopsilosis strains isolated from fungemias over two years at a tertiary hospital. Candidemia episodes between June 2007 and June 2009 in a university hospital (Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain) were studied. The strains initially identified as Candida parapsilosis were genotypically screened for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, and their antifungal susceptibility was evaluated. In this period 52 cases of candidemia were documented. Of the 19 strains originally identified as C. parapsilosis, 13 were confirmed as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 6 as C. orthopsilosis. Of the 52 isolates, the most frequent species were Candida albicans (30.8%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (25%), C. orthopsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata in equal numbers (11.5%). C. orthopsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole, with no significant differences in MIC values with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. The source of isolates of C. orthopsilosis were neonates (50%) and surgery (50%), and 100% were receiving parenteral nutrition; however C. parapsilosis sensu stricto was recovered primarily from patients over 50 years (69.2%) and 46.1% were receiving parenteral nutrition. These findings show that C. orthopsilosis should be considered as human pathogenic yeast and therefore its accurate identification is important. Despite our small sample size our study suggests that a displacement of some epidemiological characteristics previously attributed to C. parapsilosis to C. orthopsilosis may be possible. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression and anxiety in cancer patients in a Tertiary General Hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shian Ming; Beck, Kevin Roy; Li, Huihua; Lim, Eng Choon Leslie; Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha

    2014-04-01

    Past research has indicated that distress, anxiety and depression may occur in cancer patients during the course of their illness and treatment. This study aims to establish the prevalence of anxiety and depression in cancer patients in a Singapore hospital. It also describes the clinical characteristics of these patients, and examines if cancer patients with a psychiatric diagnosis differ from those without. Cross-sectional anxiety and depression symptom data were collected using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview generating DSM IV diagnoses from inpatients of an oncology ward in the tertiary hospital. In all, 315 patients were interviewed. Fifty three (16.8%) were diagnosed with major depression, while 30 (9.5%) were found to have generalized anxiety disorder, three to ten times higher than their corresponding prevalence rates in the general population. Patients with depression or anxiety tend to be unemployed, in stage 4 cancer, who can develop these symptoms at any time from the onset of cancer diagnosis, even when perceived social support is strong. Oncology patients with depression were more likely to be in terminal stages of cancer and to correctly identify themselves to have mental health issues, than those without (p<0.01). The psychological impact of cancer is appreciable. The lack of identifiable risk factors makes the task of diagnosing psychiatric conditions in cancer patients an onerous one. The psychiatrist involved may want to look beyond socio-demographic variables and consider biological factors in cancer to better help detect psychiatric morbidity in this group of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiac Surgery in Jehovah's Witness Patients: Experience of a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital

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    Felipe Homem Valle

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The outcomes of Jehovah's Witness (JW patients submitted to open heart surgery may vary across countries and communities. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of JW patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital center in Southern Brazil. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including all JW patients submitted to cardiac surgery from 2008 to 2016. Three consecutive surgical non-JW controls were matched to each selected JW patient. The preoperative risk of death was estimated through the mean EuroSCORE II. Results: We studied 16 JW patients with a mean age of 60.6±12.1 years. The non-JW group included 48 patients with a mean age of 63.3±11.1 years (P=0.416. Isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery was the most frequent surgery performed in both groups. Median EuroSCORE II was 1.29 (IQR: 0.66-3.08 and 1.43 (IQR: 0.72-2.63, respectively (P=0.988. The mortality tended to be higher in JW patients (18.8% vs. 4.2%, P=0.095, and there was a higher difference between the predicted and observed mortality in JW patients compared with controls (4.1 and 18.8% vs. 2.1 and 4.2%. More JW patients needed hemodialysis in the postoperative period (20.0 vs. 2.1%, P=0.039. Conclusion: We showed a high rate of in-hospital mortality in JW patients submitted to cardiac surgery. The EuroSCORE II may underestimate the surgical risk in these patients.

  19. Control of multidrug resistant bacteria in a tertiary care hospital in India

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    Jaggi Namita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs on the multidrug resistance patterns of bacterial isolates. The study comprised an initial retrospective analysis of multidrug resistance in bacterial isolates for one year (July 2007-June 2008 followed by prospective evaluation of the impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship programs on resistance for two years and nine months (July 2008-March 2011. Setting A 300-bed tertiary care private hospital in Gurgaon, Haryana (India Findings Methods Study Design • July 2007 to June 2008: Resistance patterns of bacterial isolates were studied. • July 2008: Phase I intervention programme Implementation of an antibiotic policy in the hospital. • July 2008 to June 2010: Assessment of the impact of the Phase I intervention programme. • July 2010 to March 2011: Phase II intervention programme: Formation and effective functioning of the antimicrobial stewardship committee. Statistical correlation of the Defined daily dose (DDD for prescribed drugs with the antimicrobial resistance of Gram negatives. Results Phase I intervention programme (July 2008 resulted in a decrease of 4.47% in ESBLs (E.coli and Klebsiella and a significant decrease of 40.8% in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas. Phase II intervention (July 2010 brought a significant reduction (24.7% in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas. However, the resistance in the other Gram negatives (E.coli, Klebsiella, and Acinetobacter rose and then stabilized. A positive correlation was observed in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter with carbapenems and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Piperacillin-tazobactam showed a positive correlation with Acinetobacter only. E.coli and Klebsiella showed positive correlation with cefoparazone-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam. Conclusion An antimicrobial stewardship programme with sustained and multifaceted efforts is essential to promote the judicious use of antibiotics.

  20. [Mortality risk factors associated with healthcare infections in a tertiary level university hospital in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Christian José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Nosocomial infections are a public health threat. Despite multiple efforts, its incidence is still significant and it generates high costs in health care. To determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with healthcare infections in a tertiary level hospital in Colombia. A prospective cohort observational study was performed between January and December 2011. One thousand one hundred and fifteen patients with health care infections using the CDC definition criteria were included. Exclusion criteria were those patients with no microbiologic isolate associated with the infection or hospital readmissions in the last year. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, bacterial resistance profiles and antibiotic use were evaluated. Death was the primary outcome. Survival analysis for each variable was performed using statistical significance defined by the log-rank test. Multivariate and Cox regression analyses were done. Values of p less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age was 43 years old (57% men and 47% women); 53% of patients had a medical condition and 47% surgical diagnosis; 54% of health care infections were surgical site infections and 62% were associated to Gram-negative bacilli. The mortality rate during follow-up was 24.4%. On multivariate analysis we found an association with intensive care stay (HR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.13-2.01), inappropriate use of antibiotics (HR=3.05; 95% CI: 2.34-3.98) and use of generic antibiotics or copies (HR=1.91; 95%CI: 1.43-2.55). The use of generic molecules of antibiotics and inappropriate antibiotic treatments in patients with health care infections are modifiable factors to decrease mortality.

  1. Relationship of Hospital Teaching Status with in-Hospital Outcomes for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanush; Patel, Kavisha; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Villablanca, Pedro A; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H; Cooper, Howard A; Bortnick, Anna E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A; Weisz, Giora; Menegus, Mark A; Garcia, Mario J; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-10-13

    Prior analyses have largely shown a survival advantage with admission to a teaching hospital for acute myocardial infarction. However, most prior studies report data on patients hospitalized over a decade ago. It is important to re-examine the association of hospital teaching status with outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in the current era. We queried the 2010 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized with the principal diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to compare rates of reperfusion and in-hospital outcomes between patients admitted to teaching vs. non-teaching hospitals. Of 546,252 patients with STEMI, 273,990 (50.1%) were admitted to teaching hospitals. Compared with patients admitted to non-teaching hospitals, those at teaching hospitals were more likely to receive reperfusion therapy during the hospitalization (86.7% vs. 81.5%; adjusted OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.39-1.44; P<0.001) and had lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (4.9% vs. 6.9%; adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82-0.86; P<0.001). After further adjustment for differences in use of in-hospital reperfusion therapy, the association of teaching hospital status with lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly attenuated but remained statistically significant (adjusted OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P=0.02). Patients admitted to teaching hospitals are more likely to receive reperfusion and have lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality after STEMI compared with those admitted to non-teaching hospitals. Our results suggest that hospital performance for STEMI continues to be better at teaching hospitals in the contemporary era. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Analysis of enoxaparin dose titration at a large, tertiary teaching facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, J Matt; Green, Melissa S; Iuppa, Jennifer A; Deal, Eli N; Thoelke, Mark S

    2015-11-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of enoxaparin with antifactor Xa levels (AXALs) is recommended in some populations; however, the approach to dose titration is poorly described. Our study at a large, tertiary teaching facility examined the dose response to titration of enoxaparin based on AXAL. Patients from 2008 to 2012 receiving enoxaparin were included, provided 2 or more steady state AXAL were obtained within 30 days and that the enoxaparin was prescribed for treatment rather than prophylaxis. The primary outcome was the percentage of dose change required to obtain goal range AXAL following dose titration. Eighty-seven patients were available for analysis with the following key characteristics: renal dysfunction during treatment 72%, obesity 8%, and solid organ transplant 26%. Initial goal AXAL was attained in 27 (31%) patients, and ultimately 54 (62%) patients achieved goal AXAL. Of the 31 patients who had initial AXAL above goal, 13 (42%) patients reached goal with a median dose decrease of 24%. In the 29 patients who had an initial AXAL below goal, 11 (38%) achieved therapeutic AXAL with a median dose increase of 16%. The AXAL monitoring can guide enoxaparin titration with subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic AXAL and an increase or decrease of roughly 20% is suggested as an initial change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Patient safety in obstetrics and gynecology departments of two teaching hospitals in Delhi

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    Bindiya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Materials and Methods: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS, respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. Results: The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10 were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Conclusions: Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error.

  4. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, N H; Ma, Z F; Besari, A; Siti Asma, H; Rahman, R A; Collins, D A; Hamid, N; Riley, T V; Lee, Y Y

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.

  5. [Teaching and research in high specialty hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Education and research are strategic activities leading to development and progress of a hospital, so planning on this matter is fundamental, both in terms of structure and infrastructure. Investment on faculty development and on researchers should be considered beyond the short term. Education should respond to the necessities and research to health priorities through formal agreements with universities and institutes.

  6. Head injury: Calabar Teaching Hospital experience | Ikpeme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern and distribution of head injuries shows that a typical head injured patient in our locality is a male, aged between 21 and 30 years involved in a motorcycle related accident. Accidents frequently occured between 7 and 9pm and though 75% of patients arrived in hospital within 6 hours of injury, 17% of all cases ...

  7. Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

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    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most common multidrug-resistant pathogen causing nosocomial infections across the world. MRSA is not only associated with significant mortality and morbidity but also places a large economic strain on our health care system. MRSA isolates are also typically resistant to multiple, non-β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and to establish the clonal distribution of MRSA isolates recovered from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were cultured and S. aureus was identified as per standard microbiological procedures. Susceptibility testing was done by agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method as recommended by CLSI. Methicillin resistance was detected by phenotypic methods namely, oxacillin disc diffusion (ODD, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion (CDD, and MIC of cefoxitin. Amplification of mecA gene by PCR was used as gold standard for detection of methicillin resistance. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing was performed for MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 390 S. aureus isolates, 154 (39.48% isolates were MRSA and 236 (60.51% isolates were MSSA. Penicillin was the least effective antibacterial drug against the hospital associated S. aureus isolates with 85.64% resistance rate. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The MRSA showed a high level of resistance to all antimicrobials in general in comparison to the MSSA and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Multiplex PCR performed for all strains showed amplification of both the mecA and nucA genes in MRSA strains whereas MSSA strains showed amplification of only nucA gene. PFGE of these isolates showed 10 different patterns. Conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was 39.48%. Most of these isolates were

  8. Candidemia in a major regional tertiary referral hospital – epidemiology, practice patterns and outcomes

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    Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidemia is a common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility patterns and outcomes of candidemia in a large regional tertiary referral hospital. Methods A retrospective surveillance study of patients with candidemia was conducted at Singapore General Hospital between July 2012 and December 2015. In addition, incidence densities and species distribution of candidemia episodes were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Results In the period of 2012 to 2015, 261 candidemia episodes were identified. The overall incidence was 0.14/1000 inpatient-days. C. glabrata (31.4%, C. tropicalis (29.9%, and C. albicans (23.8% were most commonly isolated. The incidence of C. glabrata significantly increased from 2008 to 2015 (Coefficient 0.004, confidence interval 0–0.007, p = 0.04. Fluconazole resistance was detected primarily in C. tropicalis (16.7% and C. glabrata (7.2%. fks mutations were identified in one C. albicans and one C. tropicalis. Candidemia episodes caused by C. tropicalis were more commonly encountered in patients with haematological malignancies (p = 0.01, neutropenia (p < 0.001 and higher SAPS II scores (p = 0.02, while prior exposure to echinocandins was associated with isolation of C. parapsilosis (p = 0.001. Echinocandins (73.3% were most commonly prescribed as initial treatment. The median (range time to initial treatment was 1 (0–9 days. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 49.8%. High SAPS II score (Odds ratio, OR 1.08; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.05–1.11 and renal replacement therapy (OR 5.54; CI 2.80–10.97 were independent predictors of mortality, while drain placement (OR 0.44; CI 0.19–0.99 was protective. Conclusions Decreasing azole susceptibilities to C. tropicalis and the emergence of echinocandin resistance suggest that susceptibility

  9. Diagnostic indicators for peptic ulcer perforation at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand

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    Suriya C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chutikarn Suriya1, Nongyao Kasatpibal2, Wipada Kunaviktikul2, Toranee Kayee31Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 2Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, 3Department of Surgery, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandIntroduction: Limited data currently exists regarding the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation for early detection among patients in Thailand. Delayed diagnosis and treatment for an ulcer can be life-threatening, resulting in shock or death.Objective: To determine the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation.Material and methods: A cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand from 2005 to 2009. Peptic ulcer patients aged 15 years and over admitted to the surgical department were included. The diagnostic indicators used criteria of the patients' final diagnoses and operations, coded according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, which included patient profiles, gender, age, coexisting illnesses, personal habits, signs and symptoms, laboratory investigations, radiological finding, and treatment role. Exponential risk regression analyses to obtain relative risk (RR estimates for diagnostic indicators were analyzed using Stata® statistical software package, version 11 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX.Results: The study included 1290 patients. Of these, 57% reported perforated peptic ulcer. Multivariate analysis showed five diagnostic indicators: signs and symptoms including intense abdominal pain (RR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–2.06, tenderness (RR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.17–3.21, and guarding (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.05–2.20; X-ray with free air (RR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.08–3.77; and referral from other hospitals (RR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.82.Conclusion: Five diagnostic indicators for peptic ulcer perforation monitoring were suggested from this study. Improving diagnostic

  10. Intestinal parasitoses in a tertiary-care hospital located in a non-endemic setting during 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Calderaro, Adriana; Montecchini, Sara; Rossi, Sabina; Gorrini, Chiara; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses during a 5-year period in patients attending a tertiary-care hospital in a non-endemic setting. Methods In the period 2006–2010, 15,752 samples from 8,886 patients with clinically suspected parasitosis were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, to parasitic antigen detection assays, and to cultures for protozoa and nematodes. Real-time PCR assays for the differentiation of Entamoeba histo...

  11. Assessment of Drug-Drug Interactions among Renal Failure Patients of Nephrology Ward in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Mylapuram Rama; Gayathri Viswanathan; Leelavathi D Acharya; R P Attur; Reddy, P. N.; Raghavan, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Polypharmacy is common in drug prescriptions of chronic kidney disease patients. A study of the prescription patterns of drugs with potential interactions would be of interest to prevent drug related adverse events. A prospective observational study of six months (Dec 2009-May 2010) was carried out among the chronic kidney disease patients admitted to the nephrology ward of a South Indian tertiary care hospital. The pattern and rates of drug-drug interactions seen in the prescriptions of thes...

  12. Adverse reactions to blood donation: A descriptive study of 3520 blood donors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    C Aneke John; U Ezeh Theodora; A Nwosu Gloria; E Anumba Chika

    2017-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of adverse reactions to blood donation significantly hampers donor retention and negatively impacts on the universal availability of adequate numbers of blood donor units. Objective: To analyze the spectrum and prevalence of adverse reactions in blood donors in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The details of 3520 blood donors who presented for donation over a 12 months period were retrieved from the departmental archives for ana...

  13. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  14. Singleton preterm births in Korle bu teaching hospital, Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the singleton preterm birth rate, the relative proportions of the clinical categories of preterm births and to compare the outcomes in these categories. Setting: Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecol-ogy, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Participants: Preterm births from 1st July to 31st December 2003.

  15. Experience with norplant at a Nigerian Teaching Hospital | Mutihir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experience with norplant at a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. ... Conclusion: Norplant implants provided contraceptive protection with high reliability, safety, independence from user compliance, rapid return of pre-existing fertility after removal, good tolerability, and relatively simple and quick insertion and removal.

  16. Retention of Medical Records in Ghanaian Teaching Hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention of Medical Records in Ghanaian Teaching Hospitals: Some International Perspectives. ... The study revealed that the problems inherent in the retention of management of non-current medical records are due to the absence of formal guidelines and procedures, and to the fact that those that exist are not properly ...

  17. Trends in Maternal Morlility in Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tamale Teaching Hospital Methods: Data on maternal deaths that occurred over the review period were obtained from the patient folders, departmental monthly reports, midwifery monthly returns, audit reports, theatre, intensive care unit, maternity, gynaecology and the labour ward records.

  18. Stroke mortality and its predictors in a Nigerian teaching hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke mortality has been noted to be higher in blacks in biracial studies. There have been few studies on stroke mortality and its predictors in Nigeria. This study examines mortality of stroke and its predictors in a Northern Nigerian teaching hospital.

  19. Paediatric Hand Injuries At The Lagos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric hand trauma represents a subset of hand injury that can be quite challenging to manage. Local studies on this injuries are few therefore a 4 year retrospective study at the Trauma and hand rehabilitation unit of the Lagos University teaching hospital was carried out. Objectives: To determine the ...

  20. Uniocular blindness in Delta State Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uniocular blindness causes loss of binocular single vision. People with uniocular blindness are potentially at risk of developing binocular blindness. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factors for uniocular blindness in a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria over a one-year period. Methods: ...

  1. Utilization of oral anticoagulation in a teaching hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anticoagulation is an essential lifesaving management practice indicated for arterial, venous and intracardiac thromboembolism. Aim: This study was undertaken to examine the utilization of anticoagulation services in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu (UNTH) Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This ...

  2. Utilization of Oral Anticoagulation in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or patients monitored outside the teaching hospital were excluded from this survey. Anticoagulation monitoring was with INR. Recommended therapeutic ranges of INR are 2.0-3.0 for most disease indications, and 2.0-3.5 with cardiac valve prostheses.[1,2]. Target INR was defined by the attainment of therapeutic ranges of ...

  3. Abdominal Injuries in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amabra Dodiyi‑Manuel, Nze Japhet Jebbin, Patrick Okechukwu Igwe. Department ... Dodiyi‑Manuel, et al.: Abdominal injuries in university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. 19. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jan‑Jun 2015 | Volume 21 | Issue 1. RESULTS ... continues to pose a major public health challenge in every country.

  4. TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL, ELDORET, KENYA _ v v

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-01

    Aug 1, 2004 ... Design: This was a prospective case control study. Study site: The study ... Ethics Committee of the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The study was ... the attending clinicians. RESULTS. Demographic data: A total of 132 children (66 cases and 66 controls) and their mothers were included in the study.

  5. Ovarian malignancy at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish the relative frequency, age distribution, socio-demographic risk factors, clinical presentation, management and histological variants of ovarian cancerseen within the study period. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review of all cases of ovarian cancer seen at the Jos University TeachingHospital, Jos, Plateau ...

  6. Paediatric cancers at Butare University Teaching Hospital in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric cancers at Butare University Teaching Hospital in Rwanda. ... Background: Cancer is an important cause of mortality in many of the economically developed nations of the world. More than 10% of all ... The peak incidence of cancer was found in the 0-5 years age group and accounted for 21 patients (58, 3%).

  7. Audit of day case surgery in LAUTECH teaching hospital, Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ method: A retrospective study of all patients operated as day-case at the Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital Osogbo over a period of 14 months (October 2000 to November 2001) was carried out. Results: Seventy-six patients were operated as day-cases within the study period, but 74 case notes ...

  8. Outpatient waiting time in Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Long waiting time for services has been identified as a reason people avoid presenting to for care in African countries. Design Examination of causes for long outpatient waiting time and the effect of measures to reduce waiting time. Setting Outpatient department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.

  9. Childhood pneumonia at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and thus this study was designed to document the sociodemographic, clinical features as well as the bacterial agents responsible for pneumonia in children seen at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Methodology: A descriptive ...

  10. Medical Audit: A Nigerian Teaching Hospital's Preliminary Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The definition, historical background, aims dimensions and the characteristics of medical audit as well as the indices to be measured in a medical audit exercise are highlighted. The preliminary experience of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) in the planning, implementation and monitoring of a viable medical ...

  11. experience with norplant at a nigerian teaching hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... contraceptive methods in the family planning clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital,. Nigeria. Norplant ... range of family planning methods. ..... Segal, S.J. and Croxatto, H.B. Single administration of Hormones for long-term control of Reproductive function. Paper presented at meeting of the American.

  12. Responsibly managing the medical school--teaching hospital power relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.

  13. Abdominal Hysterectomy at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal Hysterectomy at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital: A 5-year Review. ... Conclusion: Abdominal hysterectomy is a safe operative procedure and i/t is a viable treatment option to a variety of gynaecological disorders. Adequate preoperative assessment, intraoperative and post operative measures to reduce ...

  14. Anaemia in Pregnancy in Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of incidence of anaemia in pregnancy at Abia state University Teaching Hospital, Aba was conducted over a six-month period spanning from 31st January 2000 to 31st July 2000. The incidence of anaemia in pregnancy was 29%. The vast majority (97.6%) had mild anaemia. The result showed that most ...

  15. Ectopic Pregnancy in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We set out to determine the socio-demographic factors,pattern of presentation and management of ectopic pregnancy in a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A retrospective descriptive analysis of all cases of ectopic pregnancy over a 2-year period was carried out. The case notes were retrieved from the ...

  16. Laryngeal cancer at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of laryngeal cancer seen at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, establish epidemiological parameters of the disease and to outline preventive measures. Method: One hundred and fifteen (115) patients who were managed for laryngeal cancer from 1 st January 1998 ...

  17. Gestational age at booking in Imo State University Teaching Hospital.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational age at booking in Imo State University Teaching Hospital. E Ojiyi, E.I Dike. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  18. Utilization of Oral Anticoagulation in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, which include factors. II, VII, IX, and X, and the anticoagulant proteins C and S. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the post ribosomal synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Utilization of Oral Anticoagulation in a Teaching. Hospital in Nigeria. Anakwue RC, Ocheni S1, ...

  19. Audit of stillbirths in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kuti, et al.: Audit of stillbirth in a Nigerian teaching hospital. 193. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Volume 34 / Issue 3 / September‑December 2017. 4. Obstetrics complication. 1. Pregnancy induced hypertension. 2. Gestational diabetes. 3. Polyhydramnios. 4. Prolonged pregnancy. 5. Infection. 1. Malaria. 2.

  20. Childhood pneumonia at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Johnson WBR. Adeboye MAN. Childhood pneumonia at the. University of Ilorin Teaching. Hospital, Ilorin Nigeria. Accepted: 9th January 2013. Abdulkarim AA. Ibraheem RM, Adegboye AO,. Johnson WBR, Adeboye MAN ..... lobar pneumonia. Ann Trop Paedi- atr 1997;17:315-19. 7. Fagbule D, Parakoyi DB, Spiegel.