Sonia R. B D'Souza; Leslie Edward Lewis; Vijay Kumar; Ramesh Bhat Y; Jayashree Purkayastha; Hari Prakash
Background: Advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of neonates admitted to the intensive care of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). However, the NCU may be an inappropriate milieu, with presence of overwhelming stimuli, most potent being the continuous presence of noise in the ambience of the NICU. Aim and Objectives: To determine and describe the ambient noise levels in the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Material and Methods...
Full Text Available Background: Children with chronic physical illnesses frequently have psychiatric comorbidities, which often go un-noticed and may lead to more resource utilization and morbidity. Pediatric liaison services can be effectively used to bridge this gap. Literature on pediatric liaison services is sparse. Aims: To study the referral patterns, reasons for referrals, psychiatric diagnoses and interventions in children and adolescents referred to psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of all children and adolescents below 19 years of age, referred to psychiatry department from 2010 to 2015, was done. Data was collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: Two hundred and nine subjects were included in the study. Mean age of sample was 12.15 (±4.20 years, with about 66.02% being males. About 54.06% of the participants were referred from pediatricians. Almost three fourth (72.25% of children had no diagnosable physical illness. Intellectual disability (19.62% was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, followed by depressive disorders (14.35%, and dissociative disorders (12.92%. Conclusions: In our study, majority of the referrals were the adolescent males from pediatric department. Intellectual disability, depressive disorder, and stress-related disorders were the common diagnoses. The fact that three-fourth of the referred children had no physical illness implies lack of awareness, stigma toward mental illness, and pathway of care.
Full Text Available Kristen M Peterson, Carrie E Huisingh, Christopher Girkin, Cynthia Owsley, Lindsay A Rhodes Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with glaucoma patients’ satisfaction with their medical care by fellowship-trained glaucoma specialists in an urban tertiary referral clinic in the US.Methods: A total of 110 established patients aged ≥60 years with a diagnosis of either primary open angle glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or ocular hypertension monitored by an ophthalmologist with fellowship training in glaucoma were enrolled at an academic, urban, tertiary referral eye clinic. Enrolled patients were administered a general demographics questionnaire along with a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18, a Likert scale validated tool. The seven dimensions of patient satisfaction from the PSQ-18 were summarized for the sample overall and by the patients’ age, race, employment status, education level, distance travelled from home address to clinic, and glaucoma therapy type. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare group means. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to correlate satisfaction scores with peripheral vision and visual acuity function.Results: Overall, the general satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.62. Patients ≥70 years of age had lower general satisfaction with their care (mean 4.5 vs 4.8, p=0.03, the interpersonal manner of their appointment (mean 4.7 vs 4.9, p=0.009, and with their time spent with their doctor (mean 4.4 vs 4.7, p=0.03 than patients aged 60–69 years. Non-European descent patients (47% African descent and 1% other of sample were more satisfied with the time they spent with the doctor (mean 4.7 vs 4.4, p=0.04 and with the communication during the appointment (mean 4.8 vs 4.6, p=0.04 than European descent patients (52% of sample. Patients with a higher level of
Sonia R. B D'Souza
Full Text Available Background: Advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of neonates admitted to the intensive care of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. However, the NCU may be an inappropriate milieu, with presence of overwhelming stimuli, most potent being the continuous presence of noise in the ambience of the NICU. Aim and Objectives: To determine and describe the ambient noise levels in the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Material and Methods: The ambient noise, in this study was the background sound existing in the environment of the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital in South India. The ambient noise levels were analyzed by an audiologist and acoustical engineer using a standardized and calibrated Sound Level Meter (SLM i.e., the Hand Held Analyzer type 2250, Brüel and Kjær, Denmark on a weighted frequency A and reported as dB (A. Results: The ambient noise levels were timed measurements yielded by the SLM in terms of L eq, L as well as L exceeded the standard A 10 Aeqmax levels (Leq< 45 dB, L ≤ 50 dB, and Lmax ≤ 65 10 dB.The L eq ranged from 59.4 to 62.12 dB A. A Ventilators with alarms caused the maximum amount of ambient noise yielding a L Sound Pressure Level AF (SPL of 82.14 dB A. Conclusion: The study has found high levels of ambient noise in the acute NICU. Though there are several measures to reduce the ambient noise levels in the NICU, it is essential to raise awareness among health care personnel regarding the observed ambient noise levels and its effects on neonates admitted to the NICU.
Full Text Available Background:Patient concerns represent opportunities for improvement in orthopaedic care. Thisstudy’s objectiveis to identify the nature and prevalence of unsolicited patient complaints regarding orthopaedic care ata tertiary referral hospital. The primary null hypothesis that there are no demographic factors associatedwith complaint types was tested. Secondarily we determined if the overall complaint number and typesdifferedby year.Methods:Complaints to the hospital ombudsperson by orthopaedic patients between January 1997 and June 2013 werereviewed. All 1118 complaints were categorized: access and availability, humaneness and disrespect, communication,expectations of care and treatment, distrust, billing and research.Results:Patients between 40 and 60 years of age filed the most complaints in all categories except distrust(more common in patients over age 80 and research. Women were slightly more likely to address access andavailability, humaneness, disrespect, and billing compared to men. The overall number of complaints peakedin 1999. The most common issue was access and availability followed by communication, and humaneness/disrespect.Conclusion:Half of concerns voiced by patients addressed interpersonal issues. The largest category was related toaccess and availability. Quality improvement efforts can address technology to improve access and availability as wellas empathy and communication strategies.
Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Lidenge, Salum J; Mpondo, Boniventura C T; Msangi, Silas; Lugazia, Edwin; Mwafongo, Victor; Runyon, Michael S; Reynolds, Teri A
In sub-Saharan Africa the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) services is limited by a variety of factors, including lack of financial resources, lack of available technology and well-trained staff. Tanzania has four main referral hospitals, located in zones so as to serve as tertiary level referral centers. All the referral hospitals have some ICU services, operating at varying levels of equipment and qualified staff. We analyzed and describe the disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in ICUs of the tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania. This was a retrospective analysis of ICU patient records, for three years (2009 to 2011) from all tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania, namely Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Mbeya Referral Hospital (MRH) and Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). MNH is the largest of the four referral hospitals with 1300 beds, and MRH is the smallest with 480 beds. The ratio of hospital beds to ICU beds is 217:1 at MNH, 54:1 at BMC, 39:1 at KCMC, and 80:1 at MRH. KCMC had no infusion pumps. None of the ICUs had a point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. None of the ICUs had an Intensive Care specialist or a nutritionist. A masters-trained critical care nurse was available only at MNH. From 2009-2011, the total number of patients admitted to the four ICUs was 5627, male to female ratio 1.4:1, median age of 34 years. Overall, Trauma (22.2%) was the main disease category followed by infectious disease (19.7%). Intracranial injury (12.5%) was the leading diagnosis in all age groups, while pneumonia (11.7%) was the leading diagnosis in pediatric patients (<18 years). Patients with tetanus (2.4%) had the longest median length ICU stay: 8 (5,13) days. The overall in-ICU mortality rate was 41.4%. The ICUs in tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania are severely limited in infrastructure, personnel, and resources, making it difficult or impossible to provide optimum care
Full Text Available Purpose: Increasing reports on New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 producing Escherichia coli constitute a serious threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. This study has been performed to find out the incidence blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 non-duplicated E. coli isolates were recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem (diameter of zones of inhibition, ≤21 mm were further phenotypically confirmed for carbapenemase production by modified Hodge test. All screened isolates were also subjected to the polymerase chain reaction detection of blaNDM-1 gene and additional bla genes coding for transmission electron microscopy, SHV, CTX-M, and AmpC. Results: Out of 270 E. coli isolates, 14 were screened for carbapenemase production on the basis of their reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem. All screened isolates were found to be positive for blaNDM-1 . Each of the blaNDM-1 possessing isolate was also positive for two or more additional bla genes, such as blaTEM , blaCTX-M and blaAmpC . Phylogenetic analysis showed very less variation in blaNDM-1 gene with respect to blaNDM-1 possessing E. coli isolates from other parts of India and abroad. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the incidence of blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates with a reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem.
Kortuem, Karsten; Fasler, Katrin; Charnley, Amanda; Khambati, Hussain; Fasolo, Sandro; Katz, Menachem; Balaskas, Konstantinos; Rajendram, Ranjan; Hamilton, Robin; Keane, Pearse A; Sim, Dawn A
The increasing incidence of medical retinal diseases has created capacity issues across UK. In this study, we describe the implementation and outcomes of virtual medical retina clinics (VMRCs) at Moorfields Eye Hospital, South Division, London. It represents a promising solution to ensure that patients are seen and treated in a timely fashion METHODS: First attendances in the VMRC (September 2016-May 2017) were included. It was open to non-urgent external referrals and to existing patients in a face-to-face clinic (F2FC). All patients received visual acuity testing, dilated fundus photography and optical coherence tomography scans. Grading was performed by consultants, fellows and allied healthcare professionals. Outcomes of these virtual consultations and reasons for F2FC referrals were assessed. A total number of 1729 patients were included (1543 were internal and 186 external referrals). The majority were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy (75.1% of internal and 46.8% of external referrals). Of the internal referrals, 14.6% were discharged, 54.5% continued in VMRC and 30.9% were brought to a F2FC. Of the external referrals, 45.5% were discharged, 37.1% continued in VMRC and 17.4% were brought to a F2FC. The main reason for F2FC referrals was image quality (34.7%), followed by detection of potentially treatable disease (20.2%). VMRC can be implemented successfully using existing resources within a hospital eye service. It may also serve as a first-line rapid-access clinic for low-risk referrals. This would enable medical retinal services to cope with increasing demand and efficiently allocate resources to those who require treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to access the clinico-psycho-social profile of patients brought under consultation-liaison (CL psychiatry care in a large tertiary care referral hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included all patients who were referred for CL psychiatry from among the inpatients in the hospital and the emergency department (during off working hours of the hospital over a period of 1 year. Data were obtained and analyzed in terms of where was the referral placed, by whom, the reason for placing the referral, the primary medical/surgical diagnosis of the patient, the presenting complaints, any past psychiatric history, the psychiatric diagnosis (as per the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, the investigations advised and their reports, the treatment advised (psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological, the sociodemographic profile of the patients, and the follow-up details. Results: A total of 157 patients were referred to the CL unit over the study period. Out of these, 125 patients were referred among the inpatients and 32 from the emergency department of the hospital. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 25–50 years and were male. The majority of the referrals were made by general physician; most of the referrals were placed from emergency department. The most common reason for referral was for altered sensorium and behavioral abnormalities. The most common diagnosis was delirium followed by depressive episode and alcohol dependence syndrome. Conclusion: There was higher representation of delirium and alcohol-related cases in our study compared to older studies.
Ang, Leslie; Kee, Aera; Yeo, Tun Hang; Dinesh, V G; Ho, Su Ling; Teoh, Stephen C; Agrawal, Rupesh
To report the clinical features and outcome of patients with presumed tubercular uveitis (TBU). Retrospective analysis of patients with presumed TBU at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore between 2007 and 2012 was done. Main outcome measures were failure of complete resolution of uveitis or recurrence of inflammation. Fifty three patients with mean age of 44.18 ± 15.26 years with 54.72% being males were included. 19 (35.85%) had bilateral involvement, with panuveitis and anterior uveitis being the most common presentations. 36 (67.92%) patients received antitubercular therapy (ATT), and 28 received concurrent systemic steroids. 15 (28.30%) eyes of 11 (30.55%) patients in the ATT group and 4 (21.05%) eyes of 3 (17.64%) patients in the non-ATT group had treatment failure (p value = 0.51). The use of ATT, with or without concurrent corticosteroid, may not have a statistically significant impact in improving treatment success in patients with presumed TBU.
Helck, Andreas; Matzko, M.; Trumm, C.G.; Grosse, C.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Piltz, S.
In addition to teleradiological reporting as a nighthawking or a regular service, teleradiological communication can be used for interdisciplinary expert consultation. We intended to evaluate an interdisciplinary consultation system based on a teleradiology platform with regard to its impact on therapeutic decision-making, directed patient referrals to an academic tertiary care center and the economic benefit for the hospital providing the service. Therefore, consultations from five secondary care centers and consecutive admissions to an academic tertiary care center were prospectively evaluated over a time period of six months. A total of 69 interdisciplinary expert consultations were performed. In 54% of the cases the patients were consecutively referred to the university hospital for further treatment. In all acutely life-threatening emergencies (n=9), fast and focused treatment by referral to the academic tertiary care center was achieved (average time to treat 130 min). The admissions to the academic tertiary care center led to improved utilization of its facilities with additional revenue of more than 1 000 000 Euro p.a. An interdisciplinary expert consultation via a teleradiology platform enables fast and efficient expert care with improved and accelerated patient management and improved utilization of the service providing hospital. (orig.)
Gonczi, Lorant; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Menyhart, Orsolya; Seres, Anna; Sumegi, Liza Dalma; Gal, Alexander; Ilias, Akos; Janos, Papp; Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Bessisow, Talat; Afif, Waqqas; Bitton, Alain; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo
In the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, there is considerable variation in quality of care. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural, access/process components and outcome quality indicators in our tertiary referral IBD center. In the first phase, structural/process components were assessed, followed by the second phase of formal evaluation of access and management on a set of consecutive IBD patients with and without active disease (248CD/125UC patients, median age 35/39 years). Structural/process components of our IBD center met the international recommendations. At or around the time of diagnosis usual procedures were full colonoscopy in all patients, with ileocolonoscopy/gastroscopy/CT/MRI in 81.8/45.5/66.1/49.6% of CD patients. A total of 86.7% of CD patients had any follow-up imaging evaluation or endoscopy. The median waiting time for non-emergency endoscopy/CT/MRI was 16/14/22 days. During the observational period patients with flares (CD/UC:50.6/54.6%) were seen by specialist at the IBD clinic within a median of 1day with same day laboratory assessment, abdominal US, CT scan/surgical consult and change in therapy if needed. Surgery and hospitalization rates were 20.1/1.4% and 17.3/3.2% of CD/UC patients. Our results highlight that structural components and processes applied in our center are in line with international recommendations, including an open clinic concept and fast track access to specialist consultation, endoscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Pain is a common primary symptom of advanced cancer and metastatic disease, occurring in 50-75% of all patients. Although palliative care and pain management are essential components in oncology practice, studies show that these areas are often inadequately addressed. Materials and Methods: We randomly selected 152 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy (PRT from October 2006 to August 2008, excluding metastatic bone lesions. Patients′ records were studied retrospectively. Results: A median follow-up of 21 weeks was available for 119 males and 33 females with a median age of 55 years. Maximum (60% patients were of head and neck cancers followed by esophagus (14%, lung (10% and others. Dysphagia, growth/ulcer and pain were the chief indications for PRT. Pain was present in 93 (61% cases out of which, 56 (60% were referred to pain clinic. All except one consulted pain clinic with a median pain score of 8 (0-10 point scale. Fifty-three of these 56 patients (96% received opioid-based treatment with adequate pain relief in 33% cases and loss of follow-up in 40% cases. Only five (3% cases were referred to a hospice. Twenty-two (14% cases were considered for radical treatment following excellent response to PRT. Conclusion: In this selective sample, the standard of analgesic treatment was found to be satisfactory. However, there is a lot of scope for improvement regarding referral to pain clinic and later to the hospice. Patients′ follow-up needs to be improved along with future studies evaluating those patients who were considered for further RT till radical dose. Programs to change the patients′ attitude towards palliative care, physicians′ (residents′ training to improve communication skills, and institutional policies may be promising strategies.
Sasikumar, M; Boyer, S; Remacle-Bonnet, A; Ventelou, B; Brouqui, P
This study evaluated the impact of infectious disease (ID) specialist referrals on outcomes in a tertiary hospital in France. This study tackled methodological constraints (selection bias, endogeneity) using instrumental variables (IV) methods in order to obtain a quasi-experimental design. In addition, we investigated whether certain characteristics of patients have a bearing on the impact of the intervention. We used the payments database and ID department files to obtain data for adults admitted with an ID diagnosis in the North Hospital, Marseille from 2012 to 2014. Comparable cohorts were obtained using coarsened exact matching and analysed using IV models. Mortality, readmissions, cost (payer perspective) and length of stay (LoS) were analysed. We recorded 15,393 (85.97%) stays, of which 2,159 (14.03%) benefited from IDP consultations. The intervention was seen to significantly lower the risk of inpatient mortality (marginal effect (M.E) = -19.06%) and cost of stay (average treatment effect (ATE) = - €5,573.39). The intervention group was seen to have a longer LoS (ATE = +4.95 days). The intervention conferred a higher reduction in mortality and cost for stays that experienced ICU care (mortality: odds ratio (OR) =0.09, M.E cost = -8,328.84 €) or had a higher severity of illness (mortality: OR=0.35, M.E cost = -1,331.92 €) and for patients aged between 50 and 65 years (mortality: OR=0.28, M.E cost = -874.78 €). This study shows that ID referrals are associated with lower risk of inpatient mortality and cost of stay, especially when targeted to certain subgroups.
Stoewen, Debbie L; Coe, Jason B; MacMartin, Clare; Stone, Elizabeth A; E Dewey, Catherine
To describe the process aspects (communication) of the information expectations of clients accessing oncology care services at a tertiary referral center for dogs with life-limiting cancer. Qualitative analysis of data acquired during in-person single and dyadic interviews. 43 dog owners participating in 30 interviews. Independent in-person interviews were conducted with standardized open- and closed-ended questions from April to October 2009. Thematic analysis was performed on transcripts of the interview discussions. The participants expected information to be communicated in a forthright manner; in multiple formats; with understandable language; in an unrushed environment wherein staff took the time to listen, answer all questions, and repeat information when necessary; on a continuous basis, with 24-hour access to address questions or concerns; in a timely manner; with positivity; with compassion and empathy; with a nonjudgmental attitude; and through staff with whom they had established relationships. Results indicated that the manner in which information is communicated is vitally important to clients of dogs with life-limiting cancer in that it not only facilitates comprehension but also creates a humanistic environment from which clients derive the psychosocial support needed to successfully cope with their pet's condition.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM- PL and NLP in 24 (14%, 39 (22.7%, 16 (9.3%, 66 (38.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM- PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%, 28 (16.3%, 11 (6.4%, 30 (17.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling.
Wijers, D.; Wieske, L.; Vergouwen, M. D. I.; Richard, E.; Stam, J.; Smets, E. M. A.
Although the number of neurological second opinions (SOs) and tertiary referrals (TRs) is increasing, only little is known about expectations and patient satisfaction in this group of patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore expectations of patients who get a neurological SO or
Wieske, L.; Richard, E.; Wijers, D.; Stam, J.; Smets, E. M. A.; Vergouwen, M. D. I.
The number of second opinions (SO) and tertiary referrals (TR) in neurology is increasing. Previously, we showed that a day-care admission for neurological SO's and TR's often results in a new diagnosis and/or treatment advice and increases patient satisfaction. However, long-term satisfaction for
Greater retention in care among adolescents on antiretroviral treatment accessing "Teen Club" an adolescent-centred differentiated care model compared with standard of care: a nested case-control study at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi.
MacKenzie, Rachel K; van Lettow, Monique; Gondwe, Chrissie; Nyirongo, James; Singano, Victor; Banda, Victor; Thaulo, Edith; Beyene, Teferi; Agarwal, Mansi; McKenney, Allyson; Hrapcak, Susan; Garone, Daniela; Sodhi, Sumeet K; Chan, Adrienne K
There are numerous barriers to the care and support of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) that makes this population particularly vulnerable to attrition from care, poor adherence and virological failure. In 2010, a Teen Club was established in Zomba Central Hospital (ZCH), Malawi, a tertiary referral HIV clinic. Teen Club provides ALHIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART) with dedicated clinic time, sexual and reproductive health education, peer mentorship, ART refill and support for positive living and treatment adherence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether attending Teen Club improves retention in ART care. We conducted a nested case-control study with stratified selection, using programmatic data from 2004 to 2015. Cases (ALHIV not retained in care) and controls (ALHIV retained in care) were matched by ART initiation age group. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively and subjects were followed starting in March 2010, the month in which Teen Club was opened. Follow-up ended at the time patients were no longer considered retained in care or on 31 December 2015. Cases and controls were drawn from a study population of 617 ALHIV. Of those, 302 (48.9%) participated in at least two Teen Club sessions. From the study population, 135 (non-retained) cases and 405 (retained) controls were selected. In multivariable analyses, Teen Club exposure, age at the time of selection and year of ART initiation were independently associated with attrition. ALHIV with no Teen Club exposure were less likely to be retained than those with Teen Club exposure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.27; 95% CI 0.16, 0.45) when adjusted for sex, ART initiation age, current age, reason for ART initiation and year of ART initiation. ALHIV in the age group 15 to 19 were more likely to have attrition from care than ALHIV in the age group 10 to 14 years of age (aOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.12, 4.11). This study contributes to the limited evidence evaluating the effectiveness of service delivery
Kim, Jimin; Barreix, Maria; Babcock, Christine; Bills, Corey B
Introduction Following two decades of armed conflict in Liberia, over 95% of health care facilities were partially or completely destroyed. Although the Liberian health system has undergone significant rehabilitation, one particular weakness is the lack of organized systems for referral and prehospital care. Acute care referral systems are a critical component of effective health care delivery and have led to improved quality of care and patient outcomes. Problem This study aimed to characterize the referral and transfer systems in the largest county of Liberia. A cross-sectional, health referral survey of a representative sample of health facilities in Montserrado County, Liberia was performed. A systematic random sample of all primary health care (PHC) clinics, fraction proportional to district population size, and all secondary and tertiary health facilities were included in the study sample. Collected data included baseline information about the health facility, patient flow, and qualitative and quantitative data regarding referral practices. A total of 62 health facilities-41 PHC clinics, 11 health centers (HCs), and 10 referral hospitals (RHs)-were surveyed during the 6-week study period. In sum, three percent of patients were referred to a higher-level of care. Communication between health facilities was largely unsystematic, with lack of specific protocols (n=3; 5.0%) and standardized documentation (n=26; 44.0%) for referral. While most health facilities reported walking as the primary means by which patients presented to initial health facilities (n=50; 81.0%), private vehicles, including commercial taxis (n=37; 60.0%), were the primary transport mechanism for referral of patients between health facilities. This study identified several weaknesses in acute care referral systems in Liberia, including lack of systematic care protocols for transfer, documentation, communication, and transport. However, several informal, well-functioning mechanisms for
Full Text Available AIM To analyze the outcome of 135 patients admitted with Abruptio Placenta during a period of 9 months managed at Tertiary Referral Centre, Modern Govt. Maternity Hospital, Petalburz, Hyderabad, Telangana State. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of 135 cases of Abruptio Placenta over a period of 9 months at a tertiary level referral centre. They were analyzed regarding age, parity, socio economic status, period of gestation, antenatal care, management of Abruption and maternal and fetal outcome, and the measures to improve the condition were analyzed. RESULTS Abruptio placenta is a dreadful threat to maternal and fetal life. In our study unbooked cases were 110(81.48%, Hypertension is the main risk factor almost in 90(66.66% cases, 65% of them were between 28-36 weeks of GA, and 6 were grandmultis, 6 cases ended up with HELLP syndrome with DIC. All these 6 cases were near misses, 5 unbooked cases had eclampsia. One case of unbooked eclampsia had abruption DIC and could not be saved as it was the late referral. Total number of vaginal deliveries were 66(48.88% and total no. of abdominal deliveries were 67(49.62% in this LSCS 66 and one hysterotomy. IUD at the time of admission total were 100(74%. CONCLUSION To improve the outcome in Abruptio Placentae Good antenatal care, Educating the patient, Strengthening the Primary Health Centers in identifying the risk factors like Pre-eclampsia thereby avoiding eclampsia. Regular antenatal checkups timely delivery and availability of blood and blood products with good Neonatal care unit will help in improving the outcome of Abruptio.
Nan Hee Cho
Full Text Available BackgroundHypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia.MethodsA survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia.ResultsOf 758 participants, 471 (62.1% had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9% had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8% of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4% knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%, sweating (53.8%, and tremor (40.8%. They mostly chose candy (62.1%, chocolate (37.7%, or juice (36.8% as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits.ConclusionMany patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia.
Cho, Nan Hee; Kim, Nam Kyung; Han, Eugene; Hong, Jun Hwa; Jeon, Eon Ju; Moon, Jun Sung; Seo, Mi Hae; Lee, Ji Eun; Seo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Soon
Hypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia. A survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia. Of 758 participants, 471 (62.1%) had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9%) had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8%) of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4%) knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%), sweating (53.8%), and tremor (40.8%). They mostly chose candy (62.1%), chocolate (37.7%), or juice (36.8%) as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits. Many patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2018 Korean Diabetes Association
Jayashree, Muralidharan; Sasidharan, Rohit; Singhi, Sunit; Nallasamy, Karthi; Baalaaji, Mullai
Objectives: To identify system-based factors contributing to Emergency Department (ED) admissions of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and related complications with emphasis on parental and physician awareness and prereferral management. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational root cause analysis study of all consecutive admissions of children with DKA to pediatric ED of a tertiary care referral hospital in northern India over a period of 1 year (July 2010–June 2011). Preh...
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Cho, Wan-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho
Noise levels and room acoustic parameters at a tertiary referral hospital, Seoul National University Hospital in Korea, are investigated. Through a questionnaire, acoustically problematic rooms are identified. Noise levels in emergency rooms (ERs) and intensive care units (ICUs) are measured over...... level for the first night was 66 dBA, which came down to 56 dBA for the next day. The reason for the higher noise level for the first night in the ICU was frequent alarm sound and treatment noise related to a critical patient. The noise level in the measured ERs is about 10 dB lower than those measured...... about three days. Acoustically critical and problematic rooms in the otolaryngology department are measured: examination rooms, operating rooms, nurse stations, patient rooms, and audiometric rooms. The equivalent A-weighted noise level, LAeq, ranges from 54 to 56 dBA in two ERs. In an ICU, the noise...
Khalid-Raja, M; Tzifa, K
This study aimed to evaluate the activity of paediatric otolaryngology services required for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre. A review of the paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome was performed; data were obtained from the coding department for a two-year period and compared with other surgical specialties. Between June 2011 and May 2013, 106 otolaryngology procedures were performed on children with Down's syndrome. This compared to 87 cardiac and 81 general paediatrics cases. The most common pathologies in children with Down's syndrome were obstructive sleep apnoea, otitis media, hearing loss and cardiac disease. The most common otolaryngology procedures performed were adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, grommet insertion and bone-anchored hearing aid implant surgery. ENT manifestations of Down's syndrome are common. Greater provisions need to be made to streamline the otolaryngology services for children and improve transition of care to adult services.
Herklots, T.; Acht, L. van; Meguid, T.; Franx, A.; Jacod, B.C.
OBJECTIVE: to analyse the impact of in-hospital care on severe maternal morbidity using WHO's near-miss approach in the low-resource, high mortality setting of Zanzibar's referral hospital. SETTING: Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, a tertiary care facility, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. METHODS: We identified all
This was a retrospective observational study of neurophysiology referrals over 8 years from a tertiary referral center in Ireland. A total of 68 of the 73 referrals yielded one or more abnormalities. Thirty-nine (53%) patients had one or more mononeuropathies; iatrogenic mononeuropathies believed to be associated with arterio-venous fistula creation occurred in 15 patients. Polyneuropathy was identified in 43 patients (59%). Access to an experienced neurophysiology department offers valuable insight into dialysis-associated neuropathies, especially when associated with arterio-venous fistulae.
Patryn, Eliza K.; Vrijman, Violette; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth
To review the spectrum of disease, symptomatology, and management offered to patients referred for a second opinion after refractive surgery. A prospective cohort study was done on all patients referred from October 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011, to a tertiary eye clinic after refractive surgery of
Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de
BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with
Cologne, K G; Hwang, G S; Senagore, A J
Third-party payers are moving toward a bundled care payment system. This means that there will need to be a warranty cost of care-where the cost of complexity and complication rates is built into the bundled payment. The theoretical benefit of this system is that providers with lower complication rates will be able to provide care with lower warranty costs and lower overall costs. This may also result in referring riskier patients to tertiary or quaternary referral centers. Unless the payment model truly covers the higher cost of managing such referred cases, the economic risk may be unsustainable for these centers. We took the last seven patients that were referred by other surgeons as "too high risk" for colectomy at other centers. A contribution margin was calculated using standard Medicare reimbursement rates at our institution and cost of care based on our administrative database. We then recalculated a contribution margin assuming a 3 % reduction in payment for a higher than average readmission rate, like that which will take effect in 2014. Finally, we took into account the cost of any readmissions. Seven patients with diagnosis related group (DRG) 330 were reviewed with an average age of 66.8 ± 16 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists score 2.3 ± 1.0, body mass index 31.6 ± 9.8 kg/m(2) (range 22-51 kg/m(2)). There was a 57 % readmission rate, 29 % reoperation rate, 10.8 ± 7.7 day average initial length of stay with 14 ± 8.6 day average readmission length of stay. Forty-two percent were discharged to a location other than home. Seventy-one percent of these patients had Medicare insurance. The case mix index was 2.45. Average reimbursement for DRG 330 was $17,084 (based on Medicare data) for our facility in 2012, with the national average being $12,520. The total contribution margin among all cases collectively was -$19,122 ± 13,285 (average per patient -$2,731, range -$21,905-$12,029). Assuming a 3 % reimbursement reduction made the overall
Aziz, A.M.; Gad, H.; Leung, K; Abbas, A.; Al-Saif, O.H.; Meshikhes, A.N.
Context: Perioperative outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy is related to work load volume and to whether the procedure is carried out in a tertiary specialized hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) unit. Objective: To evaluate the perioperative outcome associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy in a newly established HPB unit. Patients: Analysis of 32 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for benign and malignant indications. Design: Retrospective collection of data on preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care of all patients undergoing PD. Results: Thirty-two patients (16 male and 16 female) with a mean age of 59.5 ± 12.7 years were analyzed. The overall morbidity rate was high at 53%. The most common complication was wound infection (n = 11; 34.4%). Pancreatic and biliary leaks were seen in 5 (15.6%) and 2 (6.2%) cases, respectively, while delayed gastric emptying was recorded in 7 (21.9%). The female sex was not associated with increased morbidity. Presence of co-morbid illness, pylorus-preserving PD, intra-operative blood loss > 1 L, and perioperative blood transfusion were not associated with significantly increased morbidity. The overall hospital mortality was 3.1% and the cumulative overall (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) at 1 year were 80% and 82.3%, respectively. The cumulative overall survival for pancreatic cancer vs ampullary tumor at 1 year were 52% vs 80%, respectively. Conclusion: PD is associated with a low risk of operative death when performed by specialized HPB surgeons even in a tertiary referral hospital. However, the postoperative morbidity rate remains high, mostly due to wound infection. Further improvement by reducing postoperative infection may help curtail the high postoperative morbidity
BACKGROUND: Cork University Hospital (CUH) provides a tertiary service for all neurophysiology referrals in the Southern Health Board region. AIM: To ascertain the number, source, symptoms and diagnosis of neurophysiology referrals at CUH. METHODS: We did a prospective audit of the referral patterns to the neurophysiology department over a 12 -week period. RESULTS: Of 635 referrals, 254 had electromyograms (EMG), 359 had electro-encephalograms (EEG), 18 had visual evoked potentials (VEP), three had somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and one had multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We analysed the demographic pattern, reason for referrals, the average waiting time for neurophysiology tests and the patterns of diagnosis in this audit. CONCLUSIONS: Patients from County Cork are making more use of the neurophysiology services than patients from other counties within the Southern Health Board. The average waiting time for an EEG was 32 days and for an EMG was 74 days. However, more than 35% of those patients waiting for an EEG or an EMG had their tests done within four weeks of referral. The appointments of EEG and EMG were assigned on the basis of clinical need.
Biggerstaff, Mary Ellen; Short, Nancy
Transition to a value-based care system involves reducing costs improving population health and enhancing the patient experience. Many rural hospitals must rely on specialist referrals because of a lack of an internal system of specialists on staff. This evaluation of the existing specialist referrals from primary care was conducted to better understand and improve the referral process and address costs, population health, and the patient experience. A 6-month retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate quality and outcomes of specialty referrals submitted by 10 primary care providers. During a 6-month period in 2015, there was a total of 13,601 primary care patient visits and 3814 referrals, a referral rate of approximately 27%. The most striking result of this review was that nearly 50% of referred patients were not making the prescribed specialist appointment. Rather than finding a large number of unnecessary referrals, we found overall referral rates higher than expected, and a large percentage of our patients were not completing their referrals. The data and patterns emerging from this investigation would guide the development of referral protocols for a newly formed accountable care organization and lead to further quality improvement projects: a LEAN effort, dissemination of results to clinical and executive staff, protocols for orthopedic and neurosurgical referrals, and recommendations for future process improvements. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Alderazi, Ahmed Ali; Lynch, Mary
In response to growing concerns regarding the overuse of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the clinical setting, multiple societies, including the American College of Cardiology Foundation, have jointly published revised criteria regarding the appropriate use of this imaging modality. However, previous research indicates significant discrepancies in the rate of adherence to these guidelines. To assess the appropriateness of CCTA referrals in a tertiary cardiac center in Bahrain. This retrospective clinical audit examined the records of patients referred to CCTA between the April 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 in Mohammed bin Khalifa Cardiac Center. Using information from medical records, each case was meticulously audited against guidelines to categorize it as appropriate, inappropriate, or uncertain. Of the 234 records examined, 176 (75.2%) were appropriate, 47 (20.1%) were uncertain, and 11 (4.7%) were inappropriate. About 74.4% of all referrals were to investigate coronary artery disease (CAD). The most common indication that was deemed appropriate was the detection of CAD in the setting of suspected ischemic equivalent in patients with an intermediate pretest probability of CAD (65.9%). Most referrals deemed inappropriate were requested to detect CAD in asymptomatic patients at low or intermediate risk of CAD (63.6%). This audit demonstrates a relatively low rate of inappropriate CCTA referrals, indicating the appropriate and efficient use of this resource in the Mohammed bin Khalifa Cardiac Center. Agreement on and reclassification of "uncertain" cases by guideline authorities would facilitate a deeper understanding of referral appropriateness.
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify system-based factors contributing to Emergency Department (ED admissions of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and related complications with emphasis on parental and physician awareness and prereferral management. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational root cause analysis study of all consecutive admissions of children with DKA to pediatric ED of a tertiary care referral hospital in northern India over a period of 1 year (July 2010–June 2011. Prehospital, health-care system, referral, follow-up, and continuum of care related details were obtained through direct interview of parents and physicians and/or field observations for all enrolled children. Results: Of the 30 children enrolled, 26 (86.6% were referrals; 16 (61.5% from first, 7 (26.9% from second, and 3 (11.5% from third health-care facility. More than half (n [%], 18 [60%] had new onset diabetes and belonged to lower socioeconomic strata. Twenty-two (73.3% were complicated DKA; shock (n [%], 19 [63%], hypokalemia (n [%], 11 [36%], and CE (n [%], 3 [10%] were the most common complications. Most parents were ignorant of diabetes, its symptoms or complicating DKA. Nearly, half of the cases remained undiagnosed (n = 11 at first contact health-care facility; more so for new onset as compared to known diabetes (9/18 vs. 2/8; P = 0.022. The referring hospitals had limited facilities for rapid blood glucose estimation (n [%], 12 [40%], blood gas analysis (n [%], 6 [20%] and insulin infusion. On univariate analysis, patients with missed/delayed diagnosis more often had severe and complicated DKA. Conclusion: Parental ignorance, lower socioeconomic status, lack of clinical experience, and limited primary health-care facilities were root causes for severe and complicated DKA.
Herklots, Tanneke; Van Acht, Lieke; Meguid, Tarek; Franx, Arie; Jacod, Benoit
Objective: to analyse the impact of in-hospital care on severe maternal morbidity using WHO’s near-miss approach in the low-resource, high mortality setting of Zanzibar’s referral hospital. Setting: Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, a tertiary care facility, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods: We identified all
Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M
Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Manickchund, Yashoda; Hadley, G P
Paediatric surgical disease is a neglected health problem. Patients travel great distances to tertiary level care for management. This study aimed at analysing referral patterns to design an outreach programme for paediatric surgery in KwaZulu Natal. Data forms of patients referred to the service between January and July 2016 were correlated with the clinical record. Delays in management were compared to morbidity and mortality. Out of 781, 158 referrals were accepted as emergencies. The majority (62%) were children aged < 1 year. Gastro-intestinal problems (38.4%) and congenital anomalies (26.9%) formed the majority. Patients who died had a significantly longer delay in transfer. Longer total delay was associated with statistically significant greater morbidity. In a setting where a large rural population is served by single-centre tertiary care, delays exist and contribute to morbidity. The authors advocate the establishment of an outreach programme to address these issues.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Although, economically, referral systems make utilization of health facilities at different levels sound, in many countries caretakers often bypass primary care facilities that are regularly costlier for caretakers and health care systems. The main objective of the current study was to assess the utilization of hospital services with more emphasis on economic point of view. Materials and methods: The present study was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The samples were randomly selected and interviewed on their consent. SPSS Software was also used to analyze the collected data through Chi-2, correlation, and t-test. Results: Just 29.4 percent of the attendees to the hospital were carrying out a referral slip from their family medicine. Five variables including type of care, type of attending, appointment arrangement, satisfaction with family medicine, and vising family medicine were statistically analyzed and found significantly related to carrying referral slip. Conclusion: Because of dysfunction of referral system, Iran’s health care system was found to be far from achieving economic advantages of a referral based DHS. It is actually an inappropriate use of limited health resources in a country like Iran that seriously suffers from shortage of financial and health system resources. This is likely due to deficiencies in the components of its referral system, therefore, a full revision of current reforms and appropriate remedies for deficiencies in the components of referral system was found to be in top priority in Iran.
Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin
In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.
Karemere, H; Kahindo, J B; Ribesse, N; Macq, J
Because hospitals are complex enterprises requiring adaptive systems, it is appropriate to apply the theory and terminology of governance or even better adaptive governance to the interpretation of their management. This study focused on understanding hospital governance in Logo, Bunia, and Katana, three hospitals in two regions of the eastern DRC, which has been characterized by intermittent armed conflict since 1996. In such a context of war and continuous insecurity, how can governance be interpreted for hospitals required to adapt to a constantly changing environment to be able to continue to provide health care? A critical interpretive synthesis of the literature, identified by searching for keywords related to governance. The concepts of governance, adaptive governance, performance, leadership, and complex adaptive system concepts are defined. The interpretation of the concepts helps us to better understand (1) the hospital as a complex adaptive system, (2) the governance of tertiary referral hospitals, (3) analysis of hospital performance, and (4) leadership for good governance of these hospitals. The interpretation of these concepts raises several questions about their application to the eastern DRC. Conclusion. This critical interpretive synthesis opens the door to a new way of exploring tertiary hospitals and their governance in the eastern DRC.
In recent years there has been increased utilisation of computed tomography (CT) imaging in developed countries, however there is a paucity of data regarding the utilisation of CT in the emergency overnight setting. We retrospectively analysed trends in ‘overnight’ (midnight to 8am) CT utilisation over a ten-year period at a single Irish tertiary referral hospital. Over the study period, we observed a significant increase in the proportion of CT imaging that was carried out overnight. There was no significant variation in the yield of pathological findings over the study period, which remained low (64% of CT studies were normal or had non-critical findings). The multiple factors which have contributed to the increased utilization of overnight emergency CT in recent years, the potential for reporting errors overnight and the implications therein for patient safety warrant consideration.
Yaeger-Yarom, Gili; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon
Despite the childhood obesity epidemic, few obese children receive therapy and relatively few weight management multidisciplinary programs exist. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and causes for obese children referrals to a tertiary multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. A total of 227 children (10.6 +/- 2.6 years; 108 boys, 119 girls) were evaluated at the beginning of the programs for personal and familial demographic and anthropometric details, the referring agent to the program, and the main reasons for participation and for the child's desire to lose weight. The majority of participants had an obese family member (83%), in particular an obese parent (62%). The majority of patients were self-referred (86.8%), mainly by their mothers (74%). Only a small fraction were referred by healthcare providers (15.4%). The desire to improve appearance (44.5%), social/psychological issues (39.2%) and the will to improve fitness (29.5%) were the main reasons for joining the program. Understanding the motives for participation and referral patterns can improve recruitment and participation of obese children in weight reduction intervention programs.
Successful outcome from acetabular fracture fixation is multi-factorial. Long-term results are not frequently reported. Pooling such data from high output centres will help progress acetabular fixation. This paper presents the first ten-year data from the Irish tertiary referral centre.
Bender, A D; Geoghegan, S S; Lundquist, S H; Cantone, J M; Krasnick, C J
With increasing competition among hospitals, primary care referral development and management programs offer an opportunity for hospitals to increase their admissions. Such programs require careful development, the commitment of the hospital staff to the strategy, an integration of hospital activities, and an understanding of medical practice management.
Julian F Guest
Full Text Available To estimate clinical progression and resource utilisation together with the associated costs of managing children and adults with LAL Deficiency, at a tertiary referral centre in the UK.A retrospective chart review was undertaken of patients in the UK with a confirmed diagnosis of LAL Deficiency who were managed at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre. Patients' pathways, treatment patterns, health outcomes and resource use were quantified over differing lengths of time for each patient enabling the NHS cost of patient management in tertiary care to be estimated.The study population comprised 19 patients of whom 58% were male. Mean age at the time of initial presentation was 15.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 18.0 years. 63%, 53% and 42% of patients had hepatomegaly, abnormal lipid storage and splenomegaly at a mean age of presentation of 17.8, 17.1 and 20.9 years, respectively. Over a period of 50 years there were a mean of 48.5 clinician visits and 3.4 hospital admissions per patient. The mean NHS cost of patient management at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre, spanning a period of over 50 years was £61,454 per patient.This study provides important insights into a number of aspects of the disease that are difficult to ascertain from published case reports. Additionally, it provides the best estimate available of NHS resource use and costs with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to managing this ultra-orphan disease.
Guest, Julian F; Ingram, Andy; Ayoub, Nadia; Hendriksz, Christian J; Murphy, Elaine; Rahman, Yusof; McKiernan, Patrick; Mundy, Helen; Deegan, Patrick
To estimate clinical progression and resource utilisation together with the associated costs of managing children and adults with LAL Deficiency, at a tertiary referral centre in the UK. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of patients in the UK with a confirmed diagnosis of LAL Deficiency who were managed at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre. Patients' pathways, treatment patterns, health outcomes and resource use were quantified over differing lengths of time for each patient enabling the NHS cost of patient management in tertiary care to be estimated. The study population comprised 19 patients of whom 58% were male. Mean age at the time of initial presentation was 15.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 18.0 years. 63%, 53% and 42% of patients had hepatomegaly, abnormal lipid storage and splenomegaly at a mean age of presentation of 17.8, 17.1 and 20.9 years, respectively. Over a period of 50 years there were a mean of 48.5 clinician visits and 3.4 hospital admissions per patient. The mean NHS cost of patient management at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre, spanning a period of over 50 years was £61,454 per patient. This study provides important insights into a number of aspects of the disease that are difficult to ascertain from published case reports. Additionally, it provides the best estimate available of NHS resource use and costs with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to managing this ultra-orphan disease.
Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen
This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical manifestations in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, assessed the risk factors compared to the severity of hypertensive disorders on maternal and perinatal morbidity, and mortality between the referral and non-referral patients. 271 pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia were assessed (1993 to 1997). Chi-square analysis was used for the comparison of categorical variables, and the comparison of the two independent variables of proportions in estimation of confidence intervals and calculated odds ratio of the referral and non-referral groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used for adjusting potential confounding risk factors. Of the 271 patients included in this study, 71 (26.2%) patients were referrals from other hospitals. Most of the 62 (87.3%) referral patients were transferred during the period 21 and 37 weeks of gestation. Univariate analysis revealed that referral patients with hypertensive disorder were significantly associated with SBP > or =180, DBP > or =105, severe preclampsia, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), emergency C/S, maternal complications, and low birth weight babies, as well as poor Apgar score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risk factors identified to be significantly associated with increased risk of referral patients included: diastolic blood pressure above 105 mmHg (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.13; P = 0.034), severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.76 to 6.81; P < 0.001), eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.35; P = 0.071), HELLP syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 18.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.14 to 164.99; P = 0.008). The significant factors associated with the referral patients with hypertensive disorders were severe preeclampsia, HELLP, and eclampsia. Lack of prenatal care was
Hussain, N.; Shah, T.; Shah, N.; Khan, N.H.
Objective: To determine the practice of transfusion of blood and blood products in cases of postpartum haemorrhage, at a tertiary referral center. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted where medical records were reviewed for women, who either delivered or were admitted in labour suite with diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage. The study period extended from Jan 2008 to Oct 2009. During a period of 22 months, records were reviewed for transfusion of blood and blood products in above group of women. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics. Results: During the study period, a total of 4744 patients were admitted in the labour suite. A total of 113 (2.36%) women were diagnosed with Post partum haemorrhage. Uterine atony was the commonest cause of PPH, followed by genital tract trauma. A total of 81(71%) women received transfusion of blood and blood components (1.6%). The mean blood loss was 1088 ml (+- 584ml). Transfusion of blood and blood component therapy was significantly more in women who underwent caesarean section, compared to those women who delivered vaginally. There was one case of acute tubular necrosis due to PPH, and seven maternal deaths. The mean hospital stay was of +- 3 days. Conclusion: In this hospital based study, the prevalence of PPH was 2.36 +- %, and the rate of transfusion of blood and blood products was 1.6%.
Douglas, C M; Poole-Cowley, J; Morrissey, S; Kubba, H; Clement, W A; Wynne, D
The aim of this paper was to review the indications, complications and outcomes for tracheostomy at a Scottish paediatric tertiary referral hospital. All patients undergoing tracheostomy between January 2001 and September 2012 were identified. A retrospective case note analysis was performed. 111 tracheostomies were done in the study period. The mean number per year was 11 (3-12). Full data was available for 95 patients. There were 56 (59%) males and 39 (41%) females. Age at time of tracheostomy ranged from one day to 15 years, the mean age of tracheostomy insertion was 69 weeks. The majority of patients, 75 (79%), were under one year old when they had their tracheostomy. The most common indication was long-term ventilation (20%), followed by craniofacial abnormality causing airway obstruction (18%), followed by subglottic stenosis (14%). 37% of patients were decannulated. This series reflects current trends in the indications for paediatric tracheostomy, with chronic lung disease of prematurity being the most common indication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mask ventilation performed by 112 doctors with clinical responsibilities at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. Participant doctors were asked to perform mask ventilation for three minutes on a Resusci Anne mannequin using a facemask and a two litre self inflating bag. The tidal volumes generated were quantified using a Laerdal skillmeter computer as grades 0-5, corresponding to 0, 334, 434, 561, 673 and > 800 ml respectively. The effectiveness of mask ventilation (i.e. the proportion of ventilation attempts which achieved a volume delivery of > 434 mls) was greater for anaesthetists [78.0 (29.5)%] than for non anaesthetists [54.6 (40.0)%] (P = 0.012). Doctors who had attended one or more resuscitation courses where no more effective at mask ventilation than their colleagues who had not undertaken such courses. It is likely that first responders to in-hospital cardiac arrests are commonly unable to perform adequate mask ventilation.
Baraza, W; Brown, S; McAlindon, M; Hurlstone, P
Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) is an alternative to surgery in selected patients with recurrent sigmoid volvulus, recurrent pseudo-obstruction or severe slow-transit constipation. A percutaneous tube acts as an irrigation or decompressant channel, or as a mode of sigmoidopexy. This prospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of this procedure at a single tertiary referral centre. Nineteen patients with recurrent sigmoid volvulus, ten with idiopathic slow-transit constipation and four with pseudo-obstruction underwent PEC. The tube was left in place indefinitely in those with recurrent sigmoid volvulus or constipation, whereas in patients with pseudo-obstruction it was left in place for a variable period of time, depending on symptoms. Thirty-five procedures were performed in 33 patients. Three patients developed peritonitis, of whom one died, and ten patients had minor complications. Symptoms resolved in 26 patients. This large prospective study has confirmed the value of PEC in the treatment of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and pseudo-obstruction in high-risk surgical patients. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
Rosa, Francisco; Silva, Ana; Reis, Cláudia; Coutinho, Miguel; Oliveira, Jorge; Almeida E Sousa, Cecília
The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a tertiary referral centre in Portugal, of the placement of BAHA in children. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all children for whom hearing rehabilitation with BAHA was indicated at a central hospital, between January 2003 and December 2014. 53 children were included. The most common indications for placement of BAHA were external and middle ear malformations (n=34, 64%) and chronic otitis media with difficult to control otorrhea (n=9, 17%). The average age for BAHA placement was 10.66±3.44 years. The average audiometric gain was 31.5±7.20dB compared to baseline values, with average hearing threshold with BAHA of 19.6±5.79dB. The most frequent postoperative complications were related to the skin (n=15, 28%). There were no major complications. This study concludes that BAHA is an effective and safe method of hearing rehabilitation in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.
Kloetzel, Megan K.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Milgrom, Peter
Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum, women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay...
Kloetzel, Megan K; Huebner, Colleen E; Milgrom, Peter
Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay pathogen Streptococcus mutans from their saliva to their infants, resulting in increased risk of early childhood caries. Preventive services and treatment for acute problems should be recommended, fears allayed, and women referred. Dental radiographs may be performed safely with the use of appropriate shielding. Nonemergent interventions are best provided between 14 and 20 weeks' gestation for comfort and optimal fetal safety. Most gravid women do not seek dental care. Increased interprofessional communication to encourage dentists to treat pregnant women will reduce the number of women without care. In states where it is available, Medicaid coverage of dental services for pregnant women is typically allowed during pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum. Women's health providers should understand the importance of protecting oral health during pregnancy and educate their patients accordingly. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Objectives: To determine the referral pattern and assess the quality and accuracy of referral letters to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This study is a prospective cross-sectional survey of all new ophthalmic referrals to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic at University of ...
Full Text Available Background: Snakebite is a serious public health problem in the world. The annual incidence of snakebites ranges from 4.5-9.1 in 100,000 population in Iran. With regard to diversity of envenomation profiles in different geographical parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to determine the demographical data, clinical and laboratory findings, and the outcome of the snakebite victims referred to a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study in Loghman Hakim Hospital Poisoning Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, during a four-year period from March 2007 to March 2011. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, paraclinical findings, treatments performed before hospital admission, time elapsed between the bite and hospital admission, total dose of antivenom and the patients’ outcomes were investigated. Results: Seventy cases (58 males, 12 females were evaluated. Most of the cases (79% were older than 20 year old. The most common bite site was upper extremity (67%. Most of the patients were admitted within 5 h after the snakebite. The most common local and systemic manifestations were swelling (90%, pain (81.4%, nausea and vomiting (24.3%. Leukocytosis (35.7% and thrombocytopenia (25.7% were the most common laboratory abnormalities. Most of the patients (97.1% were treated with antivenom. Fifty percent of the patients only received 3-5 vials of antivenom. The mortality rate was 1.4%. Necrosis of the toes and compartment syndrome were the only serious complications. Conclusion: The findings emphasize the importance of early admission to the hospital and treatment with antivenom to avoid morbidity and mortality.
Sun, C C; Guo, Y L; Lin, R S
Occupational skin disease is one of the most common occupational diseases. The hand is the most frequent site of involvement in occupational skin disease. We interviewed and examined patients seen in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the National Taiwan University Medical Center, a tertiary referral center in Taipei City. For patients suspected of having allergic skin diseases, patch testing was carried out using the European standard series and suspected allergens. Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) was diagnosed according to medical history, work exposure, physical examination, and patch test findings. 36% of patients seen were diagnosed as having OHD. Electronics, hairdressing, medical, chemical, and construction were the most important industries causing OHD. In the 164 patients with OHD, 58.5% had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and 41.5% allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dorsal fingers, nail folds, and dorsal hands were most frequently involved in patients with ACD; dorsal fingers, volar fingers and fingertips were most frequently involved in those with ICD. Using logistic regression analysis, we were able to identify the most important clinical presentations that predicted the types of OHD, ACD versus ICD. Patients with atopic history and palm involvement were more likely to have ICD, and those with nail fold involvement more likely to have ACD. In patients with ACD, the most important allergens were dichromate, nickel, cobalt, fragrance mix, epoxy resin, thiuram mix, and p-phenylenediamine. In this study, we identified the important industries and causal agents for OHD. Future preventive measures focused on these industries and agents to reduce OHD will be warranted.
Full Text Available Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report surgical therapies for corneal perforations in a tertiary referral hospital.Methods: Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients (aged 62.4±18.3 years with surgically treated corneal perforations from January 2002 to July 2013 were included in this study. Demographic data such as cause of corneal perforation, surgical procedures, and visual outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.Results: The causes of corneal perforation (n=31 were divided into infectious (n=8, 26% and noninfectious (n=23, 74% categories. Infectious causes included fungal ulcer, herpetic stromal necrotizing keratitis, and bacterial ulcer. The causes of noninfectious keratopathy included corneal melting after removal of a metal foreign body, severe dry eye, lagophthalmos, canaliculitis, the oral anticancer drug S-1, keratoconus, rheumatoid arthritis, neurotrophic ulcer, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and unknown causes. Initial surgical procedures included central large corneal graft (n=17, small corneal graft (n=7, and amniotic membrane transplantation (n=7. In two cases the perforation could not be sealed during the first surgical treatment and required subsequent procedures. All infectious keratitis required central large penetrating keratoplasty to obtain anatomical cure. In contrast, several surgical options were used for the treatment of noninfectious keratitis. After surgical treatment, anatomical cure was obtained in all cases. Mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity was better at 6 months (logMAR 1.3 than preoperatively (logMAR 1.8.Conclusion: Surgical therapies for corneal perforations in our hospital included central large lamellar/penetrating keratoplasty, small peripheral patch graft, and amniotic membrane transplantation. All treatments were effective. Corneal
Full Text Available Head and neck sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors that pose management challenges. We report our experience with these tumors. Forty consecutive patients treated for 44 head and neck sarcomas between 1997 and 2014 were culled from our prospectively maintained head and neck database. Five patients were excluded. The adult cohort consisted 29 (83% patients of a mean age of 57.7 years, with 33 sarcomas. The most common diagnoses were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (27% and chondroblastic osteosarcoma (21%. Clear surgical margins were achieved in 24/33 (73% lesions. Twenty-two patients received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Fourteen patients developed local (n=6, regional (n=1 and distant (n=7 recurrence. The overall 5-year survival was 66% with a mean survival interval of 66.5 months. Recurrent sarcoma, close (<1mm or involved surgical margins and advanced age were associated with statistically significantly reduced survival. The pediatric cohort consisted 6 (17% patients, with a mean age of nine years. Five patients had primary embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas and one had chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Clear surgical margins were achieved in 5 (83% patients. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Mean survival interval was 102 months. Three patients developed local (n=1 or distant (n=2 recurrence. Twenty-three free and 8 pedicled flaps were performed in 25 patients. 11/39 (28% lesions in 11 patients developed a complication. In conclusion, head and neck sarcomas are best managed by a multidisciplinary team at a tertiary head and neck referral centre and resection with clear margins is vital for disease control.
Thapa, Swosti; Wang, Jun; Hu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Fu-Gui; Ji, Ping
Mandibular condylar fracture is one of the commonest maxillofacial fractures treated by maxillofacial surgeons. Demography of the patients, causation, and characteristics of the fracture depends on various socio-economic factors. Hence, maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with epidemiology of mandibular condylar fracture. This study retrospectively describes the demography, etiology, fracture characteristics, and hospital utilization of surgically treated mandibular condylar fractures in a tertiary referral hospital in urban China in past five years. Data of all patients who underwent surgical management between 2011 and 2015 were collected. This included aetiology, characteristics of fracture, time, age, sex, associated injuries, and hospital utilization of 166 patients with 208 mandibular condylar fractures. These patients had undergone open reduction and internal fixation with either miniplates or lag screws. Among the fracture of head of mandibular condyle, 21.28% of the patients had the fracture segments removed. These data were statistically analyzed to describe the epidemiology of mandibular condylar fracture. Most of the patients had unilateral mandibular condylar fractures (74.7%). Male patients (76.51%) outnumbered female patients (23.49%) in this cohort. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The fractures were mostly caused by fall from height (60.84%) and were located at the condylar neck (53.61%). Most of the patients had other associated maxillofacial injuries (71.08%) which were mostly located at symphysis and parasymphysis (44.59%). It took 12.58 +/- 0.35 days of hospitalization for the treatment. Fall from height was the most prevalent cause of mandibular condylar injury in mountainous urban China. The people at highest risk were middle-aged men. Mandibular condylar fracture was mostly located at the condylar neck and was usually associated with fracture at the symphysis and parasymphysis.
Full Text Available Purpose: To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results: During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8% followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%, non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%, infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%, previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%, endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%, and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%. Other indications including Terrien′s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%, conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%, automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%, and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8% in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion: In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium.
Steltenkamp Carol L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer is critical in the primary care to specialist referral process and has been examined extensively in the US and other countries, yet there has been little attention to the patient's perspective of the information transfer process. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of the information received by patients with a chronic condition from the referring and specialist physician in the specialist referral process and the relationship of the quality of information received to trust in the physicians. Methods Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 250 patients who had experienced a referral to a specialist for the first visit for a chronic condition within the prior six months. The sample was selected from the patients who visited specialist physicians at any of the 500 hospitals from the National Research Corporation client base. Results Most patients (85% received a good explanation about the reason for the specialist visit from the referring physician yet 26% felt unprepared about what to expect. Trust in the referring physician was highly associated with the preparatory information patients received. Specialists gave good explanations about diagnosis and treatment, but 26% of patients got no information about follow-up. Trust in the specialist correlated highly with good explanations of diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. Conclusion Preparatory information from referring physicians influences the quality of the referral process, the subsequent coordination of care, and trust in the physician. Changes in the health care system can improve the information transfer process and improve coordination of care for patients.
Full Text Available Studies have shown large variation of referral probabilities in different countries, and many influencing factors have been described. This variation is most likely explained by different healthcare systems, particularly to which extent primary care physicians (PCPs act as gatekeepers. In Switzerland no mandatory gatekeeping system exists, however insurance companies offer voluntary managed care plans with reduced insurance premiums. We aimed at investigating the role of managed care plans as a potential referral determinant in a non-gatekeeping healthcare system. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 90 PCPs collecting data on consultations and referrals in 2012/2013. During each consultation up to six reasons for encounters (RFE were documented. For each RFE PCPs indicated whether a referral was initiated. Determinants for referrals were analyzed by hierarchical logistic regression, taking the potential cluster effect of the PCP into account. To further investigate the independent association of the managed care plan with the referral probability, a hierarchical multivariate logistic regression model was applied, taking into account all available data potentially affecting the referring decision. PCPs collected data on 24'774 patients with 42'890 RFE, of which 2427 led to a referral. 37.5% of patients were insured in managed health care plans. Univariate analysis showed significant higher referral rates of patients with managed care plans (10.7% vs. 8.5%. The difference in referral probability remained significant after controlling for other confounders in the hierarchical multivariate regression model (OR 1.355. Patients in managed care plans were more likely to be referred than patients without such a model. These data contradict the argument that patients in managed care plans have limited healthcare access, but underline the central role of PCPs as coordinator of care.
Verma, Amol A; Klich, John; Thurston, Adam; Scantlebury, Jordan; Kiss, Alex; Seddon, Gayle; Sinha, Samir K
We examined the association between paramedic-initiated home care referrals and utilization of home care, 9-1-1, and Emergency Department (ED) services. This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals who received a paramedic-initiated home care referral after a 9-1-1 call between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Home care, 9-1-1, and ED utilization were compared in the 6 months before and after home care referral. Nonparametric longitudinal regression was performed to assess changes in hours of home care service use and zero-inflated Poisson regression was performed to assess changes in the number of 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED. During the 24-month study period, 2,382 individuals received a paramedic-initiated home care referral. After excluding individuals who died, were hospitalized, or were admitted to a nursing home, the final study cohort was 1,851. The proportion of the study population receiving home care services increased from 18.2% to 42.5% after referral, representing 450 additional people receiving services. In longitudinal regression analysis, there was an increase of 17.4 hours in total services per person in the six months after referral (95% CI: 1.7-33.1, p = 0.03). The mean number of 9-1-1 calls per person was 1.44 (SD 9.58) before home care referral and 1.20 (SD 7.04) after home care referral in the overall study cohort. This represented a 10% reduction in 9-1-1 calls (95% CI: 7-13%, p home care referral and 0.79 (SD 6.27) after home care referral, representing a 7% reduction (95% CI: 3-11%, p home care records were included in the analysis, the reductions in 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED were attenuated but remained statistically significant. Paramedic-initiated home care referrals in Toronto were associated with improved access to and use of home care services and may have been associated with reduced 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED.
Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidemia is a common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility patterns and outcomes of candidemia in a large regional tertiary referral hospital. Methods A retrospective surveillance study of patients with candidemia was conducted at Singapore General Hospital between July 2012 and December 2015. In addition, incidence densities and species distribution of candidemia episodes were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Results In the period of 2012 to 2015, 261 candidemia episodes were identified. The overall incidence was 0.14/1000 inpatient-days. C. glabrata (31.4%, C. tropicalis (29.9%, and C. albicans (23.8% were most commonly isolated. The incidence of C. glabrata significantly increased from 2008 to 2015 (Coefficient 0.004, confidence interval 0–0.007, p = 0.04. Fluconazole resistance was detected primarily in C. tropicalis (16.7% and C. glabrata (7.2%. fks mutations were identified in one C. albicans and one C. tropicalis. Candidemia episodes caused by C. tropicalis were more commonly encountered in patients with haematological malignancies (p = 0.01, neutropenia (p < 0.001 and higher SAPS II scores (p = 0.02, while prior exposure to echinocandins was associated with isolation of C. parapsilosis (p = 0.001. Echinocandins (73.3% were most commonly prescribed as initial treatment. The median (range time to initial treatment was 1 (0–9 days. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 49.8%. High SAPS II score (Odds ratio, OR 1.08; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.05–1.11 and renal replacement therapy (OR 5.54; CI 2.80–10.97 were independent predictors of mortality, while drain placement (OR 0.44; CI 0.19–0.99 was protective. Conclusions Decreasing azole susceptibilities to C. tropicalis and the emergence of echinocandin resistance suggest that susceptibility
Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.
Yaqub, K.M.; Usman, J.; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Khalil, A.; Noor, N.; Gill, M.M.
Objective: To determine the frequency of fungal infections in intensive care unit (ICU) of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Intensive Care Department of Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 01 Jan 2012 to 30 Jun 2012. Methodology: A total of 89 patients were screened with stay of more than 5 days in intensive care unit. Thirty cases were enrolled in the study for investigation of fungal infections that had fever even after 05 days of being on broad spectrum antibiotics. Culture was done on blood, urine and catheter tip samples as per clinical condition of a patient. Results: Candida infection was found in 23.4% of study cases. The mean age of study patients was 41.2 +- 20.0 years while 63.4% were female patients as compared to 36.7% males. Conclusion: Fungal infections especially candidemias are quite frequent in the intensive care units. (author)
Bibby, Anna C; Williams, Katie; Smith, Sarah; Bhatt, Nidhi; Maskell, Nick A
Multidisciplinary team meetings are standard care for cancer in the UK and Europe. Professional bodies recommend that mesothelioma cases should be discussed at specialist multidisciplinary team meetings. However, no evidence exists exploring the role of the specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting. To evaluate the clinical activity of 1 specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting and to determine how often a definitive diagnosis was made, whether the core requirements of the meeting were met and whether there was any associated benefit or detriment. A service evaluation using routinely collected data from 1 specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting in a tertiary referral hospital in the South-West of England. All cases discussed between 1/1/2014 and 31/12/2015. The primary outcome measure was whether a definitive diagnosis was made. Secondary outcomes included whether treatment advice was offered, information on clinical trials provided or further investigations suggested. Additional benefits of the multidisciplinary team meeting and time taken from referral to outcome were also collected. A definitive diagnosis was reached in 171 of 210 cases discussed (81%). Mesothelioma was diagnosed in 153/210 (73%). Treatment advice was provided for 127 of 171 diagnostic cases (74%) and further investigations suggested for all 35 non-diagnostic cases. 86/210 cases (41%) were invited to participate in a trial, of whom 43/86 (50%) subsequently enrolled. Additional benefits included the avoidance of postmortem examination if the coroner was satisfied with the multidisciplinary team decision. The overall process from referral to outcome dispatch was specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting was effective at making diagnoses and providing recommendations for further investigations or treatment. The core requirements of a specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting were met. The process was timely, with most outcomes
, pregestational medical evaluation and regular antenatal follow-up visits especially for high-risk women should be emphasized. Whenever possible, women diagnosed with severe preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome should be transferred to a tertiary medical center with adequate capabilities for maternal and neonatal intensive care in order to decrease perinatal morbidities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing in prevalence world-wide with the largest growth being in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of CKD in a geriatric outpatient clinic within a tertiary hospital and its association with anaemia and mortality with a focus on the referral patterns towards nephrologists. Methods Retrospective study utilising administrative databases. The cohort was defined as all patients that attended the geriatric outpatient clinics of a single tertiary hospital within the first 3 months of 2006. Patients were followed for 18 months for mortality and referral to a nephrologist. Results The mean Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of the 439 patients was 67.4 ± 29.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 (44% 2. 11.8% had a haemoglobin 2 (p = 0.0092. Kidney function and anaemia were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis (p = 0.019 and p = 0.0074. After 18 months, 8.8% of patients with CKD were referred to a nephrologist. Conclusion Despite a high prevalence of CKD in patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic and its association with anaemia and mortality, few of these patients were referred to a nephrologist. An examination of the reasons behind this bias is required.
Full Text Available Aim: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology and one of the leading causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Adverse outcomes can be improved by early identification of the disease and timely referral to a tertiary center. The aims of this study were to evaluate the outcomes of preeclampsia-eclampsia cases and share our experiences in a tertiary center. Methods: The study conducted by retrospectively analyzing the data of 350 women who gave birth between 2008 and 2013 at a tertiary care center. Results: The mean age of the enrolled women was 35 years, the mean gestational age at delivery-36 weeks, the mean birth weight-2.73 kg, and the mean platelet count was 204.000/ mm3. The incidence of preterm deliveries was 66.6%. Severe preeclampsia was noted in 29.4% of cases. Neonatal intensive care unit admissions were seen in 10.6% of cases. A total of 22.9% of these women had vaginal deliveries, while the other 77.1% underwent cesarean section. High systolic blood pressure and elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase values had significant independent effects of differentiating between mild and severe preeclampsia. Conclusion: Fetomaternal morbidity and mortality rates associated with hypertensive disorders are alarming, especially in developing countries. As such, the high-risk obstetric population should be screened earlier in pregnancy. A system allowing early referral in these cases should be created. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:143-6
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India has a high burden of drug resistant TB, although there are few data on XDR-TB. Although XDR-TB has existed previously in India, the definition has not been widely applied, and surveillance using second line drug susceptibility testing has not been performed. Our objective was to analyze clinical and demographic risk factors associated with isolation of MDR and XDR TB as compared to susceptible controls, at a tertiary center. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Retrospective chart review based on positive cultures isolated in a high volume mycobacteriology laboratory between 2002 and 2007. 47 XDR, 30 MDR and 117 susceptible controls were examined. Drug resistant cases were less likely to be extrapulmonary, and had received more previous treatment regimens. Significant risk factors for XDR-TB included residence outside the local state (OR 7.43, 3.07-18.0 and care costs subsidized (OR 0.23, 0.097-0.54 in bivariate analysis and previous use of a fluoroquinolone and injectable agent (other than streptomycin (OR 7.00, 95% C.I. 1.14-43.03 and an initial treatment regimen which did not follow national guidelines (OR 5.68, 1.24-25.96 in multivariate analysis. Cavitation and HIV did not influence drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is significant selection bias in the sample available. Selection pressure from previous treatment and an inadequate initial regimen increases risk of drug resistance. Local patients and those requiring financial subsidies may be at lower risk of XDR-TB.
Carter, K; Cheung, P P; Rome, K; Santosa, A; Lahiri, M
Foot disease is highly prevalent in people with inflammatory arthritis and is often under-recognized. Podiatry intervention can significantly reduce foot pain and disability, with timely access being the key factor. The aim of this study was to plan and implement a quality improvement project to identify the barriers to, and improve, uptake of podiatry services among patients with inflammatory arthritis-related foot problems seen at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A 6-month quality improvement program was conducted by a team of key stakeholders using quality improvement tools to identify, implement and test several interventions designed to improve uptake of podiatry services. The number of patients referred for podiatry assessment was recorded on a weekly basis by an experienced podiatrist. The criterion for appropriate referral to podiatry was those patients with current or previous foot problems such as foot pain, swelling and deformity. Interventions included education initiatives, revised workflow, development of national guidelines for inflammatory arthritis, local podiatry guidelines for the management of foot and ankle problems, routine use of outcome measures, and introduction of a fully integrated rheumatology-podiatry service with reduced cost package. Referral rates increased from 8% to 11%, and were sustained beyond the study period. Complete incorporation of podiatry into the rheumatology consultation as part of the multidisciplinary team package further increased referrals to achieve the target of full uptake of the podiatry service. Through a structured quality improvement program, referrals to podiatry increased and improved the uptake and acceptance of rheumatology-podiatry services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discussion: Timely referral to outpatient nephrology care is associated with slowed disease progression, less hospital admissions, reduced total treatment costs, and improved survival in patients with CKD.
Self care activities among patients with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India. ... Conclusions: Self‑care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in almost all aspects except for blood sugar monitoring and treatment adherence. As these practices are essential for prevention of ...
To highlight the presentation and management of various vascular injuries and their outcome. Thirty nine cases of vascular trauma were referred to vascular surgeon CMH Rawalpindi, in the above mentioned period. These cases were evaluated for mechanism of injury, age, gender and time of presentation. Out of these, only thirty cases were found suitable for surgical intervention. These thirty cases were evaluated for site of vascular injury, associated injuries, type of surgery performed and the outcome. Blunt trauma was the predominant cause of vascular injuries in our study 16/39 (41%). Fourteen cases (35.8%) had gun shot wounds. Only thirty patients (76.9 %) underwent various surgical procedures. Primary end to end anastomosis was possible in only 5/30 cases (16.6%) while reversed venous graft was used in 13/30 cases (43.3%). Wound infection occurred in 2/30(6.6%) cases out of which 1 case (3.3%) ultimately had an amputation. The time period between injury and surgical intervention ranged between 1 to 20 hours for most of the vascular injuries while delayed presentation in the form of traumatic arteriovenous fistula or pseudoaneurysm was between 48 hours to 3 months. There are reasonable numbers of vascular trauma cases being referred to a tertiary care hospital. Most of these cases reach us quite late due to unnecessary investigations, delayed referral and transportation. Early intervention and revascularization definitely reduces amputation and complication rate. All gunshot wounds not only require thorough surrounding soft tissue debridement but also liberal excision of traumatised vessel itself, resulting in interposition graft repair. (author)
Hashem, Atef A
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of hypodontia in Irish patients referred to a tertiary care clinic for developmental dental disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of 168 patients with hypodontia referred during the period 2002-2006 were entered in a database designed as a national record. Tooth charting was completed using clinical and radiographic examinations. The age of patients ranged from 7-50 years, with a median age of 20 years (Mean: 21.79; SD: 8.005). RESULTS: Hypodontia referrals constituted 65.5% of the total referrals. Females were more commonly affected than males with a ratio of 1.3:1. The number of referrals reflected the population density in this area; the majority were referrals from the public dental service. Mandibular second premolars were the most commonly missing teeth, followed by maxillary second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors; maxillary central incisors were the least affected. Symmetry of tooth agenesis between the right and left sides was an evident feature. Slightly more teeth were missing on the left side (n = 725) than on the right side (n = 706) and in the maxillary arch (n = 768) as compared to the mandibular arch (n = 663). Some 54% of patients had severe hypodontia with more than six teeth missing; 32% had moderate hypodontia, with four to six teeth missing. The most common pattern of tooth agenesis was four missing teeth. CONCLUSION: Hypodontia was a common presentation in a population referred to this tertiary care clinic. The pattern and distribution of tooth agenesis in Irish patients appears to follow the patterns reported in the literature.
Challen, J.; Tang, Y. M.; Stuckey, S.; Hazratwala, K.
Full text: This study was designed to assess the accuracy of knee MRl examinations carried out in a general tertiary referral hospital without a musculoskeletal fellowship trained radiologist. The study included all patients who had undergone a knee arthroscopy carried out within a 2-year period and who had had a prior MRl knee examination, where both were carried out at this institution. The accuracy of the MRl knee examination was determined by correlation to the arthroscopy report. The accuracy for diagnosis of meniscal and cartilage injuries, in this setting, was found to be similar to a published meta-analysis of previous studies correlating knee MRl and arthroscopy. The overall accuracy of this study was better than the previous similar study. However, the accuracy for diagnosing ACL injuries was lower than in the meta-analysis. The potential reasons for this and other sources of error are discussed
Horne-Thompson, Anne; Daveson, Barbara; Hogan, Bridgit
The purpose of this project is to analyze music therapy (MT) referral trends from palliative care team members across nine Australian inpatient and community-based palliative care settings. For each referral 6 items were collected: referral source, reason and type; time from Palliative Care Program (PCP) admission to MT referral; time from MT referral to death/discharge; and profile of referred patient. Participants (196 female, 158 male) were referred ranging in age from 4-98 years and most were diagnosed with cancer (91%, n = 323). Nurses (47%, n = 167) referred most frequently to music therapy. The mean average time in days for all referrals from PCP admission to MT referral was 11.47 and then 5.19 days to time of death. Differences in length of time to referral ranged from 8.19 days (allied health staff) to 43.75 days (families). Forty-eight percent of referrals (48.5%, n = 172) were completed when the patient was rated at an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance (ECOG) of three. Sixty-nine percent (n = 244) were living with others at the time of referral and most were Australian born. Thirty-six percent (36.7%, n = 130) were referred for symptom-based reasons, and 24.5% (n = 87) for support and coping. Implications for service delivery of music therapy practice, interdisciplinary care and benchmarking of music therapy services shall be discussed.
22 and the morphology was normocytic normochromic in 20 cases. Tuberculosis leading to anaemia was seen in 24, Internal haemorrhoids/Fissures 5, Taenia infestation in 3, Haematological Malignancies 2, GI Malignancies 3, Connective tissues disorders 3, Nutritional iron deficiency 8 and Anaemia of chronic diseases in remaining cases. Among the 22 cases having macrocytic anaemia, 11 had vitamin B 12 deficiency, 6 had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 had alcoholism. Among the 20 patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, 4 had haemolytic anaemia, 1 had aplastic anaemia and remaining were having anaemia of chronic disease mainly chronic kidney disease. Regarding treatment, 23 patients were transfused blood. Out of total 100 patients included in the study, in-hospital mortality was 10. CONCLUSIONS Anaemia is associated with a variety of diseases. As Tuberculosis and B 12 Deficiency are among the leading causes of anaemia, hypochromic and microcytic picture was the predominant picture in peripheral blood smear. Among the patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, majority were having chronic kidney disease which may be due to the fact that our hospital is a tertiary referral centre for chronic renal failure. In-hospital mortality due to anaemia alone is lower in tertiary care centres, but the mortality in our study is due to associated comorbid conditions like chronic renal failure and malignancy.
Pattison, Natalie; Eastham, Elizabeth
To explore referrals to a critical care outreach team (CCOT), associated factors around patient management and survival to discharge, and the qualitative exploration of referral characteristics (identifying any areas for service improvement around CCOT). A single-centre mixed method study in a specialist hospital was undertaken, using an explanatory design: participant selection model. In this model, quantitative results (prospective and retrospective episode of care review, including modified early warning system (MEWS), time and delay of referral and patient outcomes for admission and survival) are further explained by qualitative (interview) data with doctors and nurses referring to outreach. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS +17 and 19, and qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory principles. A large proportion of referrals (124/407 = 30·5%) were made by medical staff. For 97 (97/407 = 23·8%) referrals, there was a delay between the point at which patients deteriorated (as verified by retrospective record review and MEWS score triggers) and the time at when patients were referred. The average delay was 2·96 h (95% CI 1·97-3·95; SD 9·56). Timely referrals were associated with improved outcomes; however, no causal attribution can be made from the circumstances around CCOT referral. Qualitative themes included indications for referral, facilitating factors for referral, barriers to referral and consequences of referral, with an overarching core theory of reassurance. Outreach was seen as back-up and this core theory demonstrates the important, and somewhat less tangible, role outreach has in supporting ward staff to care for at-risk patients. Mapping outreach episodes of care and patient outcomes can help highlight areas for improvement. This study outlines reasons for referral and how outreach can facilitate patient pathways in critical illness. © 2011 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2011 British Association of Critical Care
Hughes, Danny R; Sunshine, Jonathan H; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Forman, Howard
As the cost of both chronic care and diagnostic imaging continue to rise, it is important to consider methods of cost containment in these areas. Therefore, it seems important to study the relationship between self-referral for imaging and the cost of care of chronic illnesses. Previous studies, mostly of acute illnesses, have found self-referral increases utilization and, thus, probably imaging costs. To evaluate the relationship between physician self-referral for imaging and the cost of episodes of chronic care. Using Medicare's 5% Research Identifiable Files for 2004 to 2007, episodes of care were constructed for 32 broad chronic conditions using the Symmetry Episode Treatment Grouper. Using multivariate regression, we evaluated the association between whether the treating physician self-referred for imaging and total episode cost, episode imaging cost, and episode nonimaging cost. Analyses were controlled for patient characteristics (eg, age and general health status), the condition's severity, and treating physician specialty. Self-referral in imaging was significantly (P nonimaging costs were much more often significantly higher (in 24 combinations) with self-referral than being lower (in 4 combinations). We find broad evidence that physician self-referral for imaging is associated with significantly and substantially higher chronic care costs. Unless self-referral has empirically demonstrable benefits, curbing self-referral may be an appropriate route to containing chronic care costs.
Less than 20% of the referral letters included information on previous psychiatric consultations, current psychotropic medication, the outcome of physical examinations, and results of special investigations. Only 17 (6%) referral letters indicated a preliminary diagnosis according to an officially recognised classification system ...
Hurtado, Eric A; Appell, Rodney A
This case series' purpose is to review a referral center's experience with complications from mesh kits. A chart review of 12 patients who presented with complications associated with transvaginal mesh kit procedures was performed. All patients underwent complete surgical removal of the mesh to treat mesh exposure, pain, or vaginal bleeding/discharge followed by an anterior or posterior repair. The mean follow-up time after surgery was 3.4 months. Eight of 12 patients had mesh that had formed a fibrotic band. Six of 12 patients had complete resolution of pain. Of the nine patients with mesh exposure, all required significant resection of the vaginal wall. No further mesh exposure occurred. The use of transvaginal mesh kits may cause previously undescribed complications such as pelvic/vaginal pain or large extrusions requiring complete removal. Removal of all mesh except the arms may cure or significantly improve these problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, a medical home model has been shown to improve the outcomes for children with special health care needs. As part of this model, primary care physicians provide comprehensive medical care that includes identification of delayed and/or atypical development in children and coordination of care with specialists. However, it is not clear if families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD rely on the medical home model for care of their child to the same extent as families of children with other special health care needs. This study aims to add to the understanding of medical care for children with ASD by examining the referral source for specialty care. Methods This retrospective study was accomplished by evaluating parent completed intake data for children with ASD compared to those with other neurological disorders in a single physician Pediatric Neurology Practice at a major urban medical center in Northern New Jersey. To account for referral bias, a similar comparison study was conducted using a multispecialty ASD practice at the same medical center. Parent reported "source of referral" and "reason for the referral" of 189 ASD children and 108 non-ASD neurological disordered children were analyzed. Results The specialty evaluations of ASD were predominantly parent initiated. There were significantly less referrals received from primary care physicians for children with ASD compared to children with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Requirement of an insurance referral was not associated with a primary care physician prompted specialty visit.We identified different patterns of referral to our specialty clinics for children with ASD vs. children with other neurolodevelopmental disorders. Conclusion The majority of the families of children with ASD evaluated at our autism center did not indicate that a primary care physician initiated the specialty referral. This study suggests that families of
Sips, I.I.; Haeri Mazanderani, A.; Schneider, H.; Greeff, M.; Barten, F.J.; Moshabela, M.
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral
Grote, F.K.; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Dekker, F.W.; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Lodder-van der Kooij, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.
Background. To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these
Giannousis, Ioannis P; Papatheodoridis, George V; Deutsch, Melanie J; Manolakopoulos, Spilios G; Manesis, Emanuel K; Koskinas, John S; Archimandritis, Athanasios J
To investigate the burden and recent epidemiological changes of the main chronic liver diseases in a Greek referral tertiary centre. We evaluated the main epidemiological characteristics of 1080 consecutive adult patients, seen at our outpatient liver clinic between 2002 and 2007, with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and/or C (HCV) virus infection, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our patient population was divided into two groups in relation to the time of the first visit (period A: 2002-2004, period B: 2005-2007). Among our patient population, 86.1% had chronic HBV and/or HCV infection (chronic HCV alone: 44.9%), 9.2% NAFLD and 4.8% ALD. From period A to B, there was a decrease in chronic HBV cases (44.0 vs. 37.8%, P = 0.045) with immigrants being responsible for 35.5% of them and being more frequent in period B than A (39.7 vs. 30.5%, P = 0.046). In chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients, who were more frequent immigrants compared with hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients (65.5 vs. 29.5%, P = 0.001), increased from period A to B (8.0 vs. 17.6%, P = 0.045). Intravenous drug use was reported by 41.2% of HCV patients with its proportion increasing from period A to B (32.5 vs. 47.4%, P = 0.002). Decompensated cirrhosis was present in 67, 10, 11 and 3% of patients with ALD, HBV, HCV and NAFLD, respectively. At Greek tertiary centres, chronic viral hepatitis remains responsible for most chronic liver disease cases, but its epidemiology is changing owing to immigrants and intravenous drug users.
Zuchowski, Jessica L; Rose, Danielle E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Cordasco, Kristina M
Poor communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists is a significant problem and a detriment to effective care coordination. Inconsistency in the quality of primary-specialty communication persists even in environments with integrated delivery systems and electronic medical records (EMRs), such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The purpose of this study was to measure ease of communication and to characterize communication challenges perceived by PCPs and primary care personnel in the VHA, with a particular focus on challenges associated with referral communication. The study utilized a convergent mixed-methods design: online cross-sectional survey measuring PCP-reported ease of communication with specialists, and semi-structured interviews characterizing primary-specialty communication challenges. 191 VHA PCPs from one regional network were surveyed (54% response rate), and 41 VHA PCPs and primary care staff were interviewed. PCP-reported ease of communication mean score (survey) and recurring themes in participant descriptions of primary-specialty referral communication (interviews) were analyzed. Among PCPs, ease-of-communication ratings were highest for women's health and mental health (mean score of 2.3 on a scale of 1-3 in both), and lowest for cardiothoracic surgery and neurology (mean scores of 1.3 and 1.6, respectively). Primary care personnel experienced challenges communicating with specialists via the EMR system, including difficulty in communicating special requests for appointments within a certain time frame and frequent rejection of referral requests due to rigid informational requirements. When faced with these challenges, PCPs reported using strategies such as telephone and e-mail contact with specialists with whom they had established relationships, as well as the use of an EMR-based referral innovation called "eConsults" as an alternative to a traditional referral. Primary-specialty communication is a continuing
Priscila de Freitas-Lima
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the utilization profile of antiepileptic drugs in a population of adult patients with refractory epilepsy attending a tertiary center. Method Descriptive analyses of data were obtained from the medical records of 112 patients. Other clinical and demographic characteristics were also registered. Results Polytherapies with ≥3 antiepileptic drugs were prescribed to 60.7% of patients. Of the old agents, carbamazepine and clobazam were the most commonly prescribed (72.3% and 58.9% of the patients, respectively. Among the new agents, lamotrigine was the most commonly prescribed (36.6% of the patients. At least one old agent was identified in 103 out of the 104 polytherapies, while at least one new agent was prescribed to 70.5% of the population. The most prevalent combination was carbamazepine + clobazam + lamotrigine. The mean AED load found was 3.3 (range 0.4–7.7. Conclusion The pattern of use of individual drugs, although consistent with current treatment guidelines, is strongly influenced by the public health system.
Vilallonga, Ramón; Calero-Lillo, Aránzazu; Charco, Ramón; Balsells, Joaquim
Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of acute abdomen in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency at our institution and its management and outcomes. A retrospective analysis of a database of cases presented in 7 consecutive years at a tertiary center was performed. Between December 2002 and August 2009, there were 19 cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnant women, 85% with a biliary etiology. The highest frequency was in the third trimester of pregnancy (62.5% cases). In cases of gallstone pancreatitis, 43.6% of pregnant women had had previous episodes before pregnancy. A total of 52.6% of the patients were readmitted for a recurrent episode of pancreatitis during their pregnancy. Overall, 26.3% of the patients received antibiotic treatment and 26.3% parenteral nutrition. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed during the 2nd trimester in two patients (10.5%). There was no significant maternal morbidity. Acute pancreatitis in pregnant women usually has a benign course with proper treatment. In cases of biliary origin, it appears that a surgical approach is suitable during the second trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.
Varley, Jarlath; Delanty, Norman; Normand, Charles; Coyne, Imelda; McQuaid, Louise; Collins, Claire; Boland, Michael; Grimson, Jane; Fitzsimons, Mary
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease affecting people of every age, gender, race and socio-economic background. The diagnosis and optimal management relies on contribution from a number of healthcare disciplines in a variety of healthcare settings. To explore the interface between primary care and specialist epilepsy services in Ireland. Using appreciative inquiry, focus groups were held with healthcare professionals (n=33) from both primary and tertiary epilepsy specialist services in Ireland. There are significant challenges to delivering a consistent high standard of epilepsy care in Ireland. The barriers that were identified are: the stigma of epilepsy, unequal access to care services, insufficient human resources, unclear communication between primary-tertiary services and lack of knowledge. Improving the management of people with epilepsy requires reconfiguration of the primary-tertiary interface and establishing clearly defined roles and formalised clinical pathways. Such initiatives require resources in the form of further education and training and increased usage of information communication technology (ICT). Epilepsy services across the primary-tertiary interface can be significantly enhanced through the implementation of a shared model of care underpinned by an electronic patient record (EPR) system and information communication technology (ICT). Better chronic disease management has the potential to halt the progression of epilepsy with ensuing benefits for patients and the healthcare system. Copyright 2009 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cuervo-Pardo, L; Barcena-Blanch, M; Radojicic, C
The treatment of antihistamine and steroid resistant Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) during pregnancy poses a challenge due to teratogenicity of immunosuppressants. Omalizumab is a recently FDA approved therapy for CIU and is classified as pregnancy category B. We present an initial series of subjects treated at a tertiary care center for antihistamine and steroid resistant CIU with omalizumab who became pregnant during therapy.
Bottino, Clement J; Rhodes, Erinn T; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Cox, Joanne E; Fleegler, Eric W
To describe a clinical approach for food insecurity screening incorporating a menu offering food-assistance referrals, and to examine relationships between food insecurity and referral selection. Caregivers of 3- to 10-year-old children presenting for well-child care completed a self-administered questionnaire on a laptop computer. Items included the US Household Food Security Survey Module: 6-Item Short Form (food insecurity screen) and a referral menu offering assistance with: 1) finding a food pantry, 2) getting hot meals, 3) applying for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and 4) applying for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Referrals were offered independent of food insecurity status or eligibility. We examined associations between food insecurity and referral selection using multiple logistic regression while adjusting for covariates. A total of 340 caregivers participated; 106 (31.2%) reported food insecurity, and 107 (31.5%) selected one or more referrals. Forty-nine caregivers (14.4%) reported food insecurity but selected no referrals; 50 caregivers (14.7%) selected one or more referrals but did not report food insecurity; and 57 caregivers (16.8%) both reported food insecurity and selected one or more referrals. After adjustment, caregivers who selected one or more referrals had greater odds of food insecurity compared to caregivers who selected no referrals (adjusted odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 2.4-7.0). In this sample, there was incomplete overlap between food insecurity and referral selection. Offering referrals may be a helpful adjunct to standard screening for eliciting family preferences and identifying unmet social needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiskar, Katie J; Celi, Leo Anthony; McDermid, Robert C; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A; Boyd, John H; Rush, Barret
Palliative care is recommended for advanced heart failure (HF) by several major societies, though prior studies indicate that it is underutilized. To investigate patterns of palliative care referral for patients admitted with HF exacerbations, as well as to examine patient and hospital factors associated with different rates of palliative care referral. Retrospective nationwide cohort analysis utilizing the National Inpatient Sample from 2006 to 2012. Patients referred to palliative care were compared to those who were not. Patients ≥18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of HF requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) were included. A cohort of non-HF patients with metastatic cancer was created for temporal comparison. Between 2006 and 2012, 74 824 patients underwent MV for HF. A referral to palliative care was made in 2903 (3.9%) patients. The rate of referral for palliative care in HF increased from 0.8% in 2006 to 6.4% in 2012 ( P care referral in patients with cancer increased from 2.9% in 2006 to 11.9% in 2012 ( P care ( P care. The use of palliative care for patients with advanced HF increased during the study period; however, palliative care remains underutilized in this setting. Patient factors such as race and SES affect access to palliative care.
Wallace, David J; Mohan, Deepika; Angus, Derek C; Driessen, Julia R; Seymour, Christopher M; Yealy, Donald M; Roberts, Mark M; Kurland, Kristen S; Kahn, Jeremy M
Regional, coordinated care for time-sensitive and high-risk medical conditions is a priority in the United States. A necessary precursor to coordinated regional care is regions that are actionable from clinical and policy standpoints. The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, the major health care referral construct in the United States, uses regions that cross state and county boundaries, limiting fiscal or political ownership by key governmental stakeholders in positions to create incentive and regulate regional care coordination. Our objective is to develop and evaluate referral regions that define care patterns for patients with acute myocardial infraction, acute stroke, or trauma, yet also preserve essential political boundaries. We developed a novel set of acute care referral regions using Medicare data in the United States from 2011. For acute myocardial infraction, acute stroke, or trauma, we iteratively aggregated counties according to patient home location and treating hospital address, using a spatial algorithm. We evaluated referral political boundary preservation and spatial accuracy for each set of referral regions. The new set of referral regions, the Pittsburgh Atlas, had 326 distinct regions. These referral regions did not cross any county or state borders, whereas 43.1% and 98.1% of all Dartmouth Atlas hospital referral regions crossed county and state borders. The Pittsburgh Atlas was comparable to the Dartmouth Atlas in measures of spatial accuracy and identified larger at-risk populations for all 3 conditions. A novel and straightforward spatial algorithm generated referral regions that were politically actionable and accountable for time-sensitive medical emergencies. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Busard, M.P.H.; Mijatovic, V.; Lüchinger, A.B.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Pieters-van den Bos, I.C.; Schats, R.; Kuijk, C. van; Hompes, P.G.A.; Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van
Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory
Şişman, Gürhan; Köroğlu, Emine; Erzin, Yusuf; Hatemi, İbrahim; Tuncer, Murat; Şentürk, Hakan
There are no clinical data available about chronic pancreatitis (CP) on a series of patients of sufficient number in Turkey. In this study, the etiology and clinical features of CP were evaluated in one center, which is a tertiary referral hospital. The files of 168 patients who had been diagnosed with CP in our Medical Faculty between October 2007 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The etiological factors, symptoms, complications, and treatment methods were analyzed. The most common etiological factor was alcohol abuse (39%). The average age±SD was 46±15.2 years, and the male:female ratio was 4.2:1 (it was 2.6:1 for other etiologies except alcohol abuse and 15.5:1 in alcoholic CP patients, ppancreatic calcification (ppancreatic cancer was detected in four patients (2.3%). In majority of the CP patients, the etiology is alcohol abuse in Turkey. The development of diabetes is the most frequent complication of CP, which is independent of the etiology.
Busard, M.P.H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, V., E-mail: Mijatovic@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lüchinger, A.B., E-mail: email@example.com [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bleeker, M.C.G., E-mail: MCG.Bleeker@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, I.C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schats, R., E-mail: email@example.com [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, C. van, E-mail: C.vanKuijk@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hompes, P.G.A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van, E-mail: JHTM.email@example.com [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory.
Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung
Background The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. Results During the study pe...
Hanley, Judy; Adams, Jane
This article describes the initial development and subsequent evolution of a simple referral assessment tool for stoma care. The first author's personal experience identified that there was widespread inconsistency in perceptions of local multidisciplinary teams as to when it was appropriate to refer to specific specialist nursing teams. This resulted in both inappropriate and delayed referrals. A 'Think Specialist Nurse' initiative was developed across the author's trust, building on the traffic light template from the 'ThinkGlucose' tool, to facilitate referrals to clinical nurse specialists. The stoma-care specific tool, 'Think Stoma Nurse', has subsequently evolved beyond its initial audience, and has been adapted into materials aimed at patients and carers.
Smits, M; Rutten, M; Schepers, L; Giesen, P
There is a trend for General Practitioner Cooperatives (GPCs) to co-locate with emergency departments (EDs) of hospitals at Emergency Care Access Points (ECAPs), where the GPCs generally conduct triage and treat a large part of self-referrals who would have gone to the ED by themselves in the past. We have examined patient and care characteristics of self-referrals at ECAPs where triage was conducted by GPCs, also to determine the percentage of self-referrals being referred to the ED. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Descriptive analyses of routine registration data from self-referrals of five ECAPs (n = 20.451). Patient age, gender, arrival time, urgency, diagnosis and referral were analysed. Of the self-referrals, 57.9% was male and the mean age was 32.7 years. The number of self-referrals per hour was highest during weekends, particularly between 11 a.m. and 5 p.m. On weekdays, there was a peak between 5 and 9 p.m. Self-referrals were mostly assigned a low-urgency grade (35.7% - U4 or U5) or a mid-urgency grade (49% - U3). Almost half of the self-referrals had trauma of the locomotor system (28%) or the skin (27.3%). In total, 23% of the patients was referred to the ED. Self-referred patients at GPCs are typically young, male and have low- to mid-urgency trauma-related problems. Many self-referrals present themselves on weekend days or early weekday evenings. Over three quarters of these patients can be treated by the GPCs, without referral to the ED. This reduces the workload at the ED.
Nikkhoo, Bahram; Lahurpur, Fariba; Delpisheh, Ali; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the present study was to determine bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and to investigate the risk factors associated with BSI. This was a nested case-control study carried out from September 2009 to June 2010 in the NICU wards in Sanandaj hospitals western Iran. Cases were patients with BSI and controls were other patients who had negative blood culture. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was performed based on the Edward & Ewings and the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory (NCCL) Standards. Of 472 patients who hospitalized in NICU, 6.4% had BSI (n = 30) including 17girls (56.7%) and 13 boys (43.3%). Enterobacter SPP was the predominant isolated bacteria from blood culture (36.7%). The maximum antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were observed by Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin respectively. Risk factors associated with BSI were age ≤ 7 days (p = 0.001), previous antibiotic consumption (p = 0.013), and low birth weight (LBW), (p = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria and Entrobacter in particular are the most common pathogens. Improving prenatal health care, standards of infection control and choosing accurate antibiotics are recommended to avoid BSI in neonatal intensive care units.
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75% accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip
In Uganda, referral of sick children seeking care at public health facilities is poor and widely reported. However, studies focusing on the private health sector are scanty. The main objective of this study was to assess referral practices for sick children seeking care at private health facilities in order to explore ways of improving treatment and referral of sick children in this sector. A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, central Uganda. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented by Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant interviews with private providers and community members. A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 170 (70.5%) were registered drug shops, 59 (24.5%) private clinics and 12 (5.0%) pharmacies. Overall, 104/241 (43.2%) of the private health facilities reported that they had referred sick children to higher levels of care in the two weeks prior to the survey. The main constraints to follow referral advice as perceived by caretakers were: not appreciating the importance of referral, gender-related decision-making and negotiations at household level, poor quality of care at referral facilities, inadequate finances at household level; while the perception that referral leads to loss of prestige and profit was a major constraint to private providers. In conclusion, the results show that referral of sick children at private health facilities faces many challenges at provider, caretaker, household and community levels. Thus, interventions to address constraints to referral of sick children are urgently needed.
Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Khan, Maroof Ahmad; Talikoti, Dayanand G; Nallamilli, Samson
Anesthetists come in contact with more than two-third of hospital patients. Timely referral to anesthetists is vital in perioperative and remote site settings. Delayed referrals, improper referrals, and referrals at inappropriate levels can result in inadequate preparation, perioperative complications, and poor outcome. The self administered paper survey to delegates attending anesthesia conferences. Questions were asked on how high-risk, emergency surgical cases remote site and critical care patients were referred to anesthetists and presence of rapid response teams. The response rate was 43.8%. Sixty percent (55.3-64.8, P - 0.001) reported high-risk elective cases were referred after admission. Sixty-eight percent (63.42-72.45, P - 0.001) opined preoperative resting echocardiographs were useful. Six percent (4.16-8.98, P - 0.001) reported emergency room referral before arrival of the patient. Twenty-five percent (20.92-29.42, P - 0.001) indicated high-risk obstetric cases were referred immediately after admission. Consultants practiced preoperative stabilization more commonly than residents (32% vs. 22%) ( P - 0.004). For emergency surgery, resident referrals occurred after surgery time was fixed (40% vs. 28%) ( P - 0.012). Residents dealt with more cases without full investigations in obstetrics (28% vs. 15) ( P = 0.002). Remote site patients were commonly referred to residents after sedation attempts (32% vs. 20%) ( P = 0.036). Only 34.8 said hosptals where tbey practiced had dedicated cardiac arrest team in place. Anesthetic departments must periodically assess whether subgroups of patients are being referred in line with current guidelines. Cancellations, critical incidents and complications arising out of referral delays, and improper referrals must be recorded as referral incidents and a separate referral incident registry must be maintained in each department. Regular referral audits must be encouraged.
Offerhaus, P.M.; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Background: There are concerns about the Dutch maternity care system, characterized by a strict role division between primary and secondary care. The objective of this study was to describe trends in referrals and in perinatal outcomes among labors that started in primary midwife-led care. Methods:
Offerhaus, P.M.; Otten, W.; Boxem-Tiemessen, J.C.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Scheepers, P.L.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.
Objective in midwife-led care models of maternity care, midwives are responsible for intrapartum referrals to the obstetrician or obstetric unit, in order to give their clients access to secondary obstetric care. This study explores the influence of risk perception, policy on routine labour
Offerhaus, P.M.; Otten, W.; Boxem-Tiemessen, J.C.G.; de Jonge, A.; de Bruin, K.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective: in midwife-led care models of maternity care, midwives are responsible for intrapartum referrals to the obstetrician or obstetric unit, in order to give their clients access to secondary obstetric care. This study explores the influence of risk perception, policy on routine labour
Full Text Available Yesim Altay, Ayse Burcu, Gozde Aksoy, Evin Singar Ozdemir, Firdevs Ornek Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Indications for corneal transplantation in developed and developing nations differ according to the different spectrum of corneal disease in each country. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the changing indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation over the past 20 years at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent keratoplasty from January 1995 to December 2014 (between 1995 and 2004, period 1, and between 2005 and 2014, period 2. Patients’ demographic data, indications for corneal transplantation, and the type of surgery were recorded. Results: The number of keratoplasties performed ranged from 548 in period 1 to 782 in period 2. Between 1995 and 2004, the leading indications were keratoconus (34.1%, bullous keratopathy (17%, and non-herpetic corneal scar (13.3%, and between 2005 and 2014, they were keratoconus (33.8%, corneal stromal dystrophy (14.2%, and bullous keratopathy (12.7%. All the keratoplasties performed in the 1995–2004 period were penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. During the period 2005–2014, PKP accounted for 93%, automated lamellar keratoplasty 5.8%, and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty 1.2% of all corneal transplantations. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the leading indication for keratoplasty in both periods. In the 2005–2014 period, corneal stromal dystrophy increased significantly. All the keratoplasties performed in period 1 and 93% of all keratoplasties performed in period 2 were PKP. Keywords: corneal transplantation, indication, keratoconus, keratoplasty technique, penetrating keratoplasty
AIM: To identify the risk factors for, and to report the microbiological findings and clinical outcomes of, severe microbial keratitis (MK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all cases of presumed MK admitted to a tertiary referral center over a 2-year period (September 2001 to August 2003). Data recorded included demographic data, details relating to possible risk factors, results of microbiological studies, clinical findings at presentation, and clinical and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety patients were admitted with a diagnosis of presumed MK during the study period. The mean age of patients was 45 +\\/- 32 years, and the male to female ratio was 47:43 (52.2%:47.7%). Predisposing risk factors for MK included contact lens wear (37; 41.1%), anterior segment disease (19; 21.1%), ocular trauma (13; 14.4%), systemic disease (5; 5.6%), and previous ocular surgery (1; 1.1%). Cultured organisms included gram-negative bacteria (17; 51.5%), gram-positive bacteria (11, 33.3%), acanthamoeba (2; 6.1%), and fungi (1; 3%). Visual acuity improved significantly after treatment [mean best-corrected visual acuity (+\\/-standard deviation) at presentation: 0.76 (+\\/-0.11); mean best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up: 0.24 (+\\/-0.07); P < 0.001]. Secondary surgical procedures were required in 18 (20%) cases, and these included punctal cautery (1; 1.1%), tissue glue repair of corneal perforation (2; 2.2%), tarsorrhaphy (9; 9.9%), Botulinum toxin-induced ptosis (1; 1.1%), penetrating keratoplasty (3; 3.3%), and evisceration (2; 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contact lens wear remains a significant risk factor for severe MK. MK remains a threat to vision and to the eye, but the majority of cases respond to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Demir, M; Nigemeier, J; Kütting, F; Bowe, A; Schramm, C; Hoffmann, V; Waldschmidt, D; Goeser, T; Steffen, H-M
We studied a cohort of adult patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, followed at a tertiary referral liver center in Germany over 12.5 years to analyze the clinical features and impact of management on disease progression and survival of CHB patients in general and of those with CHB and HCC in particular. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 242 adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients. CHB was defined as positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBV-DNA levels >10 IU/mL for at least 6 months. Patient demographics, HBV markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, liver imaging and histology were recorded for each visit. HCC patients were divided into two groups and separately analyzed (group 1: n = 24, HCC at first visit and group 2: n = 11, HCC during surveillance). The mean age was 44 years in CHB patients without HCC (63% male) and about 59 years in patients with HCC (77% male). Antiviral therapy was given to 59% of patients without HCC compared to only 25% in group 1 and 18% in group 2 with comparable median HBV DNA levels of approximately 36,000 IU/mL. There was no statistically significant difference concerning the HCC stages (Milan, UCSF, BCLC) at first diagnosis. Five-year survival was 19% in group 1 vs. 64% in group 2 (p = 0.019), with LTx performed in 12 vs. 45%, respectively. Surveillance of CHB patients did not result in early stage detection of HCC but in a higher likelihood to receive potentially curative treatments.
Lina M. Rengifo
Full Text Available Background: Penile cancer is a rare disease in Colombia; in Cali, it represents 0.7% of all cancers. Penile cancer has been associated with old age, bad hygiene, smoking and lack of circumcision. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with penile cancer who consulted to a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: A case series of all penile cancer cases at a reference institution in Cali during 2001-2010. Socioeconomic, demographic and clinical features of patients were described, and bivariate analyses were carried out. Results: There were 46 penile cancer cases. The average age was 60 ± 16.9 years. The main reason for consultation was an exophytic mass on the penis (75.0%. The most common location was the glans (69.6%, and the more frequent histology type was the squamous cell carcinoma (95.7%. With regard to risk factors, 65.5% of the patients had history of smoking and 90.9% did not have circumcision. Patients who underwent radical amputation had higher rates of positive nodes (55% vs. 13.5%, p=0.015 and ulcerative lesions (77.8% vs. 29.7%, p=0.018 than those who did not have the procedure done. Recurrence was associated with the presence of lymphadenopathy (p=0.02 and history of circumcision (p=0.015. Conclusion: Most of the patients with penile cancer found in this study had old age, history of tobacco use and lack of circumcision. Patients who presented with lymph node metastasis had to undergo more radical procedures and suffered a greater rate of recurrence compared with those without lymph node involvement. Robust studies to determine the risk factors among low-income populations are required.
Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Mukerjee, Aishik; Adhikary, Chandranath
There is a paucity of data on the demographic and clinicopathological profiles of patients with chronic pancreatitis from the eastern part of India. This study documents the demographic and clinicopathological profiles of patients with chronic pancreatitis presenting to a general surgery unit of a tertiary referral hospital of Kolkata. The records of 145 patients presenting with chronic pancreatitis over a 5-year period were scrutinized and their demographics, clinical profile, and complications and morphological changes of the pancreas are described. Of the 145 patients, more than 50% were under the age of 30 years. Males were affected more frequently than females (M/F = 3.8:1). While idiopathic pancreatitis was the most common form of chronic pancreatitis (41.4%), alcohol was found to be the most common etiology (37.9%). Pain was the most common presenting symptom (n = 143; 98.6%). Sixty-five subjects (45%) had diabetes of which 32 subjects were insulin-dependent. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography, ductal dilatation was seen in 80 (55.17%) subjects, while ductal calculi and ductal dilatation in 54 cases (37.2%). Parenchymal calcification was seen in 45 patients of whom 40 patients (89%) were under the age of 30 years. Pseudocyst was the most common complication (n = 16) followed by biliary obstruction (n = 8) and portal hypertension (n = 4). Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis had significantly higher frequency of severe abdominal pain, diabetes, and local complications as compared to the other forms of pancreatitis in our study. Idiopathic pancreatitis was the most common form of chronic pancreatitis in this study, followed by alcoholic pancreatitis and then tropical pancreatitis.
Belliappa Pemmanda Raju
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acne is a common problem in adolescent children and has a considerable impact on their quality of life. AIMS The impact of acne on quality of life (QoL in Indian adolescent patients remains undocumented. The study was undertaken to detect the impact of acne vulgaris in adolescents on the QoL using 2 questionnaires: The Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional, pre-structured, questionnaire-based study done on 140 consenting individuals, who attended the Acne Clinic of our Dermatology Outpatient Department. Acne vulgaris was graded using simple grading system. QoL was measured using a combination of skin disease-specific (Children’s Dermatological Life Quality Index (CDLQI and acne-specific (Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI questionnaires. RESULTS The study population included 140 cases with a female to male ratio of 1.5:1. Comedones (123, 87.9% were the most common type of lesion. Grade I acne was the most common clinical type (76.4%. There was a statistically significant difference between acne severity and gender. The overall mean CDLQI score (7.21 of max. 30 and the overall mean CADI score (4.8 of max. 15 were low, indicating a mild impairment of QoL among adolescents. Statistically significant association was noted between CDLQI and CADI scores and grade of acne. There was no statistically significant association noted between CDLQI and CADI scores and gender. CONCLUSION Though acne had impact on patient’s QoL, it was less severe in our study. The CDLQI and CADI questionnaires represent simple and reliable instruments for the assessment of QoL among adolescents and should be incorporated when managing acne patients to provide better and appropriate care.
Nguyen-Dinh, Song-Huy; Do, Albert; Pham, Trang Ngoc Doan; Dao, Doan Y; Nguy, Trinh Nhu; Chen, Moon S
To examine the largest tertiary referral center in southern and central Vietnam from 2010 to 2016, evaluating epidemiological trends of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and viral hepatitis B-C in this resource-limited setting. We extracted data of patients receiving care from Cho Ray Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City), the largest oncology referral center in southern and central Vietnam, from 2010 to 2016. We collected information on patient age, gender, geographic distribution, and disease characteristics including disease stage, tumor biomarker levels [serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP-L3 isoform percentage, and prothrombin induced by induced by vitamin K absence-II], and serological testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Data from 24091 HCC patients were extracted, with sample demographics comprising mostly male (81.8%) and older age (however with 8.5% younger than 40 years old). This patient sample included a geographic catchment population of 56 million people (60% of the country's total population of 92.7 million), derived from 38 provinces and municipalities in Vietnam. Chronic HBV infection was found in 62.3% of cases, and chronic HCV infection in 26.0%. HBV and HCV co-infection was seen in 2.7%. Cirrhosis was found in an estimated 30% to 40% of cases. Nine percent of patients were not found to have chronic viral hepatitis. Twenty three point two percent of the patients had a normal AFP level. A total of 2199 patients were tested with AFP-L3 and PIVKA II over two years, with 57.7% having elevated AFP-L3%, and 88.5% with elevated PIVKA II levels. Over this 7-year period, the incidence of HCC increased, with a large proportion of cases (overall 40.8%) presenting initially an advanced stage, not amendable to surgical or locoregional therapy. HCC contributes significant health care burden in southern and central Vietnam, with increasing case volume over this seven-year period. Viral hepatitis likely explains this high HCC prevalence.
Abrams, Elissa M.; Becker, Allan B.
Background Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. Methods A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. Results 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge...
Dhiman, Rebika; Singh, Digvijay; Gantayala, Shiva P; Ganesan, Vaitheeswaran L; Sharma, Pradeep; Saxena, Rohit
Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated. Of a total of 30,111 patients referred to various specialty clinics in a span of 1 year, 1597 (5%) were referred for neuro-ophthalmology evaluation. The mean patient age was 30.8 ± 19.5 years, with a male dominance (M:F = 2.02:1). Among these patients, optic nerve disorders were noted in 63.8% (n = 1,020), cranial nerve palsy in 7% (n = 114), cortical visual impairment in 6.5% (n = 105), and others (eye/optic nerve hypophasia, blepharospasm, and optic disc drusen) in 6% (n = 95). Among the patients with optic nerve disorders, optic neuropathy without disc edema/(traumatic optic neuropathy, hereditary, tumor-related, retrobulbar neuritis, toxic, and idiopathic) was noted in 42.8% (n = 685) and optic neuropathy with disc edema (ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, post-papilledema optic atrophy, papillitis, neuroretinitis, and inflammatory optic neuropathy) in 20.9% (n = 335). Sixteen percent of patients (n = 263) were incorrect referrals. The neuro-ophthalmic clinic constitutes a significant referral unit in a tertiary eye care center in India. Traumatic and ischemic optic neuropathies are the most common diagnoses. Neuro-ophthalmology requires further development as a subspecialty in India to better serve the nation's population.
Down-referral was associated with reduced transportation and meal costs (p ≤ 0.001) and travel time to an ART facility (p = 0.043). The down-referred users were less likely to complain of long queues (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.06; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.01–0.29), were more likely to feel respected by health ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.
Joaquim Prado P Moraes-Filho
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD have been studied, but the frequency of comorbidities is not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of GERD comorbidities in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We prospectively studied 670 consecutive adult patients from the outpatient department of our facility. A diagnosis was established using clinical, endoscopic and/or pHmetry-related findings. Each patient's medical file was reviewed with respect to the presence of other medical conditions and diagnoses. RESULTS: Of the 670 patients, 459 (68.6% were female, and the mean age was 55.94 (17-80 years. We registered 316 patients (47.1% with the erosive form of GERD and 354 patients (52.9% with the non-erosive form. A total of 1,664 instances of comorbidities were recorded in 586 patients (87.5%, with the most common being arterial hypertension (21%, hypercholesterolemia (9%, obesity (9%, type II diabetes mellitus (5% and depression (4%. Two or more comorbidities were present in 437 individuals (64.8%. The occurrence of comorbidities increased with age and was higher in patients with the non-erosive form of GERD. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral population, comorbidities were very common, and these may have worsened the already impaired health-related quality of life of these patients. Clinicians caring for GERD patients in this setting must be aware of the likelihood and nature of comorbid disorders and their impact on disease presentation and patient management.
Pourhabib, Sanam; Chessex, Caroline; Murray, Judy; Grace, Sherry L
Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral. © The Author(s) 2014.
Walsh, Carolyn O; Milliren, Carly E; Feldman, Henry A; Taveras, Elsie M
To determine referral patterns from pediatric primary care to subspecialists for overweight/obesity and related comorbidities. We used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to identify overweight/obesity and 5 related comorbidities in primary care visits between 2005 and 2009 by children 6 to 18 years. The primary outcome was whether the visit ended in referral. We used multivariable analysis to examine factors associated with referral. We identified 34,225 database visits. A total of 17.1% were with overweight (body mass index=85th to 94th percentile) or obese (body mass index≥95th percentile) patients. A total of 7.1% of primary care visits with overweight/obese children ended in referral. Referral was more likely when obesity was the reason for visit (odds ratio=2.83; 95% confidence interval=1.61-4.97) but was not associated with presence of a comorbidity (odds ratio=1.35; 95% confidence interval=0.75-2.44). Most overweight or obese children are not referred, regardless of comorbidity status. One reason may be low levels of appropriate diagnosis.
Huber, T S; Carlton, L M; O'Hern, D G; Hardt, N S; Keith Ozaki, C; Flynn, T C; Seeger, J M
To analyze the financial impact of three complex vascular surgical procedures to both an academic hospital and a department of surgery and to examine the potential impact of decreased reimbursements. The cost of providing tertiary care has been implicated as one potential cause of the financial difficulties affecting academic medical centers. Patients undergoing revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia, elective thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and treatment of infected aortic grafts at the University of Florida were compared with those undergoing elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction and carotid endarterectomy. Hospital costs and profit summaries were obtained from the Clinical Resource Management Office. Departmental costs and profit summary were estimated based on the procedural relative value units (RVUs), the average clinical cost per RVU ($33.12), surgeon charges, and the collection rate for the vascular surgery division (30.2%) obtained from the Faculty Group Practice. Surgeon work effort was analyzed using the procedural work RVUs and the estimated total care time. The analyses were performed for all payors and the subset of Medicare patients, and the potential impact of a 15% reduction in hospital and physician reimbursement was analyzed. Net hospital income was positive for all but one of the tertiary care procedures, but net losses were sustained by the hospital for the mesenteric ischemia and infected aortic graft groups among the Medicare patients. In contrast, the estimated reimbursement to the department of surgery for all payors was insufficient to offset the clinical cost of providing the RVUs for all procedures, and the estimated losses were greater for the Medicare patients alone. The surgeon work effort was dramatically higher for the tertiary care procedures, whereas the reimbursement per work effort was lower. A 15% reduction in reimbursement would result in an estimated net loss to the hospital for each of the tertiary
Kreuter, Alexander; Wischnewski, Jana; Terras, Sarah; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus; Gambichler, Thilo
The coexistence of lichen sclerosus (LiS) and localized scleroderma (LoS) has sporadically been reported in the literature. Recently, a prospective multicenter study demonstrated a surprisingly high percentage of genital LiS in patients with morphea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LiS in a cohort of patients with LoS who presented at a tertiary referral medical center for connective tissue diseases in Germany. We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of genital and extragenital LiS in adult and pediatric patients with different subtypes of LoS. Secondary outcome measures included demographic characteristics and prevalence of other concomitant autoimmune diseases. Of the 472 patients (381 adults, 91 children; mean age: 46 years; range, 4-88 years; female to male ratio: 3.5:1 in adults and 8:1 in children) with LoS, 27 (5.7%) also presented with LiS (19 extragenital and 8 genital lesions). LiS exclusively occurred in patients with plaque-type (morphea) and generalized LoS. Twenty-six of the 27 (96.2%) patients with concomitant LoS and LiS were adults. Compared with LiS in the general population, LiS was significantly more frequent in LoS as indicated by an odds ratio of 18.1 (95% confidence interval 2.6-134.2; P morphea, should be carefully screened for concomitant LiS, including inspection of the anogenital region. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND DM WIMS is the only tertiary care referral hospital in the hilly tribal district of Wayanad. This is an observational study of 20 maternal near miss cases that presented in our hospital over a period of 4 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted by collecting data over a period of 4 months. Total number of live births in this period was 373. There were 20 cases of maternal near miss cases. Maternal near miss cases were chosen based on the inclusion criteria provided by WHO near miss approach for maternal health. RESULTS There were 373 live births in the 4-month observational period. In these 4 months, there were 20 cases of maternal near miss cases in our hospital. That is, maternal near miss ratio was 53.6/1000 live births. The majority were referred cases with MNM ratio of intrahospital cases being 13.4/1000 live births. The potentially life-threatening complications were obstetric haemorrhage and hypertensive disorders, which coexisted in majority of the women. The obstetric haemorrhage was mainly due to abruptio placenta, which can be attributed to the hypertensive complications. Preexisting anaemia was present in 35% of the MNM cases increasing their morbidity. CONCLUSION The maternal near miss ratio was 53.6/1000 live births, which is high. This can be attributed to the fact that our hospital is the only tertiary referral hospital in the hilly tribal district of Wayanad. Despite the MNM ratio being high, there were no cases of maternal death in this period. Low maternal mortality indicates the good first line of management given at the periphery hospital.
van Buuren Stef
Full Text Available Abstract Background To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these guidelines, comparing it with cut-off values mentioned by the WHO. Methods Three sets of referral rules were tested on the growth data of a random sample (n = 400 of all children born between 01-01-1985 and 31-12-1988, attending school doctors between 1998 and 2000 in Leiden and Alphen aan den Rijn (the Netherlands: the screening criteria mentioned in the Dutch Consensus Guideline (DCG, those of the UK Consensus Guideline (UKCG and the cut-off values mentioned in the WHO Global Database on Child growth and Malnutrition. Results Application of the DCG would lead to the referral of too many children (almost 80%. The largest part of the referrals is due to the deflection of height, followed by distance to target height and takes primarily place during the first 3 years. The deflection away from the parental height would also lead to too many referrals. In contrast, the UKCG only leads to 0.3% referrals and the WHO-criteria to approximately 10%. Conclusion The current Dutch consensus guideline leads to too many referrals, mainly due to the deflection of length during the first 3 years of life. The UKCG leads to far less referrals, but may be relatively insensitive to detect clinically relevant growth disorders like Turner syndrome. New guidelines for growth monitoring are needed, which combine a low percentage of false positive results with a good sensitivity.
Tomedi, Angelo; Stroud, Sophia R; Maya, Tania Ruiz; Plaman, Christopher R; Mwanthi, Mutuku A
To assess the effectiveness of a traditional birth attendant (TBA) referral program on increasing the number of deliveries overseen by skilled birth attendants (SBA) in rural Kenyan health facilities before and after the implementation of a free maternity care policy. In a rural region of Kenya, TBAs were recruited to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in healthcare facilities and were offered a stipend for every pregnant woman whom they brought to the healthcare facility. We evaluated the percentage of prenatal care (PNC) patients who delivered at the intervention site compared with the percentage of PNC patients who delivered at rural control facilities, before and after the referral program was implemented, and before and after the Kenya government implemented a policy of free maternity care. The window period of the study was from July of 2011 through September 2013, with a TBA referral intervention conducted from March to September 2013. The absolute increases from the pre-intervention period to the TBA referral intervention period in SBA deliveries were 5.7 and 24.0% in the control and intervention groups, respectively (p facility significantly increased compared to control health facilities when TBAs educated women about the need to deliver with a SBA and when TBAs received a stipend for bringing women to local health facilities to deliver. Furthermore, this TBA referral program proved to be far more effective in the target region of Kenya than a policy change to provide free obstetric care.
Full Text Available to analyse the impact of in-hospital care on severe maternal morbidity using WHO's near-miss approach in the low-resource, high mortality setting of Zanzibar's referral hospital.Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, a tertiary care facility, in Zanzibar, Tanzania.We identified all cases of morbidity and mortality in women admitted within 42 days after the end of pregnancy at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital in the period from April to October 2016. The severity of complications was classified using WHO's near-miss approach definitions: potentially life-threatening condition (PLTC, maternal near-miss (MNM or maternal death (MD. Quality of in-hospital care was assessed using the mortality index (MI defined as ratio between mortality and severe maternal outcome (SMO where SMO = MD + MNM, cause-specific case facility rates and comparison with predicted mortality based on the Maternal Severity Index model.5551 women were included. 569 (10.3% had a potentially life-threatening condition and 65 (1.2% a severe maternal outcome (SMO: 37 maternal near-miss cases and 28 maternal deaths. The mortality index was high at 0.43 and similar for women who developed a SMO within 12 hours of admission and women who developed a SMO after 12 hours. A standardized mortality ratio of 6.03 was found; six times higher than that expected in moderate maternal mortality settings given the same severity of cases. Obstetric haemorrhage was found to be the main cause of SMO. Ruptured uterus and admission to ICU had the highest case-fatality rates. Maternal death cases seemed to have received essential interventions less often.WHO's near-miss approach can be used in this setting. The high mortality index observed shows that in-hospital care is not preventing progression of disease adequately once a severe complication occurs. Almost one in two women experiencing life-threatening complications will die. This is six times higher than in moderate mortality settings.
Mbonye, Anthony K.; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus
Background In Uganda, referral of sick children seeking care at public health facilities is poor and widely reported. However, studies focusing on the private health sector are scanty. The main objective of this study was to assess referral practices for sick children seeking care at private health...... facilities in order to explore ways of improving treatment and referral of sick children in this sector. Methods A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, central Uganda. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented by Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant...... interviews with private providers and community members. Results A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 170 (70.5%) were registered drug shops, 59 (24.5%) private clinics and 12 (5.0%) pharmacies. Overall, 104/241 (43.2%) of the private health facilities reported that they had referred sick...
Manard, William T; Syberg, Kevin; Behera, Anit; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David; Armbrecht, Eric; Hooks-Anderson, Denise; Crannage, Erica; Scherrer, Jeffrey
The medical home model has been gaining attention from the health care community as a strategy for improved outcomes for management of chronic disease, including diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare referrals for diabetes education among patients receiving care from a medical home model versus a traditional practice. Data were obtained from a large, university-affiliated primary care patient data registry. All patients (age 18-96 years) with a diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes and seen by a physician at least twice during 2011 to 2013 were selected for inclusion. Multivariate regression models measuring the association between medical home status and referral to diabetes education were computed before and after adjusting for covariates. A significantly (P patients in a medical home than without a medical home (23.9% vs 13.5%) received a referral for diabetes education. After adjusting for covariates, medical home patients were 2.7 times more likely to receive a referral for diabetes education (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.35). Patients in a medical home model were more likely to receive referrals for diabetes education than patients in a standard university-affiliated family medicine practice. Future longitudinal designs that match characteristics of patients with a medical home with those of patients without one will provide strong evidence to determine whether referral to diabetes education is a result of the medical home model of care independent of confounding factors. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark
Despite the accepted role of laryngoscopy in assessing patients with laryngeal/voice disorders, controversy surrounds its timing. This study sought to determine how increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology outpatient visit affected the health care costs of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative claims database was performed. Patients had an International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision-coded diagnosis of a laryngeal/voice disorder; initially saw a primary care physician and, subsequently, an otolaryngologist as outpatients; and provided 6 months of follow-up data after the first otolaryngology evaluation. The outpatient health care costs accrued from the first primary care outpatient visit through the 6 months after the first otolaryngology outpatient visit were determined. There were 260,095 unique patients who saw a primary care physician as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 8999 (3.5%) subsequently seeing an otolaryngologist and with 6 months postotolaryngology follow-up data. A generalized linear regression model revealed that, compared with patients who saw an otolaryngologist ≤1 month after the first primary care visit, patients in the >1-month and ≤3-months and >3-months time periods had relative mean cost increases of $271.34 (95% confidence interval $115.95-$426.73) and $711.38 (95% confidence interval $428.43-$993.34), respectively. Increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology evaluation is associated with increased outpatient health care costs. Earlier otolaryngology examination may reduce health care expenditures in the evaluation and management of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bukhary, Zakeya A.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.
The outcome of the chemotherapy for pulmonary, extraplumonary and disseminated tuberculosis is not well documented, especially in developing countries. This study assessed tuberculosis treatment outcome, cure-to-treatment ratio and mortality among all types of tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. All cases diagnosed and treated for active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection between 1991 and 2000 were included retrospectively. Data collected included type of tuberculosis involvement, treatment outcome, relapse and co-morbidities. Over a ten-year period, 535 case of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. Isolated pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 141 cases (26.4%), extrapulmonary tuberculosis in 339 cases (63.3%). Co-morbidities were noted in 277 (52%) patients. Immunosuppression was found in 181 (34%) cases. The cure rate was 82%. The cure-to-treatment ratio was 86% in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and 65% in disseminated tuberculosis. Overall mortality was 18%. Disseminated tuberculosis had the highest mortality (34.9%), followed by pulmonary (21.8%), the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (13.6%). Forty-seven percent of all mortalities were directly related to tuberculosis. Relapse was documented in 14 out of 349 patients (4%) who had 24 months of follow-up. Despite tertiary care support, complicated tuberculosis carries a high mortality. Earlier diagnosis and complete appropriate chemotherapy are essential for improved outcome. (author)
van Dijk, Christel E; de Jong, Judith D; Verheij, Robert A; Jansen, Tessa; Korevaar, Joke C; de Bakker, Dinny H
In a gatekeeper system, primary care physicians and patients jointly decide whether or not medical specialist care is needed. However, it is the patient who decides to actually use the referral. Referral non-compliance could delay diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess patient compliance with a referral to medical specialist care and identify patient and practice characteristics that are associated with it. Observational study using data on 48,784 referrals to medical specialist care derived from electronic medical records of 58 general practices for the period 2008-2010. Referral compliance was based on claims data of medical specialist care. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between patient and general practice characteristics and referral compliance. In 86.6% of the referrals, patients complied. Patient and not practice characteristics were significantly associated with compliance. Patients from deprived urban areas and patients aged 18-44 years were less likely to comply, whereas patients aged 65 years and older were more likely to comply. About 1 in 8 patients do not use their referral. These patients may not receive adequate care. Demographic and socio-economic factors appear to affect compliance. The results of this study may be used to make general practitioners more aware that some patients are more likely to be noncompliant with referrals.
Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. Objective: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 non-duplicate, consecutive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from a tertiary referral hospital of north-east India. An efflux pump inhibitor (EPI, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP based method was used for determination of efflux pump activity and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for molecular characterisation of efflux pump. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC reduction assay was also performed for all the isolates. Results and Conclusion: A total number of 56 (23% have shown efflux mediated FQ resistance. MexAB-OprM efflux system was predominant type. This is the first report of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance from this part of the world and the continued emergence of these mutants with such high MIC range from this part of the world demands serious awareness, diagnostic intervention, and proper therapeutic option.
Jun 8, 2011 ... There is a worldwide epidemic of overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity ... the evolution of bariatric surgery.4 Controversy exists regard- ing the best ..... attitudes and practices among Israeli primary care physicians. Int J.
Kalule, John Bosco; Keddy, Karen H; Nicol, Mark P
Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that can cause acute renal failure, especially in children. Clinical microbiology laboratories may fail to detect STEC and other diarrhoeic E. coli unless purposive rigorous screening procedures are followed using appropriate diagnostic technology; CHROMagar™STEC has rarely been used for isolation of African diarrhoeic E. coli hence characteristics of isolates on this medium are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of STEC and other diarrhoeic E. coli isolated on CHROMagar™STEC from stool samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory of a South African public sector tertiary care hospital. In total, 733 stool samples were tested. Of these, 4.5% (33/733) possessed diarrhoeic E. coli. Of the diarrheic E. coli, 5/33 (15.2%) were STEC, 15/33 (45.5%) EAggEC, 6/33 (18.2%) atypical EPEC, 5/33 (15.2%) typical EPEC, and 1/33 (3%) DAEC. None of the STEC isolates had been identified by routine testing (based on using sorbitol media to test for E. coli O157: H7 strains and not the other STEC) in the laboratory. Of the 33 strains, 55% (95% CI = 40.8-72.7) showed resistance to ampicillin. CHROMagar™STEC enabled detection of tellurite - resistant diarrhoeic E. coli that would be missed using routine methods. Further studies are needed to determine the proportion and characteristics of those which might have been missed using this approach.
Becker, Janet E.
Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…
Full Text Available Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2004 to measure the connectedness between hospitals. This allowed us to reconstruct the network of hospitals in the Netherlands. We used mathematical models to assess the effect of different patient referral patterns on the potential spread of hospital-acquired infections between hospitals, and between categories of hospitals (University medical centers, top clinical hospitals and general hospitals. University hospitals have a higher number of shared patients than teaching or general hospitals, and are therefore more likely to be among the first to receive colonized patients. Moreover, as the network is directional towards university hospitals, they have a higher prevalence, even when infection control measures are equally effective in all hospitals. Patient referral patterns have a profound effect on the spread of health care-associated infections like hospital-acquired MRSA. The MRSA prevalence therefore differs between hospitals with the position of each hospital within the health care network. Any comparison of MRSA rates between hospitals, as a benchmark for hospital hygiene, should therefore take the position of a hospital within the network into account.
Hussain, S.; Sabir, M.U.
Objectives: To determine the incidence and pattern of various congenital heart disease in a neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The prospective study was carried out in the neonatal unit of Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from September 2008 to August 2011. All 5800 neonates admitted with gestational age of >28 weeks irrespective of birthweight were included in the study. Neonatologist/Paediatrician carried out the neonatal examination during the first 12 hours of life. Neonates suspected of having congenital heart disease were further evaluated by pulse oxymetry, X-ray chest and echocardiography to ascertain final diagnosis and type of lesion. Data was collected on a predesigned proforma containing information regarding gender, mode of delivery, gestational age, weight at birth, family history, and associated malformations. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 5800 neonates, 87 (1.5%) were found to have congenital heart disease with an incidence of 15/1000. There was a male preponderance. Most common lesion was ventricular septal defect 27(31.3%), followed by atrial septal defect 20 (22.9%), patent ductus arteriosus 13 (14.94%), tetralogy of fallot 06 (6.89%), transposition of great arteries 04 (4.59%), Pulmonary stenosis 05 (5.79%) and 03(3.44%) had atrioventricular canal defects. Conclusion: Congenital heart disease is a common congenital anomaly. Its incidence varies from centre to centre due to different factors like nature of the sample, method of detection and early examination by a neonatologist/paediatrician. In this study a higher incidence is reported because it was carried out in a tertiary care unit, which is a referral hospital and all the neonates admitted in the unit were included in the study. (author)
Romijn, A.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Teunissen, P.W.; Groot, C.J.M. de; Wagner, C.
Introduction: In obstetrics, patients often experience referral situations between different care professionals. In these multidisciplinary teams, a focus on communication and interprofessional collaboration is needed to ensure care of high quality. Crew resource management team training is
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie
The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Khalilidehkordi, Elham; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Beheshtian, Elham; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran
Introduction. This study was conducted to evaluate and document the frequency and causes of agitation, the symptoms accompanying this condition in intoxications, relationship between agitation score on admission and different variables, and the outcome of therapy in a tertiary care referral poisoning center in Iran. Methods. In this prospective observational study which was done in 2012, 3010 patients were screened for agitation at the time of admission using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale. Demographic data including age, gender, and the drug ingested were also recorded. The patients' outcome was categorized as recovery without complications, recovery with complications (hyperthermia, renal failure, and other causes), and death. Results. Agitation was observed in 56 patients (males, n = 41), mostly aged 19-40 years (n = 38) and more frequently in illegal substance (stimulants, opioids and also alcohol) abusers. Agitation score was not significantly related to the age, gender, and previous history of psychiatric disorders. Forty nine patients had recovery without any complication. The need for mechanical ventilation was the most frequent complication. None of the patients died. Conclusion. Drug abuse seems to be a must-to-consider etiology for patients presenting with acute agitation and its morbidity and mortality could be low in agitated poisoning cases if prompt supportive care is performed.
de la Fuente, Jaime; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Ossoff, Robert; Vinson, Kim; Francis, David O; Gelbard, Alexander
To examine the distribution of clinic and operative pathology in a tertiary care laryngology practice. Probability density and cumulative distribution analyses (Pareto analysis) was used to rank order laryngeal conditions seen in an outpatient tertiary care laryngology practice and those requiring surgical intervention during a 3-year period. Among 3783 new clinic consultations and 1380 operative procedures, voice disorders were the most common primary diagnostic category seen in clinic (n = 3223), followed by airway (n = 374) and swallowing (n = 186) disorders. Within the voice strata, the most common primary ICD-9 code used was dysphonia (41%), followed by unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) (9%) and cough (7%). Among new voice patients, 45% were found to have a structural abnormality. The most common surgical indications were laryngotracheal stenosis (37%), followed by recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (18%) and UVFP (17%). Nearly 55% of patients presenting to a tertiary referral laryngology practice did not have an identifiable structural abnormality in the larynx on direct or indirect examination. The distribution of ICD-9 codes requiring surgical intervention was disparate from that seen in clinic. Application of the Pareto principle may improve resource allocation in laryngology, but these initial results require confirmation across multiple institutions.
Sellers Susan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth remains a major public health problem and its incidence worldwide is increasing. Epidemiological risk factors have been investigated in the past, but there is a need for a better understanding of the causes of preterm birth in well defined obstetric populations in tertiary referral centres; it is important to repeat surveillance and identify possible changes in clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to identify current risk factors associated with preterm delivery and highlight areas for further research. Findings We studied women with singleton deliveries at St Michael's Hospital, Bristol during 2002 and 2003. 274 deliveries between 23-35 weeks' gestation (preterm group, were compared to 559 randomly selected control deliveries at term (37-42 weeks using standard statistical procedures. Both groups were >80% Caucasian. Previous preterm deliveries, high maternal age (> 39 years, socioeconomic problems, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, psychiatric disorders and uterine abnormalities were significantly associated with preterm deliveries. Both lean and obese mothers were more common in the preterm group. Women with depression/psychiatric disease were significantly more likely to have social problems, to have smoked during pregnancy and to have had previous preterm deliveries; when adjustments for these three factors were made the relationship between psychiatric disease and pregnancy outcome was no longer significant. 53% of preterm deliveries were spontaneous, and were strongly associated with episodes of threatened preterm labour. Medically indicated preterm deliveries were associated with hypertension and fetal growth restriction. Preterm premature rupture of the membranes, vaginal bleeding, anaemia and oligohydramnios were significantly increased in both spontaneous and indicated preterm deliveries compared to term controls. Conclusions More than 50
Freed, Gary L; Turbitt, Erin; Kunin, Marina; Gafforini, Sarah; Sanci, Lena; Spike, Neil
Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of referrals for paediatric subspecialty care and in overall appointments (new and review) to these doctors. We sought to determine the perspective of parents regarding their role in the initiation of referrals, their preferences for follow-up and the role of general practitioners (GPs) in care co-ordination. Self-completed survey in outpatient paediatric clinics (general paediatrics and four subspecialties) at two children's hospitals in Victoria. Recruitment targets were 100 parents in each of the general paediatrics clinics and 50 parents in each subspecialty clinic, equally divided between new and review visits (total n = 600). A total of 606 parents provided responses, with a decline rate of 9%. Many (52%) new patients were referred by a GP with the remainder from a variety of other sources. With specific regard to providing general care to their child, only 45% were completely confident in a GP. Most (76%) agreed with the statement that a GP would give their child a referral to see a paediatrician whenever they ask. Approximately, a third of parents reported that a GP rarely or never co-ordinates the care of their child with other doctors. Parents play an important role in both the initiation of paediatric specialty referrals and the patterns of follow-up care provided. Parent perspectives, preferences and motivations on both the referral process and the patterns for ongoing care are essential to develop policies that provide the best and most efficient care for children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Silva, Fabiana Q; Adhi, Mehreen; Wai, Karen M; Olansky, Leann; Lansang, M Cecilia; Singh, Rishi P
The purpose of this study was to identify whether endocrinologists and primary care physicians (PCP) adequately screen for ophthalmic symptoms/signs within office visits and provide timely ophthalmology referrals in patients with diabetes. Patients between the ages of 18 years and 80 years with diabetes who underwent an office visit with an endocrinologist or a PCP between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, were identified. Demographics, ophthalmic assessments, and referral information were collected. A total of 1,250 patient records were reviewed. Providers asked about ophthalmic symptoms/signs in 95.5% and 71% of endocrinology and primary care office encounters, respectively (P endocrinology and PCP visits, respectively (P < .0001). Ophthalmic complications from diabetes are not adequately screened, especially within the primary care setting, and further quality improvement measures may improve adherence to recommended screening protocols. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:930-934.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Rodrigues, Jaime Pereira; Pinho, Rolando; Silva, Joana; Ponte, Ana; Sousa, Mafalda; Silva, João Carlos; Carvalho, João
To evaluate the adequacy of the study of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in real life practice prior to referral to a gastroenterology department for small bowel evaluation. All consecutive patients referred to a gastroenterology department for small bowel investigation due to iron deficiency anemia, between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Both patients referred from general practitioners or directly from different hospital departments were selected. Relevant clinical information regarding prior anemia workup was retrospectively collected from medical records. An appropriate pre-referral study was considered the execution of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) investigation, colonoscopy with quality standards (recent, total and with adequate preparation) and celiac disease (CD) screening (through serologic testing and/or histopathological investigation). A total of 77 patients (58.4% female, mean age 67.1 ± 16.7 years) were included. Most (53.2%) patients were referred from general practitioners, 41.6% from other hospital specialties and 5.2% directly from the emergency department. The mean pre-referral hemoglobin concentration was 8.8 ± 2.0 g/dL and the majority of anemias had microcytic (71.4%) and hypochromic (72.7%) characteristics. 77.9% of patients presented with an incomplete pre-referral study: EGD in 97.4%, with H. pylori investigation in 58.3%, colonoscopy with quality criteria in 63.6%, and CD screening in 24.7%. Patients with an appropriate study at the time of referral were younger (48.7 ± 17.7 vs 72.3 ± 12.3 years, P < 0.001). Small bowel evaluation was ultimately undertaken in 72.7% of patients, with a more frequent evaluation in patients with a quality colonoscopy at referral (78.6% vs 23.8%); P < 0.001 (OR = 11.7, 95%CI: 3.6-38.6). The most common diagnosis regarded as the likely cause of IDA was small bowel angioectasia (18.2%) but additional causes were also found in the upper and lower
Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark
To evaluate the frequency, timing, and factors that influence referral of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders to otolaryngology following initial evaluation by a primary care physician (PCP). Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative US claims database. Patients with a laryngeal disorder based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008, seen by a PCP as an outpatient (with or without otolaryngology involvement), and continuously enrolled for 12 months were included. Patient age, gender, geographic region, last PCP laryngeal diagnosis, comorbid conditions, time from first PCP visit to first otolaryngology visit, number of PCP outpatient visits, and number of PCP laryngeal diagnoses were collected. Cox and generalized linear regressions were performed. A total of 149,653 unique patients saw a PCP as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 136,152 (90.9%) only seeing a PCP, 6,013 (4.0%) referred by a PCP to an otolaryngologist, and 3,820 (2.6%) self-referred to an otolaryngologist. Acute laryngitis had a lower hazard ratio (HR) for otolaryngology referral than chronic laryngitis, nonspecific dysphonia, and laryngeal cancer. Having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with a greater HR for otolaryngology referral than having no comorbidities. Patient age, gender, and geographic region also affected otolaryngology referral. The time to otolaryngology evaluation ranged from 3 months. PCP-referred patients had less time to the otolaryngology evaluation than self-referred patients. Multiple factors affected otolaryngology referral for patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Further education of PCPs regarding appropriate otolaryngology referral for laryngeal/voice disorders is needed. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Although home-based care (HBC programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs, in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs. An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25% of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Holt, Kelsey; Janiak, Elizabeth; McCormick, Marie C; Lieberman, Ellice; Dehlendorf, Christine; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Caglia, Jacquelyn M; Langer, Ana
Primary care physicians (PCPs) can play a critical role in addressing unintended pregnancy through high-quality options counseling and referrals. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,000 PCPs in general, family, and internal medicine on practices and opinions related to options counseling for unintended pregnancy. We assessed predictors of physician practices using multivariable logistic regression weighted for sampling design and differential non-response. Response rate was 29%. Seventy-one percent believed residency training in options counseling should be required, and 69% believed PCPs have an obligation to provide abortion referrals even in the presence of a personal objection to abortion. However, only 26% reported routine options counseling when caring for women with unintended pregnancy compared to 60% who routinely discuss prenatal care. Among physicians who see women seeking abortion, 62% routinely provide referrals, while 14% routinely attempt to dissuade women. Family physicians were more likely to provide routine options counseling when seeing patients with unintended pregnancy than internal medicine physicians (32% vs 21%, P=0.002). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher odds of routine abortion referrals were more years in practice (OR=1.03 for each additional year, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), identifying as a woman vs a man (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.31-3.40), practicing in a hospital vs private primary care/multispecialty setting (OR=3.17, 95% CI: 1.10-9.15), and no religious affiliation of practice vs religious affiliation (OR for Catholic affiliation=0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.66; OR for other religious affiliation=0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83). Personal Christian religious affiliation among physicians who regularly attend religious services vs no religious affiliation was associated with lower odds of counseling (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.90) and referrals (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), and higher odds of abortion dissuasion (OR=4.03, 95
Graystone, H J; Garner, M J; Baldwin, D S
Social phobia is a common, persistent and disabling anxiety disorder in which co-existing depressive symptoms are common. However the prevalence of social anxiety symptoms in patients with other mood and anxiety disorders is uncertain. In consecutive patients attending a tertiary referral mood and anxiety disorders service, depressive symptoms were assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and social anxiety symptoms by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) was completed following the appointment. 75 patients (48 women, 27 men; mean age 45.9 years) completed the study. 38 had a single diagnosis and 37 co-morbid diagnoses: 15 patients had bipolar disorder, 35 unipolar depressive disorder, 19 an anxiety disorder, and 6 other disorders. Independent samples t-tests and one-way between-subjects ANOVA revealed that the severity of social anxiety symptoms but not depressive symptoms was significantly greater in patients with co-morbid diagnoses (LSAS 73.7 vs 54.2, t(72)=2.44, pdepression or bipolar disorder (respectively; LSAS 78.8 vs 59.4 vs 50.0, F(2, 65)=3.13, p=.05; MADRS 22.2 vs 19.8 vs 17.5, F(2, 66)depression (R(2)=0.376, pdepressive and social anxiety symptoms across a range of diagnoses. Depressive and social anxiety symptoms were most severe but least well correlated among tertiary care outpatients with anxiety disorders, emphasising the need for comprehensive evaluation and treatment.
Neill, Sara; Haithcock, Sarah; Smith, P. Brian; Goldberg, Ronald; Bidegain, Margarita; Tanaka, David; Carriker, Charlene; Ericson, Jessica E.
Purpose Reduction of bloodstream infections (BSI) has emerged as an important patient safety goal. Implementation of central line insertion bundles, standardized line care protocols, and health care provider education programs have reduced BSI in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) around the country. The ability of large tertiary care centers to decrease nosocomial infections, including BSI, has been demonstrated. However, long-term BSI reductions in infants are not well documented. We sought to demonstrate that a low incidence of BSI can be maintained over time in a tertiary care NICU. Subjects 6,790 infants admitted to a large, tertiary care NICU between 2005 and 2013. Design Retrospective intervention study. Methods A staged, multifaceted infection prevention plan was implemented beginning in October 2007 under nursing leadership. The incidence of BSI was determined annually for 2005-2013. Results Baseline BSI incidence for infants admitted to the NICU was 5.15 and 6.08 episodes per 1,000 infant-days in 2005 and 2006, respectively. After protocol implementation, the incidence of BSI decreased to 2.14/1,000 infant-days and 2.44/1,000 infant-days in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Yearly incidence remained low over the next 4 years and decreased even further to 0.20-0.45 infections/1,000 infant days. This represents a 92% decrease in BSI over a period of >5 years. Conclusions Implementation of a nursing-led comprehensive infection control initiative can effectively produce and maintain a reduction in the incidence of BSI in infants at a large tertiary care NICU. What this study adds Long term reductions in neonatal BSI are possible with implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach and strong nursing leadership. PMID:25915573
Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary
Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Irrational antibiotic consumption, especially in the case when there is no appropriate indication for its usage, may be one of the most crucial global issues for public health care, leading to bacterial resistance and the increase of indirect medical expenses. According to the report of the European program for the monitoring of the antibiotic consumption, Serbia is on the fifth place among the countries which are not members of EU. The goal of this work is the evaluation of antibiotic consumption in the Clinical Centre Niš, from 2007 to 2013, with the focus on the monitoring of the cephalosporins utilization, as they are one of the most prescribed groups of antibiotics in the tertiary health care. The utilization of antibiotics in the Clinical Center Niš in the observed period was obtained from the computerized database of the Department of Pharmacotherapy and expressed as defined daily dose (DDD per 100 bed/days (DBD. Our results showed that there was an increase in antibiotic use of the whole group of cephalosporins and penicillin as well as a reduction of quinolones consumption within the observed period. Our analysis showed that ceftriaxone was the most frequently prescribed cephalosporin, followed by cefuroxime. Although antibiotic therapy and prophylaxis in our hospital are in keeping with the recommended guidelines, the obtained results may suggest that cephalosporin consumption, and especially ceftriaxone consumption is higher than in other European countries.
Isaac José Felippe Corrêa Neto
Full Text Available Introduction: The morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing bowel transit reconstruction reach significant values. Perhaps this and other factors could explain why 30–60% of patients end up with definitive ostomies, even those with initially temporary ostomies, due to the procedure risks. Objective: To analyze retrospectively the medical records of patients undergoing bowel transit reconstruction in one of the SUS referral hospitals in São Paulo from October 2008 to December 2011. Results: The mean age of our patients was 53.9 years and 54% of those 100 patients studied between October 2008 and December 2011 had significant comorbidity. The indication for creating an initial ostomy was malignancy in 43%, and the mean stoma duration 14.3 months. The mortality rate was 6%. Conclusion: Although the bowel transit reconstruction is a procedure quite desired by patients, its indication should be carefully evaluated, with an appropriate consent from the patient. Resumo: Introdução: A morbi-mortalidade de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal alcança valores significativos e, por esse e outros fatores, talvez se explique o fato que de 30 a 60% dos portadores de ostomia intestinal terminal passam a possuí-la de maneira definitiva, apesar de, na maior parte das vezes, ela ser realizada como procedimento provisório com o argumento de maior segurança do paciente. Objetivo: Analisar retrospectivamente os dados de prontuário de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal em um dos hospitais de referência do SUS na cidade de São Paulo no período de outubro de 2008 a dezembro de 2011. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 53,9 anos e 54% dos 100 pacientes estudados no período de outubro de 2008 e dezembro de 2011 padeciam de alguma comorbidade. A indicação para confecção da ostomia inicial decorreu de doença maligna em 43% e o tempo médio de permanência com o estoma foi de 14
Arun Kumar Choudhury
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Short stature is one of the common causes of referral of children to endocrine unit. It may result due to various causes and elucidating the exact cause is necessary to formulate the right therapy. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentation of patients presenting with short to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical, biochemical, radiological and hormonal data of 104 consecutive patients who presented to our department from January 2015 to March 2016 for evaluation of short stature. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 10-15 years group (44.23% followed by 5-10 years age group (31.73%. The most common cause in our population was due to familial short stature (29.80%. The next common causes included chronic medical illness (23.08% followed by hypothyroidism (13.46%. Majority of patients presenting for evaluation of short stature were males (60.58%. CONCLUSIONS Short stature is caused due to a multitude of causes. In our population, familial short stature was the most common aetiology
van der Heijden, Job P.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Witkamp, Leonard; Spuls, Phyllis I.
Tertiary teledermatology (TTD)-secondary-care to tertiary-care teleconsultation-is applied rarely compared with the frequently applied secondary teledermatology (primary to secondary care). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TTD on referrals from peripheral dermatologists to
Dominick, Sally A; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P; Madanat, Hala; Madlensky, Lisa
Limited information exists on breast cancer patients' compliance to attend outpatient appointments with an occupational therapy (OT) lymphedema specialist. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine patient compliance with a health care provider referral for an OT lymphedema consult and (2) to identify potential barriers to compliance. A retrospective chart review of female breast cancer patients at the UC San Diego Health System was conducted. Electronic medical records were queried for breast cancer patients, who received a health care provider referral for an OT lymphedema consult between June 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact chi-square tests were used to examine how specific participant characteristics were associated with attending an OT appointment. A total of 210 female patients received an OT referral from a health care provider related to their breast cancer diagnosis. Forty-three (20.5%) patients did not attend an OT appointment. Non-attenders were more likely to have had fewer lymph nodes removed (Pcancer patients attended recommended OT lymphedema consults, a substantial number of women might benefit from further education about OT for lymphedema prevention following breast cancer treatment. Further research to understand barriers to attendance is recommended, particularly among women with only sentinel nodes removed.
Kalaiarasan, Krishnapriya; Singh, Rakesh; Chaturvedula, Latha
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a common medical health problem of adult women. It is most commonly caused by Candida albicans . But there is a change in fungal profile. Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) is the most common culture medium used where mixed fungal infection may be missed. It can be detected easily by using chromogenic culture medium. To know the fungal profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis using Candida CHROMagar and antifungal susceptibility pattern in patients attending tertiary care hospital. Culture confirmed cases of VVC presented at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India, from July 2015 to December 2015 were included in the cross-sectional study. Two high vaginal swabs were collected and inoculated on SDA and Candida CHROMagar (Hi-Media, Mumbai, India). After overnight incubation the colonies were counted and colour of the colonies were recorded from Candida CHROMagar. Candida spp. were identified by sugar fermentation and assimilation tests and other conventional tests. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed by the disc diffusion method using fluconazole (25 μg) and voriconazole (1μg) as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI - M44-A2) guidelines. A total of 50 culture confirmed (23.7%) cases were detected from 211 clinically suspected VVC cases. Candida glabrata (45.1%) was the most common isolate, followed by Candida tropicalis (23.5%) , Candida albicans (17.6%) , Candida krusei (9.8%) and Candida parapsilosis (3.9%) . One mixed infection of C. glabrata and C. albicans was identified on Candida CHROMagar. Mixed fungal infection was observed in 2% of positive culture and 0.5% of VVC cases. The antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that 15.7% and 9.8% isolates of Candida spp. were resistant and Susceptible Dose Dependent (S-DD) respectively to fluconazole. The increase resistant against fluconazole was because of
Abrams, Elissa M; Becker, Allan B
Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge failures. Children were more likely to fail an oral challenge if they were older (P = .04), had asthma (P = .001) or had atopic dermatitis (P = .03). Risk of challenge failure was significantly different between food allergens, with more failures noted for peanut than for tree nuts, milk or egg (P = .001). Among challenge failures, 19% met criteria for anaphylaxis. Significantly more tree nut and peanut challenges met criteria for anaphylaxis than milk or egg (P Skin test size and specific IgE level were significantly higher in those who failed oral challenges (P < .001). The highest rate of challenge failure and severity of failure was to cashew, with 63% of cashew challenges reacting, of which 80% met clinical criteria for anaphylaxis. The risk of challenge failure differed with type of food studied, with peanut and tree nut having a higher risk of challenge failure and anaphylaxis. Cashew in particular carried a high risk and caution must be exercised when performing these types of oral challenges in children.
Tahir, Z.; Nadeem, N.; Aman, S.; Kazmi, A.H.
Background: An adverse drug reaction is unintentional which occurs at doses used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or treatment. Objectives: To determine the frequency of various cutaneous drug eruptions that occur in patients in a tertiary care hospital setting. Patients and Methods: All patients with cutaneous drug eruptions seen at the Dermatology Department of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, over 6 months were enrolled and the pattern of drug eruptions like urticaria, angioedema, fixed drug eruption, maculopapular rash, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis etc. were recorded, along with drugs that caused it. Results:A total of 160 patients (86 males, 74 females) were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 30.7+-15.4 years. Major eruptions were fixed drug eruption (21.3%) followed by urticaria without angioedema (10%), maculopapular rash (9.3%), lichenoid drug eruption (8.7%), acneiform drug eruption (7.5%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (6.9%), vesiculobullous eruption (5.6%), erythema multiforme and eczematous eruption (5% each). Common drugs causing eruptions were sulfonamides (16.3%), followed by NSAIDs (14.4%), herbal and homeopathic medications (12.5%), penicillins (9.3%), tetracyclines (8.7%), antituberculous drugs, cephalosporins and antiepileptics (6.3% each). Conclusion: Fixed drug eruption and urticaria without angioedema were commonest eruptions while, sulfonamides and NSAIDs were the major causative drugs. Policy message: Reporting of adverse drug reactions is not done in Pakistan and needs to be done in each hospital. (author)
Holman, Nathan; Wallace, Kristin; Moore, J Matthew; Brock, Andrew S
To compare single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) between patients seen in consultation by a member of our gastroenterology team with those performed as open-access cases. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent SBE at a single tertiary care center from April 2008 to January 2012. Open- and closed-access procedures were compared in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield, adverse events, and procedural success. A total of 125 SBEs were performed on 125 patients. The mean age was 63.1 (53% men) years. In all, 43 procedures were performed open access and 82 after face-to-face consultation. Indications included anemia/gastrointestinal bleeding (110), abdominal pain (8), and other (7). Diagnostic yield for open- and closed-access procedures was 53% and 60%, respectively (P = 0.501) and therapeutic yield was 37% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.11). Overall technical success was 91% with no difference between the groups (P = 0.27). There were no major adverse events in either group. SBE can be performed as an open-access procedure without compromise to safety or diagnostic yield.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high. The present study was aimed to know the pattern and outcome of the OP poisoning. METHODOLOGY: A record based retrospective study from January 2013 - December 2013 was Conducted in a tertiary care hospital and data regarding age, gender, domicile, type of poison, manner of poisoning, seasonal trends, marital status, motive behind poisoning , socio - economic status and outcome was collected in a pre - structured Performa. All data were documented, analyzed and interpreted as per the laid down protocol. RESULTS : out of total 1575 cases of OP compound poisoning, 71.73% (1130 were male, 28.27% (445 were female, 34.6% were in the age group 21 - 30 years, 70.95% were of low socio - economic status, Occupation wise agricultural workers were on top of the list (70.07%, The commonest (93.78% motive behind poisoning was suicidal in both males and females, Financial problem was one of the commonest (51.22% reasons of poisoning. The mortality rate in our study was 13.47%. CONCLUSION : Y oung and adult males of Low socio - economic class, rural, both literate and illiterate agriculturists commonly abuse this substance to commit suicide
Alwatban, Lenah; Binamer, Yousef
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective DNA repair that results in extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Depending on the type of XP, the disease may affect the skin, eyes and nervous system. Describe the dermatologic manifestations in patients suffering from XP. Retrospective, descriptive review of medical records. Dermatology clinic at tertiary care center in Riyadh. This study included Saudi patients with clinically confirmed XP. Demographic and clinical data including pathology and associated conditions and outcomes. Of 21 patients with XP, the most common manifestation was lentigines, affecting 18 patients (86%). The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) affecting 15 (71.4%) and 9 (42.8%), respectively. Other skin findings included neurofibroma, trichilemmoma and seborrheic keratosis. Ocular involvement included photophobia, which was the most common finding followed by dryness and ocular malignancies. Two patients showed neurological involvement, which correlated with the type of mutation. Considering that XP is a rare genetic disease, this description of our patient population will aid in early recognition and diagnosis. Retrospective and small number of patients. Genetic analyses were done for only 5 of the 21 patients.
Quddus, M. B.; Mahmud, S. M.
Objective: To describe the results of laparoscopic procedures at a Urology - Nephrology tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series / observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, from August 2007 to March 2012. Methodology: Medical records of all planned laparoscopic surgery conducted during the study period were reviewed. Those cases which to open surgery were excluded. All were performed by a single surgeon, initially as supervised and later independently. Data was maintained for demographic data, procedure details, length of hospital stay, and complications including conversion to open surgeries. Data was analyzed through SPSS 17.0. Results: There were 36 planned laparoscopic surgeries in the specified period. Out of 36 cases, 8 were converted to open surgery. Those who underwent laparoscopic surgery include two diagnostic procedures and renal cyst deroofing each, four ureterolithotomy, nineteen simple nephrectomy and one radical nephrectomy. So in total 28 cases were performed on 15 females and 13 males with mean age of 33.01 A +- 10.9 years. The mean operative time was 216 A +- 100 minutes and mean length of hospital stay was as 2.7 A +- 1.04 days. There were 10 complications in 28 cases, majority being Clavien Grade II including 7% (2/28) blood transfusion. Conclusion: There are technical challenges in learning laparoscopy for practicing urologists. Following some learning model in a systematic manner will help surmounting the technical challenges in learning laparoscopy. (author)
Scott, John R; Wong, Eric; Sowerby, Leigh J
No literature exists which examines referral preferences to, or the consultation process with, Otolaryngology. In a recent Canadian Medical Association nation-wide survey of General Practitioners and Family Physicians, Otolaryngology was listed as the second-most problematic specialty for referrals. The purpose of this study was to learn about and improve upon the referral process between primary care physicians (PCPs) and Otolaryngology at an academic centre in Southwestern Ontario. PCPs who actively refer patients to Otolaryngology within the catchment area of Western University were asked to complete a short paper-based questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 50 PCPs were surveyed. Subspecialty influenced 90.0% of the referrals made. Specialist wait times altered 58.0% of referrals. All PCPs preferred to communicate via fax. Half of those surveyed wanted clinical notes from every encounter. Seventy-four percent of respondents wanted inappropriate referrals forwarded to the proper specialist automatically. Twenty-two percent of those surveyed were satisfied with current wait times. A central referral system was favored by 74% of PCPs. Improvements could help streamline the referral and consultation practices with Otolaryngology in Southwestern Ontario. A central referral system and reduction in the frequency of consultative reports can be considered.
M S Maputle
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore and describe experiences of mothers during childbirth in a tertiary hospital in the Limpopo Province. This was achieved through a qualitative research study which was exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive in nature. A sample of 24 mothers participated in this study. Data obtained from unstructured in-depth interviews were analysed according to the protocol by Tesch (1990, cited in Cresswell, 1994:155. Five themes were identified, namely mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and decision-making; information sharing and empowering autonomy and informed choices; open communication and listening; accommodative/non-accommodative midwifery actions; and maximising human and material infrastructure. The themes indicated experiences that foster or promote dependency on midwifery care. Guidelines on how to transform this dependency into a mother-centered care approach during childbirth are provided. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om moeders se belewenis van kindergeboorte in ’n tersiêre hospitaal in die Limpopo Provinsie te verken en te beskryf. Dit is gedoen deur middel van kwalitatiewe navorsing wat verkennend, beskrywend, en kontekstueel was. ‘n Steekproef van 24 moeders het aan die studie deelgeneem. Inligting is verkry deur middel van ongestruktureerde in-diepte onderhoude. Hierdie inligting is geanaliseer aan die hand van Tesch (1990: aangehaal in Creswell, 1994:155 se protokol. Die volgende kategorieë is geïdentifiseer, wedersydse deelname en gedeelde verantwoordelik- hede, afhanklikheid en besluitneming, deel van inligting, bemagtiging tot outonomie en ingeligte keuse, oop kommunikasie en luister, akkommoderende/nie-akkommoderende vroedvrou-aksies en bevordering van menslike en materiële infrastrukture. Die resultate van die onderhoude het belewenisse blootgelê wat dui op die bevordering van afhanklikheid in vroedvrouversorging. Riglyne om hierdie
Kiran Kumar Kondapaka
Full Text Available SETTING: A tertiary health care facility (Government General and Chest hospital in Hyderabad, India. OBJECTIVES: To assess a the extent of compliance of specialists to standardized national (RNTCP tuberculosis management guidelines and b if patients on discharge from hospital were being appropriately linked up with peripheral health facilities for continuation of anti-Tuberculosis (TB treatment. METHODS: A descriptive study using routine programme data and involving all TB patients admitted to inpatient care from 1(st January to 30(th June, 2010. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were a total of 3120 patients admitted of whom, 1218 (39% required anti-TB treatment. Of these 1104 (98% were treated with one of the RNTCP recommended regimens, while 28 (2% were treated with non-RNTCP regimens. The latter included individually tailored MDR-TB treatment regimens for 19 patients and adhoc regimens for nine patients. A total of 957 (86% patients were eventually discharged from the hospital of whom 921 (96% had a referral form filled for continuing treatment at a peripheral health facility. Formal feedback from peripheral health facilities on continuation of TB treatment was received for 682 (74% patients. In a tertiary health facility with specialists the great majority of TB patients are managed in line with national guidelines. However a number of short-comings were revealed and measures to rectify these are discussed.
Liddy, Clare; Singh, Jatinderpreet; Kelly, Ryan; Dahrouge, Simone; Taljaard, Monica; Younger, Jamie
Several new primary care models have been implemented in Ontario, Canada over the past two decades. These practice models differ in team structure, physician remuneration, and group size. Few studies have examined the impact of these models on specialist referrals. We compared specialist referral rates amongst three primary care models: 1) Enhanced Fee-for-service, 2) Capitation- Non-Interdisciplinary (CAP-NI), 3) Capitation - Interdisciplinary (CAP-I). We conducted a cross-sectional study using health administrative data from primary care practices in Ontario from April 1st, 2008 to March 31st, 2010. The analysis included all family physicians providing comprehensive care in one of the three models, had at least 100 patients, and did not have a prolonged absence (eight consecutive weeks). The primary outcome was referral rate (# of referrals to all medical specialties/1000 patients/year). A multivariable clustered Poisson regression analysis was used to compare referral rates between models while adjusting for provider (sex, years since graduation, foreign trained, time in current model) and patient (age, sex, income, rurality, health status) characteristics. Fee-for-service had a significantly lower adjusted referral rate (676, 95% CI: 666-687) than the CAP-NI (719, 95% confidence interval (CI): 705-734) and CAP-I (694, 95% CI: 681-707) models and the interdisciplinary CAP-I group had a 3.5% lower referral rate than the CAP-NI group (RR = 0.965, 95% CI: 0.943-0.987, p = 0.002). Female and Canadian-trained physicians referred more often, while female, older, sicker and urban patients were more likely to be referred. Primary care model is significantly associated with referral rate. On a study population level, these differences equate to 111,059 and 37,391 fewer referrals by fee-for-service versus CAP-NI and CAP-I, respectively - a difference of $22.3 million in initial referral appointment costs. Whether a lower rate of referral is more appropriate or not is not
Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. About a quarter of stroke patients are dead within a month, about a third by 6 months, and a half by 1 year. Although the most substantial advance in stroke has been the routine management of patients in stroke care units, intensive care unit has remained the choice for stroke patients’ care in developing countries. This study explores the mortality of stroke patients in intensive care unit setting in tertiary care neurological centre in a developing country. Methods: We collected data of stroke patients admitted in our ICU from August 2009 to Aug 2010 and analyzed. Results: Total 44 (10.25% patients were admitted for acute stroke. Age ranged from 17-93 years. Low GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale, uncontrolled hypertension and aspiration pneumonia were common indications for admission in ICU. Total 23 (52.3% patients had hemorrhagic stroke and 21(47.7% patients had ischemic stroke. 13 (29.54% patients of stroke died within 7 days, 9 (69.23% patients of hemorrhagic stroke died within 6 days, and 4 patients (30.76% of ischemic stroke died within 7 days. 6 (13.63% patients left hospital against medical advice. All of these patients had ischemic stroke. Conclusions: Stroke mortality in intensive care unit remains high despite of care in tertiary neurological center in resource poor settings. Stroke care unit, which would also help dissemination of knowledge of stroke management, is an option for improved outcome in developing countries Keywords: intensive care unit; mortality; stroke; stroke care unit.
Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, Tj; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, Sc; Habeebullah, S
Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies.
Ram, Nanik; Asghar, Ali; Hashmi, Fauzan; Islam, Najmul
Male hypogonadism is defined as 'inadequate gonadal function, manifested by deficiency in gametogenesis and/or secretion of gonadal hormones'. Signs and symptoms of hypogonadism depend primarily on the age of onset. It can be classified according to the site primarily involved: the gonads, the hypothalamus, or the pituitary gland. The objective this study was to determine the presentation and aetiology of male hypogonadism seen in a tertiary care hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Endocrine Clinics, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data of male patients with hypogonadism who attended clinics during January 2009 to August 2011 were reviewed. All male patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism were included in the study. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolic Syndrome, Andropause, AIDS, Chronic Renal Failure, and Cirrhosis were excluded. Mean +/- SD were computed for quantitative variables. Frequency and percentages were computed for qualitative variables. Aetiology of male hypogonadism was categorised as primary and secondary hypogonadism. A total of 85 patients with male hypogonadism attended the endocrine clinic. Mean age of patients was 25 +/- 10 years. Clinical presentations were small genitalia (65%), absent secondary sexual characteristics (53%), not attained puberty (47%), infertility (53%), erectile dysfunction (41%) and loss of libido (29%). Seventy-three (86%) patients had hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (secondary hypogonadism) and 12 (14%) patients had hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism). Among the patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism 38 had idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadsim, 7 had pituitary adenoma, 6 had empty sella syndrome, 3 had Kallman's syndrome, and 1 patient had haemosiderosis due to thalassaemia major; 18 patients did not undergo brain imaging. Small genitalia, absent secondary sexual characteristics and infertility were the main presenting features of hypogonad
Conclusion: Diabetes control was poorer in primary care than in secondary/tertiary care patients, but control of blood pressure was better in primary care patients. The shorter duration of diabetes and better control of blood pressure in primary care patients and in patients aged < 65 years compared with their elderly counterparts might be related to a lower prevalence of complications.
Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana
Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...
Ho, Chanda K; Boscardin, Christy K; Gleason, Nathaniel; Collado, Don; Terdiman, Jonathan; Terrault, Norah A; Gonzales, Ralph
Specialty care referrals have doubled in the last decade. Optimization of the pre-referral workup by a primary care doctor can lead to a more efficient first specialty visit with the patient. Guidance regarding pre-referral laboratory testing is a first step towards improving the specialty referral process. Our aim was to establish consensus regarding appropriate pre-referral workup for common gastrointestinal and liver conditions. The Delphi method was used to establish local consensus for recommending certain laboratory tests prior to specialty referral for 13 clinical conditions. Seven conditions from The University of Michigan outpatient referral guidelines were used as a baseline. An expert panel of three PCPs and nine gastroenterologists from three academic hospitals participated in three iterative rounds of electronic surveys. Each panellist ranked each test using a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Local panellists could recommend additional tests for the initial diagnoses, and also recommended additional diagnoses needing guidelines: iron deficiency anaemia, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fatty liver disease, liver mass and cirrhosis. Consensus was defined as ≥70% of experts scoring ≥4 (agree or strongly agree). Applying Delphi methodology to extrapolate externally developed referral guidelines for local implementation resulted in considerable modifications. For some conditions, many tests from the external group were eliminated by the local group (abdominal bloating; iron deficiency anaemia; irritable bowel syndrome). In contrast, for chronic diarrhoea, abnormal liver enzymes and viral hepatitis, all/most original tests were retained with additional tests added. For liver mass, fatty liver disease and cirrhosis, there was high concordance among the panel with few tests added or eliminated. Consideration of externally developed referral guidelines using a consensus-building process leads to significant local
Luca, Cimino; Raffaella, Aldigeri; Sylvia, Marchi; Valentina, Mastrofilippo; Fabiana, Viscogliosi; Marco, Coassin; Annamaria, Soldani; Luisa, Savoldi; Alessandro, De Fanti; Lucia, Belloni; Alessandro, Zerbini; Maria, Parmeggiani; Matthew, Chersich; Alessandra, Soriano; Carlo, Salvarani; Luigi, Fontana
The role of uveitis, an uncommon ocular disease, is often neglected in research and treatment of autoimmune conditions. The study described the spectrum of uveitis at a referral center in North Italy, and compared that to a previously published series of patients. We reviewed all patients with uveitis diagnosed from 2013 to 2015 at the Immunology Eye Unit, Arcispedale S. M. Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. We examined patient characteristics, disease spectrum, and etiologies. In total, 990 cases of uveitis were identified, who were mostly female (59%) with a median age at presentation of 44 years (interquartile range = 29-57). Anterior uveitis was most frequent (53.5%), followed by panuveitis (22.8%), posterior (16.2%), and intermediate uveitis (5.5%). Anterior herpetic uveitis (15.6%), Fuchs uveitis (9.7%), and HLA-B27 positive anterior uveitis (7.7%) were the most common specific diagnoses. Compared with the previous series, we observed an increased incidence of uveitis, and a different pattern of diagnoses. Rates of herpetic, HLA-B27 positive uveitis, and presumed ocular tuberculosis were higher, but Fuchs uveitis was less frequent. The pattern of uveitis appears to be changing, very likely due to population-level increases in infectious diseases, to the availability of new diagnostic tests and to the interdisciplinary approach used in patient diagnosis.
Prizer, Lindsay P; Gay, Jennifer L; Perkins, Molly M; Wilson, Mark G; Emerson, Kerstin G; Glass, Anne P; Miyasaki, Janis M
A palliative approach is recommended in the care of Parkinson's disease patients; however, many patients only receive this care in the form of hospice at the end of life. Physician attitudes about palliative care have been shown to influence referrals for patients with chronic disease, and negative physician perceptions may affect early palliative referrals for Parkinson's disease patients. To use Social Exchange Theory to examine the association between neurologist-perceived costs and benefits of palliative care referral for Parkinson's disease patients and their reported referral practices. A cross-sectional survey study of neurologists. A total of 62 neurologists recruited from the National Parkinson Foundation, the Medical Association of Georgia, and the American Academy of Neurology's clinician database. Participants reported significantly stronger endorsement of the rewards ( M = 3.34, SD = 0.37) of palliative care referrals than the costs ( M = 2.13, SD = 0.30; t(61) = -16.10, p < 0.0001). A Poisson regression found that perceived costs, perceived rewards, physician type, and the number of complementary clinicians in practice were significant predictors of palliative care referral. Physicians may be more likely to refer patients to non-terminal palliative care if (1) they work in interdisciplinary settings and/or (2) previous personal or patient experience with palliative care was positive. They may be less likely to refer if (1) they fear a loss of autonomy in patient care, (2) they are unaware of available programs, and/or (3) they believe they address palliative needs. Initiatives to educate neurologists on the benefits and availability of non-terminal palliative services could improve patient access to this care.
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas are the most prevalent of all skin cancers worldwide and form the majority of the surgical workload for most modern cutaneous malignancy centres. Primary surgical removal of basal cell carcinomas remains the gold standard of treatment but, despite almost two centuries of surgical experience, rates of incomplete surgical excision of up to 50% are still reported. The aim of this study was to assess, quantify and perform comparative analysis of the outcomes and predictive factors of consecutive primarily-excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary centre over a six-year period. METHODS: Retrospective audit was conducted on all patients who underwent surgical excision of basal cell carcinomas from January 2000 to December 2005. Assessment parameters included patient biographics, tumour management differences and detailed histopathological analysis of tumour margins and subtypes. RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred and thirty two basal cell carcinomas were excised from 1329 patients over the designated time period. Two hundred and fifty one (14%) lesions were incompletely excised with 135 (7.4%) involving the peripheral margin only, 48 (2.6%) the deep margin only and 41 (2.2%) involving both. Nasal location was the most common predictor of incomplete excision. CONCLUSIONS: Overall basal cell carcinomas excision rates compared favourably with international reported standards but attention to a variety of surgical and histological risk factors may improve this further.
Clohessy, Penny; Merif, Juan; Post, Jeffrey John
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly being found in populations without traditional risk factors. We compared the relative frequency, risk factors, severity, and outcomes of community-onset CDI with hospital-acquired infection. This was a retrospective, observational study of CDI at a tertiary hospital campus in Sydney, Australia. Patients aged 15 years and older with a first episode of CDI from January 1 to December 31, 2011 were included. CDI was defined as the presence of diarrhoea with a positive enzyme immunoassay in conjunction with a positive cell cytotoxicity assay, toxin culture, or organism culture. Main outcome measures were onset of infection (hospital or community), risk factors, markers of severity, and outcomes for the two groups. One hundred and twenty-nine cases of CDI infection were identified, of which 38 (29%) were community-onset. The community-onset infection group were less likely to have a recent history of antibiotic use (66% vs. 98%; pinfection group. Markers of severity and outcomes were similar in the two groups, with an overall mortality of 9%. Community-onset CDI accounts for a large proportion of C. difficile infections and has a similar potential for severe disease as hospital-acquired infection. Using a history of previous antibiotic use, proton pump inhibitor use, or recent hospitalization to predict cases is unreliable. We recommend that patients with diarrhoea being investigated in emergency departments and community practice are tested for Clostridium difficile infection. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Hepp, Nicola; Juhl, Anna Julie Aavild; B C, Deepti; Juhl, Claus B
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. It results in significant and sustained weight loss and reduces obesity-related co-morbidities. Despite an increasing prevalence of severe obesity, the number of bariatric operations performed in Denmark has decreased during the past years. This is only partly explained by changes in the national guidelines for bariatric surgery. The purpose of the cross-sectional study is to investigate referral patterns and possible reservations regarding bariatric surgery among Danish primary care physicians (PCPs). Primary care physicians in Denmark METHODS: A total of 300 Danish PCPs were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey regarding experiences with bariatric surgery, reservations about bariatric surgery, attitudes to specific patient cases, and the future treatment of severe obesity. Most questions required a response on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, and strongly agree) and frequency distributions were calculated. 133 completed questionnaires (44%) were returned. Most physicians found that they had good knowledge about the national referral criteria for bariatric surgery. With respect to the specific patient cases, a remarkably smaller part of physicians would refer patients on their own initiative, compared with the patient's initiative. Fear of postoperative surgical complications and medical complications both influenced markedly the decision to refer patients for surgery. Only 9% of the respondents indicated that bariatric surgery should be the primary treatment option for severe obesity in the future. Danish PCPs express severe concerns about surgical and medical complications following bariatric surgery. This might, in part, result in a low rate of referral to bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quanjel, Tessa C C; Winkens, Anne; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Winkens, Ron A G; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk
Consistent evidence on the effects of specialist services in the primary care setting is lacking. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of an in-house internist at a GP practice on the number of referrals to specialist care in the hospital setting. Additionally, the involved GPs and internist were asked to share their experiences with the intervention. A retrospective interrupted times series study. Two multidisciplinary general practitioner (GP) practices. An internist provided in-house patient consultations in two GP practices and participated in the multidisciplinary meetings. The referral data extracted from the electronic medical record system of the GP practices, including all referral letters from the GPs to specialist care in the hospital setting. The number of referrals to internal medicine in the hospital setting. This study used an autoregressive integrated moving average model to estimate the effect of the intervention taking account of a time trend and autocorrelation among the observations, comparing the pre-intervention period with the intervention period. It was found that the referrals to internal medicine did not statistically significant decrease during the intervention period. This small explorative study did not find any clues to support that an in-house internist at a primary care setting results in a decrease of referrals to internal medicine in the hospital setting. Key Points An in-house internist at a primary care setting did not result in a significant decrease of referrals to specialist care in the hospital setting. The GPs and internist experience a learning-effect, i.e. an increase of knowledge about internal medicine issues.
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the demographic and clinical profile of the types of primary angle closure patients presenting at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Clinic records of patients diagnosed as primary angle closure were reviewed. International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO classification scheme was used to categorize patients. Demographic and clinical data including prior management was collected and analyzed. Main Outcome measures were age, sex, symptomatology, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, gonioscopy, optic disc assessment and visual field defects. Logistic regression model and receiver operating curve (ROC were calculated for predictors of type of glaucoma. Results: Eight hundred and fourteen patients (1603 eyes; males: 380, females: 434 were diagnosed to have various subtypes of angle closure. Mean (±SD age at presentation was significantly higher for males (57.57 ± 11.62 years as compared to females (53.64 ± 10.67 years ( P < 0001. Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG was most frequently diagnosed subtype (49.38% followed by Primary angle closure (PAC (39.68% and Primary angle closure suspect (PACS (10.93% respectively. The three subtypes differed significantly among their mean IOP (on ANOVA, F = 14.04; P < 0001 using Greenhouse-Geisser correction. Univariate analysis was done to find significant predictors for the outcome of PACG. Logistic regression model and ROC containing the significant predictors yielded a very high AUC of 0.93 with strong discriminatory ability for PACG. Conclusion: In our hospital-based study, the significant predictors for the outcome of PACG included male gender, diminution of vision, the presence of pain and worsening grades of BCVA. Nearly half of PACG presented with advanced disease. In spite of one-third of the patients being diagnosed as angle closure prior to referral, only 8.34% had iridotomy (laser or surgical
Budnick, Hailey C; Tyroch, Alan H; Milan, Stacey A
Functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be significantly improved by discharge to posthospitalization care facilities. Many variables influence the discharge disposition of the TBI patient, including insurance status, patient condition, and patient prognosis. The literature has demonstrated an ethnic disparity in posthospitalization care referral, with Hispanics being discharged to rehabilitation and nursing facilities less often than non-Hispanics. However, this relationship has not been studied in a Hispanic-majority population, and thus, this study seeks to determine if differences in neurorehabilitation referrals exist among ethnic groups in a predominately Hispanic region. This study is a retrospective cohort that includes 1128 TBI patients who presented to University Medical Center El Paso, Texas, between the years 2005 and 2015. The patients' age, sex, race, residence, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), GCS motor, Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Our study population had an insurance rate of 55.5%. Insurance status and markers of injury severity (hospital LOS, intensive care unit LOS, ISS, GCS, and GCS motor) were predictive of discharge disposition to rehabilitation facilities. The study population was 70% Hispanic, yet Hispanics were discharged to rehabilitation facilities (relative risk: 0.56, P: 0.001) and to long-term acute care/nursing facilities (relative risk: 0.35, P < 0.0001) less than non-Hispanics even after LOS, ISS, ethnicity, insurance status, and residence were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. This study suggests that patients of different ethnicities but comparable traumatic severity and insurance status receive different discharge dispositions post-TBI even in regions in which Hispanics are the demographic majority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Stone, Jordan S; Muir, Kelly W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Rosdahl, Jullia A
Glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible blindness. This study describes the characteristics of a large, diverse group of glaucoma patients and evaluates associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and blindness. Data were gathered via retrospective chart review of patients (N = 1,454) who were seen between July 2007 and July 2010 by glaucoma service providers at Duke Eye Center. Visual acuity and visual field criteria were used to determine whether patients met the criteria for legal blindness. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed on the glaucoma patients who were not blind (n = 1,258) and those who were blind (n = 196). A subgroup analysis of only those patients with primary open-angle glaucoma was also performed. In this tertiary care population, 13% (n = 196) of glaucoma patients met criteria for legal blindness, nearly one-half of whom (n = 94) were blind from glaucoma, and another one-third of whom (n = 69) had glaucoma-related blindness. The most common glaucoma diagnosis at all levels of vision was primary open-angle glaucoma. A larger proportion of black patients compared with white patients demonstrated vision loss; the odds ratio (OR) for blindness was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.6-3.2) for black patients compared with white patients. The use of systemic antihypertensive medications was higher among patients who were blind compared with patients who were not blind (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1). A subgroup analysis including only patients with primary open-angle glaucoma showed similar results for both black race and use of systemic antihypertensive medications. The relationship between use of systemic antihypertensive medications and blindness was not different between black patients and white patients (interaction P = .268). Data were based on chart review, and associations may be confounded by unmeasured factors. Treated systemic hypertension may be correlated with blindness, and the cause cannot be explained solely
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Childhood blindness constitutes a burden on the economy of the country and produces psychosocial and emotional disturbance to the child and family at large. Similar to the visual impairment produced by vitamin deficiency state in children, ocular injuries form another group which if identified early and treated promptly can reduce irreversible damage. Eye injuries are responsible for the large scale ocular morbidity worldwide. At extremes of age, the incidence of eye injuries are common because of the negligence in their care. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence, various mechanisms, agents of injury and environmental influence causing eye injuries in children brought to Ophthalmic Outpatient Department of Chengalpattu Medical College in Kanchipuram District, Tamilnadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of medical records of 230 children who attended Ophthalmic Outpatient in Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital between 01.09.2015 to 30.09.2016. Records of children of both genders between the age group of (0 to 12 years who attended the Ophthalmic Outpatient Department with history of ocular injury coming from both rural and urban areas of the district. Their data was collected and analysed and tabulated based on demography, mechanism and place of injury. RESULTS School going age groups (5-12 years, 84% sustained injuries more commonly. Children from rural areas sustained 54.7% injuries. Blunt trauma accounted for 65% injuries. 52.6% injuries occurred at home. 41.7% were due to stick and wood. Children were admitted to hospital for a mean of 4 days, range (1-25 days, 96% >6/12 v/a, 3% children had v/a (6/18-6/60, 1% blind 6/60 vision. Bilateral blindness was not reported. 1% visual impairment registered. CONCLUSION This study showed that rural children suffered more ocular injuries;commonest were injuries due to sticks followed by cracker injuries. Home-based injuries were more common. Visual prognosis was
Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Jasmin; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kruse, Anja; Reif, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Romanos, Marcel; Strobel, Alexander; Brocke, Burkhard; Schäfer, Helmut; Schmidtke, Armin; Böning, Jobst; Lesch, Klaus-Peter
The prevalence and consequences of co-morbid axis-I and axis-II disorders as well as personality traits were examined in a large cohort of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AADHD) at a tertiary referral center. In- and outpatients referred for diagnostic assessment of AADHD were screened. 372 affected probands were examined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV axis-I/II disorders, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Lifetime co-morbidity with mood disorders was 57.3%, with anxiety disorders 27.2%, and with substance use disorders 45.0%. The histrionic personality disorder (35.2%) was the most frequent personality disorder. AADHD patients exhibited significantly altered scores on most of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ personality dimensions. The extent of substance abuse and dependence, as well as the presence of antisocial personality disorder alone or the cumulative number of other specific personality disorders was associated with lower psychosocial status (pdisorders was remarkably prevalent. In AADHD co-morbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as substance abuse/dependence is likely to be predictive of poor outcome.
Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung
The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. During the study period, 32,841 respiratory specimens from 10,563 patients were found to be culture-positive for mycobacteria. These included 12,619 (38%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20,222 (62%) NTM isolates. The proportion of NTM among all positive mycobacterial cultures increased from 43% (548/1,283) in 2001 to 70% (3,341/4,800) in 2011 (ptrend). The recovery rate of NTM isolates from acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens increased from 9% (38/417) in 2001 to 64% (1,284/1,997) in 2011 (ptrend). The proportion of positive liquid cultures was higher for NTM than for M. tuberculosis (p<0.001). The most frequently isolated NTM were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (53%) and Mycobacterium abscessus-massiliense complex (25%). The recovery rate of NTM from respiratory specimens in South Korea has increased steadily.
Mata-Mbemba, Daddy; Mugikura, Shunji; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Murata, Takaki; Kato, Yumiko; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Takase, Kei; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Tominaga, Teiji; Takahashi, Shoki
We compared Canadian computed tomography (CT) head rule (CCHR) and New Orleans Criteria (NOC) in predicting important CT findings in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We included 142 consecutive patients with mild TBI [Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 13-15] who showed at least one of the risk factors stated in the CCHR or the NOC. We introduced two scores: a Canadian from the CCHR and a New Orleans from the NOC. A patient's score represented a sum of the number of positive items. We examined the relationship between scores or items and the presence of important CT findings. Only the Canadian was significantly associated with important CT findings in multivariate analyses and showed higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) either in all 142 patients (GCS 13-15: P = 0.0130; AUC = 0.69) or in the 67 with a GCS = 15 (P = 0.0128, AUC = 0.73). Of items, ">60 years" or "≥65 years" included in either guideline was the strongest predictor of important CT finding, followed by "GCS < 15 after 2 h" included only in the CCHR. In a tertiary referral hospital in Japan, CCHR had higher performance than the NOC in predicting important CT findings.
Full Text Available Aim: To discuss the clinical features and management of patients who presented with optic disc edema and had features of presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. Materials and Methods: Case series of all patients diagnosed to have IIH from January 2000 to December 2003 in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary referral ophthalmic institution, were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis was done for 50/106 patients who fulfilled modified Dandy′s criteria and had optic disc edema and a minimal follow-up period of two years. Results: Most (40/50, 80% of the patients were females and the mean age of presentation for all the 50 patients was 32.89 years. Chief complaints were headache in 38 (76% patients, 24 (48% patients had transient visual obscuration, 24 (48% patients had reduced vision, 15 (30% patients had nausea, vomiting, 4 (8% patients had diplopia. Bilateral disc edema was seen in 46 (92% patients and unilateral disc edema in 4 (8% patients. 60 eyes had enlarged blind spot as the common visual field defect. Neuroimaging revealed prominent perioptic CSF spaces in 14 patients and empty sella in three patients. CSF opening pressure was 250-350 mm H2O (water in 39 patients and was > 350 mm H2O in 11 patients. Medical treatment was started for all patients; whereas 35 [70%] patients responded, 15 [30%] patients had to undergo LP shunt.
Sheila Z. Chang
Full Text Available Background: Pediatric subspecialists can participate in the care of obese children. Objective: To describe steps to help subspecialty providers initiate quality improvement efforts in obesity care. Methods: An anonymous patient data download, provider surveys and interviews assessed subspecialty providers’ identification and perspectives of childhood obesity and gathered information on perceived roles and care strategies. Participating divisions received summary analyses of quantitative and qualitative data and met with study leaders to develop visions for division/service-specific care improvement. Results: Among 13 divisions/services, subspecialists’ perceived role varied by specialty; many expressed the need for cross-collaboration. All survey informants agreed that identification was the first step, and expressed interest in obtaining additional resources to improve care. Conclusions: Subspecialists were interested in improving the quality and coordination of obesity care for patients across our tertiary care setting. Developing quality improvement projects to achieve greater pediatric obesity care goals starts with engagement of providers toward better identifying and managing childhood obesity.
Full Text Available AIMS: Radiological inappropriateness in medical imaging leads to loss of resources and accumulation of avoidable population cancer risk. Aim of the study was to audit the appropriateness rate of different cardiac radiological examinations. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With a retrospective, observational study we reviewed clinical records of 818 consecutive patients (67 ± 12 years, 75% males admitted from January 1-May 31, 2010 to the National Research Council - Tuscany Region Gabriele Monasterio Foundation cardiology division. A total of 940 procedures were audited: 250 chest x-rays (CXR; 240 coronary computed tomographies (CCT; 250 coronary angiographies (CA; 200 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI. For each test, indications were rated on the basis of guidelines class of recommendation and level of evidence: definitely appropriate (A, including class I, appropriate, and class IIa, probably appropriate, uncertain (U, class IIb, probably inappropriate, or inappropriate (I, class III, definitely inappropriate. Appropriateness was suboptimal for all tests: CXR (A = 48%, U = 10%, I = 42%; CCT (A = 58%, U = 24%, I = 18%; CA (A = 45%, U = 25%, I = 30%; PCI (A = 63%, U = 15%, I = 22%. Top reasons for inappropriateness were: routine on hospital admission (70% of inappropriate CXR; first line application in asymptomatic low-risk patients (42% of CCT or in patients with unchanged clinical status post-revascularization (20% of CA; PCI in patients either asymptomatic or with miscellaneous symptoms and without inducible ischemia on non-invasive testing (36% of inappropriate PCI. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Public healthcare system--with universal access paid for with public money--is haemorrhaging significant resources and accumulating avoidable long-term cancer risk with inappropriate cardiovascular imaging prevention.
Marks, D J B; Hyams, C; Koo, C Y; Pavlou, M; Robbins, J; Koo, C S; Rodger, G; Huggett, J F; Yap, J; Macrae, M B; Swanton, R H; Zumla, A I; Miller, R F
Infective endocarditis (IE) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Patient and pathogen profiles, as well as microbiological and operative strategies, continue to evolve. The impact of these changes requires evaluation to inform optimum management and identify individuals at high risk of early mortality. Identification of clinical and microbiological features, and surgical outcomes, among patients presenting to a UK tertiary cardiothoracic centre for surgical management of IE between 1998 and 2010. Retrospective observational cohort study. Clinical, biochemical, microbiological and echocardiographic data were identified from clinical records. Principal outcomes were all-cause 28-day mortality and duration of post-operative admission. Patients (n = 336) were predominantly male (75.0%); median age 52 years (IQR = 41-67). Most cases involved the aortic (56.0%) or mitral (53.9%) valves. Microbiological diagnoses, obtained in 288 (85.7%) patients, included streptococci (45.2%); staphylococci (34.5%); Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella (HACEK) organisms (3.0%); and fungi (1.8%); 11.3% had polymicrobial infection. Valve replacement in 308 (91.7%) patients included mechanical prostheses (69.8%), xenografts (24.0%) and homografts (6.2%). Early mortality was 12.2%, but fell progressively during the study (P = 0.02), as did median duration of post-operative admission (33.5 to 10.5 days; P = 0.0003). Multivariable analysis showed previous cardiothoracic surgery (OR = 3.85, P = 0.03), neutrophil count (OR = 2.27, P = 0.05), albumin (OR = 0.94, P = 0.04) and urea (OR = 2.63, P < 0.001) predicted early mortality. This study demonstrates reduced post-operative early mortality and duration of hospital admission for IE patients over the past 13 years. Biomarkers (previous cardiothoracic surgery, neutrophil count, albumin and urea), predictive of early post-operative mortality, require prospective evaluation to refine algorithms, further improve
Tu, Ha T; Lauer, Johanna R
Sponsors of health care price and quality transparency initiatives often identify all consumers as their target audiences, but the true audiences for these programs are much more limited. In 2007, only 11 percent of American adults looked for a new primary care physician, 28 percent needed a new specialist physician and 16 percent underwent a medical procedure at a new facility, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Among consumers who found a new provider, few engaged in active shopping or considered price or quality information--especially when choosing specialists or facilities for medical procedures. When selecting new primary care physicians, half of all consumers relied on word-of-mouth recommendations from friends and relatives, but many also used doctor recommendations (38%) and health plan information (35%), and nearly two in five used multiple information sources when choosing a primary care physician. However, when choosing specialists and facilities for medical procedures, most consumers relied exclusively on physician referrals. Use of online provider information was low, ranging from 3 percent for consumers undergoing procedures to 7 percent for consumers choosing new specialists to 11 percent for consumers choosing new primary care physicians
Level of health care and services in a tertiary health setting in Nigeria. ... Background: There is a growing awareness and demand for quality health care across the world; hence the ... Doctors and nurses formed 64.3% of the study population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex
Demile, Biresaw; Zenebu, Amare; Shewaye, Haile; Xia, Siqing; Guadie, Awoke
Ethiopia is one of the world health organization defined higher tuberculosis (TB) burden countries where the disease remains a massive public health threat. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using all armed force and civilian TB attendants in a tertiary level armed force hospital, where data for MDR-TB are previously unpublished. Cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in a tertiary level Armed Force Referral and Teaching Hospital (AFRTH), Ethiopia. Armed force members (n = 251) and civilians (n = 130) which has been undergone TB diagnosis at AFRTH were included. All the specimens collected were subjected to microscopic smear observation, culture growth and drug susceptibility testing. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences following binary logistic regression and Chi-square. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Among 381 TB patients, 355 (93.2%) new and 26 (6.8%) retreatment cases were identified. Culture and smear positive TB cases were identified in 297 (77.9%) and 252 (66.1%) patients, respectively. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB in AFRTH was found 1.8% (1.3% for armed force members and 0.5% for civilian patients) all of which were previously TB treated cases. The entire treatment success rates were 92.6% achieved highest in the armed force (active and pension) than the civilian patients. The failure and dead cases were also found 2.5 and 4.6%, respectively. Using bivariate analysis, category of attendants and TB contact history were strong predictors of MDR-TB in armed force and civilian patients. Moreover, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection also identified a significant (OR = 14.6; 95% CI = 2.3-92.1; p = 0.004) predicting factor for MDR-TB in armed force members. However, sex, age and body mass index were not associated factor for MDR-TB. In AFRTH, lower prevalence of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality ratio by two-thirds by 2015 is an international development goal with unrestricted access to high quality emergency obstetric care services promoted towards the attainment of that goal. The objective of this qualitative study was to assess the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Gambia's main referral hospital. Methods From weekend admissions a group of 30 women treated for different acute obstetric conditions including five main diagnostic groups: hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, dystocia, sepsis and anemia were purposively selected. In-depth interviews with the women were carried out at their homes within two weeks of discharge. Results Substantial difficulties in obtaining emergency obstetric care were uncovered. Health system inadequacies including lack of blood for transfusion, shortage of essential medicines especially antihypertensive drugs considerably hindered timely and adequate treatment for obstetric emergencies. Such inadequacies also inflated the treatment costs to between 5 and 18 times more than standard fees. Blood transfusion and hypertensive treatment were associated with the largest costs. Conclusion The deficiencies in the availability of life-saving interventions identified are manifestations of inadequate funding for maternal health services. Substantial increase in funding for maternal health services is therefore warranted towards effective implementation of emergency obstetric care package in The Gambia.
Huanca, Romina; Perretta, Luis; Lebensohn, Natalia; Di Paolo, Oscar; Pires, Miryam; Quaglia, Nora Beatriz
Occupational accidents due to biological materials cause significant harm to workers and institutions. To estimate the risk of accidents in doctors and nurses at the Hospital Provincial del Centenario (HPC) and particularly in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) between 2009 and 2013. retrospective cohort study from the survey information of injuries by accidents with biohazard in doctors and nurses workers from HPC. medical workers reported 45.7% (95% CI 37.2 to 54.3%) of accidents and nurses 38.4% (from 30.3 to 47.1%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) (doctors / nurses) (2009-2013) = 0.953 (0.661-1.373). EMS workers ages and seniority were significantly lower than those of other care areas taken together. Reports of accidents from the EMS were 34.1% (95% CI: 26.2 to 42.6%) of the total. EMS workers had age and seniority average significantly less than workers in other services. In EMS, the IRR (doctors / nurses) (2009-2013) = 6.337 (2.264 -17.733). SGM medical workers ages and seniority were significantly lower than those of nurses working in this service. The EMS was particularly vulnerable to occupational injuries, medical workers have a higher risk of accidents compared to nursing workers. The younger age and lower seniority of medical workers could be related at least partly to these findings.
Gordon, John B; Colby, Holly H; Bartelt, Tera; Jablonski, Debra; Krauthoefer, Mary L; Havens, Peter
To evaluate the impact of a tertiary care center special needs program that partners with families and primary care physicians to ensure seamless inpatient and outpatient care and assist in providing medical homes. Up to 3 years of preenrollment and postenrollment data were compared for patients in the special needs program from July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2005. A tertiary care center pediatric hospital and medical school serving urban and rural patients. A total of 227 of 230 medically complex and fragile children and youth with special needs who had a wide range of chronic disorders and were enrolled in the special needs program. Care coordination provided by a special needs program pediatric nurse case manager with or without a special needs program physician. Preenrollment and postenrollment tertiary care center resource utilization, charges, and payments. A statistically significant decrease was found in the number of hospitalizations, number of hospital days, and tertiary care center charges and payments, and an increase was found in the use of outpatient services. Aggregate data revealed a decrease in hospital days from 7926 to 3831, an increase in clinic visits from 3150 to 5420, and a decrease in tertiary care center payments of $10.7 million. The special needs program budget for fiscal year 2005 had a deficit of $400,000. This tertiary care-primary care partnership model improved health care and reduced costs with relatively modest institutional support.
Paudel, B; Shrestha, G K
Background Consent for care procedures is mandatory after receipt of adequate information. It maintains patient's rights and autonomy to make thoughtful decisions. Poor communication often leads to poor health quality. Objective To assess hospitalized patients' perception on informed consent regarding nursing care practices in a tertiary care center. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study among 113 admitted patients conducted in February 2012 at Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal. Patients of various wards were selected using purposive non-probability sampling with at least 3 days of hospitalization. Close ended structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' perception on three different areas of informed consent (information giving, opportunity to make decision and taking prior consent). Result Among the participants 71.6% perceived positively regarding informed consent towards nursing care practices with a mean score of 3.32 ± 1.28. Patients' perception on various areas of informed consent viz. information giving, opportunities to make specific decision and taking prior consent were all positive with mean values of 3.43±1.12, 2.88±1.23, 3.65±1.49 respectively. Comparison of mean perception of informed consent with various variables revealed insignificant correlation (p-value >0.05) for age, educational level and previous hospitalization while it was significant (p-value perception on informed consent towards nursing care practices. Communication skills of nurses affect the perception of patients' regardless of age, education level and past experiences.
Sonnemans, Lianne J P; Kubat, Bela; Prokop, Mathias; Klein, Willemijn M
Objective To investigate whether virtual autopsy with postmortem CT (PMCT) improves clinical diagnosis of the immediate cause of death. Design Retrospective observational cohort study. Inclusion criteria: inhospital and out-of-hospital deaths over the age of 1 year in whom virtual autopsy with PMCT and conventional autopsy were performed. Exclusion criteria: forensic cases, postmortal organ donors and cases with incomplete scanning procedures. Cadavers were examined by virtual autopsy with PMCT prior to conventional autopsy. The clinically determined cause of death was recorded before virtual autopsy and was then adjusted with the findings of virtual autopsy. Using conventional autopsy as reference standard, we investigated the increase in sensitivity for immediate cause of death, type of pathology and anatomical system involved before and after virtual autopsy. Setting Tertiary referral centre. Participants 86 cadavers that underwent conventional and virtual autopsy between July 2012 and June 2016. Intervention PMCT consisted of brain, cervical spine and chest–abdomen–pelvis imaging. Conventional autopsy consisted of thoracoabdominal examination with/without brain autopsy. Primary and secondary outcome measures Increase in sensitivity for the immediate cause of death, type of pathology (infection, haemorrhage, perfusion disorder, other or not assigned) and anatomical system (pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, other or not assigned) involved, before and after virtual autopsy. Results Using PMCT, the sensitivity for immediate cause of death increased with 12% (95% CI 2% to 22%) from 53% (41% to 64%) to 64% (53% to 75%), with 18% (9% to 27%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 83% (73% to 91%) for type of pathology and with 19% (9% to 30%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 85% (75% to 92%) for anatomical system. Conclusion While unenhanced PMCT is an insufficient substitute for conventional autopsy, it can improve diagnosis of cause of death over clinical diagnosis alone
Sonnemans, Lianne J P; Kubat, Bela; Prokop, Mathias; Klein, Willemijn M
To investigate whether virtual autopsy with postmortem CT (PMCT) improves clinical diagnosis of the immediate cause of death. Retrospective observational cohort study. inhospital and out-of-hospital deaths over the age of 1 year in whom virtual autopsy with PMCT and conventional autopsy were performed. forensic cases, postmortal organ donors and cases with incomplete scanning procedures. Cadavers were examined by virtual autopsy with PMCT prior to conventional autopsy. The clinically determined cause of death was recorded before virtual autopsy and was then adjusted with the findings of virtual autopsy. Using conventional autopsy as reference standard, we investigated the increase in sensitivity for immediate cause of death, type of pathology and anatomical system involved before and after virtual autopsy. Tertiary referral centre. 86 cadavers that underwent conventional and virtual autopsy between July 2012 and June 2016. PMCT consisted of brain, cervical spine and chest-abdomen-pelvis imaging. Conventional autopsy consisted of thoracoabdominal examination with/without brain autopsy. Increase in sensitivity for the immediate cause of death, type of pathology (infection, haemorrhage, perfusion disorder, other or not assigned) and anatomical system (pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, other or not assigned) involved, before and after virtual autopsy. Using PMCT, the sensitivity for immediate cause of death increased with 12% (95% CI 2% to 22%) from 53% (41% to 64%) to 64% (53% to 75%), with 18% (9% to 27%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 83% (73% to 91%) for type of pathology and with 19% (9% to 30%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 85% (75% to 92%) for anatomical system. While unenhanced PMCT is an insufficient substitute for conventional autopsy, it can improve diagnosis of cause of death over clinical diagnosis alone and should therefore be considered whenever autopsy is not performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of
Rashid, Mohd Radzniwan A; Aziz, Aznida Firzah Abdul; Ahmad, Saharuddin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sagap, Ismail
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major malignancies in the world. In Malaysia, CRC is fast becoming the commonest cause of cancer death. Its etiology is complex, involving both environmental and genetic factors. This study looked at the profile and outcome of five-year follow-up of patients with CRC. Retrospective case review study done on CRC patients at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Patientsandapos; socio-demographic characteristics, modalities of treatment, cancer characteristics and outcome at 5-year follow up were extracted from the case records. A total of 107 case records of patients were analyzed. Peak age of CRC presentation was 40-69 years (71.1%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1 with Chinese predominance (52.3%). Anaemia and its related symptoms including per rectal bleeding was the commonest clinical presentation. The median duration of clinical presentation was 13 weeks (IQR 21.8). More than two-thirds presented as non-emergency cases (69.2%). Most patients presented with Dukes C stage (40.2%). The overall 5-year survival rate was 40% with local recurrence rate of 19.6%. Metastasis after curative-intend treatment (surgery with adjuvant therapy) developed in 26% of patients. Lower recurrence (p = 0.016, OR = 0.205) and metastatic disease (p = 0.02, OR = 0.24) found among the Chinese patients. Almost half of the patients defaulted follow up care (43%), most often within the first year of treatment (22.4%) and the Chinese were the least likely to default (p= 0.04, OR = 0.45). Socio-demographic profile of CRC patients in UKMMC is comparable to Asia pacific region. Apparent delay in seeking treatment gives rise to poor overall survival and local recurrence rates.
Khan, R.A.W.; Ahmed, W.; Alam, S.E.; Arif, A
Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the
Full Text Available Chutikarn Suriya1, Nongyao Kasatpibal2, Wipada Kunaviktikul2, Toranee Kayee31Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 2Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, 3Department of Surgery, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandIntroduction: Limited data currently exists regarding the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation for early detection among patients in Thailand. Delayed diagnosis and treatment for an ulcer can be life-threatening, resulting in shock or death.Objective: To determine the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation.Material and methods: A cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand from 2005 to 2009. Peptic ulcer patients aged 15 years and over admitted to the surgical department were included. The diagnostic indicators used criteria of the patients' final diagnoses and operations, coded according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, which included patient profiles, gender, age, coexisting illnesses, personal habits, signs and symptoms, laboratory investigations, radiological finding, and treatment role. Exponential risk regression analyses to obtain relative risk (RR estimates for diagnostic indicators were analyzed using Stata® statistical software package, version 11 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX.Results: The study included 1290 patients. Of these, 57% reported perforated peptic ulcer. Multivariate analysis showed five diagnostic indicators: signs and symptoms including intense abdominal pain (RR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–2.06, tenderness (RR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.17–3.21, and guarding (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.05–2.20; X-ray with free air (RR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.08–3.77; and referral from other hospitals (RR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.82.Conclusion: Five diagnostic indicators for peptic ulcer perforation monitoring were suggested from this study. Improving diagnostic
Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Zárate-Coronado, Olivia; Gaxiola-González, Fabiola; Neyoy-Sombra, Venigna
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a maximum noise level of 40 decibels (dB) for an intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to compare the noise levels in 2 different intensive care units at a tertiary care centre. Using a cross-sectional design study, an analysis was made of the maximum noise level was within the intensive coronary care unit and intensive care unit using a digital meter. A measurement was made in 4 different points of each room, with 5minute intervals, for a period of 60minutes 7:30, 14:30, and 20:30. The means of the observations were compared with descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U. An analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to the mean noise level. The noise observed in the intensive care unit had a mean of 64.77±3.33dB (P=.08), which was similar to that in the intensive coronary care unit, with a mean of 60.20±1.58dB (P=.129). Around 25% or more of the measurements exceeded the level recommended by the WHO by up to 20 points. Noise levels measured in intensive care wards exceed the maximum recommended level for a hospital. It is necessary to design and implement actions for greater participation of health personnel in the reduction of environmental noise. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Michaels, Margo; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Blakeney, Natasha; Weiss, Elisa S; Binz-Scharf, Maria C; Golant, Mitch; Bylund, Carma L
Primary Care Providers (PCPs) can be instrumental in helping to prepare patients for referral to cancer treatment. It has been suggested that PCPs can have an important impact on priming patients about the possibility of receiving care within a cancer treatment clinical trial (CCT). However, little is understood about how to effectively engage primary care providers in educating patients about trials. Data were collected as part of two qualitative research projects about primary care providers' role in referral to treatment and to CCTs. Participants were 27 PCPs who agreed to take part in qualitative face-to-face or telephone interviews and serve predominantly underserved, minority populations. Interviews identified a number of factors influencing referral to oncologists, including patients' insurance coverage, location and proximity to treatment facilities, and the strength of ongoing relationships with and/or previous experience with a specialist. PCPs overwhelmingly expressed disinterest in discussing any treatment options, including CCTs. Misconceptions about quality of care received through trials were also common, presenting a deterrent to discussion. PCPs need targeted, evidence-based educational interventions to appropriately address their concerns about cancer clinical trials, enhance provider communication skills, and alter patient referral behavior. Steps must also be taken to strengthen communication between oncologists and referring PCPs.
Campbell, Fiona; Holmes, Mike; Everson-Hock, Emma; Davis, Sarah; Buckley Woods, Helen; Anokye, Nana; Tappenden, Paul; Kaltenthaler, Eva
It is estimated that only 39% of men and 29% of women in England achieve the levels of physical activity that are recommended to protect health and prevent disease. One approach to addressing this problem has been the development of exercise referral schemes (ERSs), in which health professionals refer patients to external exercise providers. These schemes have been widely rolled out across the UK despite concerns that they may not produce sustained changes in levels of physical activity and, therefore, may not be cost-effective interventions. The evidence to determine clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness was evaluated in 2009. This review seeks to update this earlier work by incorporating new evidence and re-examining the cost-effectiveness. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ERSs compared with usual care. Exhaustive searches of relevant electronic databases and journals were undertaken to identify new studies evaluating ERSs using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. RCTs that incorporated a qualitative evaluation of the intervention were identified in order to explore the barriers and facilitators to the uptake of and adherence to ERSs. Data were extracted using a previously designed tool and study quality assessed for potential bias. Where data could be pooled, meta-analyses were carried out. Qualitative analysis was also undertaken using a thematic approach. The cost-effectiveness was evaluated using a Markov structure which estimated the likelihood of becoming physically active and the subsequent risk reduction on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The model adopts a lifetime horizon, and a NHS and Personal Social Services perspective was taken with discounting at 1.5% for both costs and benefits. The search identified one new RCT and one new qualitative study. The new data were pooled with existing data from the 2011 review by Pavey et al. [Pavey TG, Anokye N, Taylor AH, Trueman P
mortality of between 1 and 5%,[2,12] while others have reported .... ICU, and the need for a critical care specialist should be considered. ... Madan I, Jain NJ, Grotegut C, Nelson D, Dandolu V. Characteristics of obstetric intensive care.
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Methods Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1% were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47, physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14, contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03, rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7 and smaller practice size (1–3 GPs (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24. Conclusions Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. Trial registration ACTRN
Passey, Megan E; Laws, Rachel A; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; McKenzie, Suzanne; Powell-Davies, Gawaine; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F
Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1%) were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47), physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14), contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03), rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7) and smaller practice size (1-3 GPs) (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24). Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. ACTRN12607000423415.
Santoshkumar R Jeevangi
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate drug utilization and associated costs for the treatment of patients admitted in burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for a period of 15 months at Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga and the data collected was analyzed for various drug use indicators. Results: A total of 100 prescriptions were collected with 44% belonging to males and 56% to females. The average number of drugs per prescription ranged from 4.5 to 9.5. 9.5% of generics and 92% of essential drugs were prescribed. The opioid analgesics and sedatives were prescribed to all the patients who were admitted in burn care unit. The (Defined daily dose DDD/1 000/day for amikacin (359 was the highest followed by diclofenac sodium (156, pantoprazole (144, diazepam (130, ceftazidime (124, tramadol (115, ceftriaxone (84 and for paracetamol (4 which was the lowest. Conclusions: Significant amount of the money was spent on procurement of drugs. Most of the money was spent on prescribed antibiotics. The prescription of generic drugs should be promoted, for cost effective treatment. Hence the results of the present study indicate that there is a considerable scope for improvement in the prescription pattern.
Sopeña-Sutil, R; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Galván-Ortiz de Urbina, M; Guerrero-Ramos, F; García-Álvarez, G; Passas-Martínez, J B
To analyze the evolution of primary care referrals to the Urology Department after the implementation of a joint protocol on prostate disease and a continuing education program in our healthcare area. In January 2011, we launched an action protocol on prostate disease, which was complemented by training sessions and an e-mail-based consultation system. We analyzed primary care referrals to the Urology Department between 2011 and 2013 and determined the reasons for the consultations and the compliance with the established criteria on prostate disease. We obtained data from the "Request for Appointment in Specialized Care" program of the Community of Madrid. We calculated the sample size with a 95% confidence level and a 50% heterogeneity. A total of 19,048 referrals were conducted. The most common reason for the referrals was lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia, with a 27% reduction and a compliance that went from 46% at 67%. Although prostate-specific antigen consultations increased by 40%, they improved their appropriateness (from 55% to 72%). This was the main type of consultation for suspicion of malignancy (30%). Also worth mentioning were female incontinence, which doubled in number, and a 41% reduction in erectile dysfunction, which could be due to the primary care training. The collaboration between the Department of Urology and primary care succeeded in improving the appropriateness of prostate disease referrals and modified the tendency to refer the rest of the diseases included in the project. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.
Jho, Hyun Jung; Chang, Yoon Jung; Song, Hye Young; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Yeol; Park, Eun Jung; Paek, Soo Jin; Choi, Hee Jae
We aimed to explore the perceived timeliness of referral to hospice palliative care unit (HPCU) among bereaved family members in Korea and factors associated therewith. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed for bereaved family members of patients who utilized 40 designated HPCUs across Korea. The questionnaire assessed whether admission to the HPCU was "too late" or "appropriate" and the Good Death Inventory (GDI). A total of 383 questionnaires were analyzed. Of participants, 25.8 % replied that admission to HPCU was too late. Patients with hepatobiliary cancer, poor performance status, abnormal consciousness level, and unawareness of terminal status were significantly related with the too late perception. Family members with younger age and being a child of the patient were more frequently noted in the too late group. Ten out of 18 GDI scores were significantly lower in the too late group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed patients' unawareness of terminal status, shorter stay in the HPCU, younger age of bereaved family, and lower scores for two GDI items (staying in a favored place, living without concerning death or disease) were significantly associated with the too late group. To promote timely HPCU utilization and better quality of end of life care, patients need to be informed of the terminal status and their preference should be respected.
Kanafani, Zeina A; Kara, Layla; Hayek, Shady; Kanj, Souha S
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) complicates the course of up to 24% of intubated patients. Data from the Middle East are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, microbiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated microorganisms in VAP in a developing country. Prospective observational cohort study. The American University of Beirut Medical Center, a tertiary-care center that serves as a major referral center for Lebanon and neighboring countries. All patients admitted to the intensive care and respiratory care units from March to September 2001, and who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, were included in the study. Results of samples submitted for culture were recorded and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolated pathogens was performed. Seventy patients were entered into the study. The incidence of VAP was 47%. Gram-negative bacilli accounted for 83% of all isolates. The most commonly identified organism was Acinetobacter anitratus, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty percent of all gram-negative bacterial isolates were classified as antibiotic resistant. Compared with patients without VAP, patients with VAP remained intubated for a longer period and stayed in the intensive care unit longer. VAP was not associated with an increased mortality rate. Compared with other studies, the results from this referral center in Lebanon indicate a higher incidence of VAP and a high prevalence of resistant organisms. These data are relevant because they direct the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy for VAP.
Zaidi Adnan A
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private tertiary care hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at day care and radiotherapy unit of Aga Khan University, Hospital (AKUH Karachi, Pakistan. All adult patients with breast and head & neck cancers diagnosed for 3 months or more were included. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Results Sixty seven patients were interviewed during the study period. The mean and median monthly income of these patients was 996.4 USD and 562.5 USD respectively. Comparatively the mean and median monthly cost of cancer care was 1093.13 USD and 946.42 USD respectively. The cost of the treatment either fully or partially was borne by the family in most cases (94%. The financial burden of cancer was perceived as significant by 28 (42% patients and unmanageable by 18 (27% patients. This perceived level of burden was associated significantly with average monthly income (p = Conclusion Our study indicates that the financial burden of cancer care is substantial and can be overwhelming. There is a desperate need for treatment support programs either by the government or other welfare organisations to support individuals and families who are already facing a difficult and challenging situation.
Matloob, Samir A; Hyam, Jonathan A; Thorne, Lewis; Bradford, Robert
Documentation of urgent referrals to neurosurgical units and communication with referring hospitals is critical for effective handover and appropriate continuity of care within a tertiary service. Referrals to our neurosurgical unit were audited and we found that the majority of referrals were not documented and this led to more calls to the on-call neurosurgery registrar regarding old referrals. We implemented a new referral system in an attempt to improve documentation of referrals, communication with our referring hospitals and to professionalise the service we offer them. During a 14-day period, number of bleeps, missed bleeps, calls discussing new referrals and previously processed referrals were recorded. Whether new referrals were appropriately documented and referrers received a written response was also recorded. A commercially provided secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform for referrals was subsequently introduced within the Trust and the questionnaire repeated during another 14-day period 1 year after implementation. Missed bleeps per day reduced from 16% (SD ± 6.4%) to 9% (SD ± 4.8%; df = 13, paired t-tests p = 0.007) and mean calls per day clarifying previous referrals reduced from 10 (SD ± 4) to 5 (SD ± 3.5; df = 13, p = 0.003). Documentation of new referrals increased from 43% (74/174) to 85% (181/210), and responses to referrals increased from 74% to 98%. The use of a secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform significantly increased the documentation of new referrals. This led to fewer missed bleeps and fewer calls about old referrals for the on call registrar. This system of documenting referrals results in improved continuity of care for neurosurgical patients, a significant reduction in risk for Trusts and a more efficient use of Registrar time.
Background: The 'open' intensive care unit (ICU) predominates in most low and middle economy societies. This is associated with paucity of personnel and cost challenges involved for its maintenance and smooth running despite the great public demand for this service. Data on neurocritical care in scare in Nigeria and the ...
Conclusion: This prospective point prevalence survey provided important baseline information on antimicrobial use within a large tertiary care teaching hospital and identified potential targets for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. A multi-center point prevalence survey should be considered to identify patterns of antimicrobial use in Canada and to establish the first steps toward international antimicrobial surveillance.
Rulisa, S.; Umuziranenge, I.; Small, M; van Roosmalen, J.
Background: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe ('near miss') maternal morbidity and mortality in the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali - Rwanda. Methods: We performed a cross sectional study of all women admitted to the tertiary care University Hospital in Kigali
Hysong, Sylvia J; Esquivel, Adol; Sittig, Dean F; Paul, Lindsey A; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Simran; Singh, Hardeep
Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination
Paul Lindsey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP, the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs (i.e., e-referrals, lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and
Chukwuma, Adanna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Cohen, Jessica; Bossert, Thomas; McConnell, Margaret
While 79% of Nigerian mothers who deliver in facilities receive postnatal care within 48 h of delivery, this is only true for 16% of mothers who deliver outside facilities. Most maternal deaths can be prevented with access to timely and competent health care. Thus, the World Health Organization, International Confederation of Midwives, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend that unskilled birth attendants be involved in advocacy for skilled care use among mothers. This study explores postnatal care referral behavior by TBAs in Nigeria, including the perceived factors that may deter or promote referrals to skilled health workers. This study collected qualitative data using focus group discussions involving 28 female health workers, TBAs, and TBA delivery clients. The study conceptual framework drew on constructs in Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action onto which we mapped hypothesized determinants of postnatal care referrals described in the empirical literature. We analyzed the transcribed data thematically, and linked themes to the study conceptual framework in the discussion to explain variation in TBA referral behavior across the maternal continuum, from the antenatal to postnatal period. Differences in TBA referral before, during, and after delivery appear to reflect the TBAs understanding of the added value of skilled care for the client and the TBA, as well as the TBA's perception of the implications of referral for her credibility as a maternal care provider among her clients. We also found that there are opportunities to engage TBAs in routine postnatal care referrals to facilities in Nigeria by using incentives and promoting a cordial relationship between TBAs and skilled health workers. Thus, despite the potential negative consequences TBAs may face with postnatal care referrals, there are opportunities to promote these referrals using incentives and promoting a cordial relationship between TBAs and skilled health
Full Text Available Aim: Advanced cancer, irrespective of the site of the cancer, is characterized by a number of associated symptoms that impair the quality of life of patients. The management of these symptoms guides palliative care. The present study aims to describe the symptoms and appropriate palliation provided in patients with advanced cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand. Methods: This was an observational study. A total of 100 patients with advanced cancer were included in the study. The data obtained from the patients included symptoms reported by the patients, currently prescribed treatments and the site of cancer. Results: The average number of symptoms reported per patient was 5.33 ± 0.67 (mean ± SE. The most common symptoms were pain, weakness/fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, constipation and cough. Polypharmacy was frequent. Patients consumed approximately 8.7 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE drugs on average during the 2-month period of follow-up. Conclusion: The result gives insight into the varied symptomatology of patients with advanced cancer. Polypharmacy was quite common in patients with advanced cancer, predisposing them to complicated drug interactions and adverse drug reactions.
Rema Nair Sarkar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer is one of the leading cause of death both in developed and developing countries. In India, it accounts for 0.3 million deaths per year. Cancers of lung, GIT and oral cancers dominated among men while breast, cervix, ovary and oral cavity were commonest cancer seen in women. Among the gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and liver cancers were commonest. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of the various GIT cancers in a tertiary hospital of Coastal Andhra when compared to other studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, a total of 509 health records of patients affected by cancers were studied and relevant details noted. RESULTS A total of 509 cancer cases were reported in this period of 18 months (January 2016 - June 2017 of which 85 cases (16.3% were of Gastrointestinal (GIT cancers. The age group between 40 and 60 recorded the maximum incidence of 47 cancers (55.1%. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers were significantly higher in the men (56 cases (65.8% than the women (29 cases (34.11%. The commonest site of GIT cancers was the colorectal region (30 cases (35.7%. The most common type of cancer seen was adenocarcinoma seen in 73 cases (85.8%. CONCLUSION Public education and awareness for the warning symptoms should be increased to prevent reduction of the life span and health caused by the gastrointestinal cancers with intense awareness drive using various means including social media undertaken to educate the public regarding the warning symptoms and screening of such group for GIT cancers.
Marrón, Belén; Ostrowski, Janusz; Török, Marietta; Timofte, Delia; Orosz, Attila; Kosicki, Andrzej; Całka, Alicja; Moro, Daniela; Kosa, Dezider; Redl, Jenö; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Divino-Filho, Jose Carolino
Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of dialysis. To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics. Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start. Modality information (80% of patients) and renal education (87%) were more frequent (pregression analysis, P start (p≤0.05) was associated with early referral, eGFR >8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%. Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In spite of guidelines, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilised, and hospital acquired thrombosis (HAT) continues to be a problem. This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of HAT in a tertiary referral centre and to examine whether VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis (TP) were implemented. Patients 18 years and above, with a radiologically-confirmed acute VTE during the study period of 15 weeks were included. Acute VTE was diagnosed in 100 patients and HAT was diagnosed in 48. There were 12,024 admissions over the study period, therefore the incidence of HAT was 0.4%. TP was prescribed in only 35% of patients, and 65% did not receive any or appropriate TP. Hospitals without active implementation of a formal risk assessment tool and TP policy are likely to continue to have increased incidence of HAT.
Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.
Background: Global attention is being drawn to the use of internet resource because of its overwhelming benefits. Individuals, families, social groups, patients as well as research teams spend quality time on a daily basis exploring the internet. Objective: We carried out a study to determine internet use among primary care ...
Percutaneous transmission of HIV is a significant occupational risk among health workers. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV is an intervention that is recommended for people at risk of accidental exposure to HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of health care workers in OOUTH, Sagamu ...
Dekker, Luuk; Houtzager, Tessa; Kilume, Omary; Horogo, John; van Roosmalen, Jos; Nyamtema, Angelo Sadock
Caesarean section (CS) is often a life-saving procedure, but can also lead to serious complications, even more so in low-resource settings. Therefore unnecessary CS should be avoided and optimal circumstances for vaginal delivery should be created. In this study, we aim to audit indications for Caesarean sections and improve decision-making and obstetric management. Audit of all cases of CS performed from January to August 2013 was performed in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. The study period was divided in three audit blocks; retrospective (before auditing), prospective 1 and prospective 2. A local audit panel (LP) and an external auditor (EA) judged if obstetric management was adequate and indications were appropriate or if CS could have been prevented and yet retain good pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, changes in modes of deliveries, overall pregnancy outcome and decision-to-delivery interval were monitored. During the study period there were 1868 deliveries. Of these, 403 (21.6%) were Caesarean sections. The proportions of unjustified CS prior to introduction of audit were as high as 34 and 75%, according to the respective judgments of LP and EA. Following introduction of audit, the proportions of unjustified CS decreased to 23% (p = 0.29) and 52% (p = 0.01) according to LP and EA respectively. However, CS rate did not change (20.2 to 21.7%), assisted vacuum delivery rate did not increase (3.9 to 1.8%) and median decision-to-delivery interval was 83 min (range 10 - 390 min). Although this is a single center study, these findings suggest that unnecessary Caesarean sections exist at an alarming rate even in referral hospitals and suggest that a vast number can be averted by introducing a focused CS audit system. Our findings indicate that CS audit is a useful tool and, if well implemented, can enhance rational use of resources, improve decision-making and harmonise practice among care providers.
Vosler, Peter S; Kass, Jason I; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H
We compare the management of patients with severe epistaxis before and after the implementation a clinical care pathway (CCP) to standardize care, minimize hospital stay, and decrease cost. Single prospective analysis with historical control. Tertiary academic hospital. Patients treated for epistaxis between October 2012 to December 2013 were compared with a prospective analysis of patients treated for severe epistaxis after implementation of a CCP from June 2014 to February 2015. Severe epistaxis was defined as nasal bleeding not able to be controlled with local pressure, topical vasoconstrictors, or simple anterior packing. Severe epistaxis was similar in the pre- and post-CCP cohorts: 24.7% (n = 42) vs 18.9% (n = 22), respectively. Implementation of early sphenopalatine artery ligation resulted in decreased number of days packed (3.2 ± 1.6 to 1.4 ± 1.6; P = .001), decreased hospital stay (5.2 ± 3.9 to 2.1 ± 1.3 days; P vs 54.5%; P = .035), admission to an appropriate hospital location with access to key resources (41.7% vs 83.3%; P = .007), and decreased overall cost of hospitalization by 66% ($9435 saved). No patients received embolization after the CCP was implemented. Implementation of a CCP decreased hospital stay and days of packing, facilitated definitive care in patients with severe epistaxis, improved patient safety, and decreased cost. The results of this study can serve as a model for the management of severe epistaxis and for future quality improvement measures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Park, Hayoung; Shin, Youngsoo
The objectives of the study were to develop a model that measures and evaluates case-mix complexity of tertiary care hospitals, and to examine the characteristics of such a model. Physician panels defined three classes of case complexity and assigned disease categories represented by Adjacent Diagnosis Related Groups (ADRGs) to one of three case complexity classes. Three types of scores, indicating proportions of inpatients in each case complexity class standardized by the proportions at the national level, were defined to measure the case-mix complexity of a hospital. Discharge information for about 10% of inpatient episodes at 85 hospitals with bed size larger than 400 and their input structure and research and education activity were used to evaluate the case-mix complexity model. Results show its power to predict hospitals with the expected functions of tertiary care hospitals, i.e. resource intensive care, expensive input structure, and high levels of research and education activities.
Vincenzo De Sanctis
Full Text Available The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that young people between the ages of 11 and 21 years should be seen annually by their pediatricians, since annual checkups can be an important opportunity for health evaluation and anticipatory guidance. Parents of infants and young children are accustomed to regularly visiting a pediatrician for their child′s checkups. Unfortunately, when children reach the teen years, these annual checkups may decrease in frequency. In routine check-ups and medical office visits, particular attention should be paid to the possibility of a developmental or endocrine disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent medical complications in adulthood and foster age-appropriate development. Our purpose is to acquaint readers with the concept, based on current scientific understanding, that some endocrine disorders may be associated with a wide range of deleterious health consequences including an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, increased risk of coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, significant anxiety and lack of self-esteem. Understanding the milestones and developmental stages of adolescence is essential for pediatricians and all other health providers who care for adolescents. Treating adolescents involves knowledge of a variety of medical, social and legal information; in addition, close working relationships must be established within the adolescent′s network to create an effective care system. In summary, we underline the importance of a periodic endocrine checkup in adolescents in order to identify endocrine problems early and develop an approach to treatment for those patients who need help during this time. Indications for endocrine referral for professional and other healthcare providers are also included. These lists are clearly not intended to be comprehensive, but will hopefully serve as a guide for specific clinical circumstances.
Rizvi, M.F.; Hassan, Y.; Abdullah, M.; Shakeel, J.; Memon, A.R.; Razvi, M.F.; Saleem, S.; Shakeel, J.
To determine the pattern of nosocomial infections in two ICUs' of a teaching hospital in terms of frequency, common sites of infection, the pathogens involved and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns. It was conducted in two medical ICUs (Neurology and Nephrology) of a public tertiary care hospital. Data was collected prospectively on patients suspected to have developed nosocomial infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU according to objective. There were 101 cases of suspected nosocomial infection out of a total of 254 patients. The frequency of nosocomial infection was 39.7%. UTI developed in 44.6%, while 27% had blood stream infection, and 21% had pneumonia. Each of the three major sites of infection was strongly associated with the use of invasive devices. Escherichia (E.) coli was the most common organism isolated followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella. E. coli and Klebsiella showed a maximum sensitivity to Imipenem followed by Tazocin (pipericillin + tazobactam). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to Amikacin and Fosfomycin. The high frequency of nosocomial infection suggests that more strict measures regarding invasive devices should be taken in future to control the infection and limit the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. (author)
Selkirk, Stephen M; Washington, Monique O; McClellan, Frances; Flynn, Broderick; Seton, Jacinta M; Strozewski, Richard
This study was undertaken to determine if ALS patients evaluated via telemedicine received the same quality of care as patients evaluated by traditional face-to-face encounters. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Participants were patients diagnosed with ALS that received multidisciplinary care at the tertiary Cleveland VA ALS Centre between 1 March 2008- and 31 anuary 2015. Participants were not randomised, but chose telemedicine based on preference, disability level or distance from the clinic. Telemedicine in this study consisted of a video conferencing platform enabling remote rather than face-to-face encounters with participants. There was no significant association between receiving quality ALS care and the mode of care. There was a trend for telemedicine patients to utilise home health care less often than those that received clinic care (AOR 0.50; 95% CI 0.16-1.59). There was no significant difference in survival time between the two groups (log-rank test χ 2 = 3.62, df = 1, p = 0.05). Patients receiving telemedicine had a higher probability of remaining stable or having telemedicine (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.93). Patients managed by telemedicine received the same quality of care and had similar outcomes to those patients seen via traditional face-to-face encounters. Telemedicine is an effective platform for delivering high quality tertiary ALS care.
Harcourt, Debra; McDonald, Clancy; Cartlidge-Gann, Leonie; Burke, John
Objective Frequent attendance by people to an emergency department (ED) is a global concern. A collaborative partnership between an ED and the primary and community healthcare sectors has the potential to improve care for the person who frequently attends the ED. The aims of the Working Together to Connect Care program are to decrease the number of presentations by providing focused community support and to integrate all healthcare services with the goal of achieving positive, patient-centred and directed outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis of ED data for 2014 and 2015 was used to ascertain the characteristics of the potential program cohort. The definition used to identify a 'frequent attendee' was more than four presentations to an ED in 1 month. This analysis was used to develop the processes now known as the Working Together to Connect Care program. This program includes participant identification by applying the definition, flagging of potential participants in the ED IT system, case review and referral to community services by ED staff, case conferencing facilitated within the ED and individualised, patient centred case management provided by government and non-government community services. Results Two months after the date of commencement of the Working Together to Connect Care program there are 31 active participants in the program: 10 are on the Mental Health pathway, and one is on the No Consent pathway. On average there are three people recruited to the program every week. The establishment of a new program for supporting frequent attendees of an ED has had its challenges. Identifying systems that support people in their community has been an early positive outcome of this project. Conclusion It is expected that data regarding the number of ED presentations, potential fiscal savings and client outcomes will be available in 2017. What is known about the topic? Frequent attendance at EDs is a global issue and although the number of 'super users' is
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, the emergency medical system is categorized into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary, depending on the severity of the condition of the patient. Tertiary care centres accept patients who require 24-h monitoring. In this research, the average travel times (minutes from the centroids of all municipalities in Japan to the nearest tertiary care centre were estimated, using the geographic information system. The systems affecting travel time to tertiary care centres were also examined. Regression analysis was performed to determine the factors affecting the travel time to tertiary care centres, using selected variables representing road conditions and the emergency transfer system. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify specific benchmarks that would be effective in reducing the average travel time to tertiary care centres in prefectures with travel times longer than the average 57 min. Results The mean travel time was 57 min, the range was 83 min, and the standard deviation was 20.4. As a result of multiple regression analysis, average coverage area per tertiary care centre, kilometres of highway road per square kilometre, and population were selected as variables with impact on the average travel time. Based on results from linear regression analysis, benchmarks for the emergency transfer system that would effectively reduce travel time to the mean value of 57 min were identified: 26% pavement ratio of roads (percentage of paved road to general roads, and three tertiary care centres and 108 ambulances. Conclusion Regional gaps in the travel time to tertiary care centres were identified in Japan. The systems we should focus on to reducing travel time were identified. Further reduction of travel time to tertiary care centres can be effectively achieved by improving these specific systems. Linear regression analysis showed that a 26% pavement ratio and three tertiary care centres are beneficial to
Farzaneh Motamed; Naheid Kazemi; Raheleh Nabavizadeh
Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyze...
Jog Antony; Reeta J; Sreelakshmi S; Rohit Mathew4; Adarsh Surendran
BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestati...
Manoj Kumar; Amit; Sanjay; Ankit
BACKGROUND: Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities (more than 2 cm) containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. This pus - filled cavity is often caused by aspiration, which may occur during altered consciousness. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and etiological profile of lung abscess in patients admitted at a tertiary care centre. MATERIAL ...
Khadka, Sundar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dhital, Subhash; Rijal, Basista
Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from Janua...
Qureshi, Fawad; Shafi, Azhar; Ali, Sheeraz; Siddiqui, Neelam
Objective: To determine the clinical predictors of anticipatory emesis in patients treated with chemotherapy at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 200 patients undergoing first line chemotherapy with minimum of two cycles at inpatient department and chemotherapy bay of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Pakistan. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting develops before administration of chemotherapy. Clinical signs and symp...
Uttam Kumar Sarkar; Anish Chatterjee; Suprit Basu; Atanu Pan; Sumit Periwal
Background & Objectives:Congenital heart diseases are treatable either by catheter based intervention or open heart surgery according to their quality. In our study we aim to analyze congenital heart disease echocardiographically into simple versus complex heart disease at a tertiary care centre with a public health planning and policy making perspective.Materials & Methods:This hospital based study was done on 1010 patients, both from in-patient and out-patient, who were clinically s...
Conclusion: This study identified 11.4% diabetics among TB patients presenting to a tertiary care facility. Despite the high diabetes incidence in Pakistan, 71% of the diabetics in the group studied did not know their status. Given the negative impact of diabetes on treatment outcomes of TB, it is important that screening for diabetes be included as initial workup for TB patients. Identification and management of diabetes would result in improved outcomes for TB treatment.
Chintha Sujatha; Jacquilene Vadasseril; Govind Jayaprakash; John K. Joy
BACKGROUND Needlestick Injury (NSI) is a major occupational health and safety issue among Healthcare Workers (HCWs). In India, incidence of NSI is high, but surveillance is poor with scarce authentic data. The aim of the study is to determine the occurrence of NSI, its associated factors and assessment of knowledge and practice of preventive measures and post exposure prophylaxis among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study ...
Venkata Anantha Lakshmi Manabala
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Acute Appendicitis is the commonest abdominal surgical emergency in young adults all over the world. In early 1900s, Ochsner in Chicago and Sherren at the London Hospital were both advocates of conservative treatment in late cases. Appendicular perforation is a serious complication in view of the ensuing peritonitis with the consequent sequelae and morbidity. AIM To study the incidence, morbidity and sequelae of appendicular perforation. MATERIALS & METHODS This is a prospective study done in our hospital where 110 cases of peritonitis due to appendicular perforation were selected for our study. All the cases where peritonitis was due to appendicular perforation at laparotomy were included. The study period was from January 2014 to December 2015. The cases of peritonitis due to other causes like duodenal, gastric, enteric perforation were excluded. Patients with acute abdominal emergency with clinical diagnosis of peritonitis were examined carefully with detailed history and clinical examination. Necessary investigations were done and patients taken up for emergency surgery. CONCLUSIONS Acute Appendicitis is the commonest abdominal surgical emergency in young adults all over the world. Age incidence of appendicular perforation is maximum in the age group of 21–30 years. Next common age group is 31–40 yrs. Incidence is more in males. Male to female ratio is 2.4:1. Pain abdomen, vomiting, fever and anorexia were common symptoms in all the patients. Majority of the patients came late to the hospital accounting for the cause of perforation and subsequent mortality and morbidity.
Qadeer, Imrana; Reddy, Sunita
Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians' however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical
Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians’ however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical
Shri Gopal Goyal
Full Text Available Context: Previous studies have reported high psychiatric comorbidity with physical illness. However, referral rate to consultation-liaison (C-L psychiatry from other departments is very low. There is a paucity of literature from India in this subspecialty of psychiatry. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to C-L psychiatric services at a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care multispecialty teaching institution. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised all the patients who were referred for psychiatric consultation from other departments to C-L services of psychiatry department for 2 months. Information was collected using semi-structured pro forma, and diagnosis was made based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Results: A total of 160 patients were referred for C-L psychiatric services. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 31–45 years, married, educated matriculation or beyond, belonged to Hindu religion, nuclear family, and residing in urban area. The maximum referrals were from internal medicine department (17.5 followed by nephrology (15.0% and neurology (10.6%. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was depression (12% followed by delirium (8%. The most common reason for seeking psychiatric consultation was psychiatric clearance of prospective kidney donor and bone marrow transplant/stem cell transplant recipient. Conclusions: Psychiatric comorbidity may present with chronic physical illness. The C-L psychiatry would play a major role in the management of psychiatric comorbidity.
Paidi Ramesh Chandra
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Myringoplasty is the surgical procedure performed for the closure of perforations of pars tensa of the tympanic membrane. Various graft materials are used such as temporalis fascia, periosteum, perichondrium, vein, dura and adipose tissue (fat. Fat myringoplasty is a simple, cost effective and outpatient procedure. This study is performed to evaluate the operative outcome of fat myringoplasty in patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM. The aim of the study is to assess graft uptake to assess hearing improvement and to assess the operative outcome in relation to the site of perforation after fat myringoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was performed in Government ENT Hospital, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. A total of 20 patients between the age group of 18-50 years suffering from tubotympanic type of chronic suppurative otitis media were taken up for study. The study period was for 18 months from October 2015 to March 2017. RESULTS Results were analysed in terms of graft uptake and hearing improvement. Average audiometric gain after 6 months was 10.58 dB. Successful closure of perforation was achieved in 90% cases. Perforations involving posterior quadrant showed 100% graft uptake, compared to anterior quadrant perforations, which showed 75% graft uptake. No major postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSION Fat myringoplasty can be safely performed in dry, small central perforations of tympanic membrane especially belonging to posterior quadrant. Ear lobule constitutes convenient source of fat graft. The procedure can be performed as a day care surgery. Proper selection of cases is necessary to obtain good results.
Full Text Available Integrated Care Settings (ICS provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT, offering at least both types of dialysis.To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics.Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start.Modality information (80% of patients and renal education (87% were more frequent (p8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%.Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.
Doran, K; Sampson, B; Staus, R; Ahern, C; Schiro, D
Many patients who receive medical interventional cardiology procedures at a tertiary hospital live outside the metropolitan area and may experience fragmentation in care, less emotional support by family members, inaccurate and delayed communication, and lack of educational follow-up on discharge from the hospital. A clinical pathway titled "Heart Health Care Patterns" was developed to link acute phase, recovery phase, rehabilitation phase, and enhancement/maintenance phase. The 12-month clinical pathway combines Gordon's Functional Health Patterns and the Omaha System developed by the Omaha Visiting Nurse Association. The rating scale for outcomes assesses the patient at different phases to provide objective data and information throughout the year.
Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been designed to measure and improve the use of antimicrobials to achieve optimal clinical outcomes and reduce bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to review patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for hospitalized patients in the acute care setting and assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial use among prescribers in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a four-week period (1 November to 28 November 2012. The data of all discharged patients were retrieved from the department databases. Patient records and prescriptions were reviewed by an infectious disease consultant. The rationality of antimicrobial use was evaluated, analyzed, and judged based on local standard guidelines and the experience of the evaluating consultant. Results: There were 178 patients discharged from acute medical teams over the study period. Sixty-four percent of the patients received a total of 287 antimicrobial agents during admission. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient in those prescribed antimicrobials was 2.5±1.1. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent was piperacillin/tazobactam. Most patients had infections from gram-negative organisms, and high rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms were observed. Cultures were obtained before antimicrobial initiation in 25% of patients. Variability in antimicrobial selection for common infections was observed. Conclusions: National guidelines for the management of common infections are needed to minimize the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in tertiary care hospitals. A large surveillance study on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in different hospital settings is warranted.
Rubin, G P; Saunders, C L; Abel, G A; McPhail, S; Lyratzopoulos, G; Neal, R D
For patients with symptoms of possible cancer who do not fulfil the criteria for urgent referral, initial investigation in primary care has been advocated in the United Kingdom and supported by additional resources. The consequence of this strategy for the timeliness of diagnosis is unknown. We analysed data from the English National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care on patients with lung (1494), colorectal (2111), stomach (246), oesophagus (513), pancreas (327), and ovarian (345) cancer relating to the ordering of investigations by the General Practitioner and their nature. Presenting symptoms were categorised according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on referral for suspected cancer. We used linear regression to estimate the mean difference in primary-care interval by cancer, after adjustment for age, gender, and the symptomatic presentation category. Primary-care investigations were undertaken in 3198/5036 (64%) of cases. The median primary-care interval was 16 days (IQR 5-45) for patients undergoing investigation and 0 days (IQR 0-10) for those not investigated. Among patients whose symptoms mandated urgent referral to secondary care according to NICE guidelines, between 37% (oesophagus) and 75% (pancreas) were first investigated in primary care. In multivariable linear regression analyses stratified by cancer site, adjustment for age, sex, and NICE referral category explained little of the observed prolongation associated with investigation. For six specified cancers, investigation in primary care was associated with later referral for specialist assessment. This effect was independent of the nature of symptoms. Some patients for whom urgent referral is mandated by NICE guidance are nevertheless investigated before referral. Reducing the intervals between test order, test performance, and reporting can help reduce the prolongation of primary-care intervals associated with investigation use. Alternative models of
Pieterse, A.J.; Cup, E.H.C.; Akkermans, R.P.; Hendricks, H.T.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To report the predictive validity of the perceived limitations in activities and need questionnaire (PLAN-Q), a screening instrument to support neurologists to select patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) for referral for a one-off consultation by occupational therapist
Bouma, Adrie; van Wilgen, C. Paul; Baarveld, Frank; Lemmink, Koen; Diercks, Ron; Dijkstra, Arie
Poster presentation. There still is little empirical evidence on factors that influence GPs’ referral behavior to lifestyle interventions. The aim was to explore 1) GPs´ motivation to refer to lifestyle interventions and to investigate the association between GPs’ own lifestyle-behaviors and their
Bhagawati, G; Nandwani, S; Singhal, S
Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%).
Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.
U P, Rathnakar; Belman, Madhuri; Kamath, Ashwin; B, Unnikrishnan; Shenoy K, Ashok; A L, Udupa
People with limited health literacy are more likely to make medication errors, and they have less health knowledge, worse health status, more hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs than people with adequate literacy. The objective of this study is to assess the health literacy status among patients who are able to read and understand English attending a tertiary care hospital by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine [REALM] technique and to compare the health literacy levels to educational status and other baseline characteristics. A widely used word recognition method [REALM] was used to assess the HL status of 200 patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India. The number of correctly pronounced words was used to assign a grade-equivalent reading level. Scores 0 to 44 indicate reading skills at or below the 6th grade level, scores from 45 to 60 represent skills at the 7th or 8th grade level, and scores above 60 indicate skills at the high-school level or higher. HL status was found below adequate level in more than 50% of the patients. Younger age group showed better HL scores compared to those aged more than 25 years. General education level or the medium of education does not truly reflect HL levels as brought out in the study. Even those with postgraduate qualification had poor HL skills. The study was carried out to find out the HL levels among patients attending a tertiary care hospital. It was assumed that the general education levels may not reflect true HL status. In view of the results of this study it can be concluded that patient's HL skills should not be taken for granted and adequate attention should be paid in educating and briefing patients whenever patients are required to interpret and understand health care related documents.
Sodhi, Jitender; Satpathy, Sidhartha; Sharma, D K; Lodha, Rakesh; Kapil, Arti; Wadhwa, Nitya; Gupta, Shakti Kumar
Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) increase the length of stay in the hospital and consequently costs as reported from studies done in developed countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of HAIs on length of stay and costs of health care in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India. This prospective study was done in the seven bedded PICU of a large multi-specialty tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A total of 20 children with HAI (cases) and 35 children without HAI (controls), admitted to the PICU during the study period (January 2012 to June 2012), were matched for gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Each patient's length of stay was obtained prospectively. Costs of healthcare were estimated according to traditional and time driven activity based costing methods approach. The median extra length of PICU stay for children with HAI (cases), compared with children with no HAI (controls), was seven days (IQR 3-16). The mean total costs of patients with and without HAI were ' 2,04,787 (US$ 3,413) and ' 56,587 (US$ 943), respectively and the mean difference in the total cost between cases and controls was ' 1,48,200 (95% CI 55,716 to 2,40,685, pcosts for PICU patients, especially costs due to prolongation of hospital stay, and suggests the need to develop effective strategies for prevention of HAI to reduce costs of health care.
Keri, L; Kaye, D; Sibylle, K
To assess current beliefs, knowledge and practices of Ugandan traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and their pregnant patients regarding referral of obstructed labors and fistula cases. Six focus groups were held in rural areas surrounding Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. While TBAs, particularly those with previous training, appear willing to refer problematic pregnancies and labors, more serious problems exist that could lessen any positive effects of training. These problems include reported abuse by doctors and nurses, and seeing fistula as a disease caused by hospitals. Training of TBAs can be helpful to standardize knowledge about and encourage timely emergency obstetric referrals, as well as increase knowledge about the causes and preventions of obstetric fistula. However, for full efficacy, training must be accompanied by greater collaboration between biomedical and traditional health personnel, and increased infrastructure to prevent mistreatment of pregnant patients by medical staff.
There is growing conflict in the literature describing the effect of delayed treatment on outcomes following radical prostatectomy. There is also evidence to suggest progression of low-risk prostate cancer to develop higher grades and volumes of prostate cancer during active surveillance. It is unknown as to what affect a delay in referral of those men with abnormal screened-PSA levels have on subsequent Gleason grade.
Wood, M E; Flynn, B S; Stockdale, A
Risk stratification based on family history is a feature of screening guidelines for a number of cancers and referral guidelines for genetic counseling/testing for cancer risk. Our aim was to describe primary care physician perceptions of their role in managing cancer risk based on family history. Structured interviews were conducted by a medical anthropologist with primary care physicians in 3 settings in 2 north-eastern states. Transcripts were systematically analyzed by a research team to identify major themes expressed by participants. Forty interviews were conducted from May 2003 through May 2006. Physicians provided a diversity of views on roles in management of cancer risk based on family history, management practices and patient responses to risk information. They also provided a wide range of perspectives on criteria used for referral to specialists, types of specialists referred to and expected management roles for referred patients. Some primary care physicians appeared to make effective use of family history information for cancer risk management, but many in this sample did not. Increased focus on efficient assessment tools based on recognized guidelines, accessible guides to management options, and patient education and decision aids may be useful directions to facilitate broader use of family history information for cancer risk management. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Heslin, Kevin C; Andersen, Ronald M; Ettner, Susan L; Kominski, Gerald F; Belin, Thomas R; Morgenstern, Hal; Cunningham, William E
Health insurance policies that require prior authorization for specialty care may be detrimental to persons with HIV, according to evidence that having a regular physician with HIV expertise leads to improved patient outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine whether HIV patients who can self-refer to specialists are more likely to have physicians who mainly treat HIV. The authors analyze cross-sectional survey data from the HIV Costs and Services Utilization Study. At baseline, 67 percent of patients had insurance that permitted self-referral. In multivariate analyses, being able to self-refer was associated with an 8-12 percent increased likelihood of having a physician at a regular source of care that mainly treats patients with HIV. Patients who can self-refer are more likely to have HIV-experienced physicians than are patients who need prior authorization. Insurance policies allowing self-referral to specialists may result in HIV patients seeing physicians with clinical expertise relevant to HIV care.
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the patterns of uveitis in the paediatric age group in a referral eye care centre in south India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients 15 years or younger with uveitis, examined in the year 2000, were included in this study. The uveitis was classified according to the anatomical site of ocular involvement and the most probable aetiological factor. The final diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations and results of specific laboratory investigations. Results: A total 31 (6.29% paediatric uveitis cases were seen among the 493 uveitic cases in the year 2000. The male: female ratio was 17:14. Anterior (9 cases, intermediate (9 cases and posterior uveitis (9 cases were seen in equal number. Four patients had panuveitis. Twenty-seven patients had visual acuity of 6/36 or better at presentation. Approximately 25% (8 of 31 patients had cataract secondary to inflammation. Immunosuppressives were administered in 4 patients and one patient required cataract surgery. Conclusion: Uveitis in children comprises approximately 6% of uveitis cases in a referral practice in south India. Anterior, intermediate and posterior uveitis are seen in equal numbers. We recommend that intermediate uveitis be ruled out in all cases of anterior uveitis by careful clinical evaluation including examination under anesthesia (EUA when required.
Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam
Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection ...
Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam
Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient's first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection factor analysis.
Shine, Anne Marie; Finn, Daragh Gerard; Allen, Noeleen; McMahon, Colin J
Home enteral tube feeding (HETF) is imperative for many infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Tube weaning (TW) facilitates the progression from tube feeding to oral diet. There is limited literature on TW practices, protocols and success for children with CHD that have been tube fed. The objective of this study is to assess the process of weaning HETF in a tertiary referral centre for paediatric CHD. Specifically, we aimed to assess the duration of HETF, duration of TW and the interventions involved. We retrospectively reviewed the medical and dietetic records of all infants and children that were successfully weaned off HETF over a 12-month period from January 2015 to December 2015. There were 30 children included in the study, 9 boys and 21 girls. The diagnoses included 15 septal defects, 8 univentricular diagnosis and other diagnoses in 7 children. The median age at initiation of enteral tube feeding was 45 days (range 2-169). The median duration to wean from enteral tube feeding was 52 days (range 2-359). Number of dietetic consults required for successful TW varied among patients, median 5 (range 2-23). The number of days required for successful TW was associated with age and duration on HETF. Dietetic interventions included discontinuation of nutrient dense feeds, altering feed schedule and reduction of feed volume. Weaning HETF is possible in the outpatient setting. Early and frequent dietetic intervention is recommended to ensure prompt discontinuation of HETF when appropriate.
Sultana, R.; Sultana, N.; Rasheed, S.J.; Jafary, M.H.; Ishaq, M.; Samad, A.
To assess the outcome of percutanious Angioplasty in patients with osteal lesions in Coronary artery Diseases. This is a retrospective analysis of all coronary angiograms performed at the catheterization laboratory of Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD), a tertiary referral center in Karachi, Pakistan, between the periods August 2006 to August 2008. Fifty patients were enrolled which included thirty-five men and fifteen women and all were >40 years of age. Each patient had a single target osteal lesion: twenty nine patients underwent PCI for ostial LAD lesion (among them twenty males and nine females), six had ostial LCX (five males and one female), and fifteen patients had osteal RCA stenosis (10-male patients and 5- female patients). After high-pressure balloon dilatation residual stenosis was reduced. Twelve patients were treated with bare metal stents (BMS) while thirty eight with drug eluting stents (DES). In all cases the procedure was successful without any pre and post procedural complications. A key issue in the treatment of an osteal lesion is to assure that the stent is inserted proximal enough to fully cover the osteal junction. Improvements in technique, equipment, adjunctive drug therapy and better understanding of the procedure have remarkably changed the practice of interventional cardiology. (author)
Ramsay, C.R.; Eccles, M.; Grimshaw, J.M.; Steen, N.
AIM: To investigate whether the effect of educational reminder messages for knee and lumbar spine radiographs varied over a 12 month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a previous randomized, controlled trial, educational reminder messages attached to x-ray reports were shown to be effective in reducing the number of radiograph requests by general practitioners for knee and lumbar spine radiographs. In this study, all radiology departments from the previous trial were asked for monthly referral records for the 12 month intervention period for knee and lumbar spine radiographs for each general practice. Poisson regression was used to test for a change over time in the number of referrals between control and intervention practices. RESULTS: Data were obtained for 66% of the general practices in the main trial. The number of referrals for both knee and lumbar spine radiographs remained consistently and statistically significantly lower in the educational reminder messages group compared with the control group (relative risk=0.65 and 0.64, respectively). There was no evidence that this difference increased or decreased throughout the 12 month period. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of educational reminder messages was produced as soon as the intervention was delivered and maintained throughout the intervention period. There was no evidence of the effect of the intervention wearing off
Lamtha, Sangey Chhophel; Tripathi, Manish Kumar; Bhutia, Karma Doma; Karthak, Caroline
The etiology of gastric cancer is multifactorial. Marked differences in the incidence of gastric cancer among different ethnic groups living in the same geographical area have been observed. This study looked at ethnic and dietary factors in patients with gastric cancer diagnosed at a tertiary referral centre in Sikkim over a period of one year. Patients of 60 years and above were included in the study and divided into four ethnic groups : Bhutias, Lepchas, Rais and other groups. 211 cases underwent upper GI endoscopy and 32 were diagnosed to have gastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence was highest in Bhutia ethnic group. A trend towards higher intake of smoked meats, fermented vegetables, salt tea, and H.pylori positivity in the Bhutia ethnic group was associated with higher incidence of gastric cancer as compared to other ethnic groups. The study with a referral centre bias showed that Bhutia ethnic group had a higher incidence of gastric cancer as compared to other ethnic groups.
Fairchild, Esther; Roberts, Leissa; Zelman, Karen; Michelli, Shelley; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie
to implement use of Roberts' Coping with Labor Algorithm © (CWLA) with laboring women in a large tertiary care facility. this was a quality improvement project to implement an alternate approach to pain assessment during labor. It included system assessment for change readiness, implementation of the algorithm across a 6-week period, evaluation of usefulness by nursing staff, and determination of sustained change at one month. Stakeholder Theory (Friedman and Miles, 2002) and Deming's (1982) Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle, as adapted by Roberts et al (2010), provided the framework for project implementation. the project was undertaken on a labor and delivery (L&D) unit of a large tertiary care facility in a southwestern state in the USA. The unit had 19 suites with close to 6000 laboring patients each year. full, part-time, and per diem Registered Nurse (RN) staff (N=80), including a subset (n=18) who served as the pilot group and champions for implementing the change. a majority of RNs held a positive attitude toward use of the CWLA to assess laboring women's coping with the pain of labor as compared to a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). RNs reported usefulness in using the CWLA with patients from a wide variety of ethnicities. A pre-existing well-developed team which advocated for evidence-based practice on the unit proved to be a significant strength which promoted rapid change in practice. this work provides important knowledge supporting use of the CWLA in a large tertiary care facility and an approach for effectively implementing that change. Strengths identified in this project contributed to rapid implementation and could be emulated in other facilities. Participant reports support usefulness of the CWLA with patients of varied ethnicity. Assessment of change sustainability at 1 and 6 months demonstrated widespread use of the algorithm though long-term determination is yet needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polis, Suzanne; Higgs, Megan; Manning, Vicki; Netto, Gayle; Fernandez, Ritin
Effective nursing teamwork is an essential component of quality health care and patient safety. Understanding which factors foster team work ensures teamwork qualities are cultivated and sustained. This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with team work in an Australian acute care tertiary hospital across all inpatient and outpatient settings. All nurses and midwives rostered to inpatient and outpatient wards in an acute care 600 bed hospital in Sydney Australia were invited to participate in a cross sectional survey between September to October 2013. Data were collected, collated, checked and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Factors reporting a significant correlation with where p team leadership were 3.6 (S.D. 0.57) and 3.8 (SD 0.6) respectively. Leadership and communication between nurses were significant predictors of team work p team work.
Full Text Available In India, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a growing epidemic involving all sections of the society. Health care personnel are at increased risk of acquiring blood borne diseases like AIDS, hepatitis, etc. We aimed to assess the level of awareness of HIV infection among the paramedical staff working in a tertiary care hospital. A total number of 207 paramedical staff were asked to complete a questionnaire covering the various aspects of HIV and AIDS which was then critically reviewed. We observed that 57.54% of the staff was aware of the different aspects of HIV infection. Our results highlighted that awareness regarding the different facets of HIV varied among the nurses, lab technicians and support staff. Transmission of blood borne infections through needle stick injury is a harsh reality involving health care personnel. There is an urgent need to teach basic knowledge about HIV infection among high-risk populations.
Shah, S.K.; But, J.A.; Awan, A.
To study the clinical and laboratory profile of patients with EHPVO in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan and to differentiate EHPVO from cirrhosis of liver and to see the effect on liver function tests. This is a prospective observational study conducted at Department of Gastroenterology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Twenty five patients of 12-55 years of age with the features of portal hypertension were included in this study. After careful history and physical examination patients were subjected for laboratory investigations including liver function test, renal function test, blood CP, PT, APTT, HbsAg and anti HCV, other specialized procedures including endoscopy, liver biopsy and ultra sound was also done in all patients. Portal vein thrombosis was the predominant cause of EHPVO, accounting for 88% of cases. All patients were presented with upper GI bleeding, splenomegaly was observed in 88% of patients. None of the patients had clinical, biochemical or liver biopsy evidence of chronic liver disease. The diagnosis of extra hepatic portal venous obstruction and differentiation from cirrhosis can be easily made by characteristic clinical features, normal liver function tests and doppler ultrasound. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the predominant cause of EHPVO in Pakistani patients, as seen at this tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. (author)
Bahalkani, Habib Akhtar; Kumar, Ramesh; Lakho, Abdul Rehman; Mahar, Benazir; Mazhar, Syeda Batool; Majeed, Abdul
Job satisfaction greatly determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally means: 'the extent to which Health Professionals like or dislike their jobs'. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with employee's work environment, job responsibilities, and powers; and time pressure among various health professionals. As such it affects employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of health services. Objective of this study was to determine the level of job satisfaction and factors influencing it among nurses in a public sector hospital of Islamabad. A cross sectional study with self-administered structured questionnaire was conducted in the federal capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. Sample included 56 qualified nurses working in a tertiary care hospital. Overall 86% respondents were dissatisfied with about 26% highly dissatisfied with their job. The work environments, poor fringe benefits, dignity, responsibility given at workplace and time pressure were reason for dissatisfaction. Poor work environment, low salaries, lack of training opportunities, proper supervision, time pressure and financial rewards reported by the respondents. Our findings state a low level of overall satisfaction among workers in a public sector tertiary care health organization in Islamabad. Most of this dissatisfaction is caused by poor salaries, not given the due respect, poor work environment, unbalanced responsibilities with little overall control, time pressure, patient care and lack of opportunities for professional development.
Jawad, A.; Nisar, Y.B.
Objective: To determine the frequency of fungal infection in nasal polyposis patients undergoing polypectomy in a tertiary care ENT unit. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of ENT, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. A total of 60 patients with nasal polyposis were enrolled. Patients who did not give consent, with sinonasal malignancy, diabetes, and pregnant or lactating women were excluded from study. All the patients were operated and specimens of polypectomies were sent to the Department of Pathology for fungal culture, direct microscopy and histopathology. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20. (author)
Benjamin Louis Moresco; Benjamin Louis Moresco; Clinton Woosley; Clinton Woosley; Morris Sauter; Utpal Bhalala; Utpal Bhalala
ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess factors related to adherence to the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock in an emergency room (ER) of a tertiary care children’s hospital.MethodsThis was a retrospective, observational study of children (0–18 years old) in The Children’s Hospital of San Antonio ER over 1 year with the International Consensus Definition Codes, version-9 (ICD-9) diagnostic codes for “severe sepsis” and “shocks.” Patients in the adhere...
Hafez M Ghanem
Results : From 474 patients, 20 (4.2% had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD in 6 (30% patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD in 5 (25%. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research.
Full Text Available Antibiotics are most commonly prescribed drugs in tertiary care hospitals; more than 30% of the hospitalised patients were treated with antibiotics. Rational use of antibiotics is very important to ensure the optimum treatment outcomes and to limit the emergence of bacterial resistance. Present study is a hospital based cross-sectional study carried out for a period of three months in different clinical departments of a tertiary care hospital to find out the antibiotics prescribing pattern. Out of total 551 evaluated prescriptions, an antibiotic was prescribed in 45.5% cases. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were Moxifloxacin 19.5%, Metronidazole 10.4% and Amoxicillin+Cloxacillin 10.2%, broad spectrum antibiotics usage was higher & 87.7% of the antibiotics were prescribed by brand names. The appropriate use of antibiotic is a greatest need of the current situation all over the world. The rising antibiotic resistance is a global problem which is directly related with the irrational prescription of antibiotics.
Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ebrahimi, Kamal
Self esteem (SE) and organizational commitment (OC)? have significant impact on the quality of work life. This study aims to gain a better understanding of the relationships between SE and OC among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran (Iran). This was a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study conducted on the health information management staff of tertiary care hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 155 participants were randomly selected from 400 staff. Data were collected by two standard questionnaires. The SE and OC was measured using Eysenck SE scale and Meyer and Allen's three component model, respectively. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using statistical tests of of independent T-test, Pearson Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and F tests. The OC and SE of the employees' were 67.8?, out of 120 (weak) and 21.0 out of 30 (moderate), respectively. The values for affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment were respectively 21.3 out of 40 (moderate), 23.9 out of 40 (moderate), and 22.7 out of 40 (moderate). The Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant OC and SE was statistically significant (Pwork experience with SE and OC. This research showed that SE and OC ?are moderate. SE and OC have strong correlation with turnover, critical thinking, job satisfaction, and individual and organizational improvement. Therefore, applying appropriate human resource policies is crucial to reinforce these measures.
Pravin K. Nair
Full Text Available Objective: The emergence of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE in recent times has become a serious threat to public health due to the high mortality, potential dissemination rates and limited treatment options associated with these organisms. Thus, the present study was conducted in our tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CRE in the hospital. Methods: The study was carried out in the microbiology department of the tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. The samples tested were clinical samples from hospitalized and Out-Patient Department (OPD patients sent to the department for microbiological testing. CRE isolates were identified using the Vitek 2- Compact system (BioMérieux, France. Results: A CRE prevalence rate of 12.26% was obtained from the study, from which the majority of the isolates were detected in urine samples (46%. Although most of the CRE isolates were detected in patient samples from the wards (42% and the ICU (26%, a significant number of isolates was also detected from the OPD patients (19%. Conclusion:Thus, the study shows a significant rate of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized and OPD patients. This emphasizes the urgent need for CRE control at the hospital and community level, and to rationalize the use of antibiotics. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 207-210
Koh, Young Rae; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul; Kim, Hyung Hoi
We performed customer satisfaction surveys for physicians and nurses regarding clinical laboratory services, and for outpatients who used phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level to evaluate our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Thus, we wish to share our experiences with the customer satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Board members of our laboratory designed a study procedure and study population, and developed two types of questionnaire. A satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory services was conducted with 370 physicians and 125 nurses by using an online or paper questionnaire. The satisfaction survey for phlebotomy services was performed with 347 outpatients who received phlebotomy services by using computer-aided interviews. Mean satisfaction scores of physicians and nurses was 58.1, while outpatients' satisfaction score was 70.5. We identified several dissatisfactions with our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. First, physicians and nurses were most dissatisfied with the specimen collection and delivery process. Second, physicians and nurses were dissatisfied with phlebotomy services. Third, molecular genetic and cytogenetic tests were found more expensive than other tests. This study is significant in that it describes the first reference survey that offers a survey procedure and questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.
A. K. Maurya
Full Text Available The reports of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM associated with extrapulmonary diseases are increasing in tertiary care hospitals. Despite a significant increase in knowledge about NTM infections, they still represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of NTN among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in tertiary care centers in Northern India. A total of 227 culture positive isolates from 756 cases were tested for niacin production and catalase assay. BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test and final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay. 71 cases (9.3% were positive for AFB by ZN staining and 227 cases (30.1% were positive for mycobacteria by culture. Niacin production and catalase activity were negative in 62/227 (27.4% strains and after using a panel of different biochemicals and final confirmation by GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay. Out of 227 cultures tested, 165 (72.6% strains were confirmed as M. tuberculosis complex, and 62 (27.4% were confirmed as NTM. The most common NTM species identified were M. fortuitum 17 (27.5% and M. intracellulare 13 (20.9%. The rapid identification of NTM species may help in targeted therapy and management of the diseases.
Ikram, A.; Shah, S.I.H.; Naseem, S.; Absar, S.A.; Safi-Ullah; Ambreen, T.
To determine the availability and implementation of various hospital infection control measures at tertiary care hospitals. Study Design: Survey. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from June through August 2008. Methodology: Seven tertiary care very busy hospitals were selected; one from Islamabad, 5 from Rawalpindi, and one from Lahore. A detailed proforma was designed addressing all the issues pertaining to hospital infection control measures. Air sampling was done and growth yielded was identified by standard methods. Results: Analyses revealed that all of the hospitals had an Infection Control Committee. Microbiological diagnostic facilities were adequate at all the hospitals and overall microorganism yield was very high. Antibiotic policy was claimed by most, not available on ground. Majority of the operation theatres were without proper air flow system and autoclaves were not being regularly monitored. There was no proper disposal for sharps and needles. Incineration was not the usual mode for infectious waste. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply availability of proper hospital infection control policies with need of strict implementation of such measures. (author)
Francetić, Igor; Kalenić, Smilja; Huić, Mirjana; Mercep, Iveta; Makar-Ausperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert; Erdeljić, Viktorija; Tripković, Vesna; Simić, Petra
To determine the effect of aminoglycoside cycling in six tertiary intensive care units (ICU) on the rates of sepsis, aminoglycoside resistance patterns, antibiotic consumption, and costs. This was a prospective longitudinal interventional study that measured the effect of change from first-line gentamicin usage (February 2002-February 2003) to amikacin usage (February 2003-February 2004) on the aminoglycoside resistance patterns, number of patients with gram-negative bacteremia, consumption of antibiotics, and the cost of antimicrobial drugs in 6 tertiary care ICUs in Zagreb, Croatia. The change from first-line gentamicin to amikacin usage led to a decrease in the overall gentamicin resistance of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from 42% to 26% (PAcinetobacter baumanni (P=0.014). Sepsis rate in ICUs was reduced from 3.6% to 2.2% (P<0.001; chi(2) test), with a decline in the number of nosocomial bloodstream infections from 55/100 patient-days to 26/100 patient-days (P=0.001, chi(2) test). Furthermore, amikacin use led to a 16% decrease in the overall antibiotic consumption and 0.1 euro/patient/d cost reduction. Exclusive use of amikacin significantly reduced the resistance of GNB isolates to gentamicin and netilmicin, the number of GNB nosocomial bacteremias, and the cost of total antibiotic usage in ICUs.
Acheampong, Franklin; Tetteh, Ashalley Raymond; Anto, Berko Panyin
This study determined the incidence, types, clinical significance, and potential causes of medication administration errors (MAEs) at the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary health care facility in Ghana. This study used a cross-sectional nonparticipant observational technique. Study participants (nurses) were observed preparing and administering medication at the ED of a 2000-bed tertiary care hospital in Accra, Ghana. The observations were then compared with patients' medication charts, and identified errors were clarified with staff for possible causes. Of the 1332 observations made, involving 338 patients and 49 nurses, 362 had errors, representing 27.2%. However, the error rate excluding "lack of drug availability" fell to 12.8%. Without wrong time error, the error rate was 22.8%. The 2 most frequent error types were omission (n = 281, 77.6%) and wrong time (n = 58, 16%) errors. Omission error was mainly due to unavailability of medicine, 48.9% (n = 177). Although only one of the errors was potentially fatal, 26.7% were definitely clinically severe. The common themes that dominated the probable causes of MAEs were unavailability, staff factors, patient factors, prescription, and communication problems. This study gives credence to similar studies in different settings that MAEs occur frequently in the ED of hospitals. Most of the errors identified were not potentially fatal; however, preventive strategies need to be used to make life-saving processes such as drug administration in such specialized units error-free.
Full Text Available Background: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB burden countries in the world. India ranks second in harboring multi drug resistant (MDR-TB cases. About 50,000 of MDR cases are recorded in retreatment pulmonary TB cases. This study was conducted in a tertiary care facility (Government General and Chest Hospital in Hyderabad, India. Objectives: Toassess: Proportion of the TB patients having MDR-TB at the initiation of retreatment regimen; the prevalence of isoniazid (INH resistance in this geographical area. Materials and Methods: An analytical, observational, prospective cohort study of patients attending the out-patient department from December 2010 to March 2011. Results: Sputum samples from 100 patients were subjected to acid fast bacilli (AFB culture and drug sensitivity testing. Of these, 28 (28% were MDR-TB, 42 (42% were non-MDR-TB and 39% being INH resistance. Conclusions: In conclusion, one third of the retreatment pulmonary TB cases attending a tertiary care institute for TB will be MDR-TB at the initiation of treatment and there is a need to include ethambutol in the continuation phase of new TB case treatment in view of high INH resistance.
Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio Rogelio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The most common symptoms are: dysphagia, chest pain, reflux and weight loss. The esophageal manometry is the standard for diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of the surgical management in patients with achalasia in a tertiary care hospital. A case series consisting of achalasia patients, treated surgically between January and December of 2011. Clinical charts were reviewed to obtain data and registries of the type of surgical procedure, morbidity and mortality. Fourteen patients were identified, with an average age of 49.1 years. The most common symptoms were: dysphagia, vomiting, weight loss and pyrosis. Eight open approaches were performed and six by laparoscopy, with an average length of cardiomyotomy of 9.4 cm. Eleven patients received an antireflux procedure. The effectiveness of procedures performed was 85.7 %. Surgical management offered at this tertiary care hospital does not differ from that reported in other case series, giving effectiveness and safety for patients with achalasia.
In Young Jung
Full Text Available Background. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are any unwanted/uncomfortable effects from medication resulting in physical, mental, and functional injuries. Antibiotics account for up to 40.9% of ADRs and are associated with several serious outcomes. However, few reports on ADRs have evaluated only antimicrobial agents. In this study, we investigated antibiotic-related ADRs at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated ADRs to antibiotics that were reported at a 2400-bed tertiary care hospital in 2015. ADRs reported by physicians, pharmacists, and nurses were reviewed. Clinical information reported ADRs, type of antibiotic, causality assessment, and complications were evaluated. Results. 1,277 (62.8% patients were considered antibiotic-related ADRs based on the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Center criteria (certain, 2.2%; probable, 35.7%; and possible, 62.1%. Totally, 44 (3.4% patients experienced serious ADRs. Penicillin and quinolones were the most common drugs reported to induce ADRs (both 16.0%, followed by third-generation cephalosporins (14.9%. The most frequently experienced side effects were skin manifestations (45.1% followed by gastrointestinal disorders (32.6%. Conclusion. Penicillin and quinolones are the most common causative antibiotics for ADRs and skin manifestations were the most frequently experienced symptom.
Ali, Niloufer Sultan; Khuwaja, Ali Khan
Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which remains asymptomatic for long duration of time and usually diagnosed either when gets complicated or by routine or opportunistic screening. The practice of universal screening is not recommended, particularly in constraint resources. However, we embarked with a study to assess the yield of recommended screening for Type 2 diabetes in all the newly recruited employees at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. All the information required for this study was collected from medical records of all newly recruited employees of nursing services department of a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan, over a period of 5 months (August 2004 to December 2004). Out of 360 subjects, 326, whose information was found to be complete, were included for final analysis. Mean age of the study subjects was 25.3 +/- 4.7 years and their mean casual plasma glucose level was 99.1 +/- 16.3 mg/dl. 315 (96.6%) study subjects had casual plasma glucose level of 139 mg/dl or less. Only 10 (3.1%) study subjects had casual plasma glucose levels between 140 to 199 mg/dl. Just one employee, 41 years old, was found to have casual plasma glucose level of 213 mg/dl. In this study, screening of all individuals for diabetes had a very low yield. Recommendation of universal screening for diabetes does not represent a good use of resources and perhaps not cost-effective. However, periodic screening of high risk individuals should be warranted.
Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care. Study Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Patients and Methods: Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the “Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health” of the “JHPIEGO.” The outcomes of the study were birth preparedness, knowledge of severe illness, and emergency readiness. Results: Six hundred pregnant women were in the study. Mean age of respondents was 25.2 (±4 years. The mean gestation at enrolment was 18.7 ± 8 weeks. Among the women who participated in the survey, 20% were illiterate, 70% were homemakers and nearly 70% had a monthly family income >Rs. 15,197 (n = 405. Three hundred and sixteen mothers (52% were primigravida. As defined in the study, 71.5% were birth prepared. However, 59 women (9.8% did not identify a place of delivery, 102 (17% had not started saving money, and 99 mothers (16.5% were not aware of purchasing materials needed for delivery. The predictors of birth preparedness are multiparity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–3.1, registration in the antenatal clinic in the first trimester (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2–6.1, educational status of women (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, and pregnancy supervison by a doctor (OR: 5, 95% CI: 2.8–6.6. One hundred and sixty-four women (27% made no arrangements in the event of an emergency, 376 women (63% were not aware of their blood group
Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M
To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, Susan M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8–13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Kawagoe, Shohei; Shimizu, Megumi; Ozawa, Taketoshi; An, Emi; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori
This study aims to clarify the length of home hospice care, family-perceived timing of referrals, and their effects on the family-perceived quality of care and quality of death and dying of terminally ill cancer patients who died at home and identify the determinants of perceived late referrals. A multicenter questionnaire survey was conducted involving 1,052 family members of cancer patients who died at home supported by 15 home-based hospice services throughout Japan. A total of 693 responses were analyzed (effective response rate, 66 %). Patients received home-based hospice care for a median of 35.0 days, and 8.0 % received home hospice care for less than 1 week. While 1.5 % of the families reported the timing of referrals as early, 42 % reported the timing as late or too late. The families of patients with a length of care of less than 4 weeks were more likely to regard the timing of referrals as late or too late. The patients of family members who regarded the timing of referrals as late or too late had a significantly lower perceived quality of care (effect size, 0.18; P = 0.039) and lower quality of death and dying (effect size, 0.15, P = 0.063). Independent determinants of higher likelihoods of perceived late referrals included: frequent visits to emergency departments, patient being unprepared for worsening condition, and patient having concerns about relationship with new doctor. Discharge nurse availability was independently associated with lower likelihoods of perceived late referrals. A significant number of bereaved families regarded the timing of referrals to home hospices as late, and the perceived timing was associated with the family-perceived quality of care and quality of death and dying. Systematic strategies to overcome the barriers related to perceived late referrals are necessary.
Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dinakaran, P; Mehrotra, Seema; Bharath, Srikala
There are very few studies on user-perspectives about mental health care services that explore perspectives of family caregivers in India. An exploratory study was undertaken to understand the perceived importance of various aspects of interactions with mental health service providers during hospitalization, from the perspectives of family caregivers. In addition, it also aimed at documenting their actual experience of interactional aspects of care during the hospitalization of their relatives. The study was conducted on fifty family caregivers of patients with varied psychiatric diagnoses hospitalized in a tertiary psychiatric care setting in South India. Measures of Interactional aspects of care were developed to assess perceived importance of six different interactional domains of care and the actual experience of care in these domains. Provision of informational inputs and addressing of concerns raised emerged as the domains of care given highest importance. The item pertaining to 'sharing with the caregiver about different alternatives for treatment' received negative ratings in terms of actual experience by maximum number of participants (18%). Significant differences on perceived importance of four domains of interactional aspects of care (dignity, confidentiality and fairness, addressing concerns raised, informational inputs and prompt attention and consistent care) emerged between caregiver subgroups based on educational level of the caregiver, socio-economic status, hospitalization history and broad diagnostic categories. In addition, the care givers of patients with psychoses assigned significantly more positive ratings on actual experience for all the domains of interactional aspects of care. The findings have implications for further research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Spain continues to present challenges, and problems are exacerbated when there is a lack of coordinated follow-up between levels of care. This paper sets out the protocol for assessing the impact of an integrated management model for the care of patients with COPD. The new model will be evaluated in terms of 1 improvement in the rational utilization of health-care services and 2 benefits reflected in improved health status and quality of life for patients. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of a COPD management model called COPD PROCESS. The patients in the study cohorts will be residents of neighborhoods served by two referral hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. One area comprises the intervention group (n = 32,248 patients and the other the control group (n = 32,114 patients. The study will include pre- and post-intervention assessment 18 months after the program goes into effect. Analyses will be on two datasets: clinical and administrative data available for all patients, and clinical assessment information for a cohort of 440 patients sampled randomly from the intervention and control areas. The main endpoints will be the hospitalization rates in the two health-care areas and quality-of-life measures in the two cohorts. Discussion The COPD PROCESS model foresees the integrated multidisciplinary management of interventions at different levels of the health-care system through coordinated routine clinical practice. It will put into practice diagnostic and treatment procedures that are based on current evidence, multidisciplinary consensus, and efficient use of available resources. Care pathways in this model are defined in terms of patient characteristics, level of disease severity and the presence or absence of exacerbation. The protocol covers the full range of care from primary prevention to treatment of
Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.
Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha
Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments.
Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha
Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments
Taylor, A H; Fox, K R; Hillsdon, M; Anokye, N; Campbell, J L; Foster, C; Green, C; Moxham, T; Mutrie, N; Searle, J; Trueman, P; Taylor, R S
Objective To assess the impact of exercise referral schemes on physical activity and health outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and ongoing trial registries up to October 2009. We also checked study references. Study selection Design: randomised controlled trials or non-randomised controlled (cluster or individual) studies published in peer review journals. Population: sedentary individuals with or without medical diagnosis. Exercise referral schemes defined as: clear referrals by primary care professionals to third party service providers to increase physical activity or exercise, physical activity or exercise programmes tailored to individuals, and initial assessment and monitoring throughout programmes. Comparators: usual care, no intervention, or alternative exercise referral schemes. Results Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, comparing exercise referral schemes with usual care (six trials), alternative physical activity intervention (two), and an exercise referral scheme plus a self determination theory intervention (one). Compared with usual care, follow-up data for exercise referral schemes showed an increased number of participants who achieved 90-150 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity per week (pooled relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence intervals 1.03 to 1.30) and a reduced level of depression (pooled standardised mean difference −0.82, −1.28 to −0.35). Evidence of a between group difference in physical activity of moderate or vigorous intensity or in other health outcomes was inconsistent at follow-up. We did not find any difference in outcomes between exercise referral schemes and the other two comparator groups. None of the included trials separately reported outcomes in individuals with specific medical diagnoses.Substantial heterogeneity in the quality and nature of the exercise referral
Samudrala, Suvarna; Dandakeri, Sukumar; Bhat, Ramesh M
Although dermatology is largely considered as an outpatient specialty, dermatological conditions comprise 5-8% of cases presenting to the emergency department. The need for a dermatological intensive care unit is widely acknowledged due to the increasing incidence of acute skin failure. Very few studies have been done to characterize the common conditions seen in the emergency department and intensive care units. We undertook this study to analyze the spectrum of dermatological conditions presenting to the emergency department and the clinical profile of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. A prospective study was conducted for 9 months. Patients requiring primary dermatological consultation in the emergency department and patients admitted in the dermatology intensive care unit were examined, and their clinical variables were statistically analyzed. A total of 248 cases were seen in the emergency department, out of which 72 (29.1%) cases were admitted and 176 (70.9%) were treated in the emergency department on an outpatient basis. The most common condition seen in non-admitted patients was acute urticaria (28.9%). The most common cause for admission in patients presenting to the emergency department was erythroderma (23.6%). Sixty-two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, the most common diagnosis being erythroderma (40.3%). This prospective study aimed to provide an insight into the types of cases evaluated in the emergency department by dermatologists in a large tertiary care hospital in coastal Karnataka in South India. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of health care in Greece is receiving increased attention to improve its cost-effectiveness. We sought to examine the epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting to the vascular emergency department of a Greek tertiary care hospital during a 2-year period. We studied all patients presenting to the emergency department of vascular surgery at Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2010. Results Overall, 2452 (49.4% out of 4961 patients suffered from pathologies that should have been treated in primary health care. Only 2509 (50.6% needed vascular surgical intervention. Conclusions The emergency department of vascular surgery in a Greek tertiary care hospital has to treat a remarkably high percentage of patients suitable for the primary health care level. These results suggest that an improvement in the structure of health care is needed in Greece.
Agha, Adnan; Mordy, Ayedh; Anwar, Eram; Saleh, Noha; Rashid, Imran; Saeed, Mona
Burnout Syndrome is a mental condition caused by chronic exposure to work related stress and is identified by the presence of any of the three distinct elements of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. Middle grade doctors are the backbone of any tertiary care hospital / medical institution, partaking in unscheduled and inpatient care. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of burnout syndrome in the middle grade doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Khamis Mushyt, from August to October 2012 in departments with at least fifty inpatient admissions per month and with at least five middle grade (Resident, Registrar and Senior Registrar) doctors. The departments were Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Emergency, General Surgery and Nephrology. This was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Services Survey and a self-reported stressor-identifying questionnaire to ascertain possible precursors of, or contributing factors to, Burnout Syndrome. A total of 96 proformas/questionnaires were collected anonymously to maintain confidentiality and burnout syndrome was identified in as high as 88.5% of the respondents with high emotional exhaustion in 68.8%, high depersonalization in 63.6% and low personal accomplishment in 38.5%. The authors concluded that burnout syndrome is high among the middle-grade doctors in this medical facility and that urgent steps are needed to address this problem to ensure that these physicians remain physically and mentally healthy.
Full Text Available BackgroundBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a widely prevalent conditionaffecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasinglife expectancy, there has been a rise in the percentage ofelderly men and so for this disease across the globe. There islack of information about health seeking behaviour of patientswith Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Therefore the study wasdesigned with the objectives of assessing health-seekingbehaviour and the effect of literacy on it among adult andolder subjects suffering from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiaattending a tertiary care hospital.MethodA series of 81 patients suffering from Benign ProstaticHyperplasia above the age of 50 years, attending surgical OutPatient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, wereassessed for their health seeking behaviour using a pre-testedand a modified questionnaire designed for assessing healthseeking behaviour.ResultsPositive health seeking behaviour of patients was observed in44%, who reported to a doctor within a month of noticingtheir problem. A greater proportion of the literates was awareabout the symptoms suggestive of enlarged prostate andconsulted a qualified health care practitioner as their firstaction. More literates approached the higher level of healthcare facility on being referred and had maximum faith inallopathic system of medicine. Also, lesser number of literateshad performed pooja (Hindi word for worship or othertraditional rituals for relief of their problems.ConclusionWe concluded that majority of subjects suffering fromBenign Prostatic Hypertrophy were not aware of theirdisease and their health-seeking behaviour was poor andcould be related to literacy. Our data highlights the needfor public awareness program targeting the younger malepopulation so that early detection and treatment can beoffered.
Shini Susan Samuel
Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been carried out on the prevalence of dental diseases in children although not much information is available regarding its outcome among Indian children. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the type of primary tooth extracted and the reasons for the extraction among children attending a tertiary care hospital in the Southern part of India. Materials and Methods: The dental records of pediatric patients who had visited the dental clinic of a tertiary care hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India from December 2013 to November 2016 were reviewed. Patients who underwent extraction of at least one primary tooth under local or general anesthesia were included in the study. Results: A total of 943 primary teeth were extracted from 447 patients over 3 years. The most commonly extracted tooth type was the first primary molar followed by the primary central incisor. Grouping by age, the most frequently extracted tooth type between 2 and 5 years was the primary central incisor, the first primary molar among the 6–9-year-old and the second primary molar among 10–15-year-old. The majority of primary teeth extractions were performed in the age group of 6–9 years. No significant gender differences were noted. The most common reason for extraction of primary teeth in children was dental caries. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of untimely primary teeth extractions in young children and dental caries continues to be the leading cause. It clearly reflects on the lack of infant oral health care, the inadequacy of awareness and underutilization of oral health services among children in India.
Dhande Priti P, Beri Shirish G, Patel Hardik R
Full Text Available Background: Prevention of tetanus is far easier than its treatment where mortality is very high. Most cases of tetanus occur due to lack of proper vaccination against the disease and incomplete immunization on exposure. Residents in a tertiary care teaching hospital constitute the first contact physicians for patients. Aim: To assess the perception about Tetanus immunization among residents in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Pune city. Methodology: A pre tested questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge & recommendations about tetanus immunization among randomly selected 157 residents. Results: 73.25% residents were not aware of the number of doses of tetanus vaccine recommended for children under the age of 16 years. Around 50% residents were not aware of the recommended number of doses of tetanus vaccine for adults over the age of 16 years and during pregnancy. Nearly 60% of the residents considered the wound after every injury to be tetanus prone. 75.8% of residents thought burn injuries to be prone to the development of tetanus while 13.4% and 36.9% of the residents did not consider animal bite and human bite to be tetanus prone respectively. 99.4% residents considered tetanus toxoid administration in wound with rusted iron. The knowledge regarding tetanus immunization in relation to the wound categories depending on the immunization status of the patients was very poor amongst the residents. Conclusion: Better awareness and adherence of tetanus prophylaxis recommendations is needed in residents who are the first tier of health care providers in teaching hospitals.
Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.
The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement
Conclusions: Pre-natal diagnosis of CTA, despite a high diagnostic accuracy, prompted utilization of post-natal tertiary cardiac care in a limited proportion of patients, including those with reparable lesions. Focus in developing countries should shift towards earlier referral, improving awareness about treatment options and a comprehensive evaluation for associated anomalies.
Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Satish; Chandra Sharma, Naresh; Kumar, Badal
To recognize deaths in the otorhinolaryngology indoor wards, determine the reason behind the mortalities and recommend modifications for betterment of patient care and surgical outcomes. Data was collected from the mortality register, operation theatre registers, ward registers and case notes of patients declared dead at an urban tertiary health care center in India for a period of 5 years; from January 2012 to December 2016. The data included date of admission, age, sex, educational status, residence, and clinical diagnosis, course of hospital stay and medical cause of death. Data acquired was reviewed and statistically interpreted and presented in graphical and descriptive formats. 6157 admissions were made in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) ward in the 5 year period which included 3969 males and 2188 female patients. 58 deaths were recorded during this period which gives overall death per admission crude mortality rate of 9.42% at an average of about 12 (11.60) deaths per year. The major causes of death were malignancy and septicemia. The significance of health education, aggressive healthcare campaigns, enhancement of healthcare services and wide accessibility of healthcare services to remote areas has been emphasized. Role of structured study and protocols in the management of serious cases is highlighted along with the need for prompt referral and better interdepartmental cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fishman, Laurie; Rappaport, Leonard; Schonwald, Alison; Nurko, Samuel
To compare the characteristics of children with encopresis referred to a single encopresis clinic over the course of 20 years, including symptoms, previous diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and parental attitudes. A retrospective study was conducted of an encopresis clinic at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Questionnaires at initial evaluation elicited information about bowel habits, soiling, previous evaluations, previous treatments, and parental attitudes. In 503 children with encopresis, the average age of referral dropped from 115 months during the earliest 5 years to 77 months during the most recent 5 years. Children who had soiling for >3 years before referral decreased from 63% to 12%. The use of barium enema before referral decreased from 14% to 5%, as did psychological evaluation, from 25% to 14%. Previous therapy with enemas decreased from 45% to 27%. Mineral oil use remained at approximately 50%, and 20% of children had no previous treatment. Symptoms at referral and parental attitudes did not change across the years. Children are now referred at an earlier age to our tertiary encopresis clinic. The number of invasive and psychological evaluations has decreased before referral. However, treatment by many primary care providers before the referral has not changed. These data may suggest that pediatricians have increased awareness of encopresis and greater appreciation of its primarily physical rather than psychological nature. Additional studies will be needed to determine how these factors affect outcome.
Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck
This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2). Significantly fewer cases with ethical issues were reported in Period 2 than in Period 1 (89 cases [2.1%] of 4,291 ICU admissions vs. 51 [0.5%] of 9,302 ICU admissions, respectively; P ethical issues in both Periods occurred in MICU. The major source of ethical issues in Periods 1 and 2 was behavior-related. Among behaviorrelated issues, inappropriate healthcare professional behavior was predominant in both periods and mainly involved resident physicians. Ethical issue numbers regarding end-oflife (EOL) care significantly decreased in the proportion with respect to ethical issues during Period 2 (P = 0.044). In conclusion, the decreased incidence of cases with identified ethical issues in Period 2 might be associated with ethical enhancement related with EOL and improvements in the ICU care environment of the studied hospital. However, behaviorrelated issues involving resident physicians represent a considerable proportion of ethical issues encountered by critical care nurses. A systemic approach to solve behavior-related issues of resident physicians seems to be required to enhance an ethical environment in the studied ICU.
Dahhan, Ali; Maddox, William R; Krothapalli, Siva; Farmer, Matthew; Shah, Amit; Ford, Benjamin; Rhodes, Marc; Matthews, Laurie; Barnes, Vernon A; Sharma, Gyanendra K
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective preventive measure that remains underutilised in the United States. The study aimed to determine the CR referral rate (RR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at an academic tertiary care centre, identify barriers to referral, and evaluate awareness of CR benefits and indications (CRBI) among cardiologists. Subsequently, it aimed to evaluate if an intervention consisting of physicians' education about CRBI and implementation of a formal CR referral system could improve RR and consequently participation rate (PR). Data were retrospectively collected for all consecutive patients who underwent PCI over 12 months. Referral rate was determined and variables were compared for differences between referred and non-referred patients. A questionnaire was distributed among the physicians in the Division of Cardiology to assess awareness of CRBI and referral practice patterns. After implementation of the intervention, data were collected retrospectively for consecutive patients who underwent PCI in the following six months. Referral rate and changes in PRs were determined. Prior to the intervention, RR was 17.6%. Different barriers were identified, but the questionnaire revealed lack of physicians' awareness of CRBI and inconsistent referral patterns. After the intervention, RR increased to 88.96% (Odds Ratio 37.73, 95% CI 21.34-66.70, pEducation of providers and implementation of a formal referral system can improve RR and PR. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bartels, Stephen J; Coakley, Eugenie H; Zubritsky, Cynthia; Ware, James H; Miles, Keith M; Areán, Patricia A; Chen, Hongtu; Oslin, David W; Llorente, Maria D; Costantino, Giuseppe; Quijano, Louise; McIntyre, Jack S; Linkins, Karen W; Oxman, Thomas E; Maxwell, James; Levkoff, Sue E
The authors sought to determine whether integrated mental health services or enhanced referral to specialty mental health clinics results in greater engagement in mental health/substance abuse services by older primary care patients. This multisite randomized trial included 10 sites consisting of primary care and specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics. Primary care patients 65 years old or older (N=24,930) were screened. The final study group consisted of 2,022 patients (mean age=73.5 years; 26% female; 48% ethnic minority) with depression (N=1,390), anxiety (N=70), at-risk alcohol use (N=414), or dual diagnosis (N=148) who were randomly assigned to integrated care (mental health and substance abuse providers co-located in primary care; N=999) or enhanced referral to specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics (i.e., facilitated scheduling, transportation, payment; N=1,023). Seventy-one percent of patients engaged in treatment in the integrated model compared with 49% in the enhanced referral model. Integrated care was associated with more mental health and substance abuse visits per patient (mean=3.04) relative to enhanced referral (mean=1.91). Overall, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and higher mental distress. For depression, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe depression. For at-risk alcohol users, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe problem drinking. For all conditions, greater engagement was associated with closer proximity of mental health/substance abuse services to primary care. Older primary care patients are more likely to accept collaborative mental health treatment within primary care than in mental health/substance abuse clinics. These results suggest that integrated service arrangements improve access to mental health and substance abuse services for older adults who underuse these services.
Mark A Valasek
Full Text Available Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN and appendiceal adenocarcinoma are known to cause the majority of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, i.e. mucinous ascites; however, recognition and proper classification of these neoplasms can be difficult despite established diagnostic criteria.To determine the pathological diagnostic concordance for appendix neoplasia and related lesions during patient referral to an academic medical center specialized in treating patients with PMP.The anatomic pathology laboratory information system was searched to identify cases over a two-year period containing appendix specimens with mucinous neoplasia evaluated by an outside pathology group and by in-house slide review at a single large academic medical center during patient referral.161 cases containing appendix specimens were identified over this period. Forty-six of 161 cases (28.6% contained appendiceal primary neoplasia or lesions. Of these, the originating pathologist diagnosed 23 cases (50% as adenocarcinoma and 23 cases (50% as LAMN; however, the reference pathologist diagnosed 29 cases (63.0% as LAMN, 13 cases (28.3% as adenocarcinoma, and 4 cases (8.7% as ruptured simple mucocele. Importantly, for cases in which the originating pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, the reference pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (56.5%, 13 of 23, LAMN (39.1%, 9 of 23, or simple mucocele (4.3%, 1 of 23. The overall diagnostic concordance rate for these major classifications was 71.7% (33 of 46 with an unweighted observed kappa value of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.27-0.69, consistent with moderate interobserver agreement. All of the observed discordance (28.3% for major classifications could be attributed to over-interpretation. In addition, the majority of LAMN cases (65.5% had potential diagnostic deficiencies including over-interpretation as adenocarcinoma and lacking or discordant risk stratification (i.e. documentation of extra-appendiceal neoplastic
Full Text Available Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software,version 16.Results In this study, 63/9% of cases were female and 36/1% were male. 24 cases (66/7% had osmotic diarrhea and 11 (30/6% had secretory diarrhea. In this study there was no significant statistical correlation between type of diarrhea and sex, gestational Age, severity of dehydration, birth weight and nutrition. The majority of patients with osmotic (58/3% and secretory diarrhea (63/6%, had weight percentile below 3%, which showed a significant statistical difference (p value
Alam, Muhammad Matloob; Moiz, Bushra; Rehman, Karim Abdur; Jethwani, Priyanka; Fadoo, Zehra
This study presents the demographics, clinical spectrum, and outcome of patients with congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency at a tertiary care center over a period of 12 years. Of the 49 patients, 27 (55%) patients were males. Consanguinity was found in 92% of the patients. The median age of symptom onset was 2.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.1-6.5) years with a median age of 5.8 (IQR: 3.1-10) years at diagnosis. Life-threatening complications like intracranial bleeding (ICB) and intra-abdominal bleeding (IAB) were observed in 8 (16.4%) patients. We found that 11 (55%) of the 20 patients with FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc) 5% were affected by severe symptoms. Age factor associated with development of life-threatening bleeding episodes (P = .042; odds ratio 6.46). Overall, 4 (8.2%) died as a consequence of ICB (3 patients) and IAB (1 patient). © The Author(s) 2013.
Rehman, J.U.; Shah, I.
Rheumatic Hearth Disease (RHD) is still prevalent in our country and a great source of morbidity. This study was done with an objective to determine relative frequency of different valvular lesions of RHD presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Cardiology Department of Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. A total of 171 cases of RHD were included through consecutive sampling technique. Results: There were 64.33% females. Mean age was 25.6 ± 6.95 years ranging from 15 to 40 years. The different percentage of valvular lesions in RHD were MR (59.06%), MS (46.78%), AR (43.85%) and mixed lesions (38.59%). Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease is a very common disease in our community and mitral regurgitation is a predominant lesion at presentation. Females are usually affected more than males. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV among the pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu. Methods: A total of 1 440 blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for antiHIV antibodies using rapid screening assay kits and ELISA in Paropakar Maternity and Women ’s Hospital during May to November, 2011. Results: The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.62%, the prevalence being highest (1.4% in age group 35-39 years old, and during second trimester of gestation (0.75%. Similarly, it was found to be highest among the illiterates (1.92%, commercial sex worker (10.00% and those having multiple sexual partners (30.00%. Conclusions: Sero-prevalence of HIV infection was higher among the pregnant women of Kathmandu.
Melanson, Stacy E F; Szymanski, Trevor; Rogers, Selwyn O; Jarolim, Petr; Frendl, Gyorgy; Rawn, James D; Cooper, Zara; Ferrigno, Massimo
We describe the patterns of utilization of arterial blood gas (ABG) tests in a large tertiary care hospital. To our knowledge, no hospital-wide analysis of ABG test utilization has been published. We analyzed 491 ABG tests performed during 24 two-hour intervals, representative of different staff shifts throughout the 7-day week. The clinician ordering each ABG test was asked to fill out a utilization survey. The most common reasons for requesting an ABG test were changes in ventilator settings (27.6%), respiratory events (26.4%), and routine (25.7%). Of the results, approximately 79% were expected, and a change in patient management (eg, a change in ventilator settings) occurred in 42% of cases. Many ABG tests were ordered as part of a clinical routine or to monitor parameters that can be assessed clinically or through less invasive testing. Implementation of practice guidelines may prove useful in controlling test utilization and in decreasing costs.
Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R
The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to review the etiological factors and diseases associated with pediatric noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with confirmed noncystic fibrosis (Non-CF bronchiectasis by chest X-ray and/or CT chest in a pulmonary clinic during the period 1993-2005 at a tertiary care center in Riyadh. Results: A total of 151 cases were diagnosed as Non-CF bronchiectasis. Seventy-five (49.7% were male, 76 (50.3% were female; 148 (98% are alive and 3 (2% died. The southwestern regions constituted 72 (50% of the cases. There was a period of (5 ± 3.2 years between the start of symptoms and diagnosis of bronchiectasis. More than two-thirds of the patients had cough, tachypnea, wheezing, sputum production and failure to thrive. Ninety-one (60% had associated diseases: Pulmonary diseases in 48 (32%, immunodeficiency in 27 (18%, central nervous system anomalies in 10 (7%, cardiac in 10 (7% and asthma in 103 (68% of the patients. Left lower lobe was commonly involved in 114 (76% patients. Sixty-eight (67% were found to have sinusitis. More than two-thirds of patients had two or more associated diseases. Forty-nine (32% developed gastroesophageal reflux. Hemophilus influenza was cultured in 56 (37%, strept pneumoniae in 25 (17% and pseudomonas aeruginosa in 24 (16% of the patients. Eighty percent of the patients who had pulmonary function test had abnormal changes. Disease progression was related to development of symptoms before 5 years of age, persistent atelectasis and right lower lobe involvement ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Non-CF bronchiectasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent chest infection in Saudi Arabia. Early diagnosis and identification of associated diseases is needed to prevent progression of the disease.
Objective: To study the frequency of causes of primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women managed in a tertiary care Hospital. material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unit - 1, Lady Willingdon Hospital King Edward Medical University, Lahore from July 2013 to December 2013. All the women having postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery in the labour room or referred with primary postpartum haemorrhage were included in the study and were evaluated to see the frequency of postpartum haemorrhage as well as the causes of PPH in women being treated in a tertiary care unit. Results: During the study period 1344 women delivered in unit I and 250 patients developed postpartum haemorrhage giving frequency of primary postpartum haemorrhage 18.60%. Majority of the women 29.6% (n = 74) were between 26 - 30 years of age, mean and SD was 28.43 ± 4.76 years. The gestation of 55.2% (n = 138) patients was between 37 - 40 weeks. The frequency of postpartum haemorrhage in booked women during antenatal period was recorded as 25.2% (n = 63) while 74.8% (n = 187) were not booked in any health facility. Among patients who developed PPH, uterine atony was the most common cause 57.6% (n = 144), followed by genital tract teats which was 29.2% (n = 73). The rest of the causes of PPH were retained placenta in 10% (n = 25), uterine rupture in 3.6% (n = 9) and uterine inversion in 1.6% (n = 4). Conclusions: Postpartum haemorrhage is still a leading but preventable cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in our country due to under utilization of health facilities, the major cause is uterine atony followed by perineal tears. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to assess the medication errors and adherence to WHO prescription writing guidelines in a tertiary care hospital. A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of 8 months from June 2015 to February 2016 at tertiary care hospital. At inpatient department regular chart review of patient case records was carried out to assess the medication errors. The observed medication errors were assessed for level of harm by using NCCMERP index. The outpatient prescriptions were screened for adherence to WHO prescription writing guidelines. Out of 200 patients, 40 patients developed medication errors. Most of the medication errors were observed in the age group above 61 years (40%. Majority of the medication errors were observed with drug class of antibiotics 9 (22.5% and bronchodilators 9 (22.5%. Most of the errors were under the NCCMERP index category C. Out of 545 outpatient prescriptions, 51 (9.37% prescriptions did not have prescriber’s name and all of the prescriptions lack prescriber’s personal contact number. Eighteen prescriptions did not have patient’s name and 426 (78.2% prescriptions did not have patient’s age. The prevalence of medication errors in this study was relatively low (20% without any fatal outcome. Omission error was the most frequently observed medication errors 31 (77.5%. In the present study, the patient’s age was missing in 78.2% of the prescriptions and none of the prescriptions had patient’s address and the drug names were not mentioned by their generic names.
Full Text Available Background The environmental matrices (water, air, and surfaces play a vital role as reservoirs of Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas spp.. Hence, hospital environment control procedures are effective measures for reducing nosocomial infections. Aims This study was carried out to explore the profiles of microorganisms in air culture at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal between January and September 2015 to explore the microbiological burden in inanimate objects. Each week one ward or unit was selected for the study. Bed, tap, the entire room, trolley, computer, phone, rack handles, table, chair, door, stethoscope, oxygen mask, gown, cupboard handles, and wash basins were selected for air culture testing. Ten different wards/units and 77 locations/pieces of equipment were selected for air culture by employing a simple random sampling technique. Information about the organisms was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 (IBM: Armonk, NY and descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Micrococcus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most commonly detected organisms. In the postoperative ward, S. aureus was the most frequently detected microorganism. Micrococcus was detected in four out of 10 locations. In the x-ray unit, S. aureus was detected in three out of four locations. Conclusion S. aureus, Micrococcus, CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected.
Levinson, Daphna; Rosca, Paola; Vilner, Doron; Brimberg, Idit; Stall, Yael; Rimon, Ayelet
Alcohol use is a major preventable public health problem with serious health and social consequences especially among youth. In Israel, alcohol use has become an emerging problem during the last decade, and its use has increased among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is the common pattern of alcohol consumption among young adults who drink for recreational purposes. The present survey was conducted among 16-35 years old visitors to the ED. The aim was specifically to identify binge drinkers in order to assess the scope of the need for a brief counseling intervention among young people who arrive intoxicated to a large tertiary care urban ED in Israel. The survey was conducted throughout a 1 week period (24 h per day) at the general EDs in a large, tertiary care center, situated in Tel Aviv. During the survey week, 946 individuals, aged 16-35, visited the ED and 573 (63%) of them were approached for an interview. 89% of those approached agreed to be interviewed. Consenting patients [N = 348] were asked whether they drink any alcohol, how often they drink and how much. About one fifth of those interviewed were in the habit of consuming more than four units of alcohol per occasion. Drinking several times a week or every day was reported by 19% of the males and 26% of the females. Frequency of the drinking episodes was highly correlated with the number of units of drink per occasion. The study found a very high rate of binge drinking among ED visitors, and this suggests a need for large scale ED-based interventions. As binge drinkers are at elevated risk for accidents, violence and related problems, effective ED-based interventions could make an important contribution to public health. Accordingly, Israel is in the process of assessing the effectiveness of a large-scale ED-based counseling intervention. Trial registration number 0230-13-TLV.
Powell, Anna M; Gracely, Edward; Nyirjesy, Paul
The aims of this study are to analyze a cohort of women with vulvovaginal symptoms and positive cultures for non-albicans Candida (NAC) to determine whether yeast was responsible for their symptoms and to evaluate the mycological effectiveness of various regimens. This observational study was performed from retrospective chart review of patients with positive NAC cultures between April 1, 2008, and January 31, 2011, at a tertiary care vaginitis center. Patient intake demographics were entered into a database. Follow-up visits were analyzed for data about patient treatments and outcomes. Patients were considered a clinical cure if their symptoms were significantly improved and mycologic cure (MC) if later yeast cultures were negative. If clinical symptoms improved at the same time as MC, the isolate was considered the proximate cause for the symptoms. One hundred eight patients meeting entry criteria were analyzed. Boric acid was effective at obtaining MC in 32 (78%) of 41 patients with C. glabrata, 3 of 3 patients with C. tropicalis, and 3 of 3 patients with C. lusitaniae. Fluconazole was effective as initial treatment for 3 (60%) of 5 patients with C. glabrata and 13 (81%) of 16 patients with C. parapsilosis. In 52.7% of C. glabrata, 66.7% of C. parapsilosis, and 57.1% of C. tropicalis cases, effective antifungal therapy led to symptom improvement. In a tertiary care vaginitis center, NAC, when isolated on culture, caused clinically significant infections in approximately half of symptomatic patients. A majority of infections can be effectively treated with boric acid or fluconazole regardless of the non-albicans Candida species.
Khan, D A; Fatima, S; Imran, R; Khan, F A [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Department of Pathology
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common clinical problem contributing to increased maternal and foetal morbidity. This study was carried out to determine frequency of iron, folate and cobalamin deficiency and associated risk factors in the anaemic pregnant females who reported first time during second and third trimester for antenatal check-up in the tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Methods: This case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women (age: 19-43 years) consisting of 125 anaemic (Hb< 110 g/L) and 125 non-anaemic who reported first time at antenatal clinic were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, parity and dietary intake were collected. Complete blood counts were done. Serum ferritin, folate and cobalamin assays were performed by using DPC kits on Immulite-1000. Results: The pregnant women were categorised having mild (Hb up to 54%), moderate (Hb up to 36%), or severe (Hb up to 10%) anaemia during antennal visit. They had significantly lower median (range) levels of haemoglobin 96 (40-110) g/L, ferritin 8 (3-54) nu mu/L, folate 15 (3-54) mu mol/L and cobalamin 171 (111-629) mu mol/L than controls (p=<0.01). Micro nutrient analysis revealed secondary pregnancy related deficiency of Iron (57%), folate (20%), combined iron and folate (19%) and cobalamin (4%) in the female. Among the risk factors, low income (OR: 7.69), multi party (OR: 2.93), lack of iron/folate supplementation (OR 2.91) and inadequate dietary intakes (OR 2.51) were associated with anaemia. Conclusion: The pregnant anaemic women had iron (57%); folate (20%), followed by combined iron folate (19%), and cobalamin (4%) deficiency during first antenatal visit. Low income, multi party, poor diet and lack of supplements are the main contributor in development of anaemia during pregnancy. (author)
Khan, D.A.; Fatima, S.; Imran, R.; Khan, F.A.
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common clinical problem contributing to increased maternal and foetal morbidity. This study was carried out to determine frequency of iron, folate and cobalamin deficiency and associated risk factors in the anaemic pregnant females who reported first time during second and third trimester for antenatal check-up in the tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Methods: This case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women (age: 19-43 years) consisting of 125 anaemic (Hb< 110 g/L) and 125 non-anaemic who reported first time at antenatal clinic were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, parity and dietary intake were collected. Complete blood counts were done. Serum ferritin, folate and cobalamin assays were performed by using DPC kits on Immulite-1000. Results: The pregnant women were categorised having mild (Hb up to 54%), moderate (Hb up to 36%), or severe (Hb up to 10%) anaemia during antennal visit. They had significantly lower median (range) levels of haemoglobin 96 (40-110) g/L, ferritin 8 (3-54) nu mu/L, folate 15 (3-54) mu mol/L and cobalamin 171 (111-629) mu mol/L than controls (p=<0.01). Micro nutrient analysis revealed secondary pregnancy related deficiency of Iron (57%), folate (20%), combined iron and folate (19%) and cobalamin (4%) in the female. Among the risk factors, low income (OR: 7.69), multi party (OR: 2.93), lack of iron/folate supplementation (OR 2.91) and inadequate dietary intakes (OR 2.51) were associated with anaemia. Conclusion: The pregnant anaemic women had iron (57%); folate (20%), followed by combined iron folate (19%), and cobalamin (4%) deficiency during first antenatal visit. Low income, multi party, poor diet and lack of supplements are the main contributor in development of anaemia during pregnancy. (author)
S. Gayathriedevi Sellathamby
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study is carried out to estimate incidence of medical termination of pregnancies in a tertiary care centre, to analyse the causes of medical termination of pregnancies, to analyse the success of the methods of abortion and adoption family planning procedures in a tertiary care centre (Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. This may provide the baseline measures for safe abortion practices and to increase the awareness among men and women of reproductive age, the availability of safe abortion services at locality. The aim of the study is to know the incidence of medical termination of pregnancies in a tertiary level hospital, to study the causes for seeking MTP, to analyse the success of the methods of abortion and adoption of family planning methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, during the period of 12 months from September 2011- August 2012. Of 3516 patients attending the family planning OP, 496 women seek MTP. Among them, every 5 th women were selected and thus 100 cases were included in this study. Social parameters like age, education, residence, marital status, family pattern, number of living children, sex of the living children, obstetric parameters like parity, trimester of abortion, methods of abortion, causes for MTP, adoption of family planning methods, basic investigation like Hb%, BT, CT, urine albumin, RFT, blood sugar, blood grouping and typing and VCTC were included. RESULTS Induced abortions were common in women in 20-29-year age group, more in third gravid, Hindus, from rural areas, living in nuclear family, married and educated. Most of the women seek 1 st trimester abortion with underlying social cause. Majority had surgical abortion. Majority adopted transabdominal tubectomy as the concurrent family planning method. Second trimester abortions common in unmarried, uneducated women. CONCLUSION The variables analysed in this study bring into light the
Hao, Zhen-feng; Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Fei; Yang, Rong-ya; Zhu, He; Zhang, Jie
Invasive fungal infections have constituted an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. In this study, a surveillance project was conducted in three different intensive care units of two large tertiary hospitals in China. A one-year surveillance project was conducted in two tertiary hospitals which located in northern China and southwest China respectively. Air, surfaces and tap water were sampled twice a month in a central intensive care unit, a bone marrow transplant unit, a neurosurgery intensive care unit and a live transplant department. Environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature and events taking place, for example the present of the visitors, healthcare staff and cleaning crew were also recorded at the time of sampling. The air fungal load was 91.94 cfu/m(3) and 71.02 cfu/m(3) in the southwest China hospital and the northern China hospital respectively. The five most prevalent fungi collected from air and surfaces were Penicillium spp., Cladospcrium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. in the southwest China hospital, meanwhile Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp. and Cladospcrium spp. in the northern China hospital. The least contaminated department was intensive care units, and the heaviest contaminated department was neurosurgery intensive care unit. Seventy-three percent of all surfaces examined in the northern China hospital and eighty-six percent in the southwest China hospital yielded fungi. Fifty-four percent of water samples from the northern China hospital and forty-nine percent from the southwest China hospital yielded fungi. These findings suggested that the fungus exist in the environment of the hospital including air, surface and water. Air and surface fungal load fluctuated over the year. Air fungal load was lower in winter and higher in summer and autumn, but seldom exceeded acceptable level. The higher values were created during
Cenita James Sam
Conclusion: Perception of quality of pediatric day-care surgery was assessed with a questionnaire and was found to be good. Variables related to surgery such as pain may be included in the questionnaire for assessing satisfaction in the day-care surgery.
Background: The prevalence of stroke is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa due to increases in size of aging population and stroke risk factors.We assessed risk factors, quality of care and outcomes of stroke to identify modifiable risk factors and areas of care that need improvement for better outcomes. Objectives: To ...
Ruangkriengsin, Darat; Phisalprapa, Pochamana
Unnecessary days of prolonged hospitalization may lead to the increase in hospital-related complications and costs, especially in tertiary care center Currently, there have not been many studies about the causes of prolonged hospitalization. Some identified causes could, however, be prevented and improved. To identify the prevalence, causes, predictive factors, prognosis, and economic burden of prolonged hospitalization in patients who had been in general internal medicine wards of the tertiary care center for 7 days or more. Retrospective chart review study was conducted among all patients who were admitted for 7 days or more in general internal medicine wards of Siriraj Hospital, the largest tertiary care center in Thailand. The period of this study was from 1 August 2012 to 30 September 2012. Demographic data, principle diagnosis, comorbid diseases, complications, discharge status, total costs of admission and percentage of reimbursement were collected. The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 7, 14, 30, and 90 were assessed. Five hundred and sixty-two charts were reviewed. The average length of stay was 25.9 days. The two most common causes of prolonged admission at day 7 were treatment of main diagnosed disease with stable condition (27.6%) and waiting for completion of intravenous antibiotics administration with stable condition (19.5%). The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 14 were unstable condition from complications (22.6%) and those waiting for completion of intravenous antibiotics administration with stable condition (15.8%). The causes of prolonged admission at day 30 were unstable conditions from complications (25.6%), difficulty weaning or ventilator dependence (17.6%), and caregiver problems (15.2%). The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 90 were unstable condition from complications (30.0%), caregiver problems (30.0%), and palliative care (25.0%). Poor outcomes were shown in the patients admitted more than 90 days. Percentage
Leelavathi D Acharya
Full Text Available Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society.
Doyle, Mary-Anne; Brez, Sharon; Sicoli, Silvana; De Sousa, Filomena; Keely, Erin; Malcom, Janine C
To standardize insulin prescribing practices for inpatients, improve management of hypoglycemia, reduce reliance on sliding scales, increase use of basal-bolus insulin and improve patient safety. Patients with diabetes were admitted to 2 pilot inpatient units followed by corporate spread to all insulin-treated patients on noncritical care units in a Canadian tertiary care multicampus teaching hospital. Standardized preprinted insulin and hypoglycemia management orders, decision support tools and multidisciplinary education strategies were developed, tested and implemented by way of the Model for Improvement and The Ottawa Model for Research Process. Clinical and balance measures were evaluated through statistical process control. Patient safety was improved through a reduction in hypoglycemia and decreased dependence on correctional scales. Utilization of the preprinted orders approached the target of 70% at the end of the test period and was sustained at 89% corporately 3 years post-implementation. The implementation of a standardized, preprinted insulin order set facilitates best practices for insulin therapy, improves patient safety and is highly supported by treating practitioners. The utilization of formal quality-improvement methodology promoted efficiency, enhanced sustainability, increased support among clinicians and senior administrators, and was effective in instituting sustained practice change in a complex care centre. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Erin H; Siddiqui, Imran; Vrochides, Dionisios; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Rorabaugh, Lauren; Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Swan, Ryan Z
Early in their careers, many new surgeons lack the background and experience to understand essential components needed to build a surgical practice. Surgical resident education is often devoid of specific instruction on the business of medicine and practice management. In particular, hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) surgeons require many key components to build a successful practice secondary to significant interdisciplinary coordination and a scope of complex surgery, which spans challenging benign and malignant disease processes. In the following, we describe the required clinical and financial components for developing a successful HPB surgery practice in the nonuniversity tertiary care center. We discuss significant financial considerations for understanding community need and hospital investment, contract establishment, billing, and coding. We summarize the structural elements and key personnel necessary for establishing an effectual HPB surgical team. This article provides useful, essential information for a new HPB surgeon looking to establish a surgical practice. It also provides insight for health-care administrators as to the value an HPB surgeon can bring to a hospital or health-care system.
Braeken, Anna P B M; Lechner, Lilian; Eekers, Daniëlle B P; Houben, Ruud M A; van Gils, Francis C J M; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M
This study tests whether using a screening instrument improves referral to psychosocial care providers (e.g. psychologist) and facilitates patient-radiotherapist communication. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used. Fourteen radiotherapists were randomly allocated to the experimental or control group and 568 of their patients received care in accordance with the group to which their radiotherapist was allocated. Patients in the experimental group were asked to complete a screening instrument before and at the end of the radiation treatment period. All patients were requested to complete questionnaires concerning patient-physician communication after the first consultation and concerning psychosocial care 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Patients who completed the screening instrument were referred to social workers at an earlier stage than patients who did not (Pcommunication. Our results suggest that a simple screening procedure can be valuable for the timely treatment of psychosocial problems in patients. Future efforts should be directed at appropriate timing of screening and enhancing physicians' awareness regarding the importance of identifying, discussing and treating psychosocial problems in cancer patients. Psychosocial screening can be enhanced by effective radiotherapist-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buscemi, Joanna; Miguel, Yazmin San; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Watts, Elizabeth A; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Watson, Karriem; Winn, Robert A; Matthews, Kameron L; Molina, Yamile
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely preventable through identification of pre-cancerous polyps through various screening modalities, morbidity and mortality rates remain a challenge, especially in African-American, Latino, low-income and uninsured/underinsured patients. Barriers to screening include cost, access to health care facilities, lack of recommendation to screen, and psychosocial factors such as embarrassment, fear of the test, anxiety about testing preparation and fear of a cancer diagnosis. Various intervention approaches to improve CRC screening rates have been developed. However, comparative effectiveness research (CER) to investigate the relative performance of different approaches has been understudied, especially across different real-life practice settings. Assessment of differential efficacy across diverse vulnerable populations is also lacking. The current paper describes the rationale and design for the Mile Square Colorectal Cancer Screening, Awareness and Referral and Education Project (Mi-CARE), which aims to increase CRC screening rates in 3 clinics of a large Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) by reducing prominent barriers to screening for low-income, minority and underserved patients. Patients attending these clinics will receive one of three interventions to increase screening uptake: lay patient navigator (LPN)-based navigation, provider level navigation, or mailed birthday CRC screening reminders. The design of our program allows for comparison of the effectiveness of the tailored interventions across sites and patient populations. Data from Mi-CARE may help to inform the dissemination of tailored interventions across FQHCs to reduce health disparities in CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC as others. Methods: The referrals from general practitioners (GPs in the primary health care (PHC in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007–2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. Results: 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR (1.14 and 1.17 (p = 0.624 and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41 in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Conclusion: Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups.
Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten
Objectives The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC) as others. Methods The referrals from general practitioners (GPs) in the primary health care (PHC) in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities) were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007–2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. Results 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR) (1.14 and 1.17) (p =0.624) and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41) in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Conclusion Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups. PMID:22456052
Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten
The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC) as others. The referrals from general practitioners (GPs) in the primary health care (PHC) in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities) were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007-2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR) (1.14 and 1.17) (p = 0.624) and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41) in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups.
Peltier, Wendy L; Gani, Faiz; Blissitt, Jennifer; Walczak, Katherine; Opper, Kristi; Derse, Arthur R; Johnston, Fabian M
Although previous research on advance care planning (ACP) has associated ACP with improved quality of care at the end of life, the appropriate use of ACP remains limited. To evaluate the impact of a pilot program using the "Honoring Choices Wisconsin" (HCW) model for ACP in a tertiary care setting, and to understand barriers to system-wide implementation. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Patients who received medical or surgical oncology care at Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Data from 69 patients who died following the implementation of the HCW program were reviewed; 24 patients were enrolled in the HCW program while 45 were not. Patients enrolled in HCW were proportionally less likely to be admitted to the ICU (12.5% vs. 17.8%) and were more likely to be "do not resuscitate" (87.5% vs. 80.0%), as well as have a completed ACP (83.3% vs. 79.1%). Furthermore, admission to a hospice was also higher among patients who were enrolled in the HCW program (79.2% vs. 25.6%), with patients enrolled in HCW more likely to die in hospice (70.8% vs. 53.3%). The HCW program was favorably viewed by patients, patient caregivers, and healthcare providers. Implementation of a facilitator-based ACP care model was associated with fewer ICU admissions, and a higher use of hospice care. System-level changes are required to overcome barriers to ACP that limit patients from receiving end-of-life care in accordance with their preferences.
Thomas, Arun Z
To examine the magnitude of potentially avoidable iatrogenic complications of male urethral catheterization (UC) within a tertiary-care supra-regional teaching hospital, and to evaluate risk factors and subjective feeling of interns in our institution on the adequacy of training on UC.
Full Text Available Newark, New Jersey, is disproportionally affected by HIV with one of the highest prevalence rates in the United States. Rutgers New Jersey Medical School is a major healthcare provider to Newark’s underserved population and has implemented a HIV testing program that can diagnose and link newly diagnosed individuals to care. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all new patients seen in the Infectious Disease Practice from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, to determine the proportion of patients with a missed testing opportunity (MTO (patients with a new HIV diagnosis with an encounter at the institution in the 1 year prior to their first appointment. 117 newly diagnosed patients were identified. 36 (31% had at least one MTO. A total of 34 (29% of newly diagnosed patients had AIDS at presentation and 17% had CD4 counts of 50 cells/μL (p value 0.5. The two most common locations of a missed testing opportunity were the hospital ED (45% and subspecialty clinics (37%. This study demonstrates that, even in a high prevalence institution with HIV counseling, testing, and referral service, HIV screening is lacking at multiple points of care and patients are missing opportunities for earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Full Text Available Background Low income nations like Ethiopia, which are heavily affected by HIV pandemic, health system needs to provide comprehensive services for escalating numbers of HIV positive patients. While demand is increasing, resources are not expanding at desirable rates to meet these demands. This leads to the risk of running poor quality antiretroviral therapy in resource limited health facilities. However, there is paucity of research based evidences on the quality of health services in the country in general, and on anti retroviral therapy in particular. Objective To assess quality of care at antiretroviral therapy clinic in Shashamanne Referral Hospital. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted in Shashamanne Referral hospital from May 30 to June 30,2017.The study population were selected people living with HIV, antiretroviral therapy clinics and health care workers in antiretroviral therapy clinics during the study period. Stratified sampling method was used to identify study population. Interviewer administered questionnaire was employed among 204 patients to assess their satisfaction. Medical records review check list was used to get vital information from documents of 354 patients. Interview guide was also used to assess providers’ view on services. Data were entered by using SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate techniques. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University College of Public Health and Medical Sciences. Results Resources required for implementation of antiretroviral therapy wee available as per recommendation by the national Guideline. However, scarcity of some OIs and ARV drugs and absence of a few laboratory services seen in the hospital. HIV/AIDS care given in line with national guidelines but study revealed that only 42.7% of clients eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy actually taken it. Average mean satisfaction score of patients was 2.51 and significant
Tate, David J; Desomer, Lobke; Awadie, Halim; Goodrick, Kathleen; Hourigan, Luke; Singh, Rajvinder; Williams, Stephen J; Bourke, Michael J
EMR of sessile periappendiceal laterally spreading lesions (PA-LSLs) is technically demanding because of poor endoscopic access to the appendiceal lumen and the thin colonic wall at the base of the cecum. We aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of EMR for PA-LSLs. Consecutive LSLs ≥20 mm and PA-LSLs ≥10 mm detected at 3 academic endoscopy centers from September 2008 until January 2017 were eligible. Prospective patient, procedural, and lesion data were collected. PA-LSLs were compared with LSLs in other colonic locations. Thirty-eight PA-LSLs were compared with 1721 LSLs. Referral for surgery without an attempt at EMR was more likely with PA-LSLs (28.9% vs 5.1%, P < .001), and those that involved a greater percentage of the appendiceal orifice (AO) were less likely to be attempted (P = .038). Most PA-LSLs (10/11) were not attempted because of deep extension into the appendiceal lumen; 2 of 11 of these surgical specimens contained invasive cancer. Once attempted, complete clearance of visible adenoma (92.6% PA-LSLs vs 97.6% LSLs, P = .14), adverse events, and rates of adenoma recurrence did not vary significantly between PA-LSLs and LSLs. All 7 patients with prior appendicectomy achieved complete adenoma clearance. There were no cases of post-EMR appendicitis. Twenty of 22 PA-LSLs (91%) eligible for surveillance avoided surgery to longest follow-up. EMR is a safe, effective, and durable treatment for PA-LSLs when specific criteria are fulfilled. If the distal margin of the PA-LSL within the AO cannot be visualized or if more than 50% of the circumference of the orifice is involved, surgery should be considered. (Clinical trial registration number: NTC01368289.). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perinatal mortality is an index of obstetric care. Twin pregnancy is a high-risk pregnancy since most often the foetus in born prematurely or retarded physically; it may turn out to be a dreaded event, especially in rare instances of simultaneous death of twins or death of one twin in mid trimester thereby worsening the prognosis of the surviving twin. The aim of the study is to study the perinatal mortality and morbidity of twin gestation and factors affecting the same in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study. 100 successive cases of multiple pregnancy beyond 28 weeks of gestation admitted during the study period were followed from the antenatal period upon their admission to the antenatal ward and the labour room. 100 cases of singleton pregnancies during the same period taken as control. Detailed obstetric history, family history of twins, intake of ovulation inducing agents, time of diagnosis of twin pregnancy confirmed by USS examination were noted. Maternal antenatal complications like anaemia, hypertension, jaundice, etc. noted. The mode of onset of labour, presentation of foetus noted and if possible confirmed by USS, routine and special investigation like PIH profile, FBS, PPBS. Doppler USS done wherever necessary. Study Setting and Design- It is a prospective observational study of 100 consecutive twin gestations of gestational age 28 weeks and above at a tertiary care hospital attached to Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, for a period of 6 months. Perinatal outcome including perinatal morbidity and mortality in relation to gestational age, mode of delivery, chorionicity, birth weight of the baby and NICU admission were analysed. RESULTS Data collected was analysed with descriptive statistics like percentage, proportion, rates, ratio and chi-square test. CONCLUSION In spite of so many advances in Obstetrics and Neonatology, the perinatal mortality and morbidity in twin
Schneider, Antonius; Hilbert, Bernadett; Hörlein, Elisabeth; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Linde, Klaus
In their everyday practice, primary-care physicians are often asked to refer patients to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care. Such referrals are problematic, and one might suspect that patients who make such requests are more likely to have mental comorbidities predisposing them toward higher utilization of health-care services. In a cross-sectional study, 307 patients of 13 primary-care practices who requested referral to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care were given a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) containing questions that related to depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and somatoform disorder (independent variables). Further information was obtained about these patients' primary-care contacts, referrals, and days taken off from work with a medical excuse over the course of one year (dependent variables). A regression model was used to compare these patients with 977 other primary-care patients. The groups of patients who did and did not request specialist referral without a primary-care appointment did not differ to any statistically significant extent with respect to mental comorbidity. In the overall group, somatoform disorder was found to be associated with a high rate of primary-care contacts (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-4.3). High rates of referral were strongly correlated (percentage of variance explained, R²) with depression (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0; R² = 35.3%), anxiety (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.8-9.6; R² = 34.5%), panic disorder (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.1-16.4; R² = 34.3%), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0; R² = 34.6%). Taking a long time off from work with a medical excuse was correlated with depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), anxiety (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Mental comorbidity contributes to the increased utilization of health-care services. This should be borne in mind whenever a patient requests many referrals to
..., many in the mental health and behavioral health communities as well as long- term and [[Page 21312...; clinical support and information services related to patient care (but not separate research or marketing...
Saharman, Y.R. (Yulia Rosa); Karuniawati, A. (Anis); Sedono, R. (Rudyanto); Aditianingsih, D. (Dita); Sudarmono, P. (Pratiwi); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); Klaassen, C.H.W. (Corné H.W.); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte)
textabstractBackground: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex have emerged worldwide, but the epidemiology in Indonesian hospitals has not been studied. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed on the intensive care units (ICUs) of the national referral
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem that can cause a number of serious complications. Foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among diabetics. The present study was undertaken in the diabetes outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital to assess the practices regarding foot care in diabetes, find out the determinants of foot ulcer in diabetics, and offer suggestions to improve care. After informed consent, a total of 124 diabetics were interviewed to collect all relevant information. The diabetic foot care practice responses were converted into scores and for the sake of analysis were inferred as poor (0–5, fair (6-7, and good (>7 practices. Of the study population, 68.5% (85/124 consisted of men. The disease was diagnosed within the last 5 years for 66% (81/124 of the study participants. Of the study subjects, 83% (103/124 were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs, 15.3% (19 on insulin, and 2 on diet control only. Among them about 18.5% had a history of foot ulcer. 37.9% reported using special slippers, 12% diabetics used slippers indoors, and 66.9% used slippers while using toilet. Of the study subjects, 67.8% said that feet should be inspected daily. 27.4% said they regularly applied oil/moisturizer on their feet. There is a need on part of the primary or secondary physician and an active participation of the patient to receive education about foot care as well as awareness regarding risk factors, recognition, clinical evaluation, and thus prevention of the complications of diabetes.
Alvarez, Natalia; Alvira, Reyes Delgado; Ruiz, Yurema Gonzalez; Atuan, Rafael Fernandez; Hinojosa, Alexander Siles; Heras, Miguel Angel Rihuete; Roldan, Marisa Justa; Romero, Jesus Gracia
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common ailments in children. Evidence-based guidelines recommend conservative treatment in children with VUR, followed by endoscopic surgery in those with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this fact, the management of VUR is still controversial. Our objective is to evaluate the conservative strategy in children with primary VUR in terms of renal function and scarring, and identify factors associated with poor prognosis in those children. A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary center in children with primary VUR under conservative strategy treatment from 1989 to 2015. Data extracted included age of presentation, family and prenatal backgrounds, radiographic evaluation including ultrasound (US), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Two-hundred and five patients were diagnosed and followed a conservative therapy scheme (49.8% males, 50.2% females) after febrile UTI (73.17%) or prenatal diagnosis (26.83%). VCUG showed 53.20% of low-moderate VUR grade, 46.80% high VUR grade. Renal damage was present at diagnosis in 40.89%. Mean follow-up reakthrough recurrent febrile UTIs and underwent surgery. Conservative therapy was followed in 189 patients. Renal scarring or decreased kidney function were shown in 15.12% respectively. Renal damage was identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis (p-value Conservative strategy is a feasible treatment for primary VUR in children. The majority of cases could be managed conservatively with good outcomes after long-term follow-up. Decreased renal function is more frequent in patients with high-grade VUR. Renal damage at diagnosis increases the risk for surgical treatment.
Matta, Stephanie; Chammas, Elie; Alraies, Chadi; Abchee, Antoine; AlJaroudi, Wael
Sedentary lifestyle has become prevalent in our community. Recent data showed controversy on the effect of regular exercise on left ventricular compliance and myocardial relaxation. We sought to assess whether physical inactivity is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in or community, after adjustment for several covariates. Consecutive outpatients presenting to the echocardiography laboratory between July 2013 and June 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Clinical variables were collected prospectively at enrollment. Patients were considered physically active if they exercised regularly ≥3× a week, ≥30 minutes each time. The primary endpoint was presence of diastolic dysfunction. The final cohort included 1356 patients (mean age [SD] 52.9 [17.4] years, 51.3% female). Compared with physically active patients, the 1009 (74.4%) physically inactive patients were older, more often female, and had more comorbidities and worse diastolic function (51.3% vs 38.3%; P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, physical inactivity was associated with 70% increased odds of having diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio: 1.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.18, P < 0.001). There was significant interaction between physical activity and left ventricular mass index (LVMI; P = 0.026). On multivariate analysis, patients who were physically inactive and had LVMI ≥ median had significantly higher odds of having diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio: 2.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.58-5.05, P < 0.001). In a large, prospectively enrolled cohort from a single tertiary center in the Middle East, physically inactive patients with increased LVMI had 2- to 3-fold increased odds of having diastolic dysfunction after multivariate adjustment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shweta Rajput1; Manish Kumar Singh2
"Background: Anaemia is a major health problem affecting about 50% of pregnant women and associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Objective: To know the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy and its determinants Method: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 pregnant women aged >16 years and and #8804; 45 years with sin-gleton pregnancy attending antenatal care clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Allahabad over a period of 1 year 8 months. ...
Vaishali D Phalke
Full Text Available BackgroundPrescription is a written order from physician to pharmacistwhich contains name of drug, its dose and its method ofdispensing and advice over consuming it. The frequency ofdrug prescription errors is high. Prescribing errorcontributes significantly towards adverse drug events. Thepresent study was undertaken to understand the currentprescription writing practices and to detect the commonerrors in them at a tertiary health care centre situated in arural area of Western Maharashtra, India.MethodA cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary levelhospital located at a rural area of Maharashtra state, Indiaduring October 2009-March 2010. 499 prescriptions comingto medical store during period of one month wereconsidered for data analysis. Important informationregarding the patient, doctor, drug and the generaldescription of the prescription were obtained.ResultsAll the prescriptions were on the hospital pad. A significantnumber of the prescriptions (n=88, 17.6% were written inillegible handwriting and not easily readable. The name, ageand sex of the patient were mentioned is majority of theprescriptions. All the prescriptions (100% failed todemonstrate the presence of address, height and weight ofthe patient. Only the brand name of the drugs wasmentioned in all the prescriptions with none of them havingthe generic name. The strength, quantity and route ofadministration of the drug were found on 73.1%, 65.3% and75.2% prescriptions.ConclusionThere are widespread errors in prescription writing by thedoctors. Educational intervention programs and use ofcomputer can substantially contribute in the lowering ofsuch errors. A short course on prescription writing beforethe medical student enters the clinical field and strictmonitoring by the administrative authorities may also helpalleviate the problem.Word count: 2980Tables: 2
Full Text Available Wissam K Kabbara, George T Nawas, Wijdan H RamadanDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Background: Imipenem/cilastatin is an antibacterial agent of the carbapenem class of β-lactams that is known to have an extremely wide spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, aerobic, anaerobic, and even multidrug-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriate use of imipenem/cilastatin in a local tertiary care hospital. The study assessed the indication both empirically and after the culture results were available, the dose and dose adjustment in renal failure, as well as the incidence of seizure in hospitalized patients receiving imipenem/cilastatin. Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital over a 3-month period. The treatment of 100 patients with imipenem/cilastatin was evaluated both empirically and after culture results were available. Analysis of the appropriateness of imipenem/cilastatin indication, dose, and monitoring of seizure frequency was based on the package insert, updated published guidelines, and clinical judgment. Results: Patients from internal medicine and intensive care units comprised approximately 50% of the population in the study. The patients received imipenem/cilastatin mainly for urinary tract infections (27% or for sepsis of an unknown focus (22%. The use of imipenem/cilastatin empirically was appropriate in 97.2% (n=69/71 of the cases, and its use postculture in 86% of the cases. There were 29% of the patients who were not started on imipenem/cilastatin empirically. Four patients out of the 29 patients (13.8% who were not started on imipenem/cilastatin empirically inappropriately received imipenem/cilastatin post-culture results. Thirty-three patients (33% were not dosed appropriately, 30 of whom had renal impairment and creatinine clearance fluctuations. Only one patient developed a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Poisoning with various substances is an important cause of death and disability worldwide . The types of poisons that are encountered in the emergency medicine departments encompass a wide range of substances . Apparently , geographic location , socio - demographic factors , ease of availability of poisons and many other cryptic factors contribute to the wide spectrum of substances that cause poisoning . Pesticides , drugs and chemicals are reported to be the most commo nly used poisons in India . Management of poisoning is quite challenging for the health care professionals globally . Factors such as the uncertainty in the identification of allegedly consumed poison , varied clinical features and the need for timely access to specific information for treatment , complicates poisoning management . This study was therefore conducted to explore the clinical features , management and outcomes of poisoning cases reporting to a tertiary care centre in south India . OBJECTIVE : To ident ify the spectrum of poisons and evaluate their clinical manifestations , medical management and clinical outcomes . METHODOLOGY : All cases of poisoning that were reported at a tertiary care hospital in South India for a period of 18 months from January 1 , 20 13 to June 30 , 2014 were included in this study . A data abstraction sheet was designed to document demographic details ( age and gender , poison consumed , duration of stay in the hospital , clinical features , treatment administered , need for life support and patient outcomes . RESULTS : A total of 145 poisoning cases were reported during the study period . Among them , 58 . 5% were males and 41 . 3% were females . Majority of victims were in the age group of 21 - 30 years . Intentional poisoning was observed in 86 . 2% , whereas the rest were accidental poisonings . Organophosphorus ( OP poisoning was the most common poisoning encountered in this study . It accounted for 25 . 5% of the total
Mallett, Ross; Bakker, Edward; Burton, Maria
The aim of the present study was to establish if physiotherapy self-referral (SR) is viable, cost effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting. In an urban National Health Service (NHS) primary care physiotherapy service, waiting times, attendance rates and treatment ratios (thus, episode-of-care costs) were deemed unsustainable. The introduction of 'Any Qualified Provider' is imminent and will drive NHS physiotherapy services to compete directly with private counterparts. Current literature, healthcare policy and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy strongly advocate SR to promote value for money and improve the patient experience. A repeated measure prospective cohort study introduced an SR pathway parallel to existing general practice (GP) referrals and compared costs, attendance and data relating to the patient experience across groups. SR referral groups were found to have a higher proportion of female patients presenting with acute conditions. Cost minimization analysis indicated an average 32.3% reduction in episode-of-care cost with an SR-initiated intervention. An estimated cost minimization of between £84,387.80 and £124,472.06 was calculated if SR were to be expanded service-wide. SR referral reduced waiting times and improved patient satisfaction relating to waiting times and communication compared with traditional pathways. The results of the present study showed that the introduction of the described SR pathway was feasible, cost-effective and offered comparable care. Certain aspects of the SR patient experience compared more favourably than those studied in traditional GP referral routes. They also added to an existing body of evidence supporting SR with a variety of administrative processes in various socioeconomic settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Johnson, Medina; Howell, Annie; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Feder, Gene
Background Women experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are more likely to be in touch with health services than any other agency, yet doctors and nurses rarely ask about abuse, often failing to identify signs of DVA in their patients. Aim To understand women’s experience of disclosure of DVA in primary care settings and subsequent referral to a DVA advocate in the context of a DVA training and support programme for primary care clinicians: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS). Design and setting A service-user collaborative study using a qualitative study design. Recruitment was from across IRIS trial settings in Bristol and Hackney, London. Method Twelve women who had been referred to one of two specialist DVA advocates (based at specialist DVA agencies) were recruited by a GP taking part in IRIS. Women were interviewed by a survivor of DVA and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was thematic using constant comparison. Results GPs and nurses can play an important role in identifying women experiencing DVA and referring them to DVA specialist agencies. GPs may also have an important role to play in helping women maintain any changes they make as a result of referral to an advocate, by asking about DVA in subsequent consultations. Conclusion A short time interval between a primary care referral and initial contact with an advocate was valued by some women. For the initial contact with an advocate to happen as soon as possible after a primary care referral has been made, a close working relationship between primary care and the third sector needs to be cultivated. PMID:24567654
Sachin C. Deorukhkar
Full Text Available Health care associated infections (HCAIs add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient’s underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections. Three commonly encountered medical device-associated infections (MDAI, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, intravascular catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, were targeted. The overall rate of MDAI in our hospital was 2.1 per 1000 device days. The rate of Candida related CA-UTI and CR-BSI was noted as 1.0 and 0.3, respectively. Untiring efforts taken by team members of Hospital Acquired Infection Control Committee along with maintenance of meticulous hygiene of the hospital and wards may explain the low MDAI rates in our institute. The present surveillance helped us for systematic generation of institutional data regarding MDAI with special reference to role of Candida spp.
Eleje, George U; Onwusulu, Daniel N; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka O; Afiadigwe, Evaristus A; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ikechebelu, Joseph I; Ugboaja, Joseph O; Okwuosa, Ayodele O
To determine women's perceptions and expectations of focused prenatal care visits. The present questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women in their third trimester attending two tertiary health centers in southern Nigeria between January and March 2012. Obstetric data, histories, and information on preferences for prenatal visits were obtained using questionnaires. A total of 353 questionnaires were appropriately completed. Among 277 participants who stated a preference for the number of prenatal care visits, 241 (87.0%) reported a preference of more than four. Among 203 parous women, 132 (65.0%) had no previous negative obstetric experience. Only previous stillbirth (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-6.77; P = 0.039) among multiparous women, and HIV/AIDS (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06-1.17; P = 0.048) among all women were significantly associated with a preference for more prenatal visits. Previous negative obstetric experiences did not generally affect preference for prenatal visits. However, pregnant women expressed dissatisfaction with a reduced number of visits. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sadaf, N.; Haq, G.; Din, S.S.U.
Objective: To determine maternal and foetal outcome in patients of Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzyme and Low Platelet Cont syndrome. Methods: The descriptive case series was conducted at the Gynae Unit II of Civil Hospital, Karachi, over a period of 12 months in two episodes; first from December 28, 2006, to February 28, 2007, and then from September 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008. It comprised 40 consecutive women with pre-ecampsia and eclampsia along with altered platelet count who met the syndrome criteria. A pre-designed proforma was administered for data collection. Maternal and foetal outcomes were noted. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Result: Among the 40 mothers, cesarean section was the most common outcome (n=24; 60%). Pulmonary oedema was found in 2 (5%) cases, acute renal failure in 10 (25%), disseminated intravascular coagulation in 6 (15%), and abruptio placenta in 5 (12.5%). Intrauterine growth restriction as a foetal outcome was observed in 18 (45%) cases. Pre-term birth was the result in 20 (50%) cases, and perinatal mortality was high (n=23; 57.5%). Conclusion: Management and delivery of HELLP syndrome patients should be performed at tertiary care centres, where highly trained obstetrician, neonatal intensive care unit personnel and Multi-disciplinary facilities are available. Correct diagnosis and timely intervention can decrease the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND A comprehensive analysis of the aetiology and clinical profile of isolated infranuclear abducens nerve palsy in a tertiary eye care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based retrospective case series analysis of 90 isolated infranuclear neurogenic abducens nerve palsies. Documentation included age, gender, presenting complaints, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, mode of onset, progression of the disease, treatment given and recovery rate was evaluated. Detailed ophthalmic evaluation of both eyes including anterior segment examination, extraocular movements, diplopia charting and Hess charting. Thorough central nervous system examination and systemic examination was done. Inclusion Criteria- All isolated infranuclear neurogenic lesions of abducens nerve palsy. Exclusion Criteria- Conditions like supranuclear lesions, myasthenia, orbital inflammation and myopathies, false localising sign of abducens nerve palsy were excluded by appropriate testing and investigations. RESULTS Total cases were 90 patients. Mean age of presentation was between 3rd to 5th decades with male preponderance. Commonest presenting symptom was diplopia (71.1%, commonest cause being idiopathic neuritis (48%, diabetes mellitus (20%, hypertension (15%, trauma (10% and others (7%. CONCLUSION In our study, isolated infranuclear abducens nerve palsy with nonspecific aetiology predominantly affecting males of 3 rd to 5 th decade with variable recovery rates were seen. Hence, careful clinical examination in all cases is essential with close follow up on a long-time basis.
Full Text Available Introduction: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen worldwide especially in patients with indwelling catheters and cystic fibrosis. Bcc is a common contaminant of pharmaceutical products. We describe an outbreak of Bcc bacteraemia amongst children admitted in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU and paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, in Western India. Materials and Methods: Blood culture samples from paediatric patients yielded growth of non-fermenting, oxidase positive, motile, Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB (76/909 over a period of 8 months. Based on conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, these isolates were provisionally identified as Bcc. The increased, repeated and continued isolation of Bcc alerted the possibility of an outbreak confined to PICU and paediatric ward. Active surveillance was undertaken to trace the source and contain the outbreak. Isolates were subjected to recA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Expanded multilocus sequence typing (EMLST. Results: Surveillance revealed the presence of Bcc on the upper surface of rubber stopper of sealed multidose amikacin vials. Isolates from blood culture and rubber stoppers were confirmed as Bcc by recA PCR. EMLST revealed that these isolates shared an identical novel sequence type 824 proving clonality. Timely interventions instituted led to control of the outbreak. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of identification and molecular characterization of Bcc to establish its role in infection and outbreak.
Mali, Swapna; Dash, Lona; Gautam, Vikas; Shastri, Jayanthi; Kumar, Sunil
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen worldwide especially in patients with indwelling catheters and cystic fibrosis. Bcc is a common contaminant of pharmaceutical products. We describe an outbreak of Bcc bacteraemia amongst children admitted in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, in Western India. Blood culture samples from paediatric patients yielded growth of non-fermenting, oxidase positive, motile, Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) (76/909) over a period of 8 months. Based on conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, these isolates were provisionally identified as Bcc. The increased, repeated and continued isolation of Bcc alerted the possibility of an outbreak confined to PICU and paediatric ward. Active surveillance was undertaken to trace the source and contain the outbreak. Isolates were subjected to recA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Expanded multilocus sequence typing (EMLST). Surveillance revealed the presence of Bcc on the upper surface of rubber stopper of sealed multidose amikacin vials. Isolates from blood culture and rubber stoppers were confirmed as Bcc by recA PCR. EMLST revealed that these isolates shared an identical novel sequence type 824 proving clonality. Timely interventions instituted led to control of the outbreak. This study highlights the importance of identification and molecular characterization of Bcc to establish its role in infection and outbreak.
Moro, Adriana; Maurici, Alice; do Valle, Juliana Barros; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Kleinubing, Harry
To determine the prevalence and analyze the profile of patients with pressure sores, focusing on risk factors, the patients' clinical characteristics at a tertiary care center, as well as stage and location of the lesions on the body. This was a cross sectional not controlled observational study, all patients admitted from April to June of 2005 were observed daily to identify all cases of pressure sores. The affected patients were evaluated by a standard questionnaire and the Scale of Braden was applied to define the risk of developing ulcers. Of the 690 patients admitted during the referred period, a prevalence of 5.9% of patients with lesions was observed, equivalent to 41 patients 63.9% of which were elderly and the average length of stay was 18 days. In the sample studied 41.5% of patients were found in the internal medicine section and the intensive care unit, ICU. The most common location for sores was the sacral area, corresponding to 73.1% of the patients, and stage II was the most frequent, observed in 58.5% of those patients. According to the Braden scale, most patients, 80.4%, had a high risk of developing pressure ulcers, compared to 9.7% of patients with moderate risk and 7.4% with low risk. The affected patients were at high risk of developing pressure sores. Prevalence of these lesions and the clinical and demographic profile of the affected patients are in accordance with the data in literature.
Kumar, Sushil; Chakravarty, A
The modern system of medicine has evolved into a complex, sophisticated and expensive treatment modality in terms of cost of medicines and consumables. In any hospital, approximately 33% of total annual budget is spent on buying materials and supplies including medicines. ABC (Always, Better Control)-VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) analysis of medical stores of a large teaching, tertiary care hospital of the Armed Forces was carried out to identify the categories of drugs needing focused managerial control. Annual consumption and expenditure data of expendable medical stores for one year was extracted from the drug expense book, followed by classification on its annual usage value. Subsequently, the factor of criticality was applied to arrive at a decision matrix for understanding the need for selective managerial control. The study revealed that out of 1536 items considered for the study, 6.77% (104), 19.27% (296) and 73.95% (1136) items were found to be A, B and C category items respectively. VED analysis revealed that vital items (V) accounted for 13.14% (201), essential items (E) for 56.37% (866) and desirable accounted for 30.49% items (469). ABC-VED matrix analysis of the inventory reveals that only 322 (21%) items out of an inventory of 1536 drugs belonging to category I will require maximum attention. Scientific inventory management tools need to be applied routinely for efficient management of medical stores, as it contributes to judicious use of limited resources and resultant improvement in patient care.
Full Text Available Background: A hospital is an establishment where the persons suffering with the variety of communicable and non communicable diseases are visiting to take medical care facilities. Hospitals and other healthcare establishments in India produce a significant quantity of waste, posing serious problems for its disposal, an issue that has received scant attention. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge regarding biomedical waste and its management among hospital personnel. Material and Methods: The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care hospital of Gwalior in year 2008. Medical, para-medical and non-medical personnel working at their current position for at least 6 months were included as study participants. Self made scoring system was used to categorize the participants as having Good, Average and Poor knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Percentage and Proportion were applied to interpret the result. Results: The score was highest for medical and least for non-medical staff. Conclusion: The present study concludes that regular training programs should be organized about the guidelines and rules of biomedical waste management at all level.
Noman, F.; Usmani, B.; Imtiaz, A.; Mahmood, F.
Objective: To find out common risk factors in patients from whose samples Multi-Drug Resistant pathogens were isolated. Study Design Prospective observational study. Setting: Microbiology department of Liaquat National Hospital Karachi, a 750-bedded tertiary care Hospital. Material and Method All multi-drug resistant pathogens (resistant to representative antibiotics of at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents including carbapenems) isolated from samples like blood, bronchial wash, sputum, pus, etc, received from different units of hospital at Microbiology laboratory Liaquat National Hospital from December 2006 through February 2007 were included in this study. Patient information was collected from their personal file and through concerned treating physicians. Results and Conclusion A total of 228 MDR pathogens were isolated from different samples in 3 months, these included: Acinetobacter spp 184 (81 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44 (19%). Majority were from lower respiratory tract specimen, followed by blood. Most (86%) patients were in intensive care unit or high dependency unit. Mechanical ventilation was predominant finding in patients with Acinetobacter spp while surgical procedures were more frequently associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only 3% of Acinetobacter spp and 7 % of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated during first 48 hours of hospital stay. (author)
Uttam Kumar Sarkar
Full Text Available Background & Objectives:Congenital heart diseases are treatable either by catheter based intervention or open heart surgery according to their quality. In our study we aim to analyze congenital heart disease echocardiographically into simple versus complex heart disease at a tertiary care centre with a public health planning and policy making perspective.Materials & Methods:This hospital based study was done on 1010 patients, both from in-patient and out-patient, who were clinically suspected to have heart disease from January 2015 to September 2016 at Dr.B.C.Roy P.G.I.P.S. Kolkata and echocardiographically categorized.Results:A VSD was the commonest acyanotic heart disease (17. 08%.Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF was commonest complex cyanotic heart disease (10.64%, VSD +ASD was the commonest combined lesion (8.12%. Simple heart lesions (63.1% were commoner than complex (36.9% congenital heart diseases.Conclusion:Health policy makers should give due care to manage Congenital Heart Disease either catheter based or surgically keeping in mind about 63.1% of the lesions are simple cardiac lesions and 36.9% lesions are complex cardiac lesion where complex surgery is required.
Full Text Available Background: Hearing impairment has a devastating, detrimental and an invariably adverse impact on the development of the newborns and the psychological well-being of their families. It also adversely affects development of the central auditory nervous system, and can affect speech perception that interferes with growth in social, emotional, behavioural and cognitive spheres, academic achievement, vocational options, employment opportunities and economic selfsufficiency. Objectives: To find out incidence of hearing impairment in high risk neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, prevalence of hearing impairment with and without high risk factors in newborns and to correlate the risk factors with hearing impairment. Material and Methods: A cohort study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Surat, Gujarat, India consisting of 190 normal newborns and 163 newborns with high risk factors. These newborns underwent a systematized Transient Otoacoustic Emissions Examination (TOAE and Brain Stem Evoked Audiometry (BERA examination according to designed protocol and were followed up with repeated ear examinations. Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: The incidence of hearing impairment in NICU, newborns were 3.6% and the prevalence of hearing impairment was 13%. Hearing impairment was statistically significant in newborns with high risk factors such as low birth weight, preterms 5 days when compared to normal newborns. Conclusion: Presence of risk factors in newborns predisposes them to hearing impairment more as compared to normal newborns and the more the number of risk factors they are exposed to, the more will be the chances of hearing impairment.
van der Heijden, Lizz; van der Geest, Ingrid C M; Schreuder, H W Bart; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Dijkstra, P D Sander
The rate of recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone is decreased by use of adjuvant treatments such as phenol, liquid nitrogen, or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) during curettage. We assessed recurrence and complication rates and functional outcome after curettage with use of phenol and PMMA, liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and liquid nitrogen and bone grafts. We retrospectively compared the relative effectiveness of treatment of giant cell tumors of bone at two tertiary centers with a regional function from 1990 to 2010. The 132 (of 201) patients who met the inclusion criteria had a mean age of thirty-three years (range, eleven to sixty-nine years). Treatment assignment depended purely on the center, with primary treatment consisting of curettage with use of phenol and PMMA (n = 82) at one center and with use of either liquid nitrogen and PMMA (n = 26) or liquid nitrogen and bone grafts (n = 24) at the other center. Recurrence and complication rates were determined, and functional outcome was assessed on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score. The mean duration of follow-up was eight years (range, two to twenty-two years). Recurrence rates were comparable among the groups (28% for phenol and PMMA, 31% for liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and 38% for liquid nitrogen and bone grafts; p = 0.52). Soft-tissue extension increased the recurrence risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 4.0, p = 0.024). The complication rate was 33% after use of liquid nitrogen and bone grafts, 27% after liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and 11% after phenol and PMMA (p = 0.019); complications included osteoarthritis, infection, postoperative fracture, nonunion, transient nerve palsy, and PMMA leakage. The complication risk was increased by the presence of a pathologic fracture (HR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.5, p = 0.001) and use of liquid nitrogen (HR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5 to 10, p = 0.006 for liquid nitrogen and bone grafts; HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1 to 8.6, p = 0
Maaløe, Nanna; Housseine, Natasha; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
-reported general health. Methods: A total of 443 individuals were randomized to the intervention (n = 301) or the control group (n = 142) and responded to a questionnaire measuring health status at baseline. Participants were followed in registries measuring RTW and health care utilization. Relative risk (RR...
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract. Background and Objective:The Nigeria Health System operates three levels of health care, which correspond to the tiers of government and .... access to it mainly as a result of poor administration.
Maulik, P. K.; Devarapalli, S.; Kallakuri, S.; Praveen, D.; Jha, V.; Patel, A.
Background. India has few mental health professionals to treat the large number of people suffering from mental disorders. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged due to lack of trained health workers. Ways to improve care could be by training village health workers in basic mental health care, and by using innovative methods of service delivery. The ongoing Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment Mental Health Programme will assess the acceptability, feasibility and prelimina...
Merlin Shalini Ruth
Full Text Available Context: Patients are fasting for inappropriately long duration preoperatively despite the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA recommendations for liberal fasting guidelines. There is paucity of data on preoperative fasting duration in the day care patient population from India; hence, we studied the preoperative fasting status in the day care patient population. Aims: This study aims to study the preoperative fasting duration for solids and clear fluids and to compare the fasting times in the patients posted for the morning slot and the afternoon slot. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study at a tertiary care, teaching institute. Subjects and Methods: All Consenting adults, ASA grade 1 or 2, of either gender, presenting for day care surgery were included in the study. Data collected included the demographic profile, duration of fasting for solids, and clear fluids. The patients rated their hunger and thirst on a ten point numeric rating scale. We compared the fasting durations for solids and clear fluids in the patients presenting for the morning slot and afternoon slot for surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test was used for analysis of continuous data with normal distribution and Mann–Whitney U-test for data with nonnormal distribution. Chi-square test was performed for categorical variables. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: The mean duration of preoperative fasting for solids was 12.58 ± 2.70 h and for clear fluids was 9.02 ± 3.73 h. The mean fasting duration for solids in the patients presenting for the afternoon slot was significantly longer (P < 0.0001 than those presenting for the morning slot. The mean preoperative fasting duration for clear fluids was comparable among these patient groups (P = 0.0741. Conclusions: Patients are following inappropriately prolonged fasting routines, and there is a need to enforce liberal preoperative fasting guidelines
Abuqamar, Maram; Arabiat, Diana H; Holmes, Sandra
This study aims to identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction within three domains: environment, child's care provided and communication. In addition, it aims to identify whether parent's socio-demographics and child's clinical variables predict parents' perceived satisfaction. In this study, a total of 123 parents whose child received care in the PICU of a tertiary children's hospital in Amman completed the Arabic version of the parents satisfaction survey (PSS). A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to collect data. All data were collected between June and October of 2013. Central tendency measures and percentages of replies for each domain revealed that at least 7 items were rated poorly satisfied. More than half of the parents were not satisfied with the noise level of the PICU, the time nurses spent at the child's bedside, as well as the way the healthcare team prepare them for the child's admission. Almost 90% of the parents believed that the nurses ignored their child's needs by not listening to parents and by responding slowly to child's needs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that that the number of hospital admissions, health insurance and the severity of illness was the main predictor of parents' satisfaction. In conclusion, the availability of health care professionals, the support and the information they share with the child's parents are all significant to parent's satisfaction and hence to better quality of care. Targeting the domains of low satisfaction reported by the parents could increase parent's satisfaction and achieve quality improvement required for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strassle, Paula D; Williams, Felicia N; Napravnik, Sonia; van Duin, David; Weber, David J; Charles, Anthony; Cairns, Bruce A; Jones, Samuel W
Classic determinants of burn mortality are age, burn size, and the presence of inhalation injury. Our objective was to describe temporal trends in patient and burn characteristics, inpatient mortality, and the relationship between these characteristics and inpatient mortality over time. All patients aged 18 years or older and admitted with burn injury, including inhalation injury only, between 2004 and 2013 were included. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relationship between admit year and inpatient mortality. A total of 5540 patients were admitted between 2004 and 2013. Significant differences in sex, race/ethnicity, burn mechanisms, TBSA, inhalation injury, and inpatient mortality were observed across calendar years. Patients admitted between 2011 and 2013 were more likely to be women, non-Hispanic Caucasian, with smaller burn size, and less likely to have an inhalation injury, in comparison with patients admitted from 2004 to 2010. After controlling for patient demographics, burn mechanisms, and differential lengths of stay, no calendar year trends in inpatient mortality were detected. However, a significant decrease in inpatient mortality was observed among patients with extensive burns (≥75% TBSA) in more recent calendar years. This large, tertiary care referral burn center has maintained low inpatient mortality rates among burn patients over the past 10 years. While observed decreases in mortality during this time are largely due to changes in patient and burn characteristics, survival among patients with extensive burns has improved.
Mustafa, Rozina; Hashmi, Haleema; Mustafa, Rubina
In Pakistan 90% of births are conducted by TBA's. In most cases, TBA's are unable to diagnose the complications and are often unable to take decisions on timely referral. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, nature and outcome of life threatening obstetrical conditions in referrals by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). This Observational, Descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2007, in the obstetrical unit of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, a tertiary care community based hospital. The study included patients referred by TBA's who developed life threatening obstetric conditions (LTOCs). Total 64 patients were referred by TBA's. The prevalence was 7.8%. Out of them, 53 (82.8%) patients admitted with life threatening obstetric conditions. The near-miss morbidities and mortalities were 45 (84.9%) and 8 (15%) respectively. Maternal mortality to Near-miss morbidity ratio was 1:6. Obstructed labour caused near-miss morbidity in 32 (60.3%) patients with no mortality. Postpartum haemorrhage as life threatening condition developed in 16 (30.1%) patients with 10 (18.8%) near-miss morbidities and 6 (11.3%) mortalities. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 1 (1.88%) near-miss morbidity and 2 (3.76%) mortalities. The mortality index for puerperal sepsis is (66.6%) almost double of postpartum haemorrhage (37.5%). Mortality to near miss morbidity ratio is high. Misidentification and late referrals of complicated cases by TBA's were responsible for near-miss morbidities and mortalities.
Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul
Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community. This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016. In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby's as well as mother's lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities.
Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md.; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul
Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community. This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016. In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby’s as well as mother’s lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities. PMID:29707205
Amol Chandrakant Deshmukh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension, a common clinical problem is considered as an ‘iceberg disease’ because its unknown morbidity far exceeds the known morbidity. In terms of attributable deaths, it is one of the leading behavioural and physiological risk factors amounting to 13% of global deaths. Drug selection is based on efficacy in lowering BP (blood pressure and in reducing Cardiovascular (CV endpoints like stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. This study was carried out to evaluate the pattern, extent, rationality and frequency of the use of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the study is to analyse drug utilisation in the treatment of hypertension in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted during January 2014 to December 2015 in Medicine OPD (Outpatient Department in a tertiary care hospital. The sample size was selected as per the WHO recommendations on conducting Drug Utilisation Studies (DUS. Statistical Analysis- The collected data was numerically coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed by SPSS version 16. Settings and Design- Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS Out of 612 patients, 262 (42.81% were in the age group of 60 and above. Considering gender distribution, 328 (53.59% were males and 284 (46.41% were females. Of these, 274 (44.78% were prescribed monotherapy, 256 (41.83% were prescribed two-drug therapy, 72 (11.76% were prescribed three-drug therapy and 10 (1.63% were prescribed four-drug therapy. Among 274 (44.78% patients prescribed with monotherapy, 112 (40.87% were prescribed with CCB (calcium channel blocker, 76 (27.73% were given BB (B-blocker, 45 (16.42% were prescribed ACEI (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, 35 (12.77% were prescribed with ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker and 6 (2.18% were prescribed with Diuretics (D. Of the total antihypertensive drugs prescribed, 68.30% were prescribed by generic name
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Needlestick Injury (NSI is a major occupational health and safety issue among Healthcare Workers (HCWs. In India, incidence of NSI is high, but surveillance is poor with scarce authentic data. The aim of the study is to determine the occurrence of NSI, its associated factors and assessment of knowledge and practice of preventive measures and post exposure prophylaxis among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 515 HCWs who included doctors, house surgeons, final year medical students, nurses, student nurses and lab technicians of a government sector tertiary care hospital in Kerala. All HCWs of the institution present during the study time were included and only those unwilling to participate excluded. Ethical clearance and administrative permission was obtained along with informed consent from subjects after ensuring confidentiality. Content validated, structured questionnaire consisting of questions regarding demographic data, incidence and prevalence of needlestick injury, circumstances leading to it, response of subjects to NSI and knowledge of study subjects on post exposure prophylaxis was administered to the study subjects. The technique of data collection was self-reporting by the study subjects. Data collected was analysed using statistical software Epi Info 7. RESULTS Overall, 55.7% HCWs had sustained at least one NSI in this hospital, while 35% of them had a NSI during the current year. NSIs were sustained during blood withdrawal (34%, injections (20.5%, suturing (20.2% and cannula insertion (12%. Recapping the needle (26% was the most frequent cause followed by collision with others (24%, manipulation of needle in patient (23% and during/in transit to disposal (10%. Majority (84% did not report the incident, 8.4% underwent post exposure follow up, 82% of the HCWs were fully hepatitis B vaccinated, 44% had received training, 62% used gloves, 49
Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B
During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.
Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Sharif, Hasanat; Hamid, Mohammad; Samad, Khalid; Khan, Fazal Hameed
Fast-track cardiac surgery programs have been established as the standard of cardiac surgical care. Studies have shown that early extubation in elective cardiac surgery patients, including coronary and non-coronary open-heart surgery patients does not increase perioperative morbidity and mortality. The objective of this observational study was to determine the success and failure profile of fast track extubation (FTE) practice in adult open-heart surgical patients. The study was conducted at cardiac operating room and Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of a tertiary care hospital for a period of nine months, i.e., from Oct 2014 to June-2015. All on pump elective adult cardiac surgery patients including isolated CABG, isolated Valve replacements, combined procedures and aortic root replacements were enrolled in the study. Standardized anesthetic technique was adopted. Surgical and bypass techniques were tailored according to the procedure. Success of Fast track extubation was defined as extubation within 6 hours of arrival in CICU. A total of 290 patients were recruited. The average age of the patients was 56.3±10.5 years. There were 77.6% male and 22.4% female patients. Overall success rate was 51.9% and failure rate was 48.1%. The peri-operative renal insufficiency, cross clamp time and CICU stay (hours) were significantly lower in success group. Re-intubation rate was 0.74%. The perioperative parameters were significantly better in success group and the safety was also demonstrated in the patients who were fast tracked successfully. To implement the practice in its full capacity and benefit, a fast track protocol needs to be devised to standardize the current practices and to disseminate the strategy among junior anaesthesiologists, perfusionists and nursing staff.
Dadhwal, Vatsla; Sharma, Aparna; Khoiwal, Kavita; Deka, Dipika; Sarkar, Plaboni; Vanamail, P
There is conflicting data on the effect of HIV infection as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pregnancy outcome. The objectives of this study were to compare pregnancy outcomes in women with and without HIV infection, and to evaluate the effect of HAART on pregnancy in HIV-infected women. This is a prospective case record analysis of 212 HIV-infected women delivering between 2002 and 2015, in a tertiary health care center in India. The pregnancy outcome in HIV-infected women was compared to 238 HIV-uninfected controls. Women received ART for prevention of mother to child transmission as per protocol which varied during the period of study. Effect of use of ART on preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was analyzed. HIV-infected women were more likely to have PTB, IUGR, and anemia (9.4%, 9.9%, 5.2%) compared to uninfected women (7.6%, 5%, 3.8%), this did not reach statistical significance (P-value = >0.05). The incidence of PIH, diabetes mellitus and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was similar in both groups. Mean birth weight was significantly lower in neonates of HIV-infected women (2593.60±499g) than HIV-uninfected women (2919±459g) [P-value=0.001]. neonatal intensive care unit admissions were also significantly higher in infants born to HIV-infected women (P-value=0.002). HIV-infected women on ART had decreased incidence of PTB and IUGR. Good antenatal care and multidisciplinary team approach can optimize pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected women.
Full Text Available Aim. To determine the probable causative factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap in children. Methods. A 20-year database review of all children diagnosed with SJS/TEN/SJS-TEN overlap at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Results. 36 patients (M : F, 16 : 20 with the mean age of 9.2±4.0 years were identified. There were 20 cases of SJS, 4 cases of SJS-TEN overlap, and 12 cases of TEN. Drugs were the leading cause for the diseases (72.3%; antiepileptics were the most common culprits (36.1%. Cutaneous morphology at presentation was morbilliform rash (83.3%, blister (38.9%, targetoid lesions (25.0%, and purpuric macules (2.8%. Oral mucosa (97.2% and eye (83.3% were the 2 most common mucosal involvements. Majority of the cases (77.8% were treated with systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Treatment outcomes between those who received systemic therapy and those who received only supportive care were comparable. Skin and eye were the principal sites of short-term and long-term complications. Conclusions. SJS/TEN are not common but are serious diseases which lead to significant morbidities in children. Early withdrawal of suspicious causes and meticulous supportive care are very important. This study found that the systemic therapy was not superior to supportive care because the treatment outcomes for both groups were comparable.
Sudhir Chandra Joshi
Full Text Available Health care or biomedical waste, if not managed properly, can be of high risk to the hospital staff, the patients, the community, public health and the environment, especially in low and middle income settings where proper disposal norms are often not followed. Our aim was to explore perceptions of staff of an Indian rural tertiary care teaching hospital on hospital waste management.A qualitative study was conducted using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs, with different professional groups, cleaning staff, nurses, medical students, doctors and administrators. The FGD guide included the following topics: (i role of Health Care Waste Management (HCWM in prevention of health care associated infections, (ii awareness of and views about HCWM-related guidelines/legislation, (iii current HCWM practices, (iv perception and preparedness related to improvements of the current practices, and (v proper implementation of the available guidelines/legislation. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated to English (when conducted in Hindi and analysed using content analysis.Two themes were identified: Theme (A, 'Challenges in integration of HCWM in organizational practice,' with the categories (I Awareness and views about HCWM, (II Organizational practices regarding HCWM, and (III Challenges in Implementation of HCWM; and Theme (B, 'Interventions to improve HCWM,' with three categories, (I Educational and motivational interventions, (II Organizational culture change, and (III Policy-related interventions.A gap between knowledge and actual practice regarding HCWM was highlighted in the perception of the hospital staff. The participants suggested organizational changes, training and monitoring to address this. The information generated is relevant not merely to the microsystem studied but to other institutions in similar settings.
Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Bizuneh, Hailegiorgis Teklegiorgis; Assefa, Hilina Ketema; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie
The aims of the study were (1) to assess the level of patient satisfaction with nursing care and (2) to identify factors influencing patient satisfaction. A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 252 admitted patients in the medical, surgical and paediatric wards. Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, with a catchment population of 2.8 million. All patients admitted at least for 2 days and capable of independent communication were included. However, patients were excluded on any one of the following conditions: admitted for less than 2 days, cannot understand Amharic language, with critical illness or cognitive impairment that affects judgement, or inability to provide written informed consent. The mean age of the patients was 37.9 (SD=12.9) years, and half (50.4%) of them were male. Patient satisfaction with nursing care, measured by the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale, was the outcome variable. Using a mean split approach, patient satisfaction scores were dichotomised into 'satisfied' and 'unsatisfied'. 49.2% of patients were satisfied with nursing care. Educational status and history of admission were significant factors influencing patient satisfaction with nursing care. Patients who had high educational status were 80% less satisfied compared with those who had no formal education (p=0.01, OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7). Patients who had a history of admission were 2.2 times more satisfied compared with those who had no history of admission (p=0.02, OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.2). About half the admitted patients were satisfied with the nursing care. Satisfaction differed significantly by patients' educational attainment and history of admission. This study provided evidence on patient satisfaction with nursing care in Ethiopia. This information may be useful in comparative studies of patient satisfaction and in identifying characteristics that may explain or predict patient satisfaction. © Article author(s) (or
Full Text Available Background: Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the most common and devastating preventable complications of diabetes resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and the society. Aims & Objectives: The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetic Foot Wound Care among the patients suffering from Diabetic Foot and to correlate them with the socio-demographic parameters. Material & Methods: It was a Hospital based cross-sectional study involving clinically diagnosed adult (>18 years patients of Diabetic Foot visiting the Surgery and Medicine OPDs at Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College & Research Centre, Moradabad, India. Results: Significant association KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practices score was seen with age of the patient, education, addiction, family history of Diabetes Mellitus, prior receipt of information regarding Diabetic foot-care practices, compliance towards the treatment and the type of foot wear used. Conclusions: The results highlight areas especially Health education, use of safe footwear and life style adjustments, where efforts to improve knowledge and practice may contribute to the prevention of development of Foot ulcers and amputation.
Mohammed Al Nuhait
Full Text Available The term sickness presenteeism (SP has been described as the act of going to work despite having a state of health that may be regarded as poor enough to justify sick leave. SP has been observed to be prevalent among three-quarters of health care providers (HCPs. Working while sick not only puts patients at risk but also decreases productivity and increases the probability of medical errors. Moreover, SP has been identified as a risk factor for many negative health outcomes among the HCPs themselves, such as depression, burnout, and serious cardiac events. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for and prevalence of SP and perceptions of the impact of this practice on patient safety among HCPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 279 purposively selected healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health care professionals working at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs—King Abdulaziz Medical City (MNGHA-KAMC. While nearly all of the participants (91% believed that working while sick exposed patients to risk, the rate of SP during the past year was reported as 74%, and one fourth of respondents reported working while sick 3–4 times during the past year. More than half of the participants were not aware of the existence of a departmental policy regarding sick leave. The most common reasons reported for working while sick were not wanting to burden co-workers (71%, feelings of duty toward patients (67%, and avoiding an increased future workload caused by absence (59%. A lack of awareness regarding the existing rules and polices related to sick leave was reported by more than half of the participants. Several predisposing and enabling factors were reported as determinants influencing SP, e.g., observation of the practice of SP by peers and feelings of sympathy towards coworkers, including not wanting to overburden them, were reported to be determinants informing the decision of
Pandey, Anita; Ahuja, Sanjiv; Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ajay Kumar
Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management is of utmost importance as its improper management poses serious threat to health care workers, waste handlers, patients, care givers, community and finally the environment. Simultaneously, the health care providers should know the quantity of waste generated in their facility and try to reduce the waste generation in day-to-day work because lesser amount of BMW means a lesser burden on waste disposal work and cost saving. To have an overview of management of BMW in a tertiary care teaching hospital so that effective interventions and implementations can be carried out for better outcome. The observational study was carried out over a period of five months from January 2016 to May 2016 in Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut by the Infection Control Team (ICT). Assessment of knowledge was carried out by asking set of questions individually and practice regarding awareness of BMW Management among the Health Care Personnel (HCP) was carried out by direct observation in the workplace. Further, the total BMW generated from the present setup in kilogram per bed per day was calculated by dividing the mean waste generated per day by the number of occupied beds. Segregation of BMW was being done at the site of generation in almost all the areas of the hospital in color coded polythene bags as per the hospital protocol. The different types of waste being collected were infectious solid waste in red bag, soiled infectious waste in yellow bag and sharp waste in puncture proof container and blue bag. Though awareness (knowledge) about segregation of BMW was seen in 90% of the HCP, 30%-35% did not practice. Out of the total waste generated (57912 kg.), 8686.8 kg. (15%) was infectious waste. Average infectious waste generated was 0.341 Kg per bed per day. The transport, treatment and disposal of each collected waste were outsourced and carried out by 'Synergy' waste management Pvt. Ltd. The practice of BMW Management was lacking in 30
Thanveer, Fibin; Khunger, Niti
Context: A distressing pre-occupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance with a marked negative effect on the patient's life is the core symptom of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Aim: To screen the patients attending a dermatology clinic at a tertiary care centre for BDD using the BDD-dermatology version (DV) questionnaire. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study enrolled 245 consecutive patients from the dermatology outpatients clinic. Methods: The demographic details were collected and the DV of BDD screening questionnaire was administered. A 5-point Likert scale was used for objective scoring of the stated concern and patients who scored ≥3 were excluded from the study. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were statistically analysed. Differences between the groups were investigated by Chi-square analysis for categorical variables, and Fisher exact test wherever required. Results: A total of 177 patients completed the study, and of these, eight patients screened positive for BDD. The rate of BDD in patients presenting with cosmetic complaints was 7.5% and in those with general dermatology, complaints were 2.1%, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.156). Facial flaws (62.5%) were the most common concern followed by body asymmetry (25%). Conclusion: The rates of BDD found in this study are comparable but at a lower rate than that reported in literature data. PMID:27761090
Kulkarni Naveen S
Full Text Available Introduction: Pancytopenia refers to the combination of anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Causes may be due to bone marrow failure, bone marrow infiltration, ineffective haematopoiesis or peripheral pooling/ destruction. A bone marrow aspirate is usually required to establish the diagnosis. Aetiologies of pancytopenia vary from one geographical region to other. Aim: Study of pancytopenia in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north Karnataka. Methods: This study was conducted at SNMC and HSK, Bagalkot. This study was prospective, observational undertaken for 6-month period between July 2016-January 2017. History, physical examination, and primary blood investigations were done in all patients. Selected patients were evaluated with bone marrow examination. Materials: A total of 69 human subjects were enrolled. A thorough history, clinical examination and blood investigations were carried out. Results: Dimorphic anaemia is common than megaloblastic anaemia. Among those subjected for bone marrow megaloblastic anaemia was commoner than dual deficiency bone marrow. Other causes of pancytopenia were malaria, dengue, enteric fever, and less common causes included sepsis, MDS, TB, HIV, SLE. Conclusion: Nutritional anaemia is commonest cause for pancytopenia. This may be due to megaloblastic anaemia or deficiency of iron/vitamin B12/folate combined
Chudhary, M.K.; Younis, M.; Bukhari, M.H.
The World Health Organization cites tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Tobacco is the number one preventable cause of disability and death. Tobacco has many negative health effects which many of the smokers know them well. In Pakistan tobacco use is common in general public and the health professionals don't lack behind this habit. To study the smoking trends amongst young doctors of Mayo Hospital. Questionnaire based descriptive study. This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Out of 250 doctors, 180 (72%) were males and 70 (28%) were female. Amongst 180 male doctors 97 (53.88%) were smokers and 83 (46.21%) were non smokers. Amongst 70 female doctors 8 (11.43%) were smokers and 62 (88.57%) were non smokers. Smoking is common among male young doctors but it is less common in female doctors. (author)
Full Text Available Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed drugs in hospitals and their irrational use is one of the important factors for the development and spread of resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic prescription pattern in the patient attending the tertiary care hospital. It was found that a total of 333 antibiotics where prescribed in 245 prescriptions. The average number of antibiotics per prescription was approximately1.4. The most commonly used antibiotics were moxifloxacin 19.5%, metronidazole 10.4%, amoxicillin + cloxacillin 10.2% and ciprofloxacin 6%. antibiotics were almost equally prescribed to both male and female. 45.5% of the antibiotics shows adherence with the National List of Essential Medicines of India. 76.6% of the antibiotics were single products while 23.4% were fixed dose combination. The most commonly used dosage forms were tablets (57%, drops (23.5% and creams (11.7%.57.3% were prescribed irrationally. Quinolones (48.2% and antifungals (21.5% were the most common types of prescribed antibiotics in which irrationality was found.
Lal, Sweta; Singh, Alpana; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Behera, Sanjeeta
Rape and abuse of women are common occurrences, which, many a times go unspoken due to social stigma or fear of retribution. Rape is a crime not against a single human being but against the entire humanity. For granting justice to the rape survivor it becomes necessary that such matters are properly presented before the Courts of Law. Healthcare workers play an important role in this regard because they are the first person who examine the rape victims. They prepare a documented record of medical condition of rape victim and do relevant sample collection. The objective of this study is to analyse demographic and event characteristics of rape victims who presented to the Emergency Department in tertiary care, Delhi after sexual assault. Data was retrospectively collected from the medico legal register of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between June 2010 to December 2013. We noted a marked increase in the number of cases. Mean age of victims was 17 and most belonged to the lower socio-economic strata of the society. Use of sedatives and physical trauma was not common. Victims often knew the perpetrator of the event. Most (58%) of them reported within one day of the incident. Major degrees of perineal tears were seen in young victims. By understanding the demography of the sexual assault victims, we need to train our doctors for proper evidence collection not just in a government set up but also in private clinics, to help rape victims get justice and proper medical treatment.
Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju
Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.
Full Text Available Nephrectomy is not an uncommon surgery in day-to-day practice of urology. Trauma is the most common cause of emergency nephrectomy. On the other hand, elective nephrectomy is done for both benign and malignant diseases of the kidney. This study has been performed to know the different causes of nephrectomy in a rural, tertiary care center of India. In our series, we have studied all the elective nephrectomies done in our hospital during a period of eight years. We have analyzed 88 cases of nephrectomies regarding their age, sex, laterality of disease, and histopathologic report of the nephrectomy specimens. Out of 88 cases, 61 were males and 27 were females. In our series, 62.5% cases of nephrectomies were done for benign causes and 37.5% cases for malignant causes. Among the benign causes, neglected pelviureteric junction obstruction was the leading cause, followed by calculus disease resulting in obstruction. On the other hand, renal cell carcinoma was the most common malignant pathology requiring nephrectomy.
Full Text Available Background: A spectrum of primary and secondary disorders that affect the bone marrow may manifestwith pancytopenia. This study was carried out to identify the various causes of pancytopenia in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Lalitpur, Nepal.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 83 cases of pancytopenia was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal over a two year period from August 2010 to July 2012.Results: Eighty three patients underwent bone marrow examination. Mean age of the patients was 34 years (range: 4 to 75 years. Maximum number of patients (31.33% was seen in the age group of 16 - 30 years. The commonest cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia which was seen in 34.94% (29/83 cases followed by aplastic anemia and hematological malignancies in 31.32% (26/83 and 14.46% (12/83 cases, respectively.Conclusion: This study concluded that megaloblastic anemia and aplastic anemia were the two most common causes of pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration is an established diagnostic modality in the evaluation of pancytopenia.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 691 - 695
Singh, P; Surana, R; Soni, S; Agnihotri, A; Ahuja, V; Makharia, G K; Staller, K; Kuo, B
Despite potential differences in patient perception of chronic constipation (CC) in geographically and culturally distinct regions, head-to-head studies comparing the clinical profile, constipation severity, impact on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with CC to tertiary care centers in the USA and India. Standardized instruments were used to assess constipation subtype, disease severity, disease-specific QOL, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the predictors of QOL and number of healthcare visits. Sixty-six and 98 patients with CC were enrolled in the USA and India, respectively. Indian patients with CC had significantly more frequent bowel movements/week compared to their USA counterparts (Median 5 vs 3, P USA compared to India (65.5% vs 48%, P = .04). Higher depression score (P = .001), more severe constipation symptoms (P = .001) and site of the study being USA (P = .008) independently predicted worse QOL. Indian patients (P USA suggesting significant differences in perception of CC in different geographic and cultural settings. QOL and economic impact related to constipation varies with geographic/cultural setting irrespective of other clinical and psychosomatic features. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of haemolytic anaemia were identified and studied for a period of one year. RESULTS Maximum number of cases were seen in the age group of 20-40 years. The overall male-female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were features of anaemia like breathlessness, easy fatigability, headache and tiredness. Family history of anaemia was present in 34.1%. The most common signs observed were pallor and jaundice. The most common causes were autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia. CONCLUSION Haemolytic anaemia mostly affects individuals in their 3rd and 4th decade. There is no significant difference in gender distribution of haemolytic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia most commonly presents with symptoms of anaemia and jaundice. Commonest causes of haemolytic anaemia are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia.
Deshpande, Rushikesh Prabhakar; Motghare, Vijay Motiram; Padwal, Sudhir Laxman; Pore, Rakesh Ramkrishna; Bhamare, Chetanraj Ghanshyam; Deshmukh, Vinod Shivaji; Pise, Harshal Nutan
Objectives The study was carried out with the aim of evaluation of the adverse drug reaction profile of anti-snake venom serum (ASV) in a rural tertiary care hospital. Methods An observational study was conducted in SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India. A total number of 296 indoor case papers of snake bite from February to September 2011 and June to August 2012 were retrieved from the record section and the antivenom reactions were assessed. In addition, basic epidemiological data and prescribing practices of ASV were also analyzed. Results Vasculotoxic snake bites were more common (50.61%) than neuroparalytic ones (22.56%). Mild envenomation was the commonest presentation. A total of 92 (56.10%) patients who received ASV suffered from antivenom reactions. The most common nature of reaction was chills, rigors (69.56%) followed by nausea and vomiting (34.8%). 10-15% patients suffered from moderate to severe reactions like hypotension and sudden respiratory arrest. We did not find any dose response relationship of ASV to risk of reactions (odds ratio 0.37). Intradermal sensitivity test was performed in about 72% cases. Conclusion Our study showed a higher incidence of reactions to ASV at our institute. PMID:24396245
Mukhtar, O.; Malik, M.F.; Khan, J.S.; Zaheer, F.; Ijaz, T.
Background: Hepatitis C is a very common blood-borne disease of liver caused by Hepatitis C Virus and about two third of these patients will ultimately end up having liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was carried out to determine the sociodemographic status of the hepatitis C infected patients visiting tertiary care hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Method: This study was conducted during the months of October and November 2009. In this cross sectional study, 154 volunteer patients of HCV were included. They were investigated for sociodemographic variables and were statistically analysed by SPSS-15. Results: Of these 154 patients, a high percentage of patients were females (70.1 percentage). Majority of the patients belonged to the families of labour occupation (39.4 percentage) of which 71.4 percentage were illiterate. Gender was found significantly associated with categories of sleep disturbance (p<0.05) and tension (p<0.05) among HCV patients. Married patients were significantly associated with tension (p<0.05) and a significant emotional and behavioural change in their attitude was also found (p<0.05). Patients with shorter interval after first diagnosis of the disease felt more emotional and had greater behavioural changes in their attitude (p<0.05). Conclusion: Incidence of Hepatitis C was higher in females and married females with shorter interval after first diagnosis of the disease were more depressed. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT includes the implantation of partial or complete liver graft from a living or deceased donor into the recipient. The purpose of this study is to analyze health associated quality of life among OLT recipients. METHODS: This study was conducted at a tertiary care center from January 2011 to January 2015. The quality of life questionnaire was completed before OLT and 6 months after OLT by 32 patients. RESULTS: Mean age of liver transplant recipients was 45±11 years, body mass index (BMI was 24.2±4.2 kg/m2 and 28/32 (87.5% patients were males. Good health was reported by 96.9% after OLT in contrast to 81.2% patients before OLT (p=0.0001. Vigorous exercise capability was 40.6% after OLT in contrast to 28.1% before OLT (P=0.43. CONCLUSION: We found a significant increase in quality of life scores among patients who underwent OLT. However, compared to pre-OLT, recipient’s participation in vigorous activities did not change 6 months after OLT.
Wang, George Sam; Monte, Andrew; Hatten, Benjamin; Brent, Jeffrey; Buchanan, Jennie; Heard, Kennon J
Currently, only 10% of board-certified medical toxicologists are pediatricians. Yet over half of poison center calls involve children toxicology consultation is not common at children's hospitals. In collaboration with executive staff from Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, regional poison center, and our toxicology fellowship, we established a toxicology consulting service at our tertiary-care children's hospital. There were 139 consultations, and the service generated 13 consultations in the first month; median of 11 consultations per month thereafter (range 8-16). The service increased pediatric cases seen by the fellowship program from 30 to 94. The transition to a consult service required a culture change. Historically, call center advice was the mainstay of consulting practice and the medical staff was not accustomed to the availability of bedside medical toxicology consultations. However, after promotion of the service and full attending and fellowship coverage, consultations increased. In collaboration with toxicologists from different departments, a consultation service can be rapidly established. The service filled a clinical need that was disproportionately utilized for high acuity patients, immediately utilized by the medical staff and provided a robust pediatric population for the toxicology fellowship.
Khadka, Sundar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dhital, Subhash; Rijal, Basista
Background . Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods . This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25%) was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5%) and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6%) was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis.
Full Text Available Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25% was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5% and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6% was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to retrospectively collect and then describe the clinico-radiographical profile of confirmed cases of leukodystrophy who presented over a 5-year period to a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The case records of 80 confirmed cases of leukodystrophy were reviewed and the cases have been described in terms of their clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings. Results: The cases have been grouped into five categories: Hypomyelinating, demyelinating, disorders with vacuolization, cystic, and miscellaneous. The commonest leukodystrophies are megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD, and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD. A notable proportion of hypomyelinating disorders were uncharacterized. Conclusions: Leukodystrophies at this point of time have no definite cure. They have a progressively downhill clinical course. Early diagnosis is imperative for appropriate genetic counseling. A simplified approach to diagnose common leukodystrophies has also been provided. It is important to develop a registry, which can provide valuable epidemiological data to prioritize research in this field, which has many unanswered questions.
Shah, Ayushi Jayesh; Singh, Vijaykumar; Patil, Subita P; Gadkari, Mithila R; Ramchandani, Varun; Doshi, Karan Janak
Compliance to antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of complications. It is important to understand the factors affecting compliance in patients so that the goal of successful treatment is not jeopardized. To determine the proportion of participants' compliant to treatment and various factors associated with compliance of antihypertensive treatment. A cross-sectional study of 330 hypertensive patients on treatment attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. It was conducted over 8 weeks using a validated, pretested questionnaire including information on the individual's sociodemographic profile, compliance to antihypertensive therapy and lifestyle advice assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Data were entered into MS Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Participants' mean age was 55.2 ± 12.6 years. 39.4% were compliant to their treatment. Common reasons for frequently skipping the dose - forgetfulness (41.2%) and discontinued the medication when feeling well (30.3%). Factors positively associated with compliance were gender and illiteracy. The proportion of noncompliance among smokers and alcoholics was statistically significant. Forgetfulness and subjective feeling of wellness were the prevalent reasons for noncompliance. Controlling habits such as smoking and alcohol may prove as key factors for compliance.
Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diseases of heart valves constitute a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developing countries, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD continues to be the predominant form of valvular heart disease. The current study was undertaken at a Tertiary Care Institute with an objective of establishing distribution and different patterns of valvular heart diseases by echocardiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS 17,625 consecutive first time Echocardiograms performed between January 2016 and December 2016 were analysed. Echo was performed by consultant cardiologists using Philips HD11XE and Aloka SSD4000 machine following ASE guidelines. Applying exclusion criteria of trivial and functional regurgitant lesions yielded a total of 632 cases of organic valvular heart diseases. RESULTS In our study 632 patients were diagnosed with valvular heart disease, out of which 428 patients (67.7% were diagnosed with Rheumatic Heart Disease. Mitral valve was the most commonly affected followed by aortic and tricuspid valves. The least commonly affected valve was pulmonary valve. In Rheumatic heart disease, most common isolated lesion reported was MS with MR, most commonly reported in females between 21 - 40 years’ age group. CONCLUSION In non-RHD group, mitral valve prolapse (21.3% was the commonest lesion reported followed by calcific degenerative aortic valve (6.17% and congenital bicuspid aortic valve (3.4%; 118 patients were reported with multivalvular lesion. MS + MR + AR was the commonest multivalvular lesion found in 65 patients (55.08%.
Pramanik, Subhodip; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Mondal, Samim Ali; Ghosh, Ipsita; Bari, Ranajit; Chowdhury, Subhankar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are two major public health endocrine problem, but the prevalence of TD and iodine status in patients with T2 DM in India is less studied. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of TD and to evaluate iodine health in type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Consecutive 100 patients with diabetes attending outpatient department were evaluated clinically and biochemically (thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine, anti-TPO antibody, and urinary iodine). We excluded pregnant women or patients taking drugs that can alter thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroid and overt hypothyroidism were diagnosed as per standard definitions. Out of 100 patients were analyzed, 51 (51%) were male. Mean (±standard deviation) age was 45.4 ± 11.2 years, body mass index 24.1 ± 4.28 kg/m 2 , and duration of diabetes 7.76 ± 5.77 years. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism was 23/100 (23%) and 3/100 (3%), respectively. Thyroid autoantibody was positive in 13 (13.1%) patients. All patients were iodine sufficient. A trend toward increased neuropathy ( r = 0.45) and nephropathy ( r = -0.29) was associated with rising TSH. Almost one in four people living with diabetes are suffering from TD. Thus, routine screening should be implemented. Salt iodination program is a huge success in this part of the country.
Full Text Available Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction (TD are two major public health endocrine problem, but the prevalence of TD and iodine status in patients with T2 DM in India is less studied. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of TD and to evaluate iodine health in type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Methods: Consecutive 100 patients with diabetes attending outpatient department were evaluated clinically and biochemically (thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine, anti-TPO antibody, and urinary iodine. We excluded pregnant women or patients taking drugs that can alter thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroid and overt hypothyroidism were diagnosed as per standard definitions. Results: Out of 100 patients were analyzed, 51 (51% were male. Mean (±standard deviation age was 45.4 ± 11.2 years, body mass index 24.1 ± 4.28 kg/m2, and duration of diabetes 7.76 ± 5.77 years. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism was 23/100 (23% and 3/100 (3%, respectively. Thyroid autoantibody was positive in 13 (13.1% patients. All patients were iodine sufficient. A trend toward increased neuropathy (r = 0.45 and nephropathy (r = −0.29 was associated with rising TSH. Conclusion: Almost one in four people living with diabetes are suffering from TD. Thus, routine screening should be implemented. Salt iodination program is a huge success in this part of the country.
Binoy Kumar Mohanty
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Precocious puberty is a common paediatric endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentations of patients presenting with sexual precocity to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 24 consecutive patients who presented to our department from January 2014 to December 2015 for evaluation of sexual precocity. RESULTS Most of the patients presenting to us had evidence of precocious puberty (n=16, followed by premature adrenarche (n=5 and premature thelarche (n=3 respectively. The females outnumbered males in our study (68.75% of total cases. Females presenting with central precocious puberty had no appreciable cause (idiopathic in majority (85.72% of cases. While, males presenting with central precocious puberty had an organic cause (60% in majority of cases. CONCLUSIONS Precocious puberty is more common among females as compared to males. Organic lesion must be ruled out in all patients presenting with central precocious puberty especially in males.
Binoy Kumar Mohanty
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.
Binit N Jhaveri
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly inpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for cases of elderly patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2010. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were collected. Prescriptions were assessed for the use of potentially inappropriate medications in geriatric patients by using American Geriatric Society Beer′s criteria (2012 and PRISCUS list (2010. Results: A total of 676 geriatric patients (52.12% females were admitted in the medicine ward. The average age of geriatric patients was 72.69 years. According to Beer′s criteria, at least one inappropriate medicine was prescribed in 590 (87.3% patients. Metoclopramide (54.3%, alprazolam (9%, diazepam (8%, digoxin > 0.125 mg/day (5%, and diclofenac (3.7% were the commonly used inappropriate medications. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in heart and renal failure patients was the commonly identified drug-disease interaction. According to PRISCUS list, at least one inappropriate medication was prescribed in 210 (31.06% patients. Conclusion: Use of inappropriate medicines is highly prevalent in elderly patients.
Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of omalizumab in chronic spontaneous urticaria in Indian patients. Setting and Design: The study was conducted in a tertiary care centre and it was retrospective and descriptive in nature. Material and Methods: We analysed the data of patients who were administered omalizumab between June 2014 and June 2015 for the management of refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria at our centre. Omalizumab was used in those patients who did not respond to updosing of antihistaminics and cyclosporine. Omalizumab was used in dose of 300 mg per month for 3 doses. Results: Twenty-four patients were administered omalizumab during the study period. Average age of the patients was 36.54 years, female:male ratio was 1.4:1, mean duration of disease was 20.66 months, and autologous serum skin test was positive in 33% of studied individuals. Ninety six percent of cases showed response to treatment in our study. Remission was seen in 25% of patients, 50% showed satisfactory response, and 20.83% showed partial response. Average UAS7 scoring before starting omalizumab in preceding week was 24.4. Average UAS7, 2 weeks after starting omalizumab was 4 in responsive patients. Conclusion: Omalizumab is safe and effective treatment for the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria. It can be used in Indian setting after failure to other third-line therapies such as addition of montelukast and cyclosporine due to high cost of treatment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is the second most populous country in the world after China. In an effort to stabilize the population, National Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951. There has been an increase in contraceptive prevalence and a reduction in total fertility rate since then. For better results, contraceptive use should start right from the post partum period. This also significantly reduces maternal and infant mortality rates. AIM To assess the knowledge and attitude about contraception in post-partum women in a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, IMCH, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, between January 2016 and March 2016, using a prestructured questionnaire, in postpartum women. Their knowledge and attitude about contraception was assessed. RESULTS A total of 1500 postpartum women were included in the study. 80% were aware of some method of contraception. This knowledge increased with increasing education, parity and better socioeconomic class. Major source of information was health worker (46.67%. But only 18.33% had practiced any method of contraception before and 44% only showed willingness to use any contraception. The major reason for non-acceptance of contraception was the need for more children. CONCLUSION Low prevalence seen in the use of contraception can be overcome by promoting spacing methods like PPIUCD, injectables and pills. The couple should be counselled together to alleviate the anxiety in the husband.
Binoy Kumar Mohanty
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the common endocrine disorders seen in clinical practice. It may result due to various causes and elucidating the exact cause is necessary to formulate the right therapy. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentation of patients presenting with hyperprolactinaemia to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 74 consecutive patients who presented to our department from June 2015 to May 2016 for evaluation of hyperprolactinaemia. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 20-29 years group (47.29% followed by 30-39 years age group (24.32%. The most common cause in our population was due to drug-induced causes (35.13%. The next common causes included idiopathic group (20.4% followed by pituitary adenomas (16.21%. There was significant female predominance (83.78% among total cases. Among women who presented with hyperprolactinaemia, menstrual irregularity (69.35% followed by galactorrhoea (35.48% were the most common presentations. CONCLUSIONS Hyperprolactinaemia is frequently seen among women who presented with either menstrual irregularity or galactorrhoea or both. Drug-induced hyperprolactinaemia is the most common cause seen in our study population.
Geeta S. Pardeshi
Full Text Available Setting. Government tertiary health care center in India. Objective. To understand the perceptions of medical residents about their risk of developing TB in the workplace. Design. Cross-sectional study in which a semistructured questionnaire which included an open-ended question to assess their main concerns regarding TB in workplace was used to collect data. Results. Out of 305 resident doctors approached, 263 (94% completed a structured questionnaire and 200 of these responded to an open-ended question. Daily exposure to TB was reported by 141 (64% residents, 13 (5% reported a prior history of TB, and 175 (69% respondents were aware of TB infection control guidelines. A majority reported concerns about acquiring TB (78% and drug-resistant TB (88%. The key themes identified were concerns about developing drug-resistant TB (n=100; 50%; disease and its clinical consequences (n=39; 20%; social and professional consequences (n=37; 19%; exposure to TB patients (n=32; 16%; poor infection control measures (n=27; 14%; and high workload and its health consequences (n=16; 8%. Conclusion. Though many resident doctors were aware of TB infection control guidelines, only few expressed concern about lack of TB infection control measures. Doctors need to be convinced of the importance of these measures which should be implemented urgently.
Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun
Blood donation, though safe, has a few potentially avoidable complications associated with it. They are important reasons for the failure of the donors to return for repeat donations. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and identify the possible factors associated with increased risk of blood donation related complications so that they can be minimized. A prospective study was done over a period of four months in the blood bank of an Indian tertiary care hospital to record the donation related complications. Out of 7450 blood donations, total donation associated complications were 74, of which majority were vasovagal reactions (VVRs) (n=48), followed by venous hematomas (n=24) and arterial punctures (n=2). The incidence of VVRs was more, though not statistically significant, in females, replacement/repeat donors, donors between 21-30 y of age and who had a body-mass-index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. VVRs were more common in April (p=0.002) and in those who donated 450ml of blood (pdonated 350ml of blood, statistically significant association was seen only in repeat donors (pdonation in our country has a complication rate of nearly 1%.
Full Text Available Background: Breast lesions are always a diagnostic challenge and range from benign to malignant. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is done in patients with breast lesions. However, to get an accurate and diagnostic yield is difficult at times. Aims: The aim of this study is to highlight the role of triple approach in diagnosing breast lesions. Design and Setting: This is an observational prospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology at a tertiary care hospital over 2 years. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of breast lump were studied. Clinical findings, imaging findings, and cytology along with histopathological findings were correlated. Results: Cytological findings were benign in 102 out of 107 patients, who were otherwise clinically and radiologically benign. In rest five patients, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BIRADS BIRADS II category was given on mammography. In four of these five patients, there was cytological atypia. Biopsy in these four patients showed features of fibroadenoma with mild cytological atypia and one patient showed infiltrating duct carcinoma. Mammography was suggestive of malignant breast lump in 43 patients. In three patients, breast lump was diagnosed as benign on cytological examination. However, histopathological examination confirmed the mammography findings of malignancy. Conclusion: FNAC is a well-established procedure for diagnosing breast lesion but has got many pitfalls. Hence for diagnosis a breast lesion, the triple approach consisting of histopathological examination in addition to mammography and FNAC, should be considered.
Moukhaiber, Romy; Araj, George F; Kissoyan, Kohar Annie B; Cheaito, Katia A; Matar, Ghassan M
Due to the increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diseases at a tertiary care center in Lebanon, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalent C. difficile toxinotypes. The immunocard method was used to test for toxins A and B in 88 collected stool samples, followed with API 20A to confirm for C. difficile. PCR amplification of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, the toxin encoding genes tcdA, and tcdB, followed by toxinotyping, were performed on recovered isolates and stool specimens. Out of the 88 stool samples obtained, 30 (65.2%) were Immunocard positive, culture and or tpi positive for C. difficile. Of the 30 isolates, 4 were PCR negative for the tcdA and tcdB genes (A-B-), and 26 were PCR positive for the tcdA and / or tcdB genes with 4 being A+B+, 1 A+B-, and 21 A-B+. The results of toxinotyping showed that 2 isolates belonged to toxinotype 0, 4 to toxinotype XI, 2 to toxinotype XII, 1 to toxinotype XVI, 1(A+B-) and twenty (A-B+) designated as toxinotype 0-like. C. difficile was detected in 65.2% of patients' stools with prevalence of toxinotype 0-like. Identification of toxinotypes of C. difficile is important to determine the virulence potential of strains and control their spread.
Dogar, I.A.; Azeem, M.W.; Kiran, M.; Hussain, I.; Mehmood, K.; Hina, I.
Objective: To examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer in an outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methodology: This study was conducted between May 2006 and January 2007. The sample consisted of 60 diagnosed cancer patients (30 males/30 females). DSM- IV criteria and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to diagnose and assess anxiety and depression. Results: Fifty two percent (31 patients, 10 males/21 females) of the subjects reported having symptoms of anxiety, depression or both according to DSM IV Criteria, (anxiety =14, males six / females eight, depression = 6, males two / females four , and depression + anxiety both = 11, males two / females nine). A total of 70% (21/30) of the entire female sample met the criteria for depression, anxiety or both. A total of 33% (10/30) of the entire male sample met the criteria for depression, anxiety or both. Conclusion: This study shows high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in cancer patients in Pakistan. The oncologists and internists treating cancer patients should screen their patients for symptoms of depression and anxiety. (author)
Sagheer, M.A.; Khan, M.F.; Sharif, S.
Objective: To observe the prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain population at a tertiary care centre. Methods: The prospective cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling at the Department of Neurosurgery, at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2010. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain patients was studied according to specified age and gender groups using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Of the 140 patients in the study, 66 (47.14%) were females and 74 (52.85%) were males. The average age of the patients was 43.02+-13.34 years. The average duration of symptoms was 4.29+-3.3 years. Abnormal level of anxiety and depression were found in 77 (55%) and 68 (48.57%) patients respectively. Out of them 54 (38.5%) and 51 (36.4%) were borderline abnormal for anxiety and depression respectively, while 23 (16.4%) and 17 (12.1%) were abnormal for anxiety and depression respectively. Among the males, there were 20 (14.28%) and 23 (16.42%) patients with abnormal levels of the corresponding numbers among the females were 57 (40.71%) and 45 (32.14%). There was a significant association in anxiety (p 0.05). Conclusion: Individuals with chronic low back pain were at high risk to experience anxiety and depression. This risk was higher for females. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.
Charles, Mv Pravin; Easow, Joshy M; Joseph, Noyal M; Ravishankar, M; Kumar, Shailesh; Umadevi, Sivaraman
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of nosocomial pneumonia associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Knowledge about the incidence and risk factors is necessary to implement preventive measures to reduce mortality in these patients. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of 20 months from November 2009 to July 2011. Patients who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours were monitored at frequent intervals for development of VAP using clinical and microbiological criteria until discharge or death. Of the 76 patients, 18 (23.7%) developed VAP during their ICU stay. The incidence of VAP was 53.25 per 1,000 ventilator days. About 94% of VAP cases occurred within the first week of MV. Early-onset and late-onset VAP was observed in 72.2% and 27.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed chronic lung failure, H2 blockers usage, and supine head position were significant risk factors for VAP. Logistic regression revealed supine head position as an independent risk factor for VAP. VAP occurred in a sizeable number of patients on MV. Chronic lung failure, H2 blockers usage, and supine head position were the risk factors associated with VAP. Awareness about these risk factors can be used to inform simple and effective preventive measures.
Cox, Brian; Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Zuniga, John R. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Surgery, Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, Dallas, TX (United States); Panchal, Neeraj [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cheng, Jonathan [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Plastic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)
This tertiary care experience examines the utility of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the management of peripheral trigeminal neuropathies. Seventeen patients with clinically suspected peripheral trigeminal neuropathies (inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve) were imaged uniformly with 1.5-T examinations. MRN results were correlated with clinical and surgical findings in operated patients and the impact on clinical management was assessed. Clinical findings included pain (14/17), sensory changes (15/17), motor changes (2/17) and palpable masses (3/17). Inciting events included prior dental surgery (12/17), trauma (1/17) and idiopathic incidents (4/17). Non-affected side nerves and trigeminal nerves in the intracranial and skull base course were normal in all cases. Final diagnoses on affected sides were nerve inflammation (4/17), neuroma in continuity (2/17), LN transection (1/17), scar entrapment (3/17), infectious granuloma (1/17), low-grade injuries (3/17) and no abnormality (3/17). Associated submandibular gland and sublingual gland oedema-like changes were seen in 3/17 cases because of parasympathetic effects. Moderate-to-excellent MRN-surgical correlation was seen in operated (8/17) patients, and neuroma and nerve transection were prospectively identified in all cases. MRN is useful for the diagnostic work-up of suspected peripheral trigeminal neuropathy patients with significant impact on clinical management and moderate-to-excellent correlation with intra-operative findings. (orig.)
Cox, Brian; Chhabra, Avneesh; Zuniga, John R.; Panchal, Neeraj; Cheng, Jonathan
This tertiary care experience examines the utility of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the management of peripheral trigeminal neuropathies. Seventeen patients with clinically suspected peripheral trigeminal neuropathies (inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve) were imaged uniformly with 1.5-T examinations. MRN results were correlated with clinical and surgical findings in operated patients and the impact on clinical management was assessed. Clinical findings included pain (14/17), sensory changes (15/17), motor changes (2/17) and palpable masses (3/17). Inciting events included prior dental surgery (12/17), trauma (1/17) and idiopathic incidents (4/17). Non-affected side nerves and trigeminal nerves in the intracranial and skull base course were normal in all cases. Final diagnoses on affected sides were nerve inflammation (4/17), neuroma in continuity (2/17), LN transection (1/17), scar entrapment (3/17), infectious granuloma (1/17), low-grade injuries (3/17) and no abnormality (3/17). Associated submandibular gland and sublingual gland oedema-like changes were seen in 3/17 cases because of parasympathetic effects. Moderate-to-excellent MRN-surgical correlation was seen in operated (8/17) patients, and neuroma and nerve transection were prospectively identified in all cases. MRN is useful for the diagnostic work-up of suspected peripheral trigeminal neuropathy patients with significant impact on clinical management and moderate-to-excellent correlation with intra-operative findings. (orig.)
Full Text Available Context: A distressing pre-occupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance with a marked negative effect on the patient's life is the core symptom of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. Aim: To screen the patients attending a dermatology clinic at a tertiary care centre for BDD using the BDD-dermatology version (DV questionnaire. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study enrolled 245 consecutive patients from the dermatology outpatients clinic. Methods: The demographic details were collected and the DV of BDD screening questionnaire was administered. A 5-point Likert scale was used for objective scoring of the stated concern and patients who scored ≥3 were excluded from the study. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were statistically analysed. Differences between the groups were investigated by Chi-square analysis for categorical variables, and Fisher exact test wherever required. Results: A total of 177 patients completed the study, and of these, eight patients screened positive for BDD. The rate of BDD in patients presenting with cosmetic complaints was 7.5% and in those with general dermatology, complaints were 2.1%, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.156. Facial flaws (62.5% were the most common concern followed by body asymmetry (25%. Conclusion: The rates of BDD found in this study are comparable but at a lower rate than that reported in literature data.
Vahora, Roshni; Thakkar, Sejal; Marfatia, Yogesh
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66%) in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66%) cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33%) cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%). Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.
Shaikh, A.H.; Hanif, B.; Hasan, K.; Hashmani, S.
To determine the prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing valve surgery at a tertiary care cardiac centre. The medical records of 144 consecutive patients who underwent mitral, aortic or dual (mitral and aortic) valve replacement surgery at the Tabba Heart Institute between January 2006 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent coronary angiogram. Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is defined as coronary stenosis of > 50%. There were 74 (51.4%) males and 70 (48.6%) females in the study. The mean age was 51.64 +- 11 years. Of all, 73 (50.7%) underwent mitral valve replacement, 47 (32.6%) had aortic and 24 (16.7%) had dual valve replacement. Out of 144 patients, 99 (68.8%) had 50% stenosis. In patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement (MVR), significant coronary disease was found in 32.9%, whereas in patients who had undergone aortic valve replacement (AVR) and dual valve replacement (DVR) the prevalence of coronary disease was 31.9% and 25% respectively. Our results suggest that the overall prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing valve surgery in our population is comparable with prevalence reported in international data. (author)
Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A
Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.
Babar, N.; Usman, J.; Munir, T.; Gill, M. M.; Anjum, R.; Gilani, M.; Latif, M.
Objective: To determine the frequency of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from May 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus isolated from the clinical specimens including blood, pus, double lumen tip, ascitic fluid, tracheal aspirate, non-directed bronchial lavage (NBL), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), high vaginal swab (HVS) and catheter tips were cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar, while the urine samples were grown on cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar. Later the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out using t