WorldWideScience

Sample records for terroriste nucleaire radiologique

  1. Nuclear or radiology: which term to use?; Nucleaire ou radiologique: quel terme utiliser?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document brings information and definition to help the public in the distinction between the two terms: nuclear and radiologic. What means the words nuclear and radiologic in the physics and common languages? In which situation an accidental or malevolent event can be called nuclear or radiologic? By which technic and for which use is concerned the radiology? It concludes by recommendation for the choice of one or the other term. (A.L.B.)

  2. Medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiation event; Intervention medicale en cas d'evenement nucleaire ou radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J.; Bourguignon, M.; Carli, P.; Carosella, E.; Challeton de Vathaire, C.; Court, L.; Ducousso, R.; Facon, A.; Fleutot, J.B.; Goldstein, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Herbelet, G.; Kolodie, H.; Lallemand, J.; Martin, J.C.; Menthonnex, P.; Masse, R.; Origny, S.; Pasnon, J.; Peton Klein, D.; Rougy, C.; Schoulz, D.; Romet, G.; Telion, C.; Vrousos, C

    2002-07-01

    This guide aims to be a practical tool for intervenors in case of nuclear or radiation accident. It proposes many sheets to favor the reactivity and the implementing of adapted measures. It concerns the course of action to take in case of irradiation accident or contamination and the reception in medical structure or a hospital. (A.L.B.)

  3. Terror breeds terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  4. Combatting the Terrorist Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-22

    US State Department in its Patterns of GMo hal Terrorism: 1983 stated that the Soviet Union has provided training, arms, and other direct and indi...Stephen, eds. Responding to the Terrorist Threa. New York: Pergamon Press, 1980. Sterling, Claire. The Terror Network. New York: Reader’s Digest Press

  5. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Israeli embassies, the British and Australian high commissions and commercial complexes housing some 250 Western business interests. For further...hospitals, restaurants, nightclubs, cinema complexes, (and cynically referred to as the “traffic lights of death”), the schematic delineates the extant...been detained for plotting terrorist attacks in pursuit of the international jihadist cause, including Willie Brigette ( Australian , arrested in 2003

  6. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.

    A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.

  7. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  8. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects; Les atolls de Mururoa et de Fangataufa (Polynesie Francaise). Les experimentations nucleaires. Aspects radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-07-01

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  9. Terrorist Approach to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    government leaders by terrorizing their populace. Albert Bandera suggests “terrorists try to exercise influence over targeted officials or nations...information about prisoners held in Pakistan and Guantanamo Bay , and jihad poetry” (p. 7). 83 A well known example of al Qa’ida auto propaganda

  10. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...

  11. Unusual but potential agents of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Bechtel, Laura K; Reilly, Tracey H; Wispelwey, Bram P; Dobmeier, Stephen G

    2007-05-01

    Emergency personnel are tasked with the daunting job of being the first to evaluate and manage victims of a terrorist attack. Numerous potential chemical agents could be used by terrorists. The challenge for first responders and local hospital emergency personnel is to prepare for a terrorist event that might use one or more of these agents. As part of that preparation, emergency physicians should have a basic understanding of potential chemical terrorist agents. It is beyond the scope of this article to review all potential terrorist agents. Rather, four potential agents have been chosen for review: sodium monofluoroacetate, trichothecene mycotoxins, vomiting agents, and saxitoxin.

  12. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  13. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    Abstract. While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing ...

  14. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  15. Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders.

  16. A Review of Sources on Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet ALIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism financing is one of the most complex problems the democratic world is facing today. The transfer of funds to support terrorist activities has created enormous challenges across the world. This has fuelled several inter-religious and nationalist hate, and as such has put many nations into war with terrorist organisations. The main objective of this study is to review the sources of terrorist financing. The paper relies on secondary data that were drawn from various books, journals, as well as from institutional materials relevant to the issues raised. It concludes that terrorists are exploiting established financial systems at the global level to move their finances, and that informal systems remain the biggest challenge to thwart terrorist activities.

  17. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  18. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    two factors. What is problematic with many of the studies in the literature is that they do not test for this relationship (Abrahms, 2012; Tucker...not make concessions to terrorists. B. WHEN GOVERNMENTS MAKE CONCESSIONS According to relevant literature within the field, governments do make...knowing that the United States did not make concessions to terrorists (Pillar, p. 40). The remaining hostages were later rescued by Peruvian military

  19. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  20. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    OpenAIRE

    Bargues, L; Donat, N.; Jault, P; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la do...

  1. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neil, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    ... not. Terrorist precursor crimes, offenses committed to facilitate a particular attack or promote a terrorist campaign's objectives, are thought to be often carried out far away from the primary theater...

  3. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  4. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Libyan 17 18 8 29 63 6 Other Middle East 7 11 17 7 7 6 Other European 6 10 8 7 8 6 Sub-Sahara African 7 25 68 22 12 6 Other 6 7 7 17 12 6 grow to be...VIOLENCE, BY REGION, 1980-1982 Inter- Attacks Total national on Terrorist Group Incidents’ Incidentsb Americans Latin America MIR ( Movimiento de...details. (Use separate entries for each person, Bla, Bib, etc.) 67 ____ 4- 68 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING TERRORIST GROUPS B2. Names of other key

  6. Precipitating the decline of terrorist groups : a systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DeGhetto, Todd H.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis shows how a government actor can use systems theory to hasten the decline of a terrorist group. Tle author assumes terrorist groups are social organizations, therefore terrorist groups come to value organizational survival over ideological or programmatic achievements. The same determinants that cause social organizations to decline will cause terrorist organizations to decline. Using systems theory to model terrorism as a system, it is possible to show how to influence these dete...

  7. Real Time Big Data Analytics for Predicting Terrorist Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…

  8. MARTYRS OR TERRORISTS: SUICIDE BOMBING IN ISLAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alfa

    Martyrs or Terrorists: Suicide Bombing in Islamic. Kilani & Suberu. Defining Jihad, Martyrdom and Terrorism. The twin institutions of Jihad and Shahid (martyrdom) had existed in Islam from the nascent period of Islamic history and civilization. The word Jihad is derived from the verbal root Jahada which means struggle.

  9. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  10. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... history of their successful use in revealing the importance of various members of the network. However, modeling of covert, terrorist or criminal networks through social graph dose not really provide the hierarchical structure which exist in these networks as these networks are composed of leaders...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  11. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  12. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  13. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  14. Radiotoxicity, dose and nuclear alchemy; Radiotoxiciteit, dosis en nucleaire alchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schram, R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    An outline is given of the nuclear fuel cycle and related products, focusing on the radiotoxicity and radioactive waste dose. Also, it is explained how those subjects form the basis of research on transmutation and recycling of radioactive waste. Finally, attention will be paid to nuclear alchemy, i.e. the steps to be taken for transmutation and recycling, based on current developments in research at NRG. [Dutch] In dit artikel zal een toelichting worden gegeven op de splijtstofcyclus en de producten die daarbij vrijkomen. Hierbij zal worden ingegaan op de radiotoxiciteit en dosis van het radioactief anal. Tevens zal worden uitgelegd hoe deze begrippen de basis vormen voor keuzes binnen het onderzoek naar transmutatie en recycling van radioactief afval. Ook zal de nucleaire alchemie, de benodigde stappen voor transmutatie en recycling, worden behandeld aan de hand van de actuele ontwikkelingen in het onderzoek zoals onder meer uitgevoerd bij NRG.

  15. Criminality-oriented terrorist learning: an interactive model

    OpenAIRE

    Eser, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis, focusing on the reasons beyond immediate terrorist and criminal events, studies ‘how’ and ‘why’ terrorist organizations (TOs) and organized crime groups (OCGs) act, react and evolve. It adopts a ‘criminality oriented approach’ that puts discrete pieces of terrorism under a microscopic examination and explains terrorist learning of criminality: how tacit knowledge required for terror tactics and organized crime is processed and saved in the secret domains of TOs and OCGs and how t...

  16. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  17. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  18. Radiological analysis of materials sampled on the old nuclear test site of In Ekker (Algeria); Analyses radiologiques de materiaux preleves sur l'ancien site d'essais nucleaires d'In Ekker (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2010-02-11

    After having recalled the context of the French nuclear test campaign in Algeria between 1961 and 1966, this document reports and comments radiological measurements performed on the site of In Ekker, and also results of analysis performed in laboratory (contamination by cesium 137, americium 241, plutonium); recommendations are given

  19. Personality and Fear of Terrorist attacks in Ghana: The mediating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining whether or not neuroticism would account for more variance in predicting risk perception and fear of terrorist attack in Ghana compared to conscientiousness. Moreover, it sought to examine the mediating effect of risk perception on the relationship between neuroticism and fear of terrorist ...

  20. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    No 20843 vol. 30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and...30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and Political

  1. Transition from Terrorist Event Management to Consequence Management, Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    simulations, exercises and games designed to ,rl 𔃺)e terrorist consequence management is developed.’ The seven tasks, w.t, Ts 2 and 5 deemed to be the rost ...should, and is expected to, provide leadership in this regard. There exists a variety of experience and planning for responding to terrorist events. The

  2. National Intelligence Estimate: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Among the key judgments in this NIE are the following: the U.S. Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next 3 years, with the main threat coming from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially al-Qa'ida...

  3. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  4. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  5. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  6. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  7. Visual framing of terrorist attacks over the years

    OpenAIRE

    Chomátová, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Diploma thesis Visual framing of terrorist attacks over the years focuses on how the selected terrorist attacks are presented in four Czech daily newspapers. The theoretical part of the thesis is focused on visual framing - which is based on the theoretical grounds of the concept of framing - and the visual presentation of terrorist attacks in the media. The aim of the research is to compare the visual framing of the attack in London in July 2005 and in Paris in 2015 using a quantitative cont...

  8. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...

  9. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  10. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    ... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...

  11. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... However, using two well-established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group...

  12. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  13. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  14. Something Old, Something New. Guerillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Guerrillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis Lieutenant Colonel Lester W. Grau, U.S. Army, Retired Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Review, July - August 2004. Something Old, Something New. Guerillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis . 5a. CONTRACT...travels and rest stops. INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS 44 July -August 2004 l MILITARY REVIEW They point to the efficacy of torture and extraordi- nary means

  15. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  16. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  17. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  18. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  19. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  20. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  1. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: a systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Iruarrizaga, Itziar; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ...) after terrorist attacks. A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria...

  2. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  3. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  4. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  5. Nigeria as a Potential Terrorist Haven Explaining the Convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Nigeria a possible terrorist haven? This article aims to answer this question from two perspectives: international and domestic terrorism. From the perspective of international terrorism and in the standpoint of Western liberalism, for a foreseeable future Nigeria cannot be a haven for terrorism. This is the impossibility ...

  6. Isolating the Terrorists: The Abu Sayyaf Group Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    Memorandum of Agreement on ancestral Domain (MOA-AD) was scheduled for signing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on August 5, 2008. The formal signing was aborted ...integratedY Force manifestly has a proper place, especially given that the immoral use of force is a central characteristic ofterrorism.76 Terrorists commit

  7. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  8. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social

  9. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  10. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across

  11. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  12. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  13. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  14. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  15. Estimates of radiological risk from a terrorist attack using plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo

    2002-06-01

    The possible use of radioactivity dispersal devices by terrorist groups has been recently reported in the news. In this paper, we discuss the threat of terrorist attacks by plutonium, with particular attention to the dispersal of plutonium by explosion or fire. Doses resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosol induced by a plutonium explosion or fire are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (the HOTSPOT code) for different meteorological conditions. Ground contamination and resuspension of dust are also considered in the simulations. Our simulations suggest that acute effects from a plutonium dispersal attack are very unlikely. For late stochastic effects, the explosion poses a greater hazard than fire. However, even in the worst-case scenario, the dispersed plutonium would cause relatively few excess cancers (around 80 in a city of 2 million inhabitants) after many years from the explosion, and these excess cancers would remain undetected against the background of cancer fatalities.

  16. Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems.: Springer-Verlag, 2003. [15] Paulo Cesar G. da Costa. (2005, July) PhD George Mason Univeristy. [Online...Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System Topic 3: Data, Information,and Knowledge Topic 5: Modeling...number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probabilistic Ontology

  17. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Husain, The Islamist, 74. 60 movie about Prophet Muhammad was utilized by the terrorists to further their own aims. 6. Economic Deprivation With...him towards the violent path he adopted, but ultimately left. He writes, “To most Arab youths growing up in the 1950s, Nasser represented a dream ...and a symbol: a symbol of Arab nationalism, a dream of Arab unity, of Arab liberation, and of Arab progress. … I was seventeen, and spoiling for a

  18. Prepared for the unthinkable: EDs respond to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The response to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon provided many key lessons for disaster preparedness. Volunteer physicians were not used in most cases, but EDs recognized the need for a system to check credentials. Communication from disater sites was problem. Injured patients went to the nearest hospital, even if it was not the most appropriate hospital. Experts recommend using existing disaster plans as templates to design or update your own.

  19. The Red Brigades: A Description of a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    it necessary and identify by block nlumber) 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side it necesaary end Identify by block number) CA ATTACHED LJ DD I A...sibility. Jun. 10 Swiss arrest Giustino de Vuono in Lucerne , in connection with murder of Aldo Moro. Jun. 20 Terrorists in Pescara shoot brother of...O’Ballance, Edgar. Language of Violence: The Blood Politics of Terrorism. San Rafael, CA .: Presidio Press, 1979. Parry, Albert. Terrorism From

  20. Generational Changes in Terrorist Movements: The Turkish Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    minimal brain 4 See, Teror ve Terorle Mucadelede Durum Degerlendirmesi, Ankara, 1983, p. 135. s Ibid., p. 133. 6 For a brief discussion of the findings...Generational Changes Studies on the terrorist phenomenon in Western Europe have emphasized the nature and the significance of the generational changes...a pattern that was quite similar to the one observed in d Western Europe . The death or the imprisonment of Turkey’s first urban guerrilla activists

  1. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  2. Tactics Used by the Terrorist Organisation Boko Haram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricopi Marius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram is no regular terrorist organization; although not as widely-known as the Islamic State or Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram has been declared the deadliest terror group of 2014. Fortunately, the organization seems to currently be on the run; and the successes of the Nigerian government in countering it have been founded on a timely understanding of its modus operandi.

  3. Exploring the effect of terrorist attacks on markets

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Zisiadou, Argyro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of terrorist unexpected events and if these events can affect economic markets. Based on the existing literature and the methodologies already been used, our purpose is to draw some attention to specific events, which may create losses to investors or even to countries. Specifically, after a thoughtful consideration of the existing relative studies, we discuss a number of empirical findings concerning the main determinants of terrorism. In ...

  4. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Introduction a la Psychologie Sociale Vol. 1. Paris: Larousse. 6 David W. Brannan, Philip F. Esler, & N.T. Anders Strindberg, “Talking to...St. Andrews, Scotland: Taylor & Francis, January 2001), Vol. 24, No. 1, 9. 6 • Cognitive component – The individual’s knowledge that he or she is a... Cognitive component – An individual is or becomes radicalized and supports the terrorist organization. This is an awareness of being a member of

  5. The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia. A Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    more intrac- table and resilient than in the past.46 In the words of one senior police official, The Malay Muslim conflict today is stronger than it...seeking to fight in Poso and was set up through the Solo branch of KOMPAK, an Islamic charity created in 1998 under the Dewan Dakwah Islam...terms of their parent terrorist organizations’ activities (see, e.g., ICG, 2007d). An additional and equally serious issue concerns the number of

  6. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    planning and training. A second similarity is that both cartels and terrorist organizations depend on corruption for their endeavors. Mexico has a...the southern U.S. and Mexico border with large scale drug trafficking, gun smuggling, human trafficking and smuggling, illegal immigration, and the...threat to U.S. national security. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that Mexico (and the U.S.) face a “narco-terrorist” offensive

  7. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  8. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  9. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    monitored and audited, they permit terrorist organizations to exercise a global reach at relatively low cost with relatively low risk.13 12 Adams ( 1986 ...groups disrupted by Canadian authorities and the FBI in mid-2006. See, for example, United States v. Batiste, Abraham, Phanor, Herrera, Augustin...careful group would avoid, some groups have made such mistakes. For example, during the shootout with and subsequent arrest of a Red Brigades member in

  10. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    OpenAIRE

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical infrastructures in a spotlight, the majority of previous attempts have since been made toward threat assessment and vulnerability assessment of chemical plants yet overlooking their attractiveness as a...

  11. A Glance at Terrorist Organizations from the Perspective of Organizational Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    The problem of conceptualizing terrorist organization is still a controversial issue, even though it has been taken place in the literature heavily. In this essay, terrorist organizations will be approached in the context of organizational theories. Terrorist organizations will be introduced as exceptional structures besides being consistent with most of the organizational theories, departing from them in terms of strategies they adapt and life expectancy they experience. According to some th...

  12. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions. PMID:25870742

  13. Psychiatric aspects of terrorist violence: Northern Ireland 1969-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P S

    1988-10-01

    For 18 years, Northern Ireland has suffered a changing pattern of civil disorder. Early years were marked by widespread sectarian rioting, shootings, and bombings, which heightened community tension and caused much social and commercial disruption. However, in recent years, terrorist organisations have been more selective in their acts of violence. There are methodological difficulties in assessing the psychological impact of civil disorder and terrorism. But, as well as can be judged from community surveys, hospital admissions and referral data, psychotropic drug usage, suicide and attempted suicide rates, and from assessment of the actual victims of violence, society has not 'broken down' nor has the impact been judged considerable. Possible explanations are discussed.

  14. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l

  15. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  16. The Peace Movement and Terrorist Organizations in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    called "Autonomous Left," stragglers of hard-core terrorist groups, low-level anarchists without any existing organization, punks , and homosexuals...received a boost when large-scale protests rocked West Germany. These demonstrators, anarchists linked to the terrorist Red Army Faction (RAF), showed a

  17. The Scope of Definition of a Terrorist Act under Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing that it is ...

  18. A note on the effectiveness of national anti-terrorist policies. Evidence from ETA.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of anti-terrorism policies implemented by the Spanish government to counteract ETA terrorist attacks. The aim is to investigate what the best policy is for counteracting terrorist groups: proactive political/retaliatory deterrence policies or reactive political/retaliatory deterrence policies. Counting models are used and the results show that proactive political policies are the most effective.

  19. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  20. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Mortality salience, political orientation and minimization of terrorists' secondary emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela Sánchez, Raúl; Yela García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    From the framework of Terror Management Theory, the objective of the present research is to analyze the effect of mortality salience (MS) on the minimization of Muslim terrorists’ secondary emotions (MSE, which can be understood as a particular kind of dehumanization), as a function of political orientation. An experimental design was used, in which the participants (university students, N= 293) were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group, their political orientation was taken note of, and they were asked to attribute emotions to Muslim terrorists. In accordance with the hypotheses, the results indicate that, among those supporting tenets of the political left, MS originates less minimization of secondary emotions of the terrorists (MSE). However, among people who stand on the right, MS inspires greater MSE (that is, a lower attribution of these emotions). These results support the thesis that the effects of MS are not to be found exclusively in conservative people, and that they do not necessarily imply a conservative shift, but constitute a polarization in previous ideological tendencies or cultural worldview.

  2. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  3. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  4. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  5. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J

    1997-03-01

    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  6. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  9. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  11. Rural hospital mass casualty response to a terrorist shooting spree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waage, S; Poole, J C; Thorgersen, E B

    2013-08-01

    Civilian mass casualty incidents may occur infrequently and suddenly, and are caused by accidents, natural disasters or human terrorist incidents. Most reports deal with trauma centre management in large cities, and data from small local hospitals are scarce. A rural hospital response to a mass casualty incident caused by a terrorist shooting spree was evaluated. An observational study was undertaken to evaluate the triage, diagnosis and management of all casualties received from the Utøya youth camp in Norway on 22 July 2011 by a local hospital, using data from the hospital's electronic records. Descriptive data are presented for patient demographics, injuries and patient flow. The shooting on Utøya youth camp left 69 people dead and 60 wounded. A rural hospital (Ringerike Hospital) triaged 35 patients, of whom 18 were admitted. During the main surge, the hospital triaged and treated 22 patients within 1 h, of whom 13 fulfilled the criteria for activating the hospital trauma team, including five with critical injuries (defined as an Injury Severity Score above 15). Ten computed tomography scans, two focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) scans and 25 conventional X-rays were performed. During the first 24 h, ten surgical procedures were performed and four chest drains inserted. No patient died. Critical deviation from the major incident plan was needed, and future need for revision is deemed necessary based on the experience. Communication systems and the organization of radiological services proved to be most vulnerable. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  13. A theory of terrorist leadership (and its consequences for leadership targeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2012.751912 States often target terrorist leaders with the belief that the leader’s death or capture will cause the terrorist organization to collapse. Yet the history of this strategy of “leadership targeting” provides a mixed record-for every example of effectiveness, there are similar examples of ineffectiveness. The central question of this article is: what makes a terrorist leader important? Specific...

  14. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  15. Ranking terrorists in networks : A sensitivity analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, Peter; Burg, T.; Hamers, Herbert

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals.

  16. Ranking Terrorists in Networks : A Sensitivity Analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Burg, T.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Lindelauf, R.

    2014-01-01

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals.

  17. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  18. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  19. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...

  20. From Terrorist to Persona: Para-Social Interaction and the ETA Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Ophir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The great virtues of the Internet - ease of access, lack of regulation, vast potential audiences, and fast flow of information, among others - have been exploited by terrorist groups. Consequently, the Internet has become a useful and effective platform for terrorist organizations and their supporters. Applying para-social relationships theory, this study examines the ways terrorist groups utilize the Internet to gain sympathy and support for their appeals and goals. The case of ETA’s website (ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, dedicated to Basque prisoners imprisoned in Ireland and fighting extradition to Spain, is used as an illustrative example of the applicability of the para-social theorem. The various tactics adopted for establishing and promoting para-social relationships between media characters and the audiences as revealed in Basque terrorist video clips on YouTube are analyzed.  

  1. Molten salts in nuclear reactors; Les sels fondus dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [French] Bibliographie regroupant l'etude physico-chimique des sels fondus, en particulier des halogenures alcalins et alcalino-terreux. On etudie de nombreux systemes binaires, ternaires et quaternaires de ces halogenures avec des halogenures d'uranium, et de thorium. On etudie egalement les proprietes physiques des halogenures ou des melanges d'halogenures (densite, viscosite, tension de vapeur, etc...). On donne egalement des references quant a la corrosion des materiaux par ces sels, et le traitement de ceux-ci en vue de recuperation, apres irradiation dans un reacteur nucleaire. (auteur)

  2. Result of Generalization: Bearing the Consequences of Imprecisely Designating Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    respectively. The TEL is solely for immigration purposes, and is pursuant to amendments made to 8 U.S.C. §1182 under the USA Patriot Act in 2001.86 The DoS...assisting partner nations in degrading terrorist group capabilities. Financial and immigration sanctions through terrorist group designation assist in...advantage of the FTO list is the stigma attached to a group placed on the list, signifying the official U.S. opposition to the group’s activities

  3. Terrorist Group Dynamics Through the Lens of the Tigantourine Assault in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian terrorist assault in January 2013 that was carried out by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and his “Battalion of Blood” activists against a BP-Norwegian-Algerian-Japanese gas facility in In Amenas, Algeria, is worth considering as it provides a rare glimpse into several key dimensions of terrorist group dynamics that are important for scholars and counter- terrorism practitioners to understand.

  4. Combating Terrorism: A Case Study of Nigeria Against Boko Haram Terrorist Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    www.law.cornell.edu/ wex/federalism#main-menu (accessed March 9, 2014). 4Ibid. 5CIA World Fact Book , Country Studies, “Nigeria Federalism and...research is therefore primarily conducted using published books and articles on NG, terrorism, and BH terrorist group. 10 Definitions Terrorism... illiteracy ), which can be exploited by terrorists. Combining the Direct and Indirect Approaches The combination of direct and indirect approaches in

  5. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lehmann, P.; Leveque, A.; Levi, C.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Olkowsky, J.; Papineau, L.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Szteinsznaider, D.; Tzara, C.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  6. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  7. Suburban Bliss or Disillusionment - Why Do Terrorists Quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van der Heide

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the explanatory value of two theories of desistance – the cessation of criminal behavior – in explaining why 27 individuals left the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS. The article focuses specifically on jihadists that turned away from ISIS after March 2011, asking why individuals desist from ISIS and choose to leave the caliphate. A dataset of 27 narratives of desistance was analysed to answer the question to what extent desistance from ISIS by jihadists can be explained by the Laub & Sampson’s life course theory and by Altier, Thorogughood & Horgan’s model of push and pull factors. The primary pathways for desistance are coded according to the two theories. The results show that of the 27 individuals, the majority desisted from the caliphate because of their perception of the excessive use of force by ISIS and their inability to cope with the effects. A minority desisted because of their perception of alternative options outside the terrorist group or because of important life events that happened ‘at home’. Thus, the article concludes that the push and pull factors model is valid in the explanation of desistance from the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq whereas life course theory does not hold explanatory value

  8. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  9. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  10. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la

  11. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  12. The development and interaction of terrorist and fanatic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Erika T.

    2013-11-01

    Through the mathematical study of two models we quantify some of the theories of co-development and co-existence of focused groups in the social sciences. This work attempts to develop the mathematical framework behind the social sciences of community formation. By using well developed theories and concepts from ecology and epidemiology we hope to extend the theoretical framework of organizing and self-organizing social groups and communities, including terrorist groups. The main goal of our work is to gain insight into the role of recruitment and retention in the formation and survival of social organizations. Understanding the underlining mechanisms of the spread of ideologies under competition is a fundamental component of this work. Here contacts between core and non-core individuals extend beyond its physical meaning to include indirect interaction and spread of ideas through phone conversations, emails, media sources and other similar mean. This work focuses on the dynamics of formation of interest groups, either ideological, economical or ecological and thus we explore the questions such as, how do interest groups initiate and co-develop by interacting within a common environment and how do they sustain themselves? Our results show that building and maintaining the core group is essential for the existence and survival of an extreme ideology. Our research also indicates that in the absence of competitive ability (i.e., ability to take from the other core group or share prospective members) the social organization or group that is more committed to its group ideology and manages to strike the right balance between investment in recruitment and retention will prevail. Thus under no cross interaction between two social groups a single trade-off (of these efforts) can support only a single organization. The more efforts that an organization implements to recruit and retain its members the more effective it will be in transmitting the ideology to other vulnerable

  13. Evaluation guideline for the study of the radiological impact of based nuclear installations (INB) presented in support of releases authorization demands; Guide d'examen pour l'etude de l'impact radiologique d'une installation nucleaire de base (INB) fournie a l'appui des demandes d'autorisation de rejets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, M.; Despres, A.; Supervil, S.; Conte, D.; Hubert, P.; Oudiz, A.; Champion, D

    2002-10-01

    In the case of a license demand for the effluents release and water taking for a nuclear installation, the operating must realize a study of the nuclear effluents radiological impact on the environment and the public health. In this context, the study presents technical and methodological specifications which led the Direction of the Nuclear Installations Safety (DSIN) and the General Direction of the Health (DGS) to ask the IPSN the elaboration of a guideline to help these studies evaluation. The guideline presents the regulatory context, the description of the installations, the treatment and the control processes, the rules of management, the description of the environment, the estimation of the radiological impacts and the environment control system definition. (A.L.B.)

  14. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  15. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  16. Computing Optimal Mixed Strategies for Terrorist Plot Detection Games with the Consideration of Information Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MingChu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watching potential terrorists and destroying the plot, and cause a huge risk to public security. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, we develop a new Stackelberg game model for the security agency to generate optimal monitoring strategy with the consideration of information leakage. Secondly, we provide a double-oracle framework DO-TPDIL for calculation effectively. The experimental result shows that our approach can obtain robust strategies against information leakage with high feasibility and efficiency.

  17. Estimating the Importance of Terrorists in a Terror Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhajj, Ahmed; Elsheikh, Abdallah; Addam, Omar; Alzohbi, Mohamad; Zarour, Omar; Aksaç, Alper; Öztürk, Orkun; Özyer, Tansel; Ridley, Mick; Alhajj, Reda

    While criminals may start their activities at individual level, the same is in general not true for terrorists who are mostly organized in well established networks. The effectiveness of a terror network could be realized by watching many factors, including the volume of activities accomplished by its members, the capabilities of its members to hide, and the ability of the network to grow and to maintain its influence even after the loss of some members, even leaders. Social network analysis, data mining and machine learning techniques could play important role in measuring the effectiveness of a network in general and in particular a terror network in support of the work presented in this chapter. We present a framework that employs clustering, frequent pattern mining and some social network analysis measures to determine the effectiveness of a network. The clustering and frequent pattern mining techniques start with the adjacency matrix of the network. For clustering, we utilize entries in the table by considering each row as an object and each column as a feature. Thus features of a network member are his/her direct neighbors. We maintain the weight of links in case of weighted network links. For frequent pattern mining, we consider each row of the adjacency matrix as a transaction and each column as an item. Further, we map entries into a 0/1 scale such that every entry whose value is greater than zero is assigned the value one; entries keep the value zero otherwise. This way we can apply frequent pattern mining algorithms to determine the most influential members in a network as well as the effect of removing some members or even links between members of a network. We also investigate the effect of adding some links between members. The target is to study how the various members in the network change role as the network evolves. This is measured by applying some social network analysis measures on the network at each stage during the development. We report

  18. The Financial Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the Value of the Oil and Gas Industry: An International Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, David; Scholtens, Bert; Dorsman, André; Arslan-Ayaydin, Özgür; Baha Karan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Energy firms operate in a strategic industry and their operations are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We investigate how terrorism impacts stock returns of these firms. We analyze the effect of 105 terrorist attacks on oil and gas companies during 2001–2012. We find that there is no evidence that

  19. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  20. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  1. Stemming the Growth: Exploring the Risk Factors in Group Membership in Domestic Street Gangs and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    between childhood and adulthood. Youth is a time of radical change- the great body changes accompanying puberty, the ability of the mind to search one’s...recruited to a terrorist group via personal connections with existing members. No terrorist wants to try to recruit someone who might betray the

  2. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  3. Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire

  4. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  5. The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident Bush to move on the war footing; hence, the .S. National Security Strategy, announced in September 2 2, appears to endorse a doctrine of pre emptive war that is highly unilateral, and takes its radar on the global fight against terrorism. Thus, what came to be ...

  6. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  7. After a terrorist attack: Challenges for political and administrative leadership in norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the challenges that the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway created for central government and, more particularly, for the political and police leadership. The emphasis is on 'meaning making', focusing on how the leaders played out their reactions in the

  8. The Vulnerability of the United States Railroad System to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    and belief in my ability to complete this project. A final thank you to my wife Tamara, for her abiding love , encouragement, helping me to clearly......will allow their deployment anywhere. These K-9 teams provide a psychological , physical, and visual deterrent against criminal and terrorist threats

  9. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  10. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  11. Determining the effectiveness of protective fences from explosions of terroristic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a general methodology for determining the effectiveness of protective fence against explosive devices of a terroristic nature. It also presents an example of using the developed methodology to create a more optimal solution for protective fence for a particular enclosure.

  12. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  13. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  14. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  15. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    way, both culturally and historically.40 Zartman and Faure seem to have a broader perspective on negotiating with terrorists, and they recommend...called Foreign Minister Holst, who was visiting in Iceland : “Can you meet me discreetly in Stockholm tonight? It is now or never.” That night Holst

  16. The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Jack

    Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual…

  17. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  18. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  19. Dutch Suspects of Terrorist Activity: A Study of Their Biographical Backgrounds Based on Primary Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Leyenhorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the impending defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq, supporters of terrorist groups, among them home-grown supporters and returning foreign fighters, have become a huge security threat to their country of return. Some have committed attacks in western countries, even while under the surveillance of authorities. Counter-terrorism is confronted with enormous challenges. One of the most prominent issues is the absence of evidence based knowledge on early warning signs. Experts on radicalization and terrorism have emphasized that neither typologies of terrorists nor accurate descriptions of generalizable risks can be made. This leads to opportunities for those who are willing to prepare and commit acts of terrorism to do so, without the agencies in charge of monitoring such individuals being able to accurately identify relevant threats. An additional deficiency in counter-terrorism research, is its dependency on historic and secondary source material. One of various actors in the Netherlands tasked to evaluate and mitigate relevant risks of terrorist suspects and offenders, is the Dutch Probation Service (DPS. In response to today’s prevailing terrorist threat, a specialized section of the DPS is set up to identify and supervise potential problem behaviour of those who are suspected or convicted of terrorism. The authors have been involved in this Unit Terrorism, Extremism and Radicalization (TER for years. As professionals of TER, the authors have had unique access to both judicial data, such as police files and prosecutor’s data, as to experts in the Dutch field of counter-terrorism. The authors have analysed the pre-sentencing advices of twenty-six clients of the DPS. These files are comprised of several socio-economic, historical, psychopathological and behavioural indicators. The goals are to learn from the analysis of the biographical backgrounds of the suspects and to stimulate the debate on management and supervision of terrorist

  20. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  1. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  2. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  3. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (PEurope (13.2%) ranked 4th. The literature search identified 41 publications reporting 167 incidents of which 3.9% detailed building collapse (BC), 60.8% confined space (CS), 23.5% open space (OS) and 11.8% semi-confined space (SC) attacks. 60.4% reported on suicide terrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the

  4. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  5. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  6. The Path to Terrorist Violence: A Threat Assessment Model for Radical Groups at Risk of Escalation to Acts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Dean T

    2005-01-01

    .... The Path to Terrorist Violence Model, based on a threat assessment model used in the emerging field of threat management for the judiciary and elected officials, is a valid and reliable assessment...

  7. Some aspects of the nuclear fission process; Quelques aspects du processus de fission nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In the following report one can find first a short general view on the present situation of our knowledge concerning the nuclear fission process, namely on the nucleus going through the saddle-point. Then there are some aspects connected with the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. The measurements made at Saclay on the fast neutron fission cross-section of U{sup 233}, U{sup 235}, Pu{sup 239}, U{sup 238} are described at the beginning of this work. It appears that for U{sup 233} there is some characteristic shape modulation of the cross-section curve, in relation with the collective excited state of the deformed nucleus at the saddle-point. Good evidence of this is also given by the study of the relative fission rate with emission of long-range particles; it appears also that this ternary fission rate does not change substantially for neutron between thermal energy and 2 MeV, but that is very lower for the compound nucleus U{sup 239} than for even-even compound nuclei. At the end there are some experiments on the strong 4,5 MeV gamma-ray originated by slow neutron absorption in U{sup 235}. Time-of-flight device is used to establish that this 4,5 MeV gamma-ray seems mostly connected with radiative capture. (author) [French] Le present travail debute par un apercu de l'etat actuel de nos connaissances sur le processus de fission nucleaire, notamment sur le passage par le point-seuil. Puis sont evoques des aspects lies au niveau d'energie d'excitation auquel est porte le noyau qui subit la fission. Les mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite dans {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu et {sup 238}U par des neutrons rapides effectuees a Saclay sont decrites en premier lieu; elles font apparaitre pour {sup 233}U une ondulation caracteristique du role des etats collectifs d'excitation du noyau deforme au point-seuil. Des experiences sur la fission avec emission de particules de long parcours confirment cet aspect tout en demontrant que

  8. Legal responses to 'Terrorist Speech' : a critical evaluation of the law in Turkey in light of regional and international standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Much scholarly attention has focused on the incremental extension of criminal liability for ‘terroristic speech’ (reflecting the widely acknowledged preventive turn in criminal law). This thesis examines the case law of Turkey's Yargıtay (Court of Cassation) and Constitutional Court on 'terroristic speech' in the light of regional (the European Court of Human Rights), and international (Human Rights Committee and CERD) standards. While this corpus of human rights law has obtained some positiv...

  9. Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organization in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Patrick D., Captain, and Colonel Michael J. Meese. The Financial Front in the Global War on Terrorism. Edited by R. D. Howard and R. L. Sawyer. Westpoint...Laundering: The Scope of the Problem and Attempts to Combat It.” Tennessee Law Review, 1995. Suskind, Ron . The One Percent Doctrine. New York, NY...prosecuting those responsible for terrorist acts; (5) responding to WMD attacks; (6) managing kidnapping for ransom crimes; and (7) responding to terrorist

  10. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immedi...

  11. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  12. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  13. Internet Posting of Chemical Worst Case Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    of people convinces the rest of us that we are next in line. Rumors, anxiety , and hysteria created by such inevitable incidents may lead to panic...Terrorists Used Weapons of Mass Destruction?’’ (Armed Forces Journal, April 1998). For a solid com- pilation of essays on superterrorism, see Brad...slightest risk with the lives of their husbands, wives, parents, children , or grandchildren.’’ Let me stress that no one here, including those in law

  14. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social , 1983; Rodolfo Cardenal, Historia de una Esperanza: Vida de Rutilio...surprising, since there are few al Qa’ida social - welfare services, hospitals, or clinics (a problem of which al Qa’ida’s leaders are aware). In addition...changes within the group, as well as changes within the larger political and social environment. Third, terrorist groups deliberately choose

  15. Innovation in Terrorist Organizations; Strategic Insights: v.10, issue 2 (Summer 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights (Summer 2011), v.10 no.2, p.17-29 "Between the end of the 1960's and the mid 1980's, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and its various offshoots pioneered an innovative terrorist strategy, along with several related tactics. The PFLP's innovation lay, first, in the identification of the global community as the primary target audience for Palestinian activism; second, in the selection of the aviation system as the prime targ...

  16. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    differences that separate the psychopath from the political terrorist, although the two may not be mutually exclusive, as in the case of Hindawi. One...involvement. Strentz applies the psychological classification of the antisocial personality, also known as a sociopath or psychopath , to the life-style of this...lead some to believe that they all share psychopathic or sociopathic symptoms. Nevertheless, the question of whether any or all of these guerrilla

  17. How would you handle a terrorist act involving weapons of mass destruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and the American Medical Association are focusing on preparation for terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction, which include nuclear, chemical, or biologic agents. A nuclear or chemical terrorism incident combines the problem of treating mass casualties with that of decontaminating patients. Joint Commission surveyors are asking about domestic terrorism preparedness. ACEP will offer a training course within 18 months for physicians, nurses, and paramedics.

  18. Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals Before Military Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-11

    the law of war rather than criminal statutes to prosecute the alleged perpetrators. The report will first present an outline of the sources and...principles of the law of war, including a discussion of whether and how it might apply to the current terrorist crisis. A brief explanation of the background...applying the law of war under United States law, summarize precedent for its application by military commissions, and provide an analysis of the President’s

  19. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  1. Do police reduce crime? Estimates using the allocation of police forces after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    Schargrodsky, Ernesto; Di Tella, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    An important challenge in the crime literature is to isolate causal effects of police on crime. Following a terrorist attack on the main Jewish center in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 1994, all Jewish institutions (including schools, synagogues, and clubs) were given 24-hour police protection. Thus, this hideous event induced a geographical allocation of police forces that can be presumed to be exogenous in a crime regression. Using data on the location of car thefts before ...

  2. CAROLIN GOERZIG. TALKING TO TERRORISTS: CONCESSIONS AND THE RENUNCIATION OF VIOLENCE. REVIEWED BY: SCOTT NICHOLAS ROMANIUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Talking to terrorists remains a taboo” (Goerzig, 2010: p. 125. The adoption and reinforcement of such a moral position by many Western and non-Western governments alike has played no small role in, to a large extent, states to contain the violence and insecurity bred by terror activist in the post-Cold war and post-9/11 periods. Yet, few policymakers seem to recognize the danger in building political and social environments in which dialogue between states and terrorist groups and organizations is little more than depravity or even a betrayal to entire populations. To be sure, the protection of civilian populations has been entrusted to states that might otherwise learn better means of terrorism deterrence if lines of communication between states and terrorists were less constrained. The taboo of which Carolin Goerzig speaks, is one that “has been institutionalized in a legal framework in which … academics are being asked to report on their students and in which attempting to understand the subjectivities of ‘terrorist’ suspects could be interpreted as a ‘glorification of terrorism’” (Jackson quoted in Goerzig, 2010: p. 125.

  3. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  4. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  5. Public perceptions of the threat of terrorist attack in Australia and anticipated compliance behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry; Taylor, Melanie; Barr, Margo; Jorm, Louisa; Giffin, Michael; Ferguson, Ray; Agho, Kingsley; Raphael, Beverley

    2009-08-01

    To determine the perceived threat of terrorist attack in Australia and preparedness to comply with public safety directives. A representative sample of 2,081 adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of the New South Wales Population Health Survey. Overall, 30.3% thought a terrorist attack in Australia was highly likely, 42.5% were concerned that self or family would be directly affected and 26.4% had changed the way they lived due to potential terrorist attacks. Respondents who spoke a language other than English at home were 2.47 times (Odds Ratios (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.58-3.64, pterrorism. Those with high psychological distress perceived higher terrorism likelihood and greater concern that self or family would be directly affected (OR=1.84, 95% CI:1.05-3.22, p=0.034). Evacuation willingness was high overall but those with poor self-rated health were significantly less willing to leave their homes during a terrorism emergency. Despite not having experienced recent terrorism within Australia, perceived likelihood of an attack was higher than in comparable western countries. Marginalisation of migrant groups associated with perceived terrorism threat may be evident in the current findings. This baseline data will be useful to monitor changes in population perceptions over time and determine the impact of education and other preparedness initiatives.

  6. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  7. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie

    2017-10-23

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  9. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D A; Klein, S

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them), it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously) how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate) what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  10. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  11. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M.H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l

  12. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  13. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  14. Report of unusual events in Dutch nuclear installations in 2004 (Report of failures 2004); Rapportage van ongewone gebeurtenissen in de Nederlandse nucleaire installaties gedurende 2004 (Storingsrapportage 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-10

    No unusual events occurred in the Dutch nuclear power plant Borssele in 2004, which required special safety measures. Eight events in the Borssele reactor were reported to the 'Kernfysische Dienst' (Nuclear Physics Service). 13 events were reported by other nuclear installations. [Dutch] Er hebben zich in 2004 in de kernenergiecentrale Borssele en de overige Nederlandse nucleaire installaties geen ongewone gebeurtenissen voorgedaan die bijzondere veiligheidsmaatregelen noodzakelijk maakten. Ook hadden de gebeurtenissen, met uitzondering van de niet voorziene verschoning van een opslagbassin, geen nadelige gevolgen voor de omgeving. De bedrijfsvoering werd door het nemen van passende maatregelen verbeterd. Over 2004 zijn acht (vorig jaar zes) gebeurtenissen in de kernenergiecentrale Borssele schriftelijk aan de Kernfysische Dienst gemeld. Door de overige nucleaire installaties zijn dertien (vorig jaar twaalf) gebeurtenissen gemeld. Het totaal aantal storingsmeldingen is de laatste zeven jaren niet wezenlijk af- of toegenomen. De drie meldingen aangeduid met inschaling >0 zijn allemaal meldingen van INES-niveau 1; er deden zich geen incidenten voor van INES-niveau 2 of 3.

  15. Nuclear weapons: new threats, new challenges; Armes nucleaires: nouvelles menaces, nouveaux enjeux...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, D.

    2005-07-01

    After a brief history of the Iranian nuclear crisis since 2003, the author discusses the four aspects of this crisis which make it a textbook case: a country which wants to control the whole nuclear process and therefore may reach the capacity to produce military-grade uranium (this raises the question of the relationship between nuclear energy and disarmament), the validity and efficiency of international controls is at stake, divergence may appear on the ways to have international treaties respected (different approaches between Europe and the USA), a country which is looking for nuclear weapon for matters of regional security and power (this raises the issue of a new approach to security). Then, the author describes the new nuclear threats: proliferating states, terrorist groups, and states with nuclear weapons (attitude of the USA, China, Russia, France and the United Kingdom, perspective of a nuclear disarmament of Europe). He gives an overview of the current status of disarmament and of treaties (START, NPT), and discusses the opportunities to save the non proliferation treaty from collapsing in 2005

  16. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  18. Effect of 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Emad; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in suicide in England and Wales has been reported after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA. It may be plausible therefore to expect a much greater impact on suicide in the UK in response to the events of 7 July 2005, caused by the first suicide terrorist attack by Islamic extremists on British soil. To examine the effect of the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide rates in England and Wales. Analysis of number of suicide (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) and undetermined injury deaths (ICD-10 codes Y10-Y34) reported in England and Wales in the 12 weeks before and after 7 July 2005. We used Shewhart Control Charts based on Poisson rates to explore adjusted daily and weekly suicide rates and rate differences with respect to 7 July 2005. A brief but significant reduction in daily suicide rate was observed a few days after the terrorist attack in London on 7 July 2005. Further reduction was also observed on the 21 July 2005, coinciding with the second wave of attacks. No similar reduction in suicide was seen during the same period in the previous 4 years. Poisson regression models with indicator variables for each day in July 2005 revealed a reduction of 40% of the expected daily rate for these 2 days only. We found no evidence of any longer-term effect on suicide. The study findings are contrary to our expectation and only weakly support Durkheim's theory that periods of national threat lower the suicide rate through the impact on social cohesion. It is possible that previous experience of IRA terrorism in the UK may have limited the effect of the 7 July 2005 attacks on suicide in England and Wales. The shock value of suicide terrorism and its psychological potency appear to diminish over time as the tactic becomes overused.

  19. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    reconnaissance, with a team sent to survey, plan, and prepare for the attack with help from local dissi- ______________ 104“El Silencio de las Armas...and “Farc se Movilizan al Sur de Bolívar,” El Tiempo , July 16, 2000. 56 The Dynamic Terrorist Threat often funnel food and shelter to its members and...1998. “Farc se Movilizan al Sur de Bolívar,” El Tiempo , July 16, 2000. Farrell, Nick, “US Fears Nuclear Cyber Terror Attacks,” vnunet.com, June 27

  1. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  2. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  3. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  4. Jemaah Islamiyah: Reevaluating the Most Dangerous Terrorist Threat in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    leaders recognized the organization needed to adapt. Before Bali 2002, there were signs that JI’s leaders wanted change. Once the Bali cell carried out...critical function essential to a terrorist group’s success. In JI’s case, they are theatrics to reach the international audience, recruit like- minded...old goods.”386 If that is the case, the author’s hypothesis accurately describes how JI has evolved. AQA was the clearest sign that JI’s

  5. Countering Al-Shabaab: A Case to Minimize Transnational Terrorist Threats Against Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    terrorists after the death of Al-Qaeda member Nabhan Saleh in 2009, who was among the masterminds of the two U.S. Embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es ...National Congress AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arab Peninsula AQI Al-Qaeda in Iraq ARS Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia AU African Union COG... salaam in 1998. See Bill Roggio, “Uganda Attack Carried out by Shabaab Cell Named after Slain Al-Qaeda Leader,” The Long war Journal, July 15, 2010

  6. Terrorism. Part III--Response procedures for terrorist/tactical violence incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, H T; Denney, J P; Maniscalco, P M; Rubin, D L

    1999-01-01

    A safe and effective response to a terrorist/tactical violence incident involves the following critical factors: Identify and train all potential convergent responders. 2-in/2-out--your partner is your life; have a plan to rescue the rescuers. Orient all responders to LACES. Search your command, staging and treatment areas for a secondary device. Restrict media coverage. Control the scene and relocate/evacuate if necessary. Alert medical receiving facilities early in the event chain to enable them to prepare for a patient onslaught.

  7. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  8. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements

  9. Political terrorism and affective polarization in "black" and "red" terrorists in Italy during the years 1968-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2018-01-21

    Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent. We put forward the hypothesis that formal and transpolitical radical choices, either in favor of an illegal lifestyle or of activities involving a high level of risk, may be linked with certain mental states, especially when considering small clandestine groups showing a high level of internal ideological consensus, and a no-return attitude toward a commitment to radical choices. Available data about the psycho(patho)logical profile of terrorists are still hard to come by. The only available studies are those on identified living terrorists (judging by the trials of those who personally admitted to having been terrorists), and statistical data imply a number of documented cases belonging to the same terrorist organization. In Italy, the period often called the "years of lead [bullets]" displays an interesting viewpoint for the study of terrorist psychology, for two main reasons: first of all, it is a historically defined period (1968-1988), and second, the number of ascertained participants in terrorist activities was quite large.

  10. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  11. Persistent paranoid delusions following the September 11 terrorist attacks in a man with no pre-existing mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R; Beddingfield, John J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of modern day terrorism on mental health are not well understood. Described here is a 51-year-old male with no pre-existing mental illness who developed paranoid delusions related to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks shortly after they occurred. After about two years of treatment with quetiapine the patient was no longer delusional about terrorism but experienced extensive paranoid delusions about commonly encountered persons, requiring treatment which continues to the current time. Clinicians should be aware of the possible impact of terrorist activities on the mental health of vulnerable individuals.

  12. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law; Abwehr terroristischer Gefahren und Risiken durch Bauplanungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-07-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  13. [Analysis on the individual-response behavior and the influence factors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Siheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2015-04-01

    To analyze related behaviors of individual preparedness and influencing factors on violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates. A total of 1 800 undergraduates from 5 colleges or universities in Guangzhou were selected, using the stratified cluster method. A questionnaire involving the response to violent terrorist attack behavior was used to assess the individual preparedness behaviors among undergraduates. A self-made questionnaire was applied to collect information on demographic factors, cognitive and preparedness behaviors. The mean score of individual preparedness behavior among undergraduates was 13.49 ± 5.02 while information on seeking behavior was 4.27 ± 1.64, avoidance behavior was 5.97 ± 2.16 and violent terrorist attack response behaviors was 23.73 ± 7.21, with 30.0 percent of undergraduates behaved properly. Significant differences were found in the scores of behaviors on the response to violent terrorist attack with different gender, major they pursue or religious belief (P undergraduates involved in this study. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that persons being girls (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.06-2.01), with bigger perceived probability (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12-2.30), with higher alertness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.15-6.61), with stronger coping confidence (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.48) and bigger affective response (OR1 = 3.42, 95% CI: 2.40-4.86; OR2 = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.13-0.41), would present more prominent behavior responses when facing the violent terrorist attack. Individual response behaviors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates were relatively ideal. Perceived probability, alertness, coping confidence and affective response appeared to be independent influencing factors related to response behaviors against violent terrorist attack. In colleges and universities, awareness on violent terrorist attacks should be strengthened among undergraduates. Focus should target on psychological education dealing with

  14. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  15. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  16. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  17. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.

  18. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Mining emotional profiles using e-mail messages for earlier warnings of potential terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsky, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2006-04-01

    We develop a software system Text Scanner for Emotional Distress (TSED) for helping to detect email messages which are suspicious of coming from people under strong emotional distress. It has been confirmed by multiple studies that terrorist attackers have experienced a substantial emotional distress at some points before committing a terrorist attack. Therefore, if an individual in emotional distress can be detected on the basis of email texts, some preventive measures can be taken. The proposed detection machinery is based on extraction and classification of emotional profiles from emails. An emotional profile is a formal representation of a sequence of emotional states through a textual discourse where communicative actions are attached to these emotional states. The issues of extraction of emotional profiles from text and reasoning about it are discussed and illustrated. We then develop an inductive machine learning and reasoning framework to relate an emotional profile to the class "Emotional distress" or "No emotional distress", given a training dataset where the class is assigned by an expert. TSED's machine learning is evaluated using the database of structured customer complaints.

  1. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-08-24

    Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age = 16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pattern of Fatal Injuries in Counter Terrorist Operations: An Innovative Analysis through Embalming Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M M; Bhatia, J K; Rana, Kvs

    2009-04-01

    Mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter-terrorist operations in Kashmir valley are sent to their home after undergoing mandatory embalming. Injuries on the mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter terrorist operations between Jan 1999 to Dec 2006 were analysed with respect to the agent, mode of injury, age, rank structure, body parts involved, seasonal variations and changing trends. Fatalities consequent to enemy action across line of control and fatalities of Kargil war were also analysed for comparison. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test for difference in proportions. Over the study period, terrorist induced injuries accounted for 8.16 deaths per thousand troops deployed whereas enemy action from across the line of control accounted for 0.63 deaths per thousand. Terrorist induced fatalities peaked in 2001 and thereafter revealed a declining trend ('p' < 0.001). Fatalities due to enemy action across line of control declined to zero since 25 Nov 2003 consequent to effective ceasefire. Of the total fatalities, 89.5% were killed in action (KIA) while 10.5% died of their wounds after reaching the hospital. Fatality to total injured ratio peaked to 29% in 2001 and than stabilized to about 23%. Mean KIA to total casualty ratio was 21%. The rank structure of the fatalities was officers 8.6%, JCOs 7.3%, and Other Ranks 84.1%. Most of the soldiers died young, 51% being below 25 years of age. Out of the terrorist induced fatalities, 78.2% died of gunshot wounds and 21.5% by splinters and improvised explosive devices (IED). The ratio was reversed in enemy induced fatalities and in Kargil war. Fatalities peaked during June to November and declined in winters. Body region wise, 23.4% of all deaths were due to head injury, 8.4% due to neck and maxillofacial injury, 18.4% due to injury to lungs and 11% due to heart injury. Most frequent target of the fatal bullet was brain (25.4%), closely followed by lungs (22.5%) and heart (12.3%). When

  3. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  4. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  5. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  6. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  7. 76 FR 39408 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-030 Use of the Terrorist Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... published privacy impact assessments to provide additional transparency into how DHS has implemented WLS... records notices and privacy impact assessments discussed in this SORN. DHS is planning future enhancements... preparation for, in aid of, or related to terrorism (``known or suspected terrorists''). Categories of records...

  8. GITMO detainees and U.S. host communities: is your hospital prepared to live with terrorist inmates in your backyard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James D

    2009-01-01

    With the transfer of terrorist prisoners from Guantanamo Bay to the US imminent, the dangers for hospitals which have agreements with the Bureau of Prisons to treat inmate populations during All-Hazards events go well beyond those faced in normal forensic patient situations, according to the author.

  9. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  10. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    mental disorders listed in the DSM-III that are most frequently associated with terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy, narcissism, Freudian “thanatos...death wish), and organic or physiological disorders (Corrado 1982:295). Sociopathy and psychopathy are used interchangeably, although sociopathy

  11. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  12. 75 FR 2920 - Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Also Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, Also Known as al- Qa'ida Organization in the Arabian...

  13. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  14. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  15. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  16. Administrative instruction D.H.O.S./H.F.D./D.G.S.N.R. N 277 of the 2. may 2002 relative to the organisation of medical treatments in case of nuclear or radiological accident; Circulaire DHOS/HFD/DGSNR N. 277 du 2 mai 2002 relative a l'organisation des soins medicaux en cas d'accident nucleaire ou radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note deals with the organization of medical care the first day in case of nuclear or radiological accident. It defines the modalities of pre hospital reception (out of the exclusion area) and hospital reception. This note leans on a national guide relative to the medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiological accident. This organization is made at the department level in reference to the note relative to the inflow of victims in health centers. It will be a base for the nuclear annexes to the white plans of health establishments. This note completes the dispositions defined by the public authorities intervention in case of radiation accident. (N.C.)

  17. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  18. The role of occupational health nurses in terrorist attacks employing radiological dispersal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Suzanne Lobaton; Beaton, Randal D

    2009-03-01

    The potential for biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear terrorism has been widely acknowledged since the events of September 11, 2001. Terrorists' use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb, is considered to be a threat for which Americans must prepare. Occupational health nurses must have the knowledge and skill set to plan for, respond to, and recover from a radiologic event potentially affecting significant numbers of first responders as well as businesses and their workers. This article describes the hazards related to RDDs and provides resources supporting occupational health nurses' roles in such events occurring near or at their workplaces. Occupational health nurses are prepared to assess and treat RDD causalities using current information to identify signs and symptoms of exposed and contaminated RDD victims. Decontamination, treatment, and recovery methods for workers and businesses affected by an RDD event are described.

  19. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  20. Building Social Scenarios. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies In The Terrorist Attacks In France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chiorean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays Europe a wind of terror of an intensity comparable to that of the belligerent periods walks freely and occasionally strikes the apparent tranquility of our lives. Islamic fundamentalist attacks seemingly coming from nowhere without prior psychological preparation manage to create hardly measurable effects. Media and consequently public opinion resonate dramatically to a reality that is destabilizing the social political economic cultural individual or group balance in many parts of this bewildered and concerned Europe. It is a tense context in which fear and terror annihilate rationality and freedom of expression being able to maintain a toxic atmosphere of information and independent media can serve conjecturally unintentionally even to the harmful interests of those terrorist groups.

  1. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  2. Radio nuclear aggression. Psychological impact and management; L'agression radio-nucleaire. Impact psychologique et prise en charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisseaux, H. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Psychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de [Hopital des Armees Percy, Service de Protection Radiologique, 92 - Clamart (France); Foehrenbach, H. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Long before possible organic effects, exposure to ionizing radiations can provoke anxiety. In front of invisibility, the imagination quickly ignites. The terrorists have perfectly understood it. They are ready to use ionizing radiations as a weapon to remind traumatic images deeply rooted in people's memory. These images induce anxiety with all the clinical expressions connected to it. These symptoms require to be treated because of a possible anarchic development. For that purpose, plans have been elaborated to coordinate the different professional's actions. The coherence of medical management and communication aims to allow the most implicated people to find the way to face the events. When it is not possible, medico-psychological cells permit a specialized care. (author)

  3. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  4. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A

    2005-01-01

    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  5. Reactions of Indian adolescents to the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2005-03-01

    There is information about the impact of disasters and trauma on children, but little is known about the effects of terrorism particularly in India. (i) To assess the knowledge of the 9/11 terrorist attacks to the school going adolescents of India who were miles away from the actual incident. (ii) To compare the reactions to this event among the boys and girls. The study used a survey design with a self-report questionnaire administered to 406 students in 6 schools of standards 9-12. The questionnaire was administered within 3 weeks of occurrence of this event. The mean age of the subjects was 16.34 years (SD= 1.22; range= 13-20) and 44.1% were boys. All the students were aware about this event. Awareness that the twin towers were hit was in 81.06 but only 51.94% knew that Pentagon was also hit. All the children knew who the prime suspect was although only 12.62% were aware about the country to which he belonged. The source of knowledge of the events was the television in 74.7% of the adolescents and 17.95% of them viewed foreign news channels additionally to the Indian channels to gather details about the event. Newspaper, radio and internet were the sources of information in 44.17%, 3.4% and 3.5% children respectively. Of the adolescents who gathered information from the television, 84.7% agreed that there had been an increase in their TV viewing time since the event and it was more than one hour per day in 47.5% of them. None of the students supported the terrorist attacks. The number of students with negative stressors was significantly more than the ones who were unaffected (p 0.0001). The girls were significantly more affected than the boys and while the former expressed anger the latter were more fearful and sad. (p 0.05) The idea of USA going for war against Afghanistan was supported by 69.4% and one third of them believed that such an event might adversely affect India. The adolescents who had witnessed the events on television were more fearful and

  6. The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf: A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Kitchen of Your Mom” in the Inspire online magazine. Inspire magazine is an important terrorist device because it can be accessed in the United States...terrorist messages and ideals. 24. October 2007—Unknown Two hand grenades that had been fashioned into pipe bombs were thrown outside the Mexican ...City was hit with an improvised explosive on March 6, 2008. The blast was similar to the October 80 2007 attack on the Mexican Consulate and the

  7. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  8. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  9. The spectrum of human reactions to terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction: early management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Cleto

    2003-01-01

    Residents of a community who are intentionally exposed to a hazardous biological, chemical, or radiological agent (including medical first-responders and other civil defense personnel who live in that community) will exhibit a spectrum of psychological reactions that will impact the management of the incident. These reactions will range from a variety of behaviors of normal people under abnormal circumstances that either will help or hinder efforts to contain the threatening agent, deliver medical care, and reduce the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the disaster, to the development of new, or exacerbation of preexisting, mental disorders. Anticipating the decisions that people will make and actions they will take as the crisis develops is hindered by the limited number of previous disasters that bear crucial similarities to a terrorist attack with a weapon of mass destruction. Such actions, therefore, could serve as models to predict community reactions. One result of a study that attempted to fill in these gaps suggested that medical first-responders and their spouses/significant others may require separately crafted information and advice to reduce the potential for disharmony within the family that could affect job performance during the crisis. For those persons who exhibit emotional lability or cognitive deficits, evaluation of their psychiatric signs and symptoms may be more difficult than imagined, especially with exposure to nerve agents. Appreciation of these difficulties, and possession of the skill to sort through them, will be required of those assigned to triage stations. The allocation and utilization of mental health resources as the incident unfolds will be the responsibility of local consequence managers; these managers should be aware of the results of a recently-held workshop that attempted to reach consensus among experts in disaster mental health, based on the peer-reviewed literature, on the efficacy and safety of various

  10. Granting Concessions and Paying Ransoms to Terrorists: A Policy Options Analysis of the U.S. Policy on Hostage Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the Taliban, says, “Negotiating with the Taliban after more than 10 years of fighting means giving legitimacy and space to militant extremism.”17 In...The latter is exemplified by the Brazilian government, which regularly granted concessions to terrorists in exchange for their citizens. Despite these...detainees who were being held at the U.S. prison camp in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.190 Bergdahl, who was stationed in Afghanistan, left his outpost

  11. Identifying Enemies Among Us: Evolving Terrorist Threats and the Continuing Challenges of Domestic Intelligence Collection and Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    criminal cartels seem to be increasing their efforts to control illegal drug-distribution networks north of the border, raising concerns that Mexican...the United States seems related to ordinary crime (and it seems unlikely that cigarette smugglers would be Hezbollah’s top choice for terrorist opera...maritime issues, Kansas City on explosives, Arizona on illegal immi- gration, Los Angeles on drug-trafficking gangs, and so forth. The centers would

  12. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety) threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Thr...

  13. Austria and the Threats from Islamist Radicalisation and Terrorist Involvement: An Overview of Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Götsch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other European countries, Austria has so far been spared from terrorist attacks in the context of radical Islamism. However, the perceived threat, several criminal cases of terrorist involvement as well as being indirectly affected by attacks in other countries led to a high level of public and governmental attention to the issues of radicalisation, terrorist involvement and deradicalisation in Austria. Due to strong public pressure and growing recognition of the existing problem and hazard areas by governmental and non-governmental actors, a number of (1 initiatives providing support and counselling in case of radicalisation have been launched (e.g. Extremism Information Centre; DERAD or extended. Furthermore, (2 governmental agencies and political stakeholders have been pushing for enhanced means for the criminal prosecution and conviction of criminal offenses in the context of terrorism. The article presents an overview and review of new and renewed initiatives as well as (planned policy changes countering radicalisation and deradicalisation and terrorist involvement (support of terrorist organisations, membership, plans for terrorist attacks, etc. and thus a summarising insight into the case of Austria.

  14. Americans respond politically to 9/11: understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-09-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping support for national security policy in the wake of 9/11. Support for a strong national security policy was most pronounced among Americans who perceived the nation as at threat from terrorism and felt angry at terrorists. In contrast, Americans who were personally affected by the attacks were more likely to feel anxious about terrorism, and this anxiety translated into less support for overseas military action. In addition, Americans who felt insecure after the 9/11 attacks and perceived a high future threat of terrorism were more likely than others to support strong foreign and domestic national security policies. Overall, research on American political reactions to 9/11 suggests that support for a strong government response to terrorism is most likely when members of a population perceive a high risk of future terrorism and feel angry at terrorists. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  15. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002, and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355 participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

  16. Some limitations of "Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence" for risk analysis of terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2008-12-01

    Several important risk analysis methods now used in setting priorities for protecting U.S. infrastructures against terrorist attacks are based on the formula: Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence. This article identifies potential limitations in such methods that can undermine their ability to guide resource allocations to effectively optimize risk reductions. After considering specific examples for the Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) framework used by the Department of Homeland Security, we address more fundamental limitations of the product formula. These include its failure to adjust for correlations among its components, nonadditivity of risks estimated using the formula, inability to use risk-scoring results to optimally allocate defensive resources, and intrinsic subjectivity and ambiguity of Threat, Vulnerability, and Consequence numbers. Trying to directly assess probabilities for the actions of intelligent antagonists instead of modeling how they adaptively pursue their goals in light of available information and experience can produce ambiguous or mistaken risk estimates. Recent work demonstrates that two-level (or few-level) hierarchical optimization models can provide a useful alternative to Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence scoring rules, and also to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques that ignore rational planning and adaptation. In such two-level optimization models, defender predicts attacker's best response to defender's own actions, and then chooses his or her own actions taking into account these best responses. Such models appear valuable as practical approaches to antiterrorism risk analysis.

  17. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  18. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: “Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?” Addressing each of the “four Ws” will assist researchers in determining “How” to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children’s reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature. PMID:23034149

  19. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  20. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  1. The counter-terrorist campus: Securitisation theory and university securitisation – Three Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Gearon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With intensified threats to global security from international terrorism, universities have become a focus for security concerns and marked as locus of special interest for the monitoring of extremism and counter-terrorism efforts by intelligence agencies worldwide. Drawing on initiatives in the United Kingdom and United States, I re-frame three – covert, overt and covert–overt – intersections of education, security and intelligence studies as a theoretical milieu by which to understand such counter-terrorism efforts. Against the backdrop of new legislative guidance for universities in an era of global terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts by security and intelligence agencies and their Governments, and through a review of Open-Source security/intelligence concerning universities in the United Kingdom and the United States, I show how this interstitial (covert, overt and covert– overt complexity can be further understood by the overarching relationship between securitisation theory and university securitisation. An emergent securitised concept of university life is important because de facto it will potentially effect radical change upon the nature and purposes of the university itself. A current-day situation replete with anxiety and uncertainty, the article frames not only a sharply contested and still unfolding political agenda for universities but a challenge to the very nature and purposes of the university in the face of a potentially existential threat. Terrorism and counterterrorism, as manifest today, may well thus be altering the aims and purposes of the university in ways we as yet do not fully know or understand. This article advances that knowledge and understanding through a theoretical conceptualisation: the counter-terrorist campus.

  2. Selected birth defects among males following the United States terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parvati; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-10-02

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) preceded an increase in male fetal deaths and reduced male live births among exposed gestational cohorts across several geographic locations in the United States, including California. We analyze whether the extreme stressor of 9/11 may have selected against frail males in utero by testing if the prevalence of male births with selected defects in California fell among cohorts exposed to the stressor during gestation. We used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from July 1985 to January 2004 (223 conception cohorts). We included six birth defects that as a group of phenotypes disproportionately affect males. We applied time-series methods and defined as "exposed to 9/11" the cohorts conceived in February, March, April, May, June, July, and August 2001. Three of the seven monthly conception cohorts exposed to 9/11 in utero show lower than expected odds of live born males with the studied defects: February 2001 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71), May 2001 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81), and August 2001 (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93). The population-wide stressor of 9/11 precedes a reduction in the risk of live born males with selected birth defects. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of adaptation to stress among pregnant women exposed to large and unexpected ambient stressors. Results further support the notion that the prevalence of live born defects may reflect temporal variation in cohort selection in utero against frail males. Birth Defects Research 109:1277-1283, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    2017-01-01

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ < .05) between mean pre- and post-training test scores occurred in each of the three groups. There was a clear improvement in the knowledge of the students after the training when pre- and post-training test scores were compared within the three groups. The greatest improvement was seen in the citizens/first responders group. 2017.

  4. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation; Le marche noir de la bombe - Enquete sur la proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk.

  5. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archier, P.

    2011-09-14

    de ces incertitudes provient des donnees nucleaires et, dans le cas des RNR-Na, des donnees nucleaires du sodium, qui presentent des differences significatives entre les bibliotheques internationales (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). L'objectif de cette these est d'ameliorer la connaissance sur les donnees nucleaires du sodium afin de mieux calculer les parametres neutroniques des RNR-Na et fournir des incertitudes fiables. Apres un etat des lieux des presentes donnees du {sup 23}Na, l'impact des differences est quantifie notamment sur les effets en reactivite de vidange du sodium, calcules avec des outils neutroniques deterministe et stochastique. Les resultats montrent qu'il est necessaire de reevaluer entierement les donnees nucleaires du sodium. Plusieurs developpements ont ete effectues dans le code d'evaluation Conrad, pour integrer de nouveaux modeles de reactions nucleaires et leurs parametres ainsi que pour permettre de proceder a des ajustements avec des mesures integrales. Suite a ces developpements, l'analyse des donnees differentielles et la propagation des incertitudes experimentales avec Conrad ont ete realisees. Le domaine des resonances resolues a ete etendu a 2 MeV et le domaine du continuum debute directement au-dela de cette energie. Une nouvelle evaluation du {sup 23}Na et les matrices de covariances multigroupes associees ont ete generees pour de futurs calculs d'incertitudes. La derniere partie de la these se focalise sur le retour des experiences integrales de vidange du sodium, par des methodes d'assimilation de donnees integrales, afin de reduire les incertitudes sur les sections efficaces du sodium. Ce document se clot sur des calculs d'incertitudes pour des RNR-Na de type industriel, qui montrent une meilleure prediction de leurs parametres neutroniques avec la nouvelle evaluation

  6. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual Well-Being and the Allocation of Time Before and After the Boston Marathon Terrorist Bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew E.; Stancanelli, Elena G. F.

    2016-01-01

    There is a small literature on the economic costs of terrorism. We consider the effects of the Boston marathon bombing on Americans’ well-being and time allocation. We exploit data from the American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module in the days around the terrorist attack to implement a regression-discontinuity design. The bombing led to a significant and large drop of about 1.5 points in well-being, on a scale of one to six, for residents of the States close to Boston. The happiness of A...

  8. Pathological personality development after the Chornobyl disaster and the anti terrorist operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2016-12-01

    Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done. The neuropsychiatric clinical and psychometric methods as General Health Questionnaire, GHQ 28; Eysenck Personality Inventory, EPI; method of personality diag nostic by H. Schmischek - K. Leongard, and modified social psychological questionnaire (Joint Study Project 1993) - «dangers questionnaire» were used. Extraversion, hyperthymia and demonstrativity in the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident and evac uees decreased, while emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. Extraversion and hyperthymia decreased in the ATO participants while jams, pedantry, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. According to the social psychological assessment («dangers questionnaire») there were found that at present the «national conflict» factor takes among the clean up workers the 22th rank place, evacuees - the 18th, while the participants ATO - the 11th, however the risk perception of disease associated with the presence in the environment of radioactive substances in the ATO participants takes the 6th place, the liquidators - the 8th, the evac

  9. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  10. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  11. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  12. Fear of terrorism in New York after the September 11 terrorist attacks: implications for emergency mental health and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Figley, Charles R; Adams, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    To examine the public's response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction.

  13. Narratives from caregivers of children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan: issues of health, culture, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia

    2007-04-01

    Acts of terrorism have an extremely negative impact on the mental health of children and families. The school siege in Beslan, Russia, in 2004, represents a particularly traumatizing event as it was directed specifically at children and involved the entire community. This qualitative study aims to: (a) examine caregiver reactions to the terrorist attack in Beslan as reported 3 months after the traumatic event; (b) determine the extent to which indigenous cultural values and religious belief systems play a role in Beslan's caregivers' reactions to such event; and (c) identify variables that may function as sources of resilience to caregivers. A convenience sample of 17 primary caregivers from Beslan with at least one child who survived the school siege were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Narratives generated from the interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a thematic approach; nine major themes were identified. Caregivers' concerns centered on children's physical and psychological well-being, the reorganization of family life, and the disruption of community ties. Cultural values of pride, heroism, courage, and revenge emerged as relevant aspects shaping caregivers' reactions to the traumatic event. Possible sources of resilience included the willingness to return to normality, social support, and the reaffirmation of positive, culturally shared values in face of the perceived threat of future terrorist attacks. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications on the effects of trauma on children and families as well as interventions with highly traumatized populations in diverse cultural settings.

  14. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2017-07-01

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  16. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  18. Significance of a Level-2, "selective, secondary evacuation" hospital during a peripheral town terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Pinkert, Moshe; Leiba, Adi; Oren, Meir; Haspel, Jacob; Levi, Yehezkel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    Mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) can occur outside of major metropolitan areas. In such circumstances, the nearest hospital seldom is a Level-1 Trauma Center. Moreover, emergency medical services (EMS) capabilities in such areas tend to be limited, which may compromise prehospital care and evacuation speed. The objective of this study was to extract lessons learned from the medical response to a terrorist event that occurred in the marketplace of a small Israeli town on 26 October 2005. The lessons pertain to the management of primary and secondary evacuation and the operational practices by the only hospital in the town, which is designated as a Level-2 Trauma Center. Data were collected during the event by Home Front Command Medical Department personnel. After the event, formal and informal debriefings were conducted with EMS personnel, the hospitals involved, and the Ministry of Health. The medical response components, interactions (mainly primary triage and secondary distribution), and the principal outcomes were analyzed. The event is described according to Disastrous Incidents Systematic Analysis Through Components, Interactions, Results (DISAST-CIR) methodology. The suicide bomber and four victims died at the scene, and two severely injured patients later died in the hospital. A total of 58 wounded persons were evacuated, including eight severely injured, two moderately injured, and 48 mildly injured. Forty-nine of the wounded arrived to the nearby Hillel Yafe Hospital, including all eight of the severely injured victims, the two moderately injured, and 39 of the mildly injured. Most of the mildly injured victims were evacuated in private cars by bystanders. Five other area hospitals were alerted, three of which primarily received the mildly injured victims. Two distant, Level-1 Trauma Centers also were alerted; each received one severely injured patient from Hillel Yafe Hospital during the secondary distribution process. Emergency medical services personnel

  19. 48 CFR 252.209-7004 - Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting with firms....209-7004 Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. As prescribed in 209.409, use the following clause: Subcontracting with Firms that are Owned or...

  20. Terrorist Event Training in US Medical Schools. A Survey of Chemical, Biologic, Radiologic, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Training in US Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, James M; Ziegler, Kristina; Armstrong, Jessica M; Shapiro, David

    2015-01-01

    September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education. We surveyed 170 medical schools in the US and Puerto Rico using a five-question, internet-based survey, followed by telephone calls to curriculum offices for initial nonresponders. We used simple descriptive statistics to analyze the data. A majority of US medical schools that completed the survey (79 schools or 65.3%) have no required lecture or course on CBRNE or terrorist activities during the first or second year (preclinical years). Ninety-eight out of the 121 respondents (81.0%), however, believed that CBRNE training was either very important or somewhat important, as reflected in survey answers. Most physician educators believe that training in CBRNE is important; however this belief has not resulted in widespread acceptance of a CBRNE curriculum in US medical schools.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  2. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  3. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  4. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    moins deux composantes, l'une tres breve due a la desexcitation directe du gaz rare, l'autre relativement plus lente, due au transfert d'energie sur les impuretes. La mesure des durees de vie des etats excites a confirme l'hypothese precedente, la partie breve de l'impulsion est extremement courte: inferieure a 2,25.10{sup -9} s dans le cas du xenon, la partie plus lente a une duree qui depend etroitement de la concentration d'azote, l'azote etant l'impurete dont le role est preponderant dans tous les cas. L'etude des gaz rares soumis a un champ electrique a permis de montrer que la quantite de lumiere produite par une particule {alpha} peut etre multipliee (par 60 dans un champ de 600 V/cm par exemple) ce qui correspond a un rendement de luminescence superieur a celui de INa TI. Dans la deuxieme partie on a etudie les caracteristiques des gaz rares comme scintillateurs, la plus importante est l'absence de saturation de la fluorescence lorsque la densite d'excitation transmise au gaz devient tres grande. Ceci joint au temps de scintillation tres court a permis d'etudier un certain nombre d'applications a la physique nucleaire (mesure d'energie des particules lourdes, etude cinetique des reacteurs nucleaires, spectroscopie des neutrons...). (auteur)

  5. Supplemental Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (10th) - Outthinking the Terrorist: An International Challenge Held at Springfield, Virginia on 23-24 April 1985,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-24

    more of its citizens through terrorist attacks in Lebanon Europe , which experiences about 40 percent of all interna- alone than it did worldwide through...use of "diplomatic" of same, to create a climate of teror , to publicise a cause, and facilities, weapons supply, and so on. to coerce a wider target...region (e.g., the Irish Republican rorist alliance by extreme leftist groups in Western Army-the IRA-and the Basque and Corsican terrorists). Europe

  6. [Utilization of complex technologies of molecular genetics for forensic expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Zharov, V V; Frolova, S A; Ryseva, E V; Kolmakova, M A; Trusova, G R; Tomilin, V V

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the first experience gained in Russia in expert identification practice with complex utilization of technologies of molecular genetic individualization of biological objects for solving identification tasks requiring the maximum complete armory of mutually supplementing means. This is particularly important for forensic expert personality identification in cases with many deaths, when indirect identification has to be resorted to, consisting in the use of biological samples from relatives of the victims as the identifying objects. Methodological approaches and concepts of expert studies, used for identification of the remains of people who died in terroristic acts committed in Moscow in September, 1999, are discussed. The results of this study and methodological experience notably extend the potentialities of expert evaluation as regards forensic medical identification of victims of overall disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  7. Restorative Justice in Terrorist Victimisations: Comparative Implications: Introduction (Justicia Restaurativa en el Caso de Victimizaciones Terroristas: Implicaciones Comparativas: Introducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Varona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue is focused on the application of restorative justice to terrorist victimisations. Both concepts (restorative justice and terrorist victimisations are controversial ones in social science and society. We decided to approach them from a concrete programme on restorative encounters developed in the Basque Country in 2011 and 2012. This programme targeted ex-members of ETA, and direct and indirect victims. Este número se centra en la aplicación de la justicia restaurativa a las victimizaciones terroristas. Ambos conceptos (el de justicia restaurativa y el de victimizaciones terroristas resultan controvertidos en las ciencias sociales y en la sociedad. Decidimos acercarnos a ellos desde un programa concreto de encuentros restaurativos, desarrollado en el País Vasco en los años 2011 y 2012. Este programa estaba dirigido a ex miembros de ETA y a algunas víctimas directas e indirectas.

  8. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  9. 77 FR 4082 - Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist Organization... the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad... basis to find that al-Qa'ida in Iraq, also known under the aliases listed above, uses or has used an...

  10. Lone-Wolf Terrorist Radicalization and the Prisoner’s Dilemma: Ensuring Mutual Cooperation Between at-Risk Muslim Americans and Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    local, lone-wolf terrorism is limited when compared to the body of work on international, group-based terrorism.10 Considering the ramifications of 9...believed being placed on the no-fly list was his parents’ doing, because they were holding him back from terrorist radicalization.143 “I was betrayed by...know their bodies are torn everywhere. Like, like when I see the (UI).147 As Mohamud continued to coordinate an attack on the lighting ceremony

  11. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  12. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  13. Exploration radiologique d'une masse sus claviculaire gauche: notre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dakena. Abstract. (J. de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé, 2000, 4(1): 259-261). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jrsul.v4i1.17025.

  14. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  15. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  16. Predictors of the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Mete, Mihriye; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the role of several hypothesized predictors of the impact of a potentially traumatic event, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), on a sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). We found that IPV-related PTSS mediated the relationship between IPV and 9/11-related PTSS, confirming the hypothesis that severity of symptoms related to prior trauma plays a role in the development and severity of PTSS related to subsequent potentially traumatic events. Media exposure and threat appraisal were significantly positively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, whereas social support was significantly negatively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, with none of these variables serving as moderators of the relationship between IPV-related and 9/11-related PTSS. Our results suggest that trauma-related psychiatric history is an important factor in the development of PTSS subsequent to an additional potentially traumatic event, even after adjusting for relevant variables occurring at the time of that event. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  18. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001 (Internal Post Box 360), Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The approximately 23.7 wt% {sup 240}Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the {sup 239}Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. {sup 240}Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% {sup 238}Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% {sup 238}Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating {sup 237}Np to {sup 238}Pu are also reported. However, these

  19. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos CHRISTOFIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only short-lived effects since the market rebound was fairly quick. Of the sectorial indices, the tourist industry is found to be more adversely affected by these events.

  20. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  1. Terrorist Threat in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La amenaza que supone el terrorismo nacional e internacional crecerá en 2014. Con la mitad de los Estados del mundo sufriendo la violencia política y el extremismo ideológico, el terrorismo seguirá siendo la amenaza de primer nivel para la estabilidad de la mayoría de los Estados en 2014.

  2. Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-06

    Familiar Road Map to Terror,” Associated Press, Dec. 18, 2001. Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Name(s). Armed Islamic Group, GIA Goals and Objectives. GIA...known as La Violencia (1948-1958).390 The violence ended in 1958 with a reconciliation between key parties in the government. Meanwhile, landless

  3. Commentary: surviving terrorist cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Rebecca M; Jain, Sarah Lochlann

    2009-01-01

    The use of violent imagery, war metaphors, and the "survivor" persona in relation to cancer research and treatment are examined, as are consumer-driven approaches to "working toward a cure." The authors ask, what are the cultural and environmental trade-offs of these types of rhetoric? The positions of good guys (survivors, researchers, consumers) versus the enemy (cancer) are critically evaluated. Of especial note is a recent print advertisement that, despite its arresting visual presence, delivers an exceedingly vague message. The authors conclude that the practice of medicine plays a pivotal role in these cultural determinations and that caricatured attributions of cellular violence ultimately divert critical attention from sustained scrutiny of the institutional, social, economic, and political processes that in fact may contribute to the forces that bear on causing cancer.

  4. Leftist Terrorist Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    they began to pick up the earmarks of terrorism. (28:121-131). Behavior Patterns Theodore Newcomb , professor of Sociology and Psychology at the...self- concepts, subject to sudden and intense depression leading to suicides. (23:73-74). Belonging Professor Theodore Newcomb reported there was a...Behavioral Process. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969. 20. Newcomb , Theodore M. Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt, 1959. 21. Parry, Albert

  5. Terrorist tactics in taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Under the catching title given above G.B. MONTEITH, Queensland Museum, has written an editorial in the Austr. Entom. Soc. News Bull. 21 (1985) 66—69, which has been copied in the Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newsletter 44 (1985) with a comment by A. KANIS (CANB). Although it mainly concerns Australian

  6. Profile of a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    homeland in the Iberian region. (6:12) ’it1day, after 20 years of insurgent actions, the Basque separatists have embraced Marxist political theory as their...34 Current News, Special Edition, Terrorism, August 5, 1986, pp. 20-22. 37. Wolf , John. "Arab Terror Draws upon Diverse iilosophical .Rots." New York City

  7. Terrorist Group Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    leadership thought to include, among others, Barbara Mayer, Inge Viett, Sigrid Sternbeck, Tomas Simon, Wolfgang Grams, Horst Meyer, Birgit Hogefeld, Silke...imprisoned) and Benito Tiamzon (probable chairman). Sponsors Independent. Political Objectives/Target Audiences " Replace the current Aquino government...populace for the continued US military presence on the islands. " Provoke a more repressive response from the Aquino government through its

  8. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  9. Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L

    2006-03-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire

  10. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  11. Conformity of nuclear construction codes with the requirements of the French order dated December 12, 2005 related to nuclear pressure equipment; Conformite des codes de construction nucleaires avec les exigences de l'arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandemange, J.M.; Renaut, P. [Areva-NP, Tour AREVA, 92084 - Paris La Defense cedex, (France); Paris, D. [EDF-Ceidre 2 rue Ampere - 93206 SAINT-DENIS Cedex (France); Faidy, C. [EDF-Septen 12/14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    The French Decree dated December 13, 1999 transposing the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) has replaced the fundamental texts on which up to now the regulation for pressure equipment important for the safety of nuclear reactors was also founded. By a Ministerial Order - called 'ESPN Order' - dated December 12, 2005, a new regulation has been issued for nuclear pressure equipment. This text makes reference to the Decree transposing the PED while completing these provisions by supplementary requirements having the objective to provide a very high level of integrity guarantee for equipments which are the most important for safety, and to cover the prevention of radioactive release risks. These regulatory evolutions are presented in the Plenary Session of the ESOPE conference. Referencing the Decree and thus the PED, and including specific provisions, the Ministerial Order implies that the Manufacturers update their documents and, if necessary, their prescriptions in the following two domains: - that of the conformity of Codes and Standards used, generally inspired from the ASME Code Section III, with the essential safety requirements of the PED, - that of the respect of the complementary provisions brought by the ESPN Order. This paper presents the more significant conclusions of this work and the resulting amendments of the RCC-M Code, introduced by the 2007 addendum to that Code. The analysis will lead to specify the same type of complementary requirements to Code when a manufacturer wishes to use the German KTA Rules or the ASME Code Section III. (authors) [French] Le decret du 13 decembre 1999 transposant la directive europeenne (DESP) relative aux equipements sous pression a remplace les textes fondamentaux sur lesquels se fondait egalement jusque la la reglementation des appareils a pression importants pour la surete des reacteurs nucleaires. Par arrete - dit 'arrete ESPN' - du 12 decembre 2005, une nouvelle reglementation a ete dictee. Ce

  12. La tasca legislativa del Consell d'Europa davant la utilització d'Internet amb finalitats terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Chicharro Lázaro

    2009-12-01

    , posades en conjunció, permetran fer front a aquests comportaments delictius: la Convenció sobre Cibercrim de l'any 2001 i la Convenció per a la Prevenció del Terrorisme de l'any 2005. L'adaptació de la legislació interna a aquests instruments proporcionarà als estats una cobertura adequada per a perseguir els crims associats a l'ús d'Internet amb fins terroristes.

  13. Contribution to the study of solid helium-3 by nuclear magnetic resonance; Contribution a l'etude de l'helium trois solide par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landesman, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Due to the unusually large zero point motion of helium three atoms in the solid, the overlap of the atomic wave functions is very important. As a consequence, there are exchange interactions, the theoretical calculation and the experimental measurement of which are discussed. Nuclear magnetic resonance is especially well suited for the latter.A detailed theory is given for both exchange narrowing and Zeeman-exchange cross relaxation, which phenomena are used to measure the exchange interaction as a function of molar volume. The alignment temperature is thus known; it goes down when the pressure goes up and is never higher than three milli degrees. An influence of helium four impurities on the exchange interactions between helium three atoms which are neighbours of the substitutional He is shown. (author) [French] Par suite de l'amplitude exceptionnelle des mouvements de point zero dans l'helium trois solide, le recouvrement des fonctions d'onde atomiques est tres important. Il en resulte des interactions d' echange dont on discute l'evaluation theorique et la mise en evidence experimentale. Cette derniere peut se faire par resonance magnetique; on etudie theoriquement les phenomenes de retrecissement par echange et de relaxation Zeeman-echange que l'on met a profit pour determiner les interactions d'echange en fonction du volume molaire. On en deduit que la temperature d'alignement nucleaire diminue quand on comprime le solide et est au plus de 3x10{sup -3} K. L'influence des impuretes d'helium quatre sur les interactions d'echange entre atomes {sup 3}He voisins de {sup 4}He est mise en evidence. (auteur)

  14. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control; Etude et realisation d'un ensemble de calcul puissance periode pour le controle d'un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-10-01

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author) [French] L'appareil etudie est un ensemble de calcul digital permettant d'elaborer et d'afficher numeriquement la periode et la puissance, d'un reacteur nucleaire lors de son fonctionnement depuis le demarrage jusqu'a la puissance nominale. Il traite en temps reel, de facon continue, les impulsions en provenance d'une chambre de fission. Grace a l'utilisation systematique d'une technique de calcul, la determination d'un logarithme a base 2 par approximation lineaire, un nombre reduit d'elements est utilise. La precision obtenue sur la periode est de l'ordre de 14 pour cent, le temps de reponse de l'ordre de la valeur de la periode calculee. Un ordre de grandeur de la puissance (30 pour cent) est donne a chaque cycle de calcul ainsi que des seuils de puissance necessaires au controle. (auteur)

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (10th) - Outthinking the Terrorist: An International Challenge Held at Springfield, Virginia on 23-24 April 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-24

    pressure cooker of the group on the run, testimony of another RAF member, a pressure considered surrounded by the enemy, these tensions are externalized...Palestine Key trends may therefore be summarised as a continuing terrorist Leila Khaled, who arrived at Heathrow in charge of a hijacked El-Al jet

  16. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective: This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method: Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465 was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716 were 19% and 30%. Results: Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions: The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related

  17. Nuclear medicine; La medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibille, L. [Hopital Lapeyronie CHU Montpellier, Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V. [CHU de Nimes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et de biophysique, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2011-05-15

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  18. Information sur les technologies nucleaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "La base Inis (International Nuclear Information System) de l'Agence Internationale d'Energie Atomique (IAEA) dispose desormais de liens vers les textes complets de documents internationaux" (1 paragraph).

  19. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  20. The psychological impact of terrorist attacks: examining a dose-response relationship between exposure to 9/11 and Axis I mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Christine A; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-11-01

    Previous research has suggested a dose-response relationship between exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, this relationship has not been examined with other Axis I mental disorders. This study examined whether the incidence of Axis I mental disorders was associated with level of exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Data came from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-2; N=34,653, ages 20+) collected between 2004 and 2005. This survey utilized a fully structured face-to-face interview to assess the presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders since Wave 1 of the NESARC, collected between 2001 and 2002. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between the level of exposure to 9/11 and the prevalence of Axis I disorders since Wave 1. In adjusted models, higher levels of exposure increased the odds of having new onset PTSD, any anxiety disorder, and any mental disorder. Compared to participants who were not exposed to 9/11, those who directly experienced 9/11 had six times the odds of having PTSD, 2.5 times the odds of having any anxiety disorder, and nearly twice the odds of having any mental disorder. Results suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between level of exposure to the 9/11 attacks and PTSD. Furthermore, higher levels of exposure increase the odds of having any anxiety disorder and any Axis I mental disorder.

  1. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A national longitudinal study of the psychological consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks: reactions, impairment, and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Elliott, Marc N; Jaycox, Lisa H; Collins, Rebecca L; Berry, Sandra H; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of psychological and behavioral reactions following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in a nationally representative sample, and describes where people turned for support, information, and counseling. From November 9 to November 28, 2001, we resurveyed 395 (71%) of the original 560 adults 19 years or older within the United States who participated in our national random-digit-dialing telephone survey conducted on September 14 to September 16, 2001, about their terrorism-related psychological distress and behavior. Sixteen percent of adults had persistent distress, reporting one or more substantial distress symptoms in both September and November. Adults with persistent distress reported accomplishing less at work (65%); avoiding public gathering places (24%); and using alcohol, medications, or other drugs to relax, sleep, or feel better because of worries about terrorism (38%). Seventy-five percent talked with family and friends; however, 43% reported sometimes feeling unable to share their terrorism-related thoughts and feelings with others because it made others uncomfortable. Few reported receiving counseling or information about psychological distress from general medical providers (11%). These findings suggest that a significant number of adults across the country were continuing to experience terrorism-related distress and disruption of their daily lives approximately 2 months after September 11; many turned to family and friends for support, but at times many felt uncomfortable doing so, and few used clinicians as a source of information or support. Clinicians and policymakers should consider how the healthcare system and other community organizations might provide a coordinated community-wide response for individuals needing information and counseling following terrorist events.

  3. Organic chemistry and radiochemistry: study of chemical interactions between iodine and paint of French nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation; Chimie organique et radiochimie. Etude des interactions chimiques iode-peinture dans un reacteur nucleaire (de type R.E.P.) en situation d'accident grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, Y. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-01-01

    In Phebus (French in pile facility; PWR scale 1/5000) experiments, performed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, few quantities of organic iodides were registered after interaction between iodine and reactor containment paint. This study concerns all mechanisms of chemical reactions between iodine and the polymer of the paint in order to estimate the organic iodides released from the paint. At first, all the paint components had been identified. Several models of chemical sites of the polymer were synthesized and tested with iodine in different conditions of temperature and radiation. These experiments showed interactions between iodine and secondary or tertiary amines by charge transfer. In few cases, the complex of tertiary amines creates oxidation reactions. (author)

  4. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    etudes, deux applications pratiques sont decrites telles qu'elles ont ete realisees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Des specifications sont donnees pour les betons de barytine et pour la fabrication des blocs de protection du synchrotron a protons 'Saturne'. (auteur)

  5. Non-destructive determination of the burn-up of a nuclear fuel using {gamma} spectrometry; Determination non destructive du taux de combustion d'un combustible nucleaire par spectrometrie {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelman, Ch.; Petit, J.F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed for measuring the burn-up of a nuclear fuel. The principle of the method is based on the quantitative determination of a fission product using {gamma} spectrometry. For fuel elements containing uranium 235, the measurements concern the photoelectric peak at 2.18 MeV of {sup 144}Ce which has a half-life of 290 days. The same method could be applied under certain conditions: a) to the measurement of the number of fissions due to {sup 239}Pu, by dosing the {sup 106}Rh deriving from the {sup 106}Ru and having a half-life of 370 days. b) and therefore possibly to the non-destructive determination of the quantity of {sup 239}Pu present in a fuel element. If the operational programme of the reactor is known as a function of time, the possible field of application of the method is extended to times of irradiation of from two to three years. (authors) [French] Nous avons mis au point une methode de mesure non destructive du taux de combustion d'un combustible nucleaire. Son principe repose sur la determination quantitative d'un produit de fission par spectrometrie {gamma}. Pour les elements combustibles utilisant l'uranium 235, les mesures portent sur le pic photoelectrique a 2,18 MeV du {sup 144}Pr fils du {sup 144}Ce de periode 290 jours. La meme methode pourrait etre appliquee sous certaines conditions : a) a la mesure du nombre de fissions dues au {sup 239}Pu en faisant le dosage du {sup 106}Rh fils du {sup 106}Ru de periode 370 jours. b) donc eventuellement a la determination non destructive de la quantite du {sup 239}Pu contenue dans un element combustible. Si le programme de fonctionnement dans le temps du reacteur est connu, le domaine d'application de la methode s'etend a des durees d'irradiation pouvant atteindre deux a trois ans. (auteurs)

  6. Terrorist attacks and the male-to-female ratio at birth: The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Rodney King riots, and the Breivik and Sandy Hook shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F. Terrorist attacks reduce M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether individual terrorist attacks influenced M/F in relevant populations. The following events were studied: the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Los Angeles Riots (the Rodney King affair), the Breivik shooting (Norway), and the Sandy Hook shooting (Connecticut). Northern Ireland M/F was significantly lower during the Troubles (1969-1998) than during the period before (p=0.0006). There was a very sharp dip in 1978 (p≤0.004) during this particular year of renewed violence and heavy civilian attacks. Rodney King riots-late April 1992 M/F dipped significantly in August 1992, 4months after the riots (p=0.044). Breivik Shooting-22/07/2011 M/F dipped significantly in December 2011, 5months after the event (p=0.004). Sandy Hook Shooting-14/12/2012 M/F dipped significantly in April 2013, 4months after the event (p=0.009). M/F dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are felt to be momentous enough by a given population. All of the above events caused significant population stress. The M/F dips noted may have been caused by population stress which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male foetuses. The dips noted are comparable to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially elevating this a public health issue. 1. The male-to-female ratio at birth is decreased by stressful events. 2. This is due to an excess of male foetal losses in established pregnancies. 3. Such losses in response to acute events are transient. 4. This ratio may be a useful indicator of population stress. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: 1. Gender ratios in populations could be routinely monitored in order to assess the impact of stressful events that may reduce the male-to-female birth ratio. Copyright

  7. Psychophysiological characteristics in the ChNPP accident clean-up workers, exclusion zone evacuees and anti-terrorist operation servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of interdependencies between psychometric parameters and spontaneous cerebral electric activity in the ChNPP accident clean up workers, evacuees from exclusion zone, and anti terrorist operation service men. Psychometric and neurophysiological parameters were reviewed in the study subjects retro spectively and in comparison. Study population included the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), evacuees from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone, specifically in a sample from a cohort of the NRCRM Clinical Epidemiological Register (n=316), and anti terrorist operation servicemen (n=81) undergoing rehabilitation in the NRCRM Radiation psychoneurology department. A control group of persons (n=84) was also involved in the study. Diagnostic method ology for the characteristic personality features, namely the personality test of character accentuation by G. Shmishek and K. Leonhard, and Eysenck Personality Inventory (by H. J. Eysenck) were applied. Computer EEGs were registered and analyzed on the 16 channel electroencephalograph DX 4000 (Kharkiv, Ukraine). In the aftermath of the emergency period, a personality deformation occurs in the clean up workers and survivors of the ChNPP accident, which is characterized by aggravation of such personality traits as jam (fixedness), emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and disthymia, with diminished hyperthymia and ostenta tion (demonstrability). Increased incidence of fixedness, pedantry, cyclothymia, affectability and disthymia with decreased hyperthymia were revealed in the group of ATO participants. Cerebral bioelectrical activity in the ChNPP ACUW was characterized by an increased delta activity power with decreased beta and theta activity power and dom inant frequency in comparison with all groups of survivors and control group. The ATO group was different from groups of survivors and control group with a lower power of delta, theta and beta activity, and a higher dominant frequency. Introversion

  8. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  10. Searching for and finding meaning in collective trauma: results from a national longitudinal study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison

    2008-09-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one's life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans' searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval--the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001--among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N=931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people's fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability.

  11. A study of the physical rehabilitation and psychological state of patients who sustained limb loss as a result of terrorist activity in Northern Ireland 1969-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Parke, R C; Paterson, M C; Stevenson, M

    2006-06-30

    To benchmark the psychological state and physical rehabilitation of patients who have sustained limb loss as a result of terrorist activity in Northern Ireland and to determine their satisfaction with the period of primary prosthetic rehabilitation and the artificial limb. All patients who sustained limb loss as a result of the Troubles and were referred to our rehabilitation centre were sent a questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the SIGAM mobility grades, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and three screening questions for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Out of a 66% response rate, 52 (69%) patients felt that the period of primary prosthetic rehabilitation was adequate; 32 (54%) lower limb amputees graded themselves SIGAM C or D; 45 (60%) patients stated that they were still having significant stump pain. Significant stump pain was associated with poorer mobility. Nine (56%) upper limb amputees used their prosthetic limb in a functional way; 33 (44%) patients showed "psychiatric caseness" on the GHQ 12 and 50 (67%) had symptoms of PTSD. Most patients felt that the period of physical rehabilitation had been adequate; those who did not were more likely to be having ongoing psychological problems. A high percentage of patients continue to have psychological problems and stump pain.

  12. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone [Oslo University Hospital, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Gaarder, Christine [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Naess, Paal Aksel [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  13. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  14. Health status and health care utilization following collective trauma: a 3-year national study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-08-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11) presented a unique opportunity to assess the physical health impact of collective stress in the United States. This study prospectively examined rates of physical ailments and predictors of health care utilization in a U.S. nationally representative sample over three years following the attacks. A sample of adults (N = 2592) completed a survey before 9/11/01 that assessed MD-diagnosed physical and mental health ailments. Follow-up surveys were administered at one (N = 1923), two (N = 1576), and three (N = 1950) years post-9/11 to assess MD-diagnosed physical health ailments (e.g., cardiovascular, endocrine) and health care utilization. Reports of physical ailments increased 18% over three years following 9/11. 9/11-related exposure, lifetime and post-9/11 stress, MD-diagnosed depression/anxiety, smoking status, age, and female gender predicted increased incidence of post-9/11 ailments, after controlling for pre-9/11 health. After adjusting for covariates (demographics, somatization, smoking status, pre-9/11 mental and physical health, lifetime and post-9/11 stress, and degree of 9/11-related exposure), increases in MD-diagnosed cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and hematology-oncology ailments predicted greater utilization of health care services over two years. After the collective stress of 9/11, rates of physical ailments increased and predicted greater health care utilization in a U.S. national sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10-11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R; Brackbill, Robert M; Friedman, Stephen M; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E

    2015-01-01

    To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003-2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011-2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011-2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities.

  16. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesbø, Heidi B; Gaarder, Christine; Næss, Pål Aksel; Enden, Tone

    2017-07-01

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. • Minimum acceptable care (MAC) should replace normal routines in mass casualty incidents. • MAC implied reduced use of imaging in the emergency department (ED). • CT in ED was restricted to suspected severe head injuries during MAC. • The radiologist should cancel all non-head CTs in the ED during MAC.

  17. [Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  18. Terrorist Group Brands: Understanding Terrorist Group Strategies Through Brand Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    see Iain Edgar, “The Dreams of Islamic State,” Perspectives on Terrorism 9, no. 4 (2015): Elliot Friedland, “Special Report: The Islamic State “(The...pamphlets with its distinctive logo, which, according to the Times of India, includes the “historical stamp of Prophet Muhammad and a Kalashnikov...2014, 2014. Dubik, James M. “How the U.S. Can Help Iraq in its Fight Against Al-Qaeda.” Washington Post, June 10, 2014. Edgar, Iain. “The Dreams of

  19. Disrupting Terrorist Networks: An Analysis of the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Furthermore, the PKK smuggles contraband cigarettes with forged tax stamps and then sells them for retail...Chinese student movement and the 1979 Iranian revolution in order to highlight this dimension.19 According to McAdam, the Chinese student movement was...dietary habits, consumption patterns, leisure activities, social statuses, and self perception”61 it is referred as the transformation of domain-specific

  20. Measurement of the power and of the period of a nuclear reactor using a simultaneously linear and logarithmic channel; Mesure de la puissance et de la periode d'un reacteur nucleaire a l'aide d'une chaine simultanement lineaire et logarithmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feghahati, E.E.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A simultaneously logarithmic and linear channel for measuring the power of a nuclear reactor using a single detector has been developed. It consists of a linear element and of a logarithmic element in the counter-reaction circuit of the measurement amplifier. The operation of this channel appears to be perfectly satisfactory. It can be connected to a period meter. The range of the logarithmic measurement extends from 10{sup -10} to 1O{sup -4} A and that of the linear measurement from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -3} A. It will be possible to extend the linear measurement to 10{sup -10} A. (author) [French] Une chaine de mesure, simultanement lineaire et logarithmique, de la puissance d'un reacteur nucleaire a partir d'un seul detecteur, a ete etudiee et realisee. Elle comporte un element lineaire et un element logarithmique dans le circuit de contre-reaction de l'amplificateur de mesure. Le fonctionnement parait parfaitement satisfaisant. Elle peut etre reliee a un periodimetre. La gamme de la mesure logarithmique s'etend de 10{sup -10} A a 10{sup -4} A et celle de la mesure lineaire de 10{sup -9} A a 10{sup -3} A. Une extension de la mesure lineaire a 10{sup -10} A est possible. (auteur)

  1. Synthesis and purification of some alkyl phenanthrenes and presentation of their infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra; Synthese et purification de quelques alcoylphenanthrenes et presentation ds leurs spectres d'absorption infrarouge, ultraviolette, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, K. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    We have carried out the synthesis of: - phenanthrene - its five monomethyl derivatives - three dimethyl derivatives - two trimethyl derivatives. We have then purified these products as well as a certain number of others obtained from various sources. We have been able to obtain in the majority of cases, a purity of 99.5 per cent or over, these figures being obtained by low voltage mass spectrometry. Finally we have recorded the infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra of these products for which an atlas has been drawn up. (author) [French] Nous avons realise la synthese: - du phenanthrene - de ses cinq derives monomethyles - de trois de ses derives dimethyles - de deux de ses derives trimethyles. Nous avons ensuite purifie ces produits ainsi qu'un certain nombre d'autres que nous avons obtenus de sources differentes. Nous avons pu atteindre, dans la plupart des cas, une purete egale ou superieure a 99,5 pour cent, chiffres determines par la spectrometrie de masse a basse tension. Enfin, nous avons enregistre les spectres infrarouges, ultraviolets, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse de ces produits dont nous avons fait un atlas. (auteur)

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and comorbid asthma and posttraumatic stress disorder following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on World Trade Center in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J; Thorpe, Lorna E; Cone, James

    2011-11-01

    Excess gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was reported in several populations exposed to the September 11 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). We examined new onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) since 9/11 and persisting up to 5-6 years in relation to 9/11-related exposures among the WTC Health Registry enrollees, and potential associations with comorbid asthma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is a retrospective analysis of 37,118 adult enrollees (i.e., rescue/recovery workers, local residents, area workers, and passersby in lower Manhattan on 9/11) who reported no pre-9/11 GERS and who participated in two Registry surveys 2-3 and 5-6 years after 9/11. Post-9/11 GERS (new onset since 9/11) reported at first survey, and persistent GERS (post-9/11 GERS reported at both surveys) were analyzed using log-binomial regression. Cumulative incidence was 20% for post-9/11 GERS and 13% for persistent GERS. Persistent GERS occurred more often among those with comorbid PTSD (24%), asthma (13%), or both (36%) compared with neither of the comorbid conditions (8%). Among enrollees with neither asthma nor PTSD, the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for persistent GERS was elevated among: workers arriving at the WTC pile on 9/11 (aRR=1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1) or working at the WTC site > 90 days (aRR=1.6; 1.4-2.0); residents exposed to the intense dust cloud on 9/11 (aRR=1.5; 1.0-2.3), or who did not evacuate their homes (aRR=1.7; 1.2-2.3); and area workers exposed to the intense dust cloud (aRR=1.5; 1.2-1.8). Disaster-related environmental exposures may contribute to the development of GERS. GERS may be accentuated in the presence of asthma or PTSD.

  3. Threatening “the Good Order”: West Meets East in Cecil B. DeMille’s The Cheat and John Updike’s Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Freeman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Despite almost a hundred years of separation, both Cecil B. DeMille’s film The Cheat (1915 and John Updike’s novel Terrorist (2006 deploy a clear-cut territorial divide between Western and Eastern spaces in order to envision a unified American space. These narratives superimpose a “natural” division on these historically opposed spaces and thereby suggest that any contact between these spaces will have dangerous consequences. These consequences include the potential dissolution and eventual destruction of American productivity, surveillance, and territorial integrity. DeMille’s film and Updike’s novel represent America as a nation-state that must be protected from the East. In 1915, The Cheat warned against an interracial America and the upsurge in immigration that characterized the turn of the century. Nearly a century later, Terrorist presupposes an interracial America but still constructs an East that threatens the security of America. While registering the particular concerns of two distinct historical moments, these narratives represent a larger attempt in American aesthetics to imagine an East that jeopardizes the utopian possibilities of an overly idealized American space.

  4. Public opinion and terrorist acts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2011), S107-S121 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : support for terrorism * public opinion * international terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  5. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  6. Attack of the Uber Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marni Soupcoff

    2014-01-01

      When the author first heard about Uber, Lyft, and other creative new ridesharing and car-hire companies, he felt sure they would be characterized as a bad idea by those enjoying the benefits of the current taxi cartel...

  7. Terrorist Application of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-04

    posted on the Cannabis News website.20 Other adversaries will no doubt exploit U.S. vulnerabilities as well, necessitating a greater outlay of...accidental bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in May 1999, and Iraqi SCUD missile attacks on Israel during the Gulf War.28 Normally space works to a...define his adversary’s center of gravity; he must cultivate and protect his own while minimizing his vulnerabilities. At the operational level of war

  8. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des

  9. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  10. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  11. Pregnancy and radiological diagnosis (in French); Grossesse et actes radiologiques diagnostiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-06-01

    The irradiation of a pregnancy must be avoided as far as possible, the pregnancy known or not. In the case of an established or probable pregnancy, if the therapeutical decision coming from the examination can be delayed without trouble for the mother, the examination will be deferred after the childbirth, if the examination is the only one to allow a diagnosis whom the delay could be prejudicial for the mother and then for the child, the examination will be realised: after agreement between the radiologist and the physician, after a detailed explanation and agreement of the mother, on insisting in one hand on the run risk without the examination and in the other hand, on the eventual consequences for the child. One will notice that the malformation risk during a pregnancy is about 2 to 3 % of births and one will emphasize on the fact there is no confirmed increase of this risk at the examination doses( The threshold of 100 m Sv is given by the I.C.R.P.). If a pregnancy has been unknown during an examination, it is important to receive the patient, to build the geometry and the dose of radiation, to explain the law of 'all or none' if it was in the two first weeks of the conception, to explain the calculation mode of the added risk (malformation or cancer) with a lower limit without any irradiation. Knowing that no examination is susceptible to reach the dose of 200 mGy, the limit of 100 mGy will be exceptional, in the almost of cases there is no cause to envisage a pregnancy termination. (N.C.)

  12. The aftermath of nuclear accidents on mental health; Consequences des accidents radiologiques sur la sante mentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Ph.; Brenot, J.; Verger, P. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1998-10-01

    Technological disasters bring about psychological effects in exposed populations of various durability and intensity. This article reviews the epidemiological studies which assess psychological and psychiatric consequences of the Three Mile Island, Goieanna and Chernobyl accidents. It shows, in different accidental and cultural contexts, a statistically significant and durable increase of psychological symptoms in various exposed population groups, which points out an actual psychological distress. Diagnosed psychiatric effects are less constant, but much less studied. Most affected groups are mothers of young children, relocated persons, persons with less social support or in financial trouble. The psychological distress can further psychiatric disorders and give rise to behavioural changes towards health. More research is necessary to delineate the nature and the determinants of the observed symptoms and disorders. It implies to design better tools for the assessment of individual exposure and the diagnosis of mental health effects. (authors)

  13. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  14. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  15. Development and validation of calculation schemes dedicated to the interpretation of small reactivity effects for nuclear data improvement; Developpement et validation de schemas de calcul dedies a l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation pour l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, A.

    2011-10-24

    afin d'obtenir des informations pertinentes sur les donnees nucleaires de base. L'enjeu de cette these est le developpement d'un schema de calcul de reference, dont les incertitudes sont clairement identifiees et quantifiees, permettant l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation. Dans ce document plusieurs methodes de calcul de ces faibles effets en reactivite sont presentees, basees sur des codes de calculs neutroniques deterministes et/ou stochastiques. Ces methodes sont comparees sur un benchmark numerique, permettant leur validation par rapport a un calcul de reference. Trois applications sont ici presentees dans le detail: une methode purement deterministe utilisant la theorie des perturbations exacte pour la qualification des sections efficaces des principaux produits de fission en REP, dans le cadre d'etudes sur l'estimation de la perte du reactivite du combustible au cours du cycle; une methode hybride, basee sur un calcul stochastique et la theorie des perturbations exacte, permet d'obtenir un retour precis sur les donnees nucleaires de bases d'isotopes, dans notre cas l'{sup 241}Am; et enfin, une troisieme methode, reposant sur un calcul perturbatif Monte Carlo, est utilisee pour une etude de conception

  16. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  17. Nuclear Safety Charter; Charte Surete Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The AREVA 'Values Charter' reaffirmed the priority that must be given to the requirement for a very high level of safety, which applies in particular to the nuclear field. The purpose of this Nuclear Safety Charter is to set forth the group's commitments in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection so as to ensure that this requirement is met throughout the life cycle of the facilities. It should enable each of us, in carrying out our duties, to commit to this requirement personally, for the company, and for all stakeholders. These commitments are anchored in organizational and action principles and in complete transparency. They build on a safety culture shared by all personnel and maintained by periodic refresher training. They are implemented through Safety, Health, and Environmental management systems. The purpose of these commitments, beyond strict compliance with the laws and regulations in force in countries in which we operate as a group, is to foster a continuous improvement initiative aimed at continually enhancing our overall performance as a group. Content: 1 - Organization: responsibility of the group's executive management and subsidiaries, prime responsibility of the operator, a system of clearly defined responsibilities that draws on skilled support and on independent control of operating personnel, the general inspectorate: a shared expertise and an independent control of the operating organization, an organization that can be adapted for emergency management. 2 - Action principles: nuclear safety applies to every stage in the plant life cycle, lessons learned are analyzed and capitalized through the continuous improvement initiative, analyzing risks in advance is the basis of Areva's safety culture, employees are empowered to improve nuclear Safety, the group is committed to a voluntary radiation protection initiative And a sustained effort in reducing waste and effluent from facility Operations, employees and subcontractors are treated alike, and a high level Of know-how is supported by training and skills maintenance. 3 - Transparency and reporting: Areva endeavors to provide reliable and relevant information enabling an objective assessment of the status of nuclear safety in its facilities (incident reporting, annual report of the general inspectorate, annual reporting on occupational safety during nuclear facility operations). 4 - Glossary.

  18. Nuclear and radioactivity; Nucleaire et radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Among the industrial risks of nuclear facilities, the nuclear risk is often associated to the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the nuclear major risk in a french PWR type power plant, with consequences on the personnel, the surrounding population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging; Resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibierge, M.; Sevestre, L.; Slupecki, P. [Centre Hospitalier de Charleville-Mezieres, 08 (France)

    1998-06-01

    After many years of low profile business in the USA, MRI is back. Improvements are focused on high field magnets and on low field magnets. The former, are dedicated to high quality imaging. The new scanners are more and more efficient because of the spreading use of real time imaging. They can do now, procedures that just could not be imagined some years ago. Vascular imaging is done routinely. Abdominal imaging in apnea of EPI, perfusion and diffusion imaging, and, last not least, all the field of functional imaging are on the verge of coming out. The new magnets unveiled in 1997 are lighter, smaller, more, user friendly, less impressive for patients subject to claustrophobia. They also need less helium to operate and less space to be sited. The latter, are dedicated to interventional procedures. The new magnets are wide opened and a lot of companies show off. Though Picker unveiled a new light superconductive 0.5 Tesla magnet, it seems that this kind of machines are about to disappear. No significant progress was noticed in the field of dedicated MRI devices. Some features can be highlighted: the new Siemens short bore and its table integrates the Panoramic Array Coil Concept. It will allow simultaneous scanning with up to four coils; the excellent homogeneity of the new Picker magnet that will allow spectroscopy at 1 Tesla; the twin gradients of the Elscint Prisma that will open the field of microscopy MRI; the Philips `floppy gradients` that could speed up 4 or 6 times, the time needed for imaging; some new sequences sensitive to temperature are studied as WIP; a lot of work is achieved on 3 or 4 Tesla scanners etc. (author)

  20. The nuclear refugees; Les refugies du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article

  1. Nuclear wastes management; Gestion des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  2. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  3. Nuclear Safety. 1997; Surete Nucleaire. 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-19

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs, technical incidents, and human factor incidents.

  4. Conduct of Occupational Health During Major Disasters: A Comparison of Literature on Occupational Health Issues in the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack and the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hiroyuki; Mori, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Workers who respond to large-scale disasters can be exposed to health hazards that do not exist in routine work. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for preparing for and responding to such problems, but published information is still insufficient. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health issues and occupational health activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack and at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident to investigate how occupational health activities during disasters should be conducted. Seven studies about the WTC attack were extracted and categorized into the following topics: "in relation to emergency systems including occupational health management"; "in relation to improvement and prevention of health effects and occupational hygiene"; and "in relation to care systems aimed at mitigating health effects." Studies about the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident have been used in a previous review. We conclude that, to prevent health effects in workers who respond to large-scale disasters, it is necessary to incorporate occupational health regulations into the national response plan, and to develop practical support functions that enable support to continue for an extended period, training systems for workers with opportunities to report accidents, and care systems to mitigate the health effects.

  5. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du

  6. Terrorist threat assessment with formal concept analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, P.; Poelmans, J.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Morsing, S.; Yang, C.Y.; Zeng, D.; Wang, K.; Sanfilippo, A.; Tsang, H.H.; Day, M.-Y.; Glässer, U.; Brantingham, P.L.; Chen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Police Service Agency of the Netherlands developed a model to classify (potential) jihadists in four sequential phases of radicalism. The goal of the model is to signal the potential jihadist as early as possible to prevent him or her to enter the next phase. This model has up till now,

  7. Extremist Ideological Influence on Terrorist Decision Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    obligatory upon all Muslims covers the sciences of theology, philosophy, law, ethics , politics and the wisdom imparted to the Ummah by the Prophet (S...opinion tmning. In f ntrmnl irmnl Cnnfrrrnrr on f,angungr Rrsmn’N’.• and Fttlfl lun.tt()n, ~()()(). [•I] C. FcUba um , ed itor. WoniN<’I An Elt •clmnic L

  8. Designating Domestic Terrorist Individuals or Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    As time moved forward, this convention was not embraced. The OECD set out to establish a checklist that could be used to define terrorism for the...ANIMAL CRUELTY (SHAC) CASE STUDY: A FOCUS ON THE VULNERABILITIES As the book The Starfish and the Spider points out, the Animal Liberation Front...ssrn.com/absract=1418496 104 Brafman, O. B. (2007). The starfish and the spider : The unstoppable power or leadersless organizations. New York: Penguin

  9. The Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    34liberados," "ilegales," and "apoyos." The first category, who work for the organization full- time and are paid a small salary carry out the actual ... Estadistica y Censos. The annual 131 publications of the Department of Labour and the Financial Secretary’s Office were the source for unemployment and

  10. SYNTHETIC JET APPLIED TO DETECT POTENTIAL TERRORISTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 229-234 ISSN 1231-3998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jets * annular jets * terrorism Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    those relations to those of Sicilian Mafia families. He highlights that it is impossible to distinguish the PKK from these clans.89 In the 1990s...similar to the cooperation among Sicilian mafia families.”243 Jane’s Terrorism report mentions an investigation carried out by Turkish authorities in...unlawfulness. Covertly backing the PKK is supporting racketeering, mafias , prostitution, forced labor, slavery, drugs, child kidnappings and 12-year old

  12. Breaking Terrorists’ Will To Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    16 but “to maintain equilibrium between the public or institutional state and the privatized interests of the mafia state”17 are therefore beyond...shaped by the interaction of incentives and constraints.”151 As a 147 Ibid., 20. 148 Narcotraffickers, Mafia , and Yakuza and other criminal

  13. Strategies for Countering Terrorist Safe Havens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-20

    insurgency, Sendero chose Chuschi for its initial military operations precisely because of this absence of haciendas , which allowed SL [Sendero...relationships of the hacienda system, Sendero perhaps hoped to avoid the mistakes made by the guerrillas inspired by the Cuban revolution who failed...to gain support of hacienda peons for their short- lived insurgency in 1965.77 The peasantry, in other words, provided an ungoverned area that was

  14. Targeting Terrorist Leaders: The Peruvian Untouchables Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    23 Strong, 203. 24 Revista Debate, El Poder en el Perú. (Power in Peru) (Lima: DESCO, 1983 1992). 25 Max...political bureau and the Revolutionary Army, the deciding vote on any party issue, and the only interpreter of Marx , Lenin, and Mao. Even when he

  15. Understanding Why Terrorist Operations Succeed or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    level of overt action). This illustrates how operational signature plays in attackers’ calculus as a result of its influence on the chance an operation...ability to act on that information once we have it. Other measures are “on all the time”—e.g., an air filtration system in a public building will help

  16. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-21

    parallel is found in none other than Plato’s The Statesman, where Socrates and a stranger are discussing the place of the ruler in the education of his...Islamic concepts of government-controlled education are quite similar. It is instructive (in both cases) to note what Socrates agreed as the fitting...Muslim Mind, (Burr Ridge: American Trust Publications, 1995), 136. 52 CDHRI, Article 7b. 53 CDHRI, Article 9a. 54 Plato , Statesman; as found in

  17. Third Party Involvement in International Terrorist Extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Brimicombe, President of Nobleza Tabacos , kidnapped in Argentina. The son of the chairman of Itaio-Argentine Electric Company (Swiss citizen), kidnapped...20, 1973 October 22, 1973 David George Heywood, executive of Nobleza Tabacos , kidnapped in Argentina. Three Jewish emigres and an Austrian customs

  18. Islamist Terrorist Networks in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    chemistry, biology, history, sociology, democracy and human rights, philosophy, psychology, pedagogy and sports . This curriculum gives medresa graduates...state only because they have to. They do not cheer for Bosnia and Herzegovina national sports teams; indeed, they celebrate Bosnia and... sports and cultural center is more than $28 million.55 Saudi funded Islamic Pedagogical Academies teaching a much more conservative form of Islam to

  19. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stebbins, Jr, William E

    2007-01-01

    .... One key pillar of U.S. strategic response has been the active promotion of Western representative democracy in those regions of the Islamic world identified as jihadist centers of incubation (namely...

  20. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Information Operations in Pursuit of Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Bin Laden, Dec 27, 2001 [on-line], available from http://www.doublestandards.org/alqa.html#alqa5. 139 Audio message purported to be by al-Qaeda...Edition of Voice of the Caliphate [on-line], available from http://www.clandestineradio.com/ audio / meast_aq_caliphate_051010.wmv 94 also gave out its...video technology, and subtitling video clips.219 The use of solid encryption technologies and specialized techniques like steganography for passing

  2. The French responses organisation for dealing with radiological emergencies; L'organisation francaise de gestion des crises radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boude, B. [Secretariat General de la Defense Nationale, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2006-07-15

    To meet the goal of population protection, the response that the authorities will have to implement in the event of a radiological emergency has to be organised. In a context of significant change at the beginning of this century, the response organisation was revised in depth. This article aims to describe the roles, structures and methods of action of the various parties involved in the current emergency response system. (author)

  3. European Commission Activities on Radiation Protection of Patients; Les actions de la Commission europeenne pour la protection radiologique des patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, Augustin; Simeonov, Georgi; Baranczyk, Remigiusz [Commission europeenne, Direction generale de l' energie, Unite radioprotection, Maison de l' Europe, L-2920 (Luxembourg)

    2011-07-15

    The European Union has a positive record of addressing radiation protection of patients, including specific Euratom legislation in 1984 and 1997, guidance, research and stakeholder involvement. Today we experience a rapid development of medical technology and doses from medical exposure are increasing. Accidents in radiotherapy, although rare, cause unnecessary suffering of patients. The Commission is undertaking a series of initiatives to address these challenges. Communication COM(2010)4231 from August 2010 provides an overview of the challenges and the associated Community action and proposes a long-term perspective. A proposal for amendment of Euratom legislation is underway. Further action is taking shape in order to strengthen regulatory supervision, raise awareness and safety culture, etc. (authors)

  4. Radiological diagnosis of renal carcinoma in adults; Diagnostic radiologique du cancer du rein de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, F. [Hopital de Versailles, Service de Radiologie, 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Mesurolle, B. [Hopital General de Montreal, Service de Radiologie, Montreal (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the new imaging modalities employed in initial imaging management of renal carcinoma which provide accurate answers to practical questions. This article highlights the more suitable diagnostic imaging tools, their strong and weak points, their limitations with emphasis placed on the major role of helical CT in diagnosis and initial staging of renal carcinoma: helical CT allows complete examination in the same time of the lesion and its possible extensions. In recent years with the advent of new imaging modalities, HelicalCT has become the standard diagnostic method for characterizing and staging renal carcinoma which decisively influences the therapeutic approach. CT can diagnose the type of carcinoma, precisely establish local and regional staging such as extension to the adjacent structures (perirenal fat, collecting system), presence of regional lymph node metastases and venous tumor thrombus. In addition helical CT is able to detail anatomical landmarks (venous and arterial) necessary for partial nephrectomy. This article points out the various key points in detection mid work-up of a renal carcinoma required for proper therapeutic decision-making. (authors)

  5. Scintigraphic and radiologic aspects of two exceptional tumors at knee; Aspects scintigraphiques et radiologiques de deux tumeurs exceptionnelle du genou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescout, J.M.; Bussy, E.; Tourrette, J.H.; Dussau, J.P.; Gadea, J.; Camelli, M. [HIA Sainte Anne 83800 Toulon Naval (France)

    1997-12-31

    We present two cases of rare vascular tumors of knee which in the frame of the pre-surgery extension examination were successfully explored by the Osseous Scintigraphy (OS) and Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI). The first case was a young girl 17 years old accusing since two years a mechanical pain in the left knee, without radiographic or biologic anomalies. Early profile incidence of OS indicates an articular hyperemia of geometrical shape which later disappeared totally, what evoked the absence of osteoblastic activity of a hyper-vascularized lesion. The MRI showed the existence of an extraosseous tumor in the retro-patellar loge. The histologic analysis led to the diagnosis of synovial hemangioma, a rare benign tumor which benefited by a complete extirpation followed by rapid remission of walking. The second case was a male 53 years old which presented a painful right sub-patellar tumefaction with a major osteolysis of 1/3 upper tibia, by standard radiography. The OS in two phases indicated a unique hyper-vascularized very active osseous affliction. The MRI has confirmed the well circumscribed afflicted zone of the tibia`s proximal metaphysis and showed an invasion of the soft parts. The pathologist concluded on a epithelial hemangioma-endothelioma, a vascular tumor of intermediate malignity which benefited by an extirpation with osseous graft showing no negative evolution after one year. In the vast frame of the skeletal tumors these exceptional vascular peri-articular afflictions allow illustrating the complementarity of OS and MRI which give to the surgery all the information useful for their extension on their more or less vascularized character and on their osteoblastic component

  6. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Related Activities, 1998International Narcotics Control Board,[1998]). 6. 10 Liana Sun Wyler...Assembly Devoted to the Fight Against the Illicit Production, Sale, Demand, Traffic and Distribution of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances...Traffic and Distribution of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Related Activities, 1998: International Narcotics Control Board, 1998

  7. Exploiting Terrorist Vulnerabilities: A Law Enforcement Approach to Fighting Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    terror-be-won.html (accessed November 6, 2008). 4 Ergun Mehmet Caner and Emir Fethi Caner, Unveiling Islam: An Insider’s Look at Muslim Life and Beliefs...Inc., 2008. Caner, Ergun Mehmet and Emir Fethi Caner. Unveiling Islam: An Insider’s Look at Muslim Life and Beliefs. Grand Rapids: Kregel

  8. Non-nuclear energies; Les energies autres que le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex and Sauvons le Climat (http://www.sauvonsleclimat.org), Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  9. The control of nuclear sector; Le controle du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn is loaded with the control of the nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France: it provides this control, in the name of the state, to protect the workers, the patients, the public and the environment of the risks in relation with nuclear activities. The control is the core business of Asn. Asn so checks the nuclear basic installations (I.N.B.), since their conception until their dismantling, the pressure equipment specially conceived for these installations, the management of the radioactive waste as well as the transport of radioactive substances. Asn also checks all the industrial and research installations as well as the hospitals where are used ionizing radiations. It is a more recent profession there, because dating the reform of the control of the nuclear power of 2002, which constitutes that of the radiation protection. The first responsibility of the activities at risks falls to the one who begins them. This principle applies to all the sectors checked by Asn: an industrialist is responsible for the safety of the nuclear installations which he exploits, a doctor is responsible for the use of the ionizing radiations which he uses. (N.C.)

  10. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry; Le panorama nucleaire russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  11. New reactor concepts; Nieuwe rectorconcepten - nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost.

  12. The nuclear: a clean energy; Le nucleaire: une energie propre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning the Nuclear Energy was developed in a context of energy diversification and competitiveness. Today another of its assets shows the interest of this energy source: the nuclear energy is a clean energy which controls the wastes and offers an efficient solution against the atmospheric pollution and the climatic change. These two arguments are developed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Experience du service de medecine nucleaire sahloul sousse dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : L'objectif de notre travail est de présenter notre expérience dans la prise en charge des cancer différencié de la thyroïde (CDT) à Thyroglobuline (Tg) élevée, tout en identifiant les paramètres modifiant l'efficacité de l'Irathérapie et la valeur seuil de la Tg permettant avec un balayage post thérapeutique négatif de ...

  14. The nuclear situation in India; La situation nucleaire en Inde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, R.M

    2006-07-01

    This report first recalls that India lacks of energy natural resources, faces a high demographic growth and high electricity demand, and launched a civil nuclear program in the 1960's which comprises three stages: a first one with natural uranium fuelled PHWR type reactors, a second one with fast neutron reactors (which is now at its beginning), and a third one which will use the thorium-uranium 233 cycle both in fast neutron and AHWR (advanced heavy water reactor)type reactors. After the indication of some data on the present and foreseen nuclear capacity, this report presents the authorities and actors of the nuclear sector, the national laws related to nuclear activities, the Indian position with respect to international treaties and conventions, indicates the location of the numerous nuclear installations, gives some characteristics of the existing and projected nuclear power stations and research reactors. It presents the fuel manufacturing and reprocessing activities, the sites of heavy water production and their capacities. It gives an overview of the waste management activity (origin, classification, processing and packaging for the different types of wastes, warehousing and storage with different technologies and technical options depending on the waste type)

  15. Nuclear armament and disarmament; Armement et desarmement nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This document discusses the objectives and the specifications of the non-proliferation treaty, in the framework of the nuclear armament and disarmament. Three chapters are proposed: State of the art; the international agreements and treaties and the United Nation Organization part; debates and forecasts on the proliferation fight, the Pugwash movement and a chronology of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  16. EPR: the nuclear impasse; EPR: l'impasse nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marillier, F. [Association Ecologiste Greenpeace (France)

    2008-07-01

    The questions relative to the climatic change constitute crucial challenges for the next ten years. In this context the author aims to show how the EPR project illustrates the nuclear french ''autism''. He presents and analyzes the international and environmental impacts of this obsolete technology, as a project useless and dangerous. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear: how to get off?; Nucleaire: comment en sortir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This study aims to propose actions to get off the nuclear in less than 10 years. The first part is devoted to the energy efficiency: the energy produced by the today electric network, the energy conservation in the ternary, industrial and residential sector. The second part presents an offer of electricity without the nuclear: the renewable energies, the fossil energies, the carbon tax and the nuclear park closure. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  19. experience du service de medecine nucleaire sahloul sousse dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Cancers différenciés de la thyroide, Thyroglobuline, Irathérapie, Pronostic, Surveillance. Purpose: The aim of our work is to present our experience in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with high thy- roglobulin (Tg) , to identify parameters changing iodine effectiveness and Tg threshold with ...

  20. Nuclear, phantasm and emotions; Nucleaire, fantasmes et emotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, A

    2009-03-15

    Nuclear energy as it appears in novels and films gives an image that can influence our judgment. If the phantasms amplified by the antinuclear groups can influence the public opinion, so the communication on the nuclear subjects must be more emotional to touch the general public. Through different images carried in comic books or in fiction novels it is the anxiety that is privileged. If nuclear industry must propose a rational and well informed approach that gives value to its experience, this must not prevent to consider a more emotional perspective. (N.C.)

  1. Nuclear and sustainable development; Nucleaire et developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audebert, P.; Balle, St.; Barandas, Ch.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Bellefontaine, E.; Bernard, H.; Bouhand, M.H.; Bourg, D.; Bourgoignon, F.; Bourlat, Y.; Brunet, F.; Buclet, N.; Buquet, N.; Caron, P.; Cartier, M.; Chagneau, E.; Charles, D.; Chateau, G.; Collette, P.; Collignon, A.; Comtesse, Ch.; Crammer, B.; Dasnias, J.; Decroix, G.; Defoy, B.; Delafontaine, E.; Delcroix, V.; Delerue, X.; Demet, M.; Dimmers, G.; Dodivers, S.; Dubigeon, O.; Eimer, M.; Fadin, H.; Foos, J.; Ganiage, D.; Garraud, J.; Girod, J.P.; Gourod, A.; Goussot, D.; Guignard, C.; Heloury, J.; Hondermarck, B.; Hurel, S.; Jeandron, C.; Josse, A.; Lagon, Ch.; Lalleron, Ch.; Laurent, M.; Legrand, H.; Leveau, E

    2006-07-01

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  2. Human and environmental nuclear toxicology; Toxicologie nucleaire environnementale et humaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menager, M.Th.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Goyffon, M

    2009-07-01

    When the civil nuclear is in expansion, this book takes stock of the situation on the geochemical processes implied the accumulation of radioactive or stable chemical elements and on the toxicity and all that is ensuing. It is important to answer at the best to increasing demands of toxicology, ecotoxicology for evaluation and management of environmental and sanitary risks. This work is divided in five parts: the behaviour of chemical species in biosphere, particularly for the living, the cell molecular mechanisms of interactions among the living, their consequences on human health and the ecosystems, the state of knowledge, element by element and the new development of technology opened with the knowledge progress. The fields of application, goes from the detection to the treatments of contaminations, from environment to man. (N.C.)

  3. Nuclear toxicology. To detect, to clean; Toxicologie nucleaire. Dectecter, depolluer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, D. [CEA Cadarache (IBEB), Lab. de Bioenergetique Cellulaire, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lecomte-Pradines, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DEI), Lab. de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Quemeneur, E. [CEA Valrho (IBEB), Lab. de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie Nucleaire, 30 - Marcoule (France); Petitot, F. [CEA Centre de Pierrelatte, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, (IRSN-DRPH-SRBE), Lab. de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, 26 (France); Souidi, M.; Bertho, J.M. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, (IRSN-DRPH-SRBE), Lab. de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale 92 (France); Junot, Ch. [CEA Saclay (iBiTec-S/SPI), Lab. d' Etude du Metabolisme des Medicaments, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Malard, V. [CEA Valrho (IBEB-SBTN), Lab. de Biochimie des Systemes Perturbes, 30 - Marcoule (France); Berthomieu, C.; Chapon, V. [CEA Cadarache (IBEB), Lab. des Interactions Proteine Metal, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gilbin, R.; Misson-Pons, J. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DEI), Lab. de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vavasseur, A. [CEA Cadarache (IBEB), Lab. des Echanges Membranaires et Signalisation, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Richaud, P. [CEA Cadarache (IBEB), Lab. de Bioenergetique et Biotechnologie des Basteries et Microalgues, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ansoborlo, E.; Taran, F.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Tsapis, N.; Menetrier, F.; Deverre, J.R.; Burgada, R. [CEA Marcoule (DEN/DRCP/CETAMA), 30 (France)

    2009-01-15

    This file shows two complementary parts: one aiming to a better detection of exposure for man and environment and and other one relative to the treatments to be used when there is a contamination. The development of biological captors is a research axis that could be very useful for nuclear toxicologists that wish to dispose of perceptible measurement tools. In the same idea biological markers could be an important help to determine the toxic quantity in organism in case of internal radioactive contamination. About remedial actions, bacteria are able to reduce, to oxide, to capture pollutants and then it is not insane to use them in efficient and low cost remediation for waters or contaminated lands, especially by trace metals or radioactive compounds. Next to them, plants can offer the same service it is the case for sunflower able to treat water loaded in uranium. This file ends with a review of the different treatments known nowadays as therapies for contamination by radioisotopes used in nuclear industry. (N.C.)

  4. Nuclear engineering vocabulary; Vocabulaire de l'ingenierie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The terms, expressions and definitions presented in this booklet come from the works carried out by the French specialized commission of nuclear engineering terminology and neology. This selection of terms cannot be found, in general, in classical dictionaries, or can be found but with a different meaning than the one used in nuclear engineering. All terms and expressions contained in this booklet have been already published in different issues of the Official Journal of the French Republic. This publication makes their use mandatory in replacement of foreign language equivalents inside all government services and public buildings. (J.S.)

  5. The dismantling of nuclear installations; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Duthe, M.; Mignon, H. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75-Paris (France). Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires; Charles, Th. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michon, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Lambert, F. [Unite de demantelement des installations nucleaires (UDIN), CEA (France); Pradel, Ph. [Compagnie Generale de Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Etablissement de Marcoule; Vergne, C. [CODEM Groupement d`interet economique (France); Hillewaere, J.P.; Dupre la Tour, St. [DRIRE Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France); Mandil, C. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie (France); Weil, L.; Eickelpasch, N.; Finsterwalder, L. [Office Federal de radioprotection, (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    for nuclear installations, the dismantling is an important part of their exploitation. The technology of dismantling is existing and to get a benefit from the radioactive decay, it seems more easy for operating company such E.D.F. to wait for fifty years before dismantling. But in order to get the knowledge of this operation, the Safety Authority wanted to devote this issue of `Controle`to the dismantling method. This issue includes: the legal aspects, the risks assessment, the dismantling policy at E.D.F., the site of Brennilis (first French experience of dismantling), the dismantling techniques, the first dismantling of a fuel reprocessing plant, comparison with classical installations, economic aspect, some German experiences, the cleansing of the american site of Handford. (N.C.)

  6. experience du service de medecine nucleaire sahloul sousse dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : L'efficacité ablative est optimisée par des cures d'iode 131 qui doivent être prolongées tant que la Tg reste élevée. La surveillance à vie, au cours ... Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 150 patients undergoing CDT, followed between 1990 and 2006 and having a Tg > 2ng/ml . Results: Our ...

  7. Climatic change and nuclear; Changement climatique et nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    One of the main priorities of the WWF is to increase the implementing of solutions relative to the greenhouse effect fight. In this framework the foundation published a study on the nuclear facing the climatic change problem. The following chapters are detailed: the nuclear and the negotiations on the climatic change; the nuclear close; the unrealistic hypothesis of the nuclear forecast; the nuclear facing other energy supplying options; supplying efficiency for heating, electric power, gas and renewable energies; the consumption efficiency facing the nuclear; the economical aspects; the deregulation effect; the political aspects; the nuclear AND the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  8. A comprehensive survey of nuclear reactions; Panorama des reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugnon, J. [Liege Univ., IFPA, AGO Dept. (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The various mechanisms of nuclear reactions are surveyed and classified in different regimes, based on the notions of coherent mechanisms and hard versus soft processes. The emphasis is put on the concepts at the basis of the understanding of these regimes and on the elements of nuclear structure which are involved in these different regimes, as well as the on the possibility of extracting this information. Due to lack of space and for pedagogical reasons, the discussion is limited to nucleon-induced and light-ion-induced reactions. However, a few remarks are given concerning some specific probes, such as weakly bound projectiles or neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  9. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nuclear molecular imaging of paragangliomas; Imagerie moleculaire nucleaire des paragangliomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Service central de biophysique et de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-08-15

    Paragangliomas (PGL) are relatively rare neural crest tumors originating in the adrenal medulla (usually called pheochromocytoma), chemoreceptors (i.e., carotid and aortic bodies) or autonomic ganglia. These tumors are highly vascular, usually benign and slow-growing. PGL may occur as sporadic or familial entities, the latter mostly in association with germline mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, SDHC, SDHD, SDH5, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), ret proto-oncogene (RET), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) (von Recklinghausen's disease), prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) genes and TMEM127. Molecular nuclear imaging has a central role in characterization of PGL and include: somatostatin receptor imaging ({sup 111}In, {sup 68}Ga), MIBG scintigraphy ({sup 131}I, {sup 123}I), {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET), and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET. The choice of the tracer is not yet fully established but the work-up of familial forms often require the combination of multiple approaches. (authors)

  11. Exit this way; Par ici la sortie du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to inform the public on the nuclear power phaseout necessity. The fist part presents the hazards bound the nuclear activities, from the uranium mines to the radioactive wastes disposal and the reasons of a necessary phaseout. The second part recalls the historical aspects of the nuclear power implementation in the french energy policy and the today government attitude to value its choice. The last part presents the advantages of other energies sources and scenario of nuclear power phaseout. (A.L.B.)

  12. Which nuclear energy for tomorrow?; Quelle energie nucleaire demain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H

    2001-03-01

    Facing the constant increase of electric power consumption, the authors wonder about the energy sources possibilities. After a synthesis of the fossil fuels and the renewable energies they present the nuclear energy and more specially the new hybrid reactor project (Carlo Rubbia), or ADS (Accelerator Driven System). (A.L.B.)

  13. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology; INIS, CEA et terminologie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J

    2007-07-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  14. All about nuclear sciences; Tout savoir sur le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, A. [CEA Saclay DSM-SAC/USL2TI/STI/SVI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    This French/English flyer, made by the French INIS team of CEA-Saclay, presents the INIS information system, the coverage and content of the database and makes the promotion of the opening of the database to free access through the web link: http://inisdb2.iaea.org/. (J.S.)

  15. The japan a nuclear power?; Le Japon puissance nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P. [Universite Jean Moulon Lyon-3, Centre Lyonnais d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Defense, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-07-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  16. Edema: is there a role for nuclear medicine?; Oedemes et medecine nucleaire: pathologies et explorations diagnostiques en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.; Perez, M.; Lamotte, C.; Hatron, P.Y. [CHRU de Lille, Service de Medecine Interne et d' Exploration Vasculaire, Hopital Huriez, 59 - Lille (France); Segard, M. [CHRU de Lille, Service de Dermatologie, Consultation de Cicatrisation, Hopital Huriez, 59 - Lille (France); Huglo, D. [CHRU de Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Huriez, 59 - Lille (France); Tiffreau, V. [CHRU de Lille, Service de Reeducation Fonctionnelle, Hopital Swingedauw, 59 - Lille (France); Lambert, M.; Perez, M.; Lamotte, C.; Hatron, P.Y.; Segard, M.; Huglo, D.; Tiffreau, V. [Lille Univ. Nord-de-France, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-08-15

    The nuclear doctors are rarely requested face to a table of segment or diffuse edema. The lymphedema is certainly the only pattern of using radioisotopes. however, other rare pathologies can find benefit of the expertise of nuclear doctors. The use of functional nuclear imaging examinations can help the clinician in a diagnosis approach sometimes difficult face to pathologies for which the vital prognosis can be engaged at short term. (N.C.)

  17. Simulation of a terrorist attack with intent to a source of Iridium-192 and Radium Sulphate-226: procedures for radiation emergency actions; Simulacao de uma intencao de atentado terrorista com uma fonte de Iridio-192 e Sulfato de Radio-226: procedimentos para acoes de emergencia radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Bruno Dias de

    2013-07-01

    The accomplishment of major public events comprises a previous radiological safety planning network, since both public safety and safeguards criteria are based upon risk factors, to which individuals and even the environment may be exposed to, moreover in radiological, nuclear and/or terrorist threats. Therefore, a preventive and extensive local radiological survey must be performed, aiming the detection of unexpected radioactive material, being it a sealed or unsealed source or even in the dispersed form. Once confirmed its presence, protective actions must be started up, with monitoring and restraint of the source/material, followed by dose and dose rate assessment in environment, as well as contamination in air and in surfaces in general. As a consequence, such measures must be carried out at once, according to specific protocols adopted by the responding team, as soon as the incident is confirmed. Aiming a better qualification in the attendance of major events, a simulated scenario is proposed in this study, comprising an incident with the malicious presence of a radioactive source in the Mario Filho Stadium (Maracana). (author)

  18. International Workshop on Ion Beam Modification and Processing of High Tc- Superconductors: Physics and Devices: Program and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-12

    de Spectrometrie Nucleaire West Pennant Hills et de Spectrometrie de Masse 2120 NSW Institut de Physique Nucleaire AUSTRALIA BP- 1 +61-2-634-8129...312) 972-4973 (fax) Prof. Otto Meyer Dr. Jerome LeSueur Instut fur Angewandte Kernphysik Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire Kemforschungs Zentrum...Materials Development Division Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire Harwell Laboratory et de Spectrometrie de Masse Didcot Institut de Physique Nucleaire

  19. The Fukushima accident: radiological consequences and first lessons. Proceedings; L'accident de Fukushima: consequences radiologiques et premiers enseignements. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about the Fukushima accident, its radiological consequences and the first lessons learnt. Sixteen presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Accident progress and first actions (Thierry Charles, IRSN); 2 - Conditions and health monitoring of the Japanese intervention teams (Bernard Le Guen, EDF); 3 - The Intra Group action after the Fukushima accident (Michel Chevallier, Groupe Intra; Frederic Mariotte, CEA); 4 - Processing of effluents (Georges Pagis, Areva); 5 - Fukushima accident: impact on the terrestrial environment in Japan (Didier Champion, IRSN); 6 - Consequences of the Fukushima accident on the marine environment (Dominique Boust, IRSN); 7 - Territories decontamination perspectives (Pierre Chagvardieff, CEA); 8 - Actions undertaken by Japanese authorities (Florence Gallay, ASN); 9 - Japanese population monitoring and health stakes (Philippe Pirard, InVS); 10 - Citizen oversight actions implemented in Japan (David Boilley, ACRO); 11 - Implementation of ICRP's (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendations by Japanese authorities: first analysis (Jacques Lochard, CIPR); 12 - Control of Japan imported food stuff (David Brouque, DGAL); 13 - Questions asked by populations in France and in Germany (Florence-Nathalie Sentuc, GRS; Pascale Monti, IRSN); 14 - Labour law applicable to French workers working abroad (Thierry Lahaye, DGT); 15 - Protection of French workers working in Japan, Areva's experience (Patrick Devin, Areva); 16 - Fukushima accident experience feedback and post-accident nuclear doctrine (Jean-Luc Godet, ASN)

  20. Influence of potable water cleaning techniques on the radiological quality of water; Influence des techniques de potabilisation sur la qualite radiologique de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, J.; Bourrasse, M.; Feuerstein, J.; Rouxel, R. [CEA/Cadarache, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN-SER), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-03-01

    In case of accidental radioactive discharges, the drinking water would not represent the first concern for the definition of the total radiological risk; however, it would generally constitute the first concern of the consumer. The purpose of the results come from experiments carried out in laboratory and were to evaluate the efficiency of two type of processing of drinking water on the elimination of the radionuclides cesium and strontium. Therefore, a catchment water was contaminated with radioactive aerosols representative of an accident. Then, it was made potable on the one hand, using a traditional process (clarification and filtration on sand then on activated carbon), and on the other hand, by a less traditional but easily integrable technique within an already existing process, in which sand is replaced by zeolite. The performance at the end of the processing using sand is average for cesium (from 67 to 73 % according to the type of coagulant injected) and becomes frankly poor for strontium (between 46 and 51 %). The results obtained with the process including of zeolite are very satisfactory. The performance at the end of the processing as well reach 99 % for strontium as for cesium whatever the type of coagulant used. The present study thus made it possible to show the insufficiency of the processing known as 'traditional' of drinking water towards to the elimination of the radionuclides cesium and strontium, but also to outline the features of a new process still to improve radioactive decontamination of water. (authors)

  1. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents; Elaboration d'une echelle de classement des incidents et accidents radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-15

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with the event in question. (author)

  2. The serious radiological accidents occurred in the world during the last twelve months; Les accidents radiologiques graves survenus dans le monde au cours des douze derniers mois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C

    2006-07-15

    Four accidents occurred during the last twelve months. In Chili ( iridium 192 source, gamma radiography), In senegal (iridium 192 source, gamma radiography), in Belgium ( cobalt 60 source, industrial irradiator), in France (radiotherapy, error on the unit of measure leading to a too big radiation dose). The iridium 192 sources are at the origin of the most part of accidents. The industrial irradiators are responsible of a little number of accidents but the life prognosis of the victims is involved because of the great power of the cobalt source. (N.C.)

  3. Scintigraphy and radiology follow-up of the syndrome; Suivi scintigraphique et radiologique du syndrome de l'os avide apres parathyroidectomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Fredj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Guezguez, M.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Sahloul, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    Through the case of a patient reached by a primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by brown tumors and complicated by a severe post operative hypocalcemia, we study the scintigraphy evolution of osseous abnormalities and we discuss the physiopathology of the hungry bone syndrome. Conclusions: the isotopic explorations, because of their functional character can be used to evaluate the bone repair evolution after para thyroidectomy. (N.C.)

  4. Radiological analyses of France Telecom surge arresters. Study performed for the CGT FAPT Cantal; Analyses radiologiques de parasurtenseurs FRANCE TELECOM. Etude effectuee pour la CGT FAPT Cantal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-02-15

    This document reports the radiological characterization of various versions of surge arresters used in the past to protect telephone lines against over-voltages. These equipment, which use various radioactive materials, were assessed by gamma radiation flow measurements, alpha-beta-gamma count rate measurements, dose rate measurements, gamma spectrometry analyses, tritium emanation test, radon 222 emanation test, smearing. Recommendations are formulated to manage radioactive surge arresters which are still being operated

  5. Radiological impact associated with the transport by road of radioactive material in Spain; Impact radiologique lie au transport par route de matieres radioactives en Espagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J.A. [TECNATOM, Prevention Service, Avenida Montes de Oca 1, 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); EUITI, Dept. Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, F. [EUITI, Dept. Industrial and Polymer Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Questions relating to the transport of radioactive materials are very much an issue of current interest due to the increasing mobility of the materials involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, commitment to the environment, the safety and protection of persons and the corresponding regulatory legal framework. The radiological impact associated with this type of transport was assessed by means of a new data-processing tool that may be of use and serve as complementary documentation to that included in transport regulations. Thus, by determining the level of radiation at a distance of one metre from the transport vehicle and by selecting a route, the associated impacts will be obtained, such as the affected populations, the dose received by the most highly exposed individual, the overall radiological impact, the doses received by the population along the route and the possible detriment to their health. The most important conclusion is that the emissions of ionising radiation from the transport of radioactive material by road in Spain are not significant as regards the generation of adverse effects on human health, and that their radiological impact may be considered negligible. (authors)

  6. Application of voxelised phantoms to the dosimetry simulation of radiation accidents; Application des fantomes voxelises pour la reconstitution dosimetrique d'accident radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemosquet, A.; Clairand, I.; Carlan, L. de; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Rioual, J.B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Franck, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Departement de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie Service de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2003-07-01

    In the case of a radiation accident it is possible to estimate the radiation dose received by the victim by techniques of physical processing by calculation, especially to determine the heterogeneity of the distribution dose in depth. The work bears on the development of a new computer tool devoted to the dosimetry reconstitution of a radiation accident coming from an external source that has the particularity to associate a voxelised anthropomorph geometry to a Monte Carlo code. The functionalities of the tool are described. (N.C.)

  7. Screening for Potential Terrorists in the Enlisted Military Accessions Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-29

    conduct in law, medicine, economics, engineering, social and family relations, and education. Militant Jihadism prescribes a complete program for...here in this spectacularly beautiful nook of northwestern Montana had a terror plan that made Osama bin Laden’s look rinky- dink . Not content merely...national interest. This may be: The presence of immediate family members or other persons to whom the applicant is bonded by affection or obligation in a

  8. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and varied. Some perish in exhaustion, be it physical, psychological, or organizational; an early post– World War II example was the fatigue of Luis ...power. In September 1992, a tiny police intelligence unit located leader Abimael Guzman and made an arrest; he has since been locked up on an island...never left the field. As a hardened Maoist, Guzman would know the stories of the twentieth-century “comebacks” after jail or hardship—Adolf Hitler

  9. EXPERIMENTS WITH SYNTHETIC JET FOR DETECTING POTENTIAL TERRORISTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 221-227 ISSN 1231-3998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jets * annular jets * terrorism Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. The effect of terrorist incidents on capital flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, Randall K.; Stanišić, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 502-513 ISSN 1363-6669 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : foreign direct-investment * macroeconomic consequences * transnational terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2016

  11. The effect of terrorist incidents on capital flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, R. K.; Stanišić, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 502-513 ISSN 1363-6669 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : foreign direct-investment * macroeconomic consequences * transnational terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2016

  12. Response of the International Community to Terrorist Attacks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While terrorism has undoubtedly become a fixed reality on the world stage, its nature and scope continue to change shape from one historical epoch, context and environment to another. Recent decades have witnessed groups of radicalised Islamist fundamentalists unleash all manner of terror attacks on various societies, ...

  13. Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Handbuch der sicherheitspolitischen Kommunikation und Medienarbeit (Strategic Information- and Communication Management. Manual for the Military...Communication and Media Work). Bonn: Bernard & Graefe Verlag. Bockstette, Carsten (2006). Terrorismus und asymmetrische Kriegsführung als kommunikative ...2006). Strategisches Informations- und Kommunikationsmanagement. Handbuch der sicherheitspolitischen Kommunikation und Medienarbeit (Strategic

  14. The State as a Terrorist: France and the Red Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores a less well-known episode in the history of terrorism: The Red Hand (La Main Rouge. During the Algerian war of independence (1954-1962 it emerged as an obscure counterterrorist organisation on the French side. Between 1956 and 1961, the Red Hand targeted the network of arms suppliers for the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN and executed hits against rebel emissaries both in Western Europe and in North Africa. Today, there is consensus among scholars that the Red Hand had been set up by the French foreign intelligence service in order to strike at the subversive enemy. This makes the Red Hand a telling example of state terrorism and its capacity for unrestricted violence in ‘emergency’ situations. Since the Red Hand’s counterterrorist acts ultimately proved to be futile and due to the repercussions caused in France as well, the case study also highlights the limits of this type of counter-terrorism. 

  15. Destabilization of Terrorist Networks through Argument Driven Hypothesis Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2007-01-01

    Social network analysis has been used for quite some time to analyze and understand the behavior of nodes in the network.  Theses nodes could be individuals or group of persons, events or organizations etc.  Infact these nodes could be any thing importantly, these nodes propagate and obviously ha......) to predict a path for its destabilization.  This network is selected to benchmark our proposed model framework.  The results obtained with various network analysis shows that it works better than other analysis measures for example based on degree, betweeness and closeness etc.        ...

  16. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    mistaken for those who may radicalize while serving time in prison. Extensive literature has been written about whether prisons are incubators for new...Charivari. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2009, from http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Bo- Ch/Charivari.html Cohen, A. (2009). Gitmo fate mired in fuzzy math

  17. Another Approach to Counter-Terrorism: Terrorists with Guilty Consciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Sociopath Next Door: The Ruthless Versus the Rest of Us, 67. 6 be crowned by death.”30 He then describes his emotions, which are induced by his...involved or witnessed cruel and/or bloody attacks. In many cases, their guilty conscience made them stop their wrongdoings. This mechanism, the

  18. Protecting the Privacy of Individuals in Terrorist Tracking Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lunt, Teresa; Aoki, Paul; Balfanz, Dirk; Durfee, Glenn; Golle, Philippe; Smetters, Diana; Staddon, Jessica; Thornton, Jim; Uribe, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    .... Many of these data sources contain sensitive personal information, such as data on telephone calls, email, credit card usage, bank accounts, car rentals, housing, educational data, health-related...

  19. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    coup, the nation was ruled by a four-man military junta representing all branches of the armed forces plus the national police (the carabineros ). In...event of a revolution. Although the government had specifically ordered the carabineros (national police) not to harass MIR, the miristas went... carabinero officer, as well as a justice of the Chilean Supreme Court. They also attacked the headquarters of the Centro Nacional de Informacion (the

  20. The Relationship between Criminal and Terrorist Organizations and Human Smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    smuggling, and counterfeit merchandise . This is not unlike the fund raising activities that have been used by Hezbollah in the U.S. While the IRA may...between politics and criminal activity. They have engaged in cigarette smuggling, liquor smuggling, and counterfeit merchandise sales to support their...dollars annually for criminal organizations (Westphal, 2000). For example, one of the largest counterfeit organizations, known as the San German

  1. The Terrorist as a Belligerent Under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    the acccused to the appropriate authorities for disposition. 176 Most countries provide in their penal codes that attacks or attempted attacks... Derecho International, 1962, quoted in Inter-American Juridical Committee, "Statement of Reasons for the Draft Convention on Terrorism and Kidnapping

  2. Social Network Interdiction: Reducing the Capabilities of a Terrorist Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    al-Shibh  3. Hani Hanjour  4. Nawaf Alhazmi  5. Abdul Aziz Alomari  6. Khalid Almihdhar  7. Ahmed Alghamdi  8. Salem Alhazmi  9. Majed Moqed...10. Yazid Sufaat  11. Ahmed Al-Hada  12. Hamza Alghamdi  13. Saeed Alghamdi  14. Ahmed Alnami  15. Mohamed Abdi

  3. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    articles.cgi?ID=publications264807&Category=publications&Subcategory=0. 51 Sammy Salama and Gina Cabrera -Farraj, “New leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq...index.php?option=com_content&view=article&i (accessed July 13, 2011). 18 See the interview with Manuel Marulanda Velez, alias “Tiro Fijo,” in Arango 1984...Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Transitionsforschung. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2007. Zuluaga Nieto, Jaime . “De guerillas a movimientos políticos.” De las Armas

  4. Exploitation of Free Markets and Globalization to Finance Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    present status and its war against drugs and terrorism is the period from 1946 to 1958 known as “La Violencia ” which is said to have claimed hundreds...agreements, and reforming foreign exchange and tax legislation, labor regulations and the foreign investment regime. During the first six months of 2007

  5. An Analysis of Modern State-Level Terrorist Deradicalization Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    of ranking militants, to include the recent elimination of AQAP’s second-in-command, Saeed al-Shihri, on 10 September 2012 (Al-Haj & Baldor , 2010...Haj, A. & Baldor , L. (2012, September 10). Al-Qaida’s No. 2 in Yemen killed in airstrike. Yahoo News. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/al-qaidas

  6. Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Mexico, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Arellano Félix son menos violentos y más de negocios ” [The New Arellano Félixes Are Less Violent and More Businesslike], Crónica [Mexico City], 1...nor any plans for military action. A February 1998 story in the Mexican daily Reforma speculated that Russian criminal organization cells based in

  7. Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    exceeded 90 percent of the available funds as of June 3, 2003, and directed his office to propose an appropriate pro rata distribution for Iran...Elahi v. Islamic Republic of Iran, 124 F. Supp. 2d 97 (D.D.C. 2000). $11.7 million $300 million $ 2,342,729.89 Pro rata payment (appropriated funds...Mousa v. Islamic Republic of Iran, 238 F. Supp. 2d 1 (D.D.C. 2001). $12 million $120 million $ 2,394,606.04 Pro rata payment (appropriated funds

  8. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    40 Sinaloa Federation .................................................................................................... 43 Los Zetas Cartel...This following section will provide a brief summary of each. Sinaloa Federation Many analysts consider this the most powerful Mexican drug cartel. It...Cartel is their primary competition. However, the Sinaloa Cartel is also at war with the Juarez Cartel for control of the lucrative region south of El

  9. Nuclear Power Plants and Their Fuel as Terrorist Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas M. Chapin; Karl P. Cohen; W. Kenneth Davis; Edwin E. Kintner; Leonard J. Koch; John W. Landis; Milton Levenson; I. Harry Mandil; Zack T. Pate; Theodore Rockwell; Alan Schriesheim; John W. Simpson; Alexander Squire; Chauncey Starr; Henry E. Stone; John J. Taylor; Neil E. Todreas; Bertram Wolfe; Edwin L. Zebroski

    2002-01-01

    In the wake of the 11 September attack on the World Trade Center, a large number of outrageous public statements appeared, claiming that any attack on a nuclear plant or its fuel would be catastrophic...

  10. The Battlefield of the Mind: Rehabilitating Muslim Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El Campo de Batalla de la Mente, luchando contra los principios ideológicos que sustentan la cosmovisión de un terrorista es una de las tareas pendientes. Rehabilitar a un preso terrorista es crucial para poner coto a la expansión del radicalismo. Una rehabilitación que implique corregir las erróneas concepciones religiosas de un terrorista, apoyándole/la psicológicamente y ofreciendo la reintegración en la sociedad es el complemento necesario a las medidas represivas. Sin embargo el desafío que presenta la diversidad de contextos en los que el Islam se encuentra, exige programas a medida dependiendo del lugar y del momento. Por ejemplo la reticencia en Occidente a contar con el apoyo de clérigos para luchar contra el radicalismo ideológico por el dogma de la separación entre el estado y la iglesia representa un obstáculo. Para llevarla a cabo seriamente, la rehabilitación ha de centrarse en los terroristas a nivel individual e implicar a la sociedad en cada nivel y con una multiplicidad de actores para frenar la expansión de la propaganda radical y así prevenir cualquier recaída. La evolución hacia un régimen global de programas de rehabilitación es el objetivo final de un acercamiento exitoso hacia la tarea de cambiar la mente de un terrorista.

  11. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts.

  12. Roots and Causes That Created the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    figures. “Blending Marxism and theories about class struggle on the one hand, with the romanticism inherent in national self-determination...the PKK (The Kurdistan Workers’ Party/Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan) leadership , an agreement that will end the thirty-year struggle with the PKK. The...and international arena. He took advantage of the political chaos of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s to recruit new members and organized the leadership

  13. Framing Terrorists in Canada: A Comparative Analysis of Two Shootings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley Carver; Conor Harrie

    2017-01-01

    .... Despite the lack of a universal academic definition of terrorism, both the news media and political leaders regularly frame certain violent offences as terrorism while excluding other similar events...

  14. The Resiliency of Terrorist Havens: A Social Mobilization Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    studied under Islamic radicals such as Abdullah Azzam, the spiritual founder of Hamas, and Mohammad Qutb, the brother of Sayyid Qutb.52 Between...directly to heaven. The police and army swore oaths of fealty ( bayat ) to Bashir, and the booty they gathered during their operations in the South...installed leader of the Afghan government was Mohammad Najibullah, who lost the civil war with the mujahedin in 1992. Najibullah would survive until

  15. Orientalism of Islamic Fundamentalism: Assassins, Terrorists and other Western Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirt Komel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to deconstruct the orientalist construction of Islamic fundamentalism, especially those discourses and images that are specifically related to the question of violence originally found in the mythologies of the alleged forerunners of modern terrorism, the so-called »Assassins«, mythologies still in circulation today.

  16. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  17. Martyrs or Terrorists: Suicide bombing in Islamic Hermeneutics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the concept of martyrdom in Islam is associated with an all-inclusive effort to make the word of Allah supreme on the surface of the earth. The adoption of suicide terrorism by some Muslim groups as a strategic objective of modern warfare is the thrust of this paper. The work explicates suicide terrorism as war tactic ...

  18. TERRORIST PHENOMENON’S IMPACT ON THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu UZLAU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “How much does terrorism cost?” is a question which will not be answered in a near future (short and medium term in a relevant, practical and sweeping manner, because any estimation at this moment would cover only in a small measure the spent amounts and the inflicted costs of the phenomenon. These statistics are not precise, of course; they might be argued or even invalidated, because it is difficult to elaborate an objective situation regarding the real value of the attack expenditures or of the damage done. They are purely informative, highlighting a cruel reality: with a very small budget, huge damage may be done, and even a whole society might be paralyzed.

  19. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    players, characterize the structure, locate points of vulnerability, and find the efficiency of the network. To meet this challenge, we designed and developed a knowledge-base for storing and manipulating data collected from various authenticated websites. This paper applies several network centrality...

  20. From Sheikh to Terrorist? Arab Characters in American Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sommerschuh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following text provides a brief discussion on how to integrate visual materials such as the film The Wind and the Lion (1975 in the EFL classroom when discussing the use of stereotypes in Hollywood productions especially in regards to Arab culture. The ideas were gathered in a workshop during the Teacher Academy 2005 and summarized for this publication.

  1. Countering Terrorist Recruitment Through Agile, Targeted Public Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    attacks in 1998 against the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, killed 212 people—among them 12 Americans—and injured some...be challenges in responding to oversight groups, such as Congress , that are intent on quantifying the results of strategic communications or public...This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in this

  2. Terrorist Screening and Brady Background Checks for Firearms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krouse, William J

    2005-01-01

    .... For a time, moreover, all Brady background check records for approved firearm transfers were destroyed almost immediately, precluding the opportunity to used the background check system to screen...

  3. The Potential Terrorist Threat to Commercial Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    attempt the takeover of a nuclear facility or theft and misuse of a nuclear weapon over the next 10-15 years. My testimony summarizes the results of...threatened to blow up New York’s Indian Point nuclear energy facility. The following year, during the takeover of the Dominican Republic’s embassy in Bogota

  4. The Forgotten Tundra: America’s Greatest Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    multiculturalism was their most defining quality; even more so than ice hockey .9 One U.S. Library of Congress study concluded “Canada’s welfare...to destroy America. In the post 9/11 world America’s greatest domestic threat to national security does not lay in the US border with Mexico, but...Chief of the United States Border Patrol The United States border with Canada constitutes the single largest border in the world between any two

  5. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  6. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Journalist's Role in Coverage of Terrorist Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    Journalists have typically employed four rhetorical traditions--information, sensationalism, feature story, and the didactic approach--in conveying news; these affect the meaning received by audiences. Journalists play a variety of roles in this persuasive atmosphere and are deeply involved in the construction of rhetorical visions about terrorism…

  8. Kafkaesque rebranding of pro-US fighters as terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zawacki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Indochina war the US recruited fighters from the Hmong people of Laos to disrupt North Vietnamese supply and troops movements along the Ho Chi Minh trail. While an estimated 170,000 ex-combatant Hmong and their relatives now live in the US , others seeking asylum have bizarrely fallen foul of the post-9.11 PATRIOTPATRIOTPATRIOT PATRIOT Act.

  9. Preventing Terrorist Bombings on United States Subway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    an individual’s behavior and actions, not on racial profiling. Success is evident in the case of Richard Reid, the convicted “ shoe bomber.” On...December 22, 2001, Reid attempted to ignite an IED in his sneakers on American Airlines Flight 63 flying from Paris to Miami. The day before, ICTS

  10. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    national and international security. These illicit networks exist within the shadows of legitimate trade and governance. They exploit an abundant...of Jemaah Islamiyah,” 571. 82 Ibid. 83 Sally Neighbour, In the Shadow of Swords (Sydney: Harper Collins Publishers, 2004), 226. SMS = short...9 Alleged Gang Members Portrays How Cocaine Industry Works,” Wall Street Journal, 19 November 1986 (found in Lee, The White Labyrinth , 99). 275

  11. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts,

  12. The Terrorist Threat to Liquefied Natural Gas: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    ships will be fitted with steam turbines , which require engineers with steam experience, which, according to one report, is a “vanishing resource...Maghreb and Transmed) pipelines to Spain and Italy. Gaz de France, however, will be difficult.” 34 LNG from Skikda accounted for approximately...eight percent of France’s total imports. According to a spokeswoman for Gaz de France, the company was looking at all measures it could take to offset

  13. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    designed to manage and secure, as well as combat the smuggling of nuclear materials. Many of the programs have matured into multi-lateral and...natural and manmade sources of radiation, such as cat litter, bananas , or granite that may trigger the detector. Once a radioactive source is located

  14. Armed Intervention in Terrorist Hostage Situations: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Organizations (Coordination do Organizacions Revolucionarias Unidas-CORU) Croatian Freedom Fighters (CFF) DoBois Club George Jackson Brigade Jewish Debn e Leagu...values terms of prevailing values Sometimes delusional Realistic Realistic, often in service of unrealis- tic ends Abstract goals Concrete goals Ckncrete...help, self- Materially, not psy- Attention-getting, dramatization (psy- chologically oriented ostentatious, drama- chodrama), thera- tic , spectacular

  15. Radiological Dispersal Device Primer: From A Terrorists Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    plutonium-238, strontium-90, and radium -226. Of these eight radioactive isotopes, the most commonly accepted as the most effective sources...cancer.29 When handled by properly trained individuals, sealed sources are safe. However, if seals are broken, either accidentally or through...to provide instructions on safe handling of the radioactive material.35 • Adversaries steal radioactive materials from facilities. Many sites

  16. Enhancing U.S. Defenses Against Terrorist Air Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Air Force, law enforcement authorities, the Federal Aviation Administration, airport security personnel, and many other agencies share responsibility for closing gaps in our national air defenses...

  17. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foo, Kong Pin G

    2008-01-01

    The use of agent-based simulation (ABS) allows government emergency planners to analyze urban counterterrorist operations and observe environmental behaviors that may not obviously demonstrate themselves in live simulation...

  18. Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A

    2004-01-01

    .... Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perceived as a high priority...

  19. Al-Zarqawi - terrorist või kangelane? / Kalev Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 29. juuni lk. 5. Jordaanias sündinud palestiinlane Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, õige nimega Ahmed Fadel al-Khalaylah, on rühmituse Jama'at al-Tawhid wal Jihad juht ja hetkel kuulsaim sõjapealik Iraagis, kes on pühendanud oma elu võitlusele USA vastu

  20. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. Northern Command, Peterson AFB, Colorado. He is currently assigned to the Surgical Trauma Intensive Care Unit, as the head nurse, at Brooke...trafficking in persons protocol entered into force on 25 December 2003 and has 117 Signatories and 93 Parties. The migrant smuggling protocol entered into...Threat Finances cumulative supplements are published in order to present the most current information. USC are laws made by the U.S. Congress

  1. Influencing Transnational Terrorist Organizations: Using Influence Nets to Prioritize Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatur, Roy P

    2005-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to consolidate this array of factors; and more importantly, to suggest a framework for analyzing the interactions and relative importance of each factor to support resource allocation decisions...

  2. Potential terrorist uses of highway-borne hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requested that the Mineta Transportation Institutes National Transportation Security Center of Excellence (MTI NTSCOE) provide any research it has or insights it can provide on the security risks creat...

  3. Decision Support for Countering Terrorist Threats against Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Richard Adler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic decision support methodology forcounter-terrorism decision support. The initial sections introduce basic objectives and challenges of terrorism risk analysis and risk management. The remainder of the paper describes TRANSEC, a decision support framework for defining, validating, and monitoring strategies focused on managing terrorism risks to international transportation networks. The methodology and software tools underlying TRANSEC are applicable to other homeland security problems, such as critical infrastructure and border protection.

  4. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Singapore Police Force SAF Singapore Armed Forces TATP Tri-acetone Tri-peroxide TOPOFF Top Official, US TRAC United States Army Training and...for two cases. (1) Man-Portable Device. A 7-8.5 kg device, with a primary payload made of TNT/RDX or tri-acetone-tri-peroxide ( TATP ) is...selected for this device. TATP can be homemade, has a high detonation velocity, and has a 0.83 relative effectiveness factor, compared to TNT; i.e

  5. Reluctant terrorists? Transcaucasian social-democracy, 1901-1909

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of Transcaucasian social-democratic terrorism from 1901 to 1909. For two reasons the ‘psychohistorical’ model emphasising the subjective and irrational aspects of terrorism has only limited value for the Transcaucasian case. First, the significance of the

  6. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    Fighter Leila Khaled, right, Hijacked her first Plane in 1969, She Became the International Pin-up of Armed Struggle. Then She Underwent Cosmetic Surgery ...team that hijacked TWA flight 840 in 1969, reportedly underwent several plastic surgeries .70 The 9/11 hijackers committed a wide variety of...that aimed to “take over Japan and then the world, but over time it began to emphasize the imminence of the end of the world.” U.S. State Department

  7. Wrestling the Hydra: Exploiting Organizational Evolution in Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    Scholars. This association is the spiritual manifestation of the Sunni Arab tribal resistance in Iraq, and Harith Sulayman al-Dahri is generally...in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is currently engaged in a struggle with French, Malian, and Western African forces. Having withdrawn to the Valley...people. Zarqawi, a Jordanian Salafist, underestimated the importance of Iraqi tribal culture and its relationship to al Qaeda’s ideology. This

  8. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    blast forces and subsequent impact with a fixed object Any Fractures, Closed and open brain injuries , Traumatic amputations, Blunt trauma ...Thoracic Injury 44 6.90% Flail Chest 2 0.31% Spinal Cord Trauma without Spine Fracture 8 1.25% Cardiac Tamponade 1 0.16% Total Non-Primary...368 7.68% Blunt Chest Trauma 60 1.25% Head Injury 143 2.98% Spinal Cord Damage 60 1.25% Head Injury with Spinal Cord Damage 14 0.29% Urogenital

  9. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Israel Aircraft Industries’ Fireball Has Four Deployable Wings as Do the PGMM and Armement Léger à Fibre Optique (ALFO...responsibility of the authors. xxv Abbreviations AGLS Automatic Gun-Laying System ALFO Light Fiber-Optic Weapon (Armement Léger à Fibre Optique ...2.11 Israel Aircraft Industries’ Fireball Has Four Deployable Wings as Do the PGMM and Armement Léger à Fibre Optique (ALFO) What Types of Advanced

  10. Terrorist Criminal Pipelines and Criminalized States: Emerging Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    states are: ❖❖ strong, or able to control its territory and offer quality political goods to its people ❖❖ weak, or filled with social tensions, and...Guerras Asimétricas y de Cuarta Generación Dentro Del Penasmiento Venezolano en Materia de Seguridad y Defensa [Asymmetrical and Fourth Generation Warfare

  11. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Don, Bruce; Frelinger, Dave; Gerwehr, Scott; Landree, Eric; Jackson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    .... This book explores the role that these communications and computer technologies play and the net effect of their use, the purpose and manner in which the technology is used, the operational actions...

  12. Combatting Terrorism through Study of the Genetic Psychology of Terrorist Leaders. The Early Development of the Terrorist Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    only if left awhile.... Also he did have periods of insanity , although that is only an infrequent result of the disease .... Earlier and ancestral...inheritance and early environment. The trait was well-developed by the mid- 1920s , and continued to the end of his life but was not exploited by the July...Within one hour after releasing the last hostages and giving himself up, he had received political asylum and with a female contact from Paris, was

  13. Preservation and restoration of works-of-art via nuclear technology; Conservation - restauration des bien culturels par des techniques nucleaires. Le nucleaire et la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeure, Ph. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France). Arc Nucleart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the techniques using gamma rays for preservation and restoration of our cultural patrimony. Developed at CEA and by ARC-Nucleart, these techniques, which use mainly Cobalt 60 and Americium 241 sources, allow disinfection and strengthening of the various materials which make up the objects (wood, paper, bone, stone, plaster, etc), together with radiography of wood and stone. (author)

  14. A future for nuclear sites beyond their service life. Nuclear site value development; Un avenir pour les sites nucleaires en fin de cycle. Valorisation des sites nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    As the nuclear industry moves into a new development phase, many facilities built in the fifties and sixties are reaching the end of their service life. Dismantling them and rehabilitating the sites on which they stand is a major industrial challenge which will give rise to a number of new projects. AREVA has more than 20 years' experience in these highly technical fields. As more and more sites reach the end of their service life, AREVA considers nuclear site value development as a fully-fledged industrial activity. The group's competencies in this field have been grouped together to form a dedicated entity: the Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit, created in 2008. Several billion euros are invested in site value development projects which are far-reaching and complex, and often last for several decades. Long before work actually begins, lengthy studies and preparations are required to schedule operations, select the techniques to be used and optimize costs and deadlines. The Nuclear Site Value Development BU is currently working on four major projects involving its own facilities and those of the CEA: - La Hague: dismantling of the first generation of used fuel recycling facilities. Between 1966 and 1998, almost 5,000 tons of used fuel from graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, 4,500 tons of light water reactor fuel, as well as fuel from fast reactors and research reactors, were treated at UP2 400, the very first industrial recycling plant on the La Hague site. - Marcoule: first-time dismantling of a recycling plant. 1,000 rooms to be cleaned up, 30,000 tons of waste to be treated, 30 years of work. - Cadarache: first-time dismantling of a Mox fuel fabrication plant. The Cadarache plant was commissioned in 1962 to fabricate fuel for fast reactors; this was followed by MOX fuel for light water reactors, an activity which continued until the plant was shut down in 2003. - Annecy and Veurey: giving a new lease of life to former industrial sites in built-up areas. AREVA is currently working on a site value development program on two industrial sites in Annecy and Veurey, near Grenoble. Dating back to 1955 and 1957, the sites were created for the manufacture and precision machining of uranium metal. The number of clean-up and dismantling projects is set to rise steadily in the years ahead and site value development will unquestionably become a new nuclear activity in its own right. AREVA is developing the corresponding competencies and expertise: new professions are springing up (value development project manager, scenario and feedback manager, operational dismantling methods manager, flushing operator, etc.) and a dedicated theoretical and practical training program is being put together. Once a nuclear site has been shut down, the long-term dismantling and value development operations make a considerable contribution to the local economy. Site rehabilitation is an environmental necessity and improves nuclear's image in the eyes of the public. As new nuclear projects get off the ground, developing the value of disused sites will free up space for future projects and make a valuable contribution to the nuclear revival.

  15. Validation of iron nuclear data for the neutron calculation of nuclear reactors; Validation de donnees nucleaires du fer pour le calcul neutronique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaglio-Gaudard, C.

    2010-03-29

    The GEN-III and GEN-IV reactors will be equipped with heavy reflectors. However, the existing integral validation of the iron nuclear data in the latest JEFF3 European library in the frame of the neutron calculation of the heavy reflector is very partial: some results exist concerning fast reactors but there is no result corresponding to the LWR heavy reflector. No clear trend on the JEFF3 iron cross sections was brought into evidence up to now for fission reactor calculations. Iron nuclear data were completely re-evaluated in the JEFF3 library. Despite the fact that iron is widely used in the nuclear industry, large uncertainties are still associated with its nuclear data, particularly its inelastic cross section which is very important in the neutron slowing down. A validation of {sup 56}Fe nuclear data was performed on the basis of the analysis of integral experiments. Two major critical experiments, the PERLE experiment and the Gas Benchmark, were interpreted with 3D reference Monte-Carlo calculations and the JEFF3.1.1 library. The PERLE experiment was recently performed in the EOLE zero-power facility (CEA Cadarache). This experiment is dedicated to heavy reflector physics in GEN-III light water reactors. It was especially conceived for the validation of iron nuclear data. The Gas Benchmark is representative of a Gas Fast Reactor with a stainless steel reflector (with no fertile blanket) in the MASURCA facility (CEA Cadarache). Radial traverses of reaction rates were measured to characterize flux attenuation at various energies in the reflector. The results of the analysis of both experiments show good agreement between the calculations and the measurements, which is confirmed by the analysis of complementary experiments (ZR-6M, MISTRAL4, CIRANO-ZONA2B). A process of re-estimating the {sup 56}Fe nuclear data was implemented on the basis of feedback from these two experiments and the RDN code. This code relies on a non-linear regression method using an iterative technique (limitation to the first Gauss-Newton iteration in this study). The re-evaluation process shows that the {sup 56}Fe nuclear data in the JEFF3.1.1 library are known with accuracy. It is the first main thesis result which makes it possible to clearly validate the iron nuclear data in the JEFF3 library, for the fission reactor calculation. A new a posteriori covariance matrix associated with JEFF3 can then be deduced. An important result shows that the a posteriori uncertainties are reduced by a ratio of two on the inelastic cross section compared with prior uncertainties. The second thesis result relies on obtaining a realistic covariance matrix associated with the JEFF3 iron nuclear data. This matrix can be used as reference for the realistic uncertainty propagation studies on safety parameters of GEN-III and GEN-IV reactors (core safety parameters, vessel pressure fluence, etc). Furthermore, the impact of the {sup 56}Fe elastic angular distributions was not taken into account in the nuclear data re-evaluation process; their accuracy can however have a non-negligible impact on the calculation of the fast flux attenuation in the reflector. Analysis of the {sup 56}Fe elastic angular distributions in the JEFF3 file shows that they are not very well known and could be improved, which is an interesting prospect developed in the thesis. (author)

  16. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030; Essai de prospective. La dissuasion nucleaire en 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2006-12-15

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  17. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Cadarache; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Cadarache for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the report discusses the beginning of the RJH reactor construction, the fourth generation reactors research programs, the implementing of la Rotonde the new radioactive wastes management installation, the renovation of the LECA. (A.L.B.)

  18. The diverse applications of the nuclear power; Les diverses applications du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The three great categories of application in industry and environment of ionizing radiations are the use of ionizing radiation to transport energy in matter it is industrial irradiation, the use of radioactive sources of low activity to analyze and measure, it is the nucleonic instrumentation, the use of radioactive tracers to follow and study the matter transfer. Are explained the treatments to improve the plastic materials and the ionisation of food. (N.C.)

  19. Is there any future for nuclear weapons?; Les armes nucleaires ont-elles un avenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisbourg, F.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear weapons occupy a paradoxal place both in the collective imagination and in the historical reality: on the one hand everybody dreads the apocalypse horror, and on the other hand, dissuasion appears as an unchanging and quite comfortable situation. However, the world has become multipolar in this domain as well. The geopolitical map is reconstructing. Doctrinal revisions, initiatives against nuclear weapons proliferation, and nuclear disarmament measures are now on the agenda. The best foreign and French experts examine for the first time the consequences of these evolutions. They analyse in particular the split up risks and the potential consequences of a nuclear conflict in regions where atomic arms have become a key-component of the strategic landscape: Middle-Est, Far-East, Southern Asia. The choices France and its allies will have to face are examined as well. (J.S.)

  20. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag; Le crime de Tchernobyl. Le goulag nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchertkoff, W

    2006-07-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)