The field of Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing in their current form have had an important impact on the financial world for almost half a century. Today, Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing pose a threat to the integrity of the financial markets and systems worldwide. The intention behind implementing a regulatory Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing framework is to cut off the financial resources of criminals and to follow back the traces that finan...
de Goede, M.
This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a
its fold; they also represent an understanding of the value of the information medium by setting the group up as the underdog against the large...up and organized street demonstrations to lobby for civil rights. The Stormont (Irish) government branded the movement a front for the IRA and
Dr Foster Intelligence aims to improve the use and accessibility of information to offer people more control over their care. It will also provide management with the information required to make effective business decisions. The new service will be 'taking advantage of private-sector expertise for public-sector advantage.
Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.
The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent
Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis
This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...
... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include enough...
Deze paper bevat een verkorte beschrijving van de Nakamoto architectuur voor informational money, een positionering van Bitcoin, een "money-like informational commodity", als een verschijningsvorm van iGoud, en een bespiegeling over de vraag hoe hoe informational money het einde van Gewoon Geld in
Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes
The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...
Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.
Li MingChu; Yang Zekun; Lu Kun; Guo Cheng
The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watch...
Full Text Available Since 9/11, financial institutions have found themselves placed squarely on the front line of efforts to combat terrorism: countering terrorist financing has been a core element of the global counter-terrorism architecture since President George W Bush signed Executive Order 13224 promising to starve terrorists of funding. Financial institutions have played valuable “post-event” forensic roles, but despite the apparently immense troves of data they hold, their effective involvement in the identification and disruption of terrorist intentions or activity remains elusive. With global authorities consumed with the mushrooming growth of “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs, it seems timely to revisit the question of how financial institutions can play a more preventative role in countering terrorist threats. As the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force (FATF noted recently, “greater domestic cooperation among AML/CFT [anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism] bodies and other authorities” is needed to tackle funding of FTFs. Banks must play a key role in the development of this architecture. The issue of FTFs flowing to and from the conflict in Syria is likely to shape the international security agenda for the foreseeable future. Identifying citizens who have joined terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq pose a threat to the UK. The UK is certainly not alone in Europe in facing this threat. Evidence suggests these fears are now being realised. Both the scale of the issue in the context of the Syrian conflict and the speed with which the numbers have risen have caught international security authorities off guard, which – it would seem – have only belatedly appreciated the magnitude of the challenge. Whilst there has been much discussion and debate about who these travelling fighters are, their motivations, and the threats they pose, the majority of this analysis has focused on the role of social media in this
Full Text Available The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watching potential terrorists and destroying the plot, and cause a huge risk to public security. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, we develop a new Stackelberg game model for the security agency to generate optimal monitoring strategy with the consideration of information leakage. Secondly, we provide a double-oracle framework DO-TPDIL for calculation effectively. The experimental result shows that our approach can obtain robust strategies against information leakage with high feasibility and efficiency.
Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.
Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah
As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.
... Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 103.110 Voluntary.... 5312(a)(2) that is required under this part to establish and maintain an anti-money laundering program... suspects may involve possible terrorist activity or money laundering. (2) Notice requirement. A financial...
... Retaining Beneficial Ownership Information for Anti-Money Laundering Purposes AGENCY: Securities and...-money laundering purposes. DATES: Effective Date: March 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... retaining beneficial ownership information for anti-money laundering purposes. This guidance is being issued...
Kurdistan Workers’ Party, drug trafficking, human trafficking, cigarette smuggling, prostitution, extortion, money laundering , Turkey 15. NUMBER OF...91 F. MONEY LAUNDERING ............................................................... 93 G. CONCLUSION...opportunity to launder illegal money . Also, donations from a sympathetic population is another source of money and legitimacy for terrorist
.... It is estimated that $300 billion of dirty money may be laundered each year, its origin and ownership obscured as it passes through financial institutions and across national boundaries in an effort to hide and protect...
Mukherjee, Sumitava; Manjaly, Jaison A; Nargundkar, Maithilee
With continuous growth in information aggregation and dissemination, studies on privacy preferences are important to understand what makes people reveal information about them. Previous studies have demonstrated that short-term gains and possible monetary rewards make people risk disclosing information. Given the malleability of privacy preferences and the ubiquitous monetary cues in daily lives, we measured the contextual effect of reminding people about money on their privacy disclosure preferences. In experiment 1, we found that priming money increased willingness to disclose their personal information that could be shared with an online shopping website. Beyond stated willingness, experiment 2 tested whether priming money increases propensity for actually giving out personal information. Across both experiments, we found that priming money increases both the reported willingness and the actual disclosure of personal information. Our results imply that not only do short-term rewards make people trade-off personal security and privacy, but also mere exposure to money increases self-disclosure.
Nina Ilona Ellinger
Full Text Available The question: ‘What would be the best way to use ten million dollars?’ leads to many other questions when related to anti-trafficking work. What should the money be spent on? Who should be appointed to spend the money? And, perhaps most importantly, who should be the beneficiaries? In other words, are the ten million dollars to prevent trafficking of people meant for activities to stop smuggling of people, to stop unwanted migrants, or to protect and uphold people’s rights when they move across borders and need to be protected from trafficking? Would the money be best spent on anti-trafficking work, or would it be better spent on strengthening the rights of all migrants to minimise the risk of trafficking?
Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.
A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.
Full Text Available methods of fundraising are also possible. Electronic money transfer, laundering and generating support through front organisations are all fundraising methods used by terrorists (Goodman, Kirk & Kirk 2007). According to the Financial Action Task Force... agent. This allows terrorist groups to move money around without actually delivering the auctioned goods or services. Online casinos can be used for both laundering and storing money. When dealing with large sums of money, terrorists can place...
Full Text Available With continuous growth in information aggregation and dissemination, studies on privacy preferences are important to understand what makes people reveal information about them. Previous studies have demonstrated that short-term gains and possible monetary rewards make people risk disclosing information. Given the malleability of privacy preferences and the ubiquitous monetary cues in daily lives, we measured the contextual effect of reminding people about money on their privacy disclosure preferences. In experiment 1, we found that priming money increased willingness to disclose their personal information that could be shared with an online shopping website. Beyond stated willingness, experiment 2 tested whether priming money increases propensity for actually giving out personal information. Across both experiments, we found that priming money increases both the reported willingness and the actual disclosure of personal information. Our results imply that not only do short-term rewards make people trade-off personal security and privacy, but also mere exposure to money increases self-disclosure.
Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.
Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo
This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139
Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.
A collection of questions about Bitcoin and its hypothetical relatives Bitguilder and Bitpenny is formulated. These questions concern technical issues about protocols, security issues, issues about the formalizations of informational monies in various contexts, and issues about forms of use and
...; Expansion of Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity AGENCY... continuing effort to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and counter...-5332, to promote the prevention, detection, and prosecution of international money laundering and the...
Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis
To explore how key components of economic evaluations have been included in evaluations of health information systems (HIS), to determine the state of knowledge on value for money for HIS, and provide guidance for future evaluations. We searched databases, previously collected papers, and references for relevant papers published from January 2000 to June 2012. For selection, papers had to: be a primary study; involve a computerized system for health information processing, decision support, or management reporting; and include an economic evaluation. Data on study design and economic evaluation methods were extracted and analyzed. Forty-two papers were selected and 33 were deemed high quality (scores ≥ 8/10) for further analysis. These included 12 economic analyses, five input cost analyses, and 16 cost-related outcome analyses. For HIS types, there were seven primary care electronic medical records, six computerized provider order entry systems, five medication management systems, five immunization information systems, four institutional information systems, three disease management systems, two clinical documentation systems, and one health information exchange network. In terms of value for money, 23 papers reported positive findings, eight were inconclusive, and two were negative. We found a wide range of economic evaluation papers that were based on different assumptions, methods, and metrics. There is some evidence of value for money in selected healthcare organizations and HIS types. However, caution is needed when generalizing these findings. Better reporting of economic evaluation studies is needed to compare findings and build on the existing evidence base we identified.
Becker, Steven M
With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored.
than those questions dealing with terrorists and their methods. Explosives are used routinely and plastique has entered the terrorist’s preferred...to handle. (12:23) The female Lebanese terrorist, May Mansin, easily concealed plastique in a body cavity and proceeded to blow a hole into the side
Kummer, Michael E.; Schulte, Patrick
We shed light on a money-for-privacy trade-off in the market for smartphone applications ("apps"). Developers offer their apps cheaper in return for greater access to personal information, and consumers choose between lower prices and more privacy. We provide evidence for this pattern using data on 300,000 mobile applications which were obtained from the Android Market in 2012 and 2014. We augmented these data with information from Alexa.com and Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our findings show that ...
... Renewal Without Change; Comment Request; Anti-Money Laundering Programs; Due Diligence Programs for... policies, procedures, and controls reasonably designed to detect and report money laundering through... Enforcement Network, P.O. Box 39, Vienna, VA 22183, Attention: Comments on Anti-Money Laundering Program and...
This variation, by its very nature, makes it somewhat difficult to identify overarching patterns in how terrorist ideologies might motivate individuals and sympathetic communities on a global level...
Muhammad Arshad Khan
Full Text Available This paper tests the constancy and stationarity of mechanic version of the money multiplier model for Pakistan using monthly data over the period 1972M1-2009M2. We split the data into pre-liberalization (1972M1-1990M12 and post-liberalization (1991M1-2009M2 periods to examine the impact of financial sector reforms. We first examine the constancy and stationarity of the money multiplier and the results suggest the money multiplier remains non-stationary for the entire sample period and sub-periods. We then tested cointegration between money supply and monetary base and find the evidence of cointegration between two variables for the entire period and two sub-periods. The coefficient restrictions are satisfied only for the post-liberalization period. Two-way long-run causality between money supply and monetary base is found for the entire period and post-liberalization. For the post-liberalization period the evidence of short-run causality running from monetary base to money supply is also identified. On the whole, the results suggest that money multiplier model can serve as framework for conducting short-run monetary policy in Pakistan. However, the monetary authority may consider the co-movements between money supply and reserve money at the time of conducting monetary policy.
Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information
...; it examines their socioeconomic backgrounds and their driving ideologies; and it probes into elements that may aid the cohesion of terrorist groups, as well as at elements that drive toward disintegration...
Cronin, Audrey K
Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...
Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.
This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...
have supplied many terrorist groups with plastique and other explosives to build bombs. 3 Using these explosives they have produced vehicle bombs which...deceptive, if not dangerously naive.1 5 State Supported Terrorism State supported terrorism is not a new concept , however, it has only recently been...terrorist incidents. The product of that study was the tri-level US anti- terrorism program concept . 3 The program structure is shown in Figure 11. President
Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)
Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)
Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)
Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…
developed. By way of contrast, the last two categories—theoretical works and doctrine—attempt to transcend the contextual limits of the first two... Busqueda , the Colombian National Police “Search Bloc,” which was tasked with apprehending Escobar (Bowden, 2001). Deceiving Terrorists Chain Network
van den Broek, Melissa
Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing is currently one of the main instruments which regulates efforts to combat money laundering (and terrorist financing) in the European Union. Respecting national procedural autonomy, this directive leaves a high degree of freedom for the Member States in designing their own supervisory architectures under the preventive anti-money laundering policy. This contrib...
Ramírez Vásquez, Daniel
Money laundering is the most commonly occurring form of financial crime -- This has been facilitated by the presence of diverse technology that has made money laundering easier -- Globally, money laundering is a major concern since it is linked to terrorist financing and corruption of the financial systems -- In response, the international community has strengthened the AML/CFT structures following the terrorist act in the Unites States in September 2011 -- The thesis presents an analysis of ...
The thesis deals with evaluation of ant-money laundering effectiveness. In theoretical part money laundering, FATF (Financial Ask Task Force) and AML(anti-money laundering) are defined. Practical part concentrates on the biggest scandals of the latest years and assessment of AML effectiveness. Based on this evaluation, weak places in AML mechanisms were identified. Additionally, tools of AML improvement were determined.
Tomasz Łyziak; Jan Przystupa; Anna Sznajderska; Ewa Wróbel
The paper provides an overview of the literature on the role of monetary aggregates for conducting monetary policy and attempts to assess the role of these aggregates in the Polish monetary policy. We compare theoretical and empirical arguments which justify or undermine the need for usage of monetary aggregates by central banks, as well as arguments indicating related problems. We describe the most important areas of the discussion on the role of money in monetary policy. We present studies ...
Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...
From using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online, school districts are seeking money-saving methods. In this article, the author discusses some methods used by school districts that allow them to save money from using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online.
This chapter provides an overview of the role of the European Union in the emergence, consolidation and development of the governance of money laundering. In particular, it identifies three sets of factors that explain the role of the European Union in the global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regime...
Roelsgaard Obling, Anne
Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....
Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars
transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...
Full Text Available This article is not a comprehensive factual history of money as an economic instrument. It aims rather to present an essential psychological history of the power of money as a social organization or social technology. It explores the catalytic role of money in the development of society and its ever-increasing capacity for accomplishment in both economic and non-economic fields. This perspective focuses attention on the unutilized potential for harnessing the social power of money for promoting full employment, global development and human welfare. The title ‘multiplying money’ is intended to convey the idea that this untapped potential is exponential in nature. In order to recognize it, some fundamental misconceptions about the nature of money, how it is created and on what it is based need to be examined. This is the second article in a series.
Full Text Available It has been debated whether the Global Fund (GF, which is supporting the implementation of programs on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria, should consider the value-for-money (VFM for programs/interventions that they are supporting. In this paper, we critically analyze the uses of economic information for GF programs, not only to ensure accountability to their donors but also to support country governments in continuing investment in cost-effective interventions initiated by the GF despite the discontinuation of financial support after graduation. We demonstrate that VFM is not a static property of interventions and may depend on program start-up cost, economies of scales, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of providers once the program develops, and acceptance and adherence of the target population. Interventions that are cost-ineffective in the beginning may become cost-effective in later stages. We consider recent GF commitments towards value for money and recommend that the GF supports interventions with proven cost-effectiveness from program initiation as well as interventions that may be cost-effective afterwards. Thus, the GF and country governments should establish mechanisms to monitor cost-effectiveness of interventions invested over time.
Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.
Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…
Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars
Legal tender in the form of coins and banknotes is expected to be replaced at one point in the future by digital legal tender. This transformation is an opportunity for central banks to rethink the idea of money and overhaul the prevailing payment systems. Digital legal tender is expected to reduce...... exchange instrument that relies on computer protocols to facilitate, verify, and enforce certain conditions for its appropriation as payment, e.g. who may use the money, where, and for what. If we believe that digital legal tender will become ubiquitous, then the emergence and diffusion of smart money...
Money laundering is marginalized phenomenon with high social impact which comes from necessary connection of this activity with illegal activities, especially organized crime. Since the goal of almost every illegal activity is to create profit (and since the biggest profit comes from the activities which are highly dangerous for the society, such as drug trafficking) it is vital for the society to fight money laundering effectively. It is in the best interest of the whole society to fight thi...
Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.
Stabilization Initiative $106,400,000.00 to recon/stab Seven countries per fiscal year American Academy of Actuaries insured losses (relatively...Indicators Political Instability Task Force Report Mathematical Model (Linear Program Optimization) Develop a value system (utility theory) to...deeper ahead. 47 LIST OF REFERENCES American Academy of Actuaries (Finance Data). Retrieved September 20, 2009, from, http://www.actuary.org
Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCann, Duncan
Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after prov...
Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole
Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits...... that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after provisions and taxes....
Thompson, Sydney; Cross, William; Rigling, Lillian; Vickery, John
The North Carolina State University Libraries has long recognized the financial burden textbook costs place on students. By crosswalking information on use of our textbook collection with textbook cost and course enrollment data, we have begun to map the environment for textbook use at the university and identified opportunities for faculty…
Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B
According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...
Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)
Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)
School library budgets are about as miserably low or nonexistent as many librarians have ever seen. The population of school librarians who have not just one, but "many" school libraries to manage is growing. Time and funds are short, and needs for books, programming, and technology are high. Grant money is out there for librarians, and the author…
Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh
This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...
Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526
Since ten years, and more so, since September 11, 2001, international organizations such as the IMF, OECD and EU try to combat harmful tax competition, money laundering and terrorist financing. Blacklisting, the naming and shaming of uncooperative countries, was one of the strategies used from the
The European Anti-Money Laundering Directive 2015/849 sets out detailed rules for the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing. It presents a clear framework for financial institutions, covering both cash and electronic payments systems. However, the directive fails to regulate digital
Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.
Full Text Available In the activity of the modern economy, the availability of money as a means of transaction is very important, because with the money as a means to pay consumers can easily to get the basic material needs are required, the manufacturer can provide the raw materials of labor for production, and distributors can obtain a variety of merchandise to be delivered at the end consumer. The pattern of use of money is influenced by the attitude of the public in the transaction. Researchers assume, that there are differences among communities, either by group differences in income, educational differences, ethnic differences, differences in profession, and perhaps even religious differences embraced. So as to provide information to the monetary authorities, to enrich the theory of demand for money based economic agents in Indonesia, and for the application of the theory of demand for money, the researchers felt the need to study patterns of use of money. Qualitative research, in addition to knowing whether the variables that affect the demand for money as the above theory is still relevant for economic actors in Indonesia at this time, or even are new variables, as well as the motive of money demand. Keywords: Demand for money, Keynes Theory, qualitative method
This review is about the convenience, the benefits, as well as the destructive capacities of money. It deals with various aspects of money creation, with its value, and its appropriation. All sorts of money tend to get corrupted by eventually creating too much of them. In the long run, this renders money worthless and deprives people holding it. This misuse of money creation is inevitable and should come as no surprise. Abusive money creation comes in various forms. In the present fiat money ...
Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.
Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi
More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)
and support franchisee operations .10 To achieve any one of these objectives, al Qaeda will need to choose and In an interview with some world press...reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204...The mission of RAND Infrastructure, Safety, and Envi- ronment is to improve the development, operation , use, and protec- tion of society’s
The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...
businesses like General Motors, which received bailout money from the federal government, and the Catholic Church, which receives tax-exempt status...from gaining independence from France . Other examples of absolute terrorists include the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), Hamas, and al...The conflict began when the IRA, which represented the Catholic minority, felt discriminated against by the Protestant majority, represented by
J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban
This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...
Chinese are normally believed to be thrifty.However,economic development has had a tremendous impact upon Chinese society,uprooting the long-engraved ideas.With the emergence of the credit cards,spending tomorrow's money becomes a reality.In this way,people are in dilemma:saving money or spending tomorrow's money.Firstly,this paper focuses on the benefits of spending tomorrow's money.Secondly,it shows that spending tomorrow's money is confronted with many challenges.Finally,the paper comes up with some suggestions to solve these problems.
- Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network. It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks. It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researche...
Vantine, H C
The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant
...), to the problem of anticipating terrorist acts. Two areas in which IAs could play a significant role are in the development and maintenance of a real-time picture of terrorist activity, and in predicting potential occurrences of terrorist acts...
Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.
The terrorists' problems in stealing the plutonium and fabricating the device are measured against the likely effects of its explosion. Alternatives are discussed and it is concluded that there are many easier ways of killing a large number of people. It is considered impossible to guard absolutely against all possible terrorist threats of mass murder. (U.K.)
transactions to further terrorist activities do not have to be large to constitute money laundering. The connection between questions 1 and 7 is more...2005 1:05-cr-00059-DC USA v. Vincent Nafta Petroleum Company Limited 92 2005 1:05-cr-00059-DC USA v. Vincent Mednafta Trading Company Limited 93...00059-DC USA v. Vincent Nafta Petroleum Company Limited No No No No No No No 1:05-cr- 00059-DC USA v. Vincent Mednafta Trading Company
Department of Defense INSTRUCTION NUMBER 5525.19 May 4, 2016 USD(P&R) SUBJECT: DoD Identity Matching Engine for Security and Analysis...DoD Identity Management Capability Enterprise Services Application (IMESA) Access to FBI National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Files,” April 22...Coordinates with: (1) The USD(I) for oversight and maintenance responsibilities, and for changes to digital DoD personnel identity data and
Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Many years ago there was a Federal whistleblower, Deep Throat, who leaked confidential Government information about the Nixon White House to reporters from the Washington Post. Fans of the book and movie will remember that his famous line was, “Follow the money.” That line came to mind when an article appeared in Health Affairs summarizing the US health care expenditures for 2010 (1). The main gist of the article is that the rate of growt...
... of Special Information Sharing Procedures to Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity. Abstract... efficiency and effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and counter- terrorist financing policies. Affected...
This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of Uganda was based on the 2003 Forty Recommendations on Money Laundering and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) (FATF 40+9), and was prepared using the AML/CFT Methodology of 2004. During the mission, the assessment team me...
Keywords: money market, monetary policy, money, financial markets. 1. ..... Both sides of the banks' consolidated balance sheet increase by USD 100 million. ... As substantiation of the statement that the KIR substantially influencing the.
Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom
In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.
David Andolfatto; Ed Nosal
We construct a simple environment that combines a limited communication friction and a limited information friction in order to generate a role for money and intermediation. We ask whether there is any reason to expect the emergence of a banking sector (i.e., institutions that combine the business of money creation with the business of intermediation). In our model the unique equilibrium is characterized, in part, by the existence of an agent that: (1) creates money (a debt instrument that ci...
... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...
... more other countries'' is intended to capture the fact that some foreign currencies are used by...'' to include, in part: a currency exchange; an issuer, redeemer, or cashier of travelers' checks... the MSB from being used to facilitate money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities; \\7...
This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of Pakistan is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and was prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The assessors reviewed the inst...
affairs in secrecy.” It was said in the proverbs, "The hearts of freemen are the tombs of secrets" and "Moslems’ secrecy is faithfulness, and talking...and prepare for new attacks.299 In May 2007, Al Qaeda named an Egyptian , Mustafa Ahmed Muhammad Uthman Abu al-Yazid, as the group’s leader for
Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara
The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.
Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law
A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.
A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs
Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.
ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.
Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.
Potters, J.J.M.; Sloof, R.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.
A costly signaling model is presented in which we show how campaign expenditures can buy votes. The model shows that the amount of campaign expenditures may convey the electorate information about the candidate’s intended policy. When this model is extended to allow for a contributing interest
Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac
The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.
Khaled A. ALASMARI
Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.
Eby, Charles A.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Lone-wolf terrorist attacks have occurred in the United States throughout the countrys history. Attempted attacks from individual terrorists unaffiliated with terrorist groups may be becoming more prevalent. Both the general public and government officials acknowledge the presence and importance of these attacks; however, relatively little literature exists on the subject compared to group terrorism. Much of the information on lone wol...
Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I
Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
The prospect of central banks issuing digital currency (CBDC) immediately raises the question of how this new form of money should co-exist and interact with exist-ing forms of money. This paper evaluates three different scenarios for the imple-mentation of CBDC in terms of their monetary policy...... simultaneously only pursue two out of the following three policy objectives: Free convertibility between CBDC and bank money, parity between CBDC and bank money, and central bank monetary sovereignty, which is the use of monetary policy for anything else than support for commercial bank credit creation...
Faure, Salomon; Gersbach, Hans
We study money creation and destruction in today’s monetary architecture and examine the impact of monetary policy and capital regulation in a general equilibrium setting. There are two types of money created and destructed: bank deposits, when banks grant loans to firms or to other banks and central bank money, when the central bank grants loans to private banks. We show that equilibria yield the first-best level of money creation and lending when prices are flexible, regardless of the monet...
Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago
This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of the money design on willingness to make purchases. In this paper, we focus on three aspects that structure the relation between money and design: the link between design and finance (in general, determinants of design and perspective of currency design. The main research problem explored in this paper is: Does the money design have influence on the willingness to make purchases by employees/employers at design studios, design students and students of economics/management? The main hypothesis is as follows – the more experience in design practice, the more important is money design.
Maria Pia Paganelli
David Hume’s monetary theory has three standard yet inconsistent readings. As a forefather of the quantity theory of money, Hume sees money as neutral. As an inflationist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy. As a monetarist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy only in the short run. This paper reads Hume consistently instead by showing that for Hume money is endogenous and demand-driven. Hume would read the money equation in terms of reverse causation and ...
Melissa van den Broek
Full Text Available Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing is currently one of the main instruments which regulates efforts to combat money laundering (and terrorist financing in the European Union. Respecting national procedural autonomy, this directive leaves a high degree of freedom for the Member States in designing their own supervisory architectures under the preventive anti-money laundering policy. This contribution adopts a systematic approach to the institutional differences between the EU Member States and presents four models of supervision that are currently present in the European Union. It explains the main characteristics of these models, categorises the EU Member States accordingly and analyses the potential strengths and weaknesses of each model, thereby providing a first indication of their effectiveness.
As a follow-up to our May 2002 report, reviewing the estimates of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York, Congress requested additional information on New York tax revenues...
Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.
Weiss, Martin A
.... The Commission recommended that the U.S. government shift the focus of its efforts to counter terrorist financing from a strategy based on seizing terrorist assets to a strategy based on exploiting intelligence gathered from financial investigations...
...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1...
Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E
...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...
Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E
...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...
... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign terrorist... respect to which the Secretary of State has notified Congress of the intention to designate as a foreign...
Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…
de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.
We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used. Theoretically, many equilibria exist side by side, in which senders use either costless messages, money, or both. We find that senders prefer to communicate through costless
de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.
We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We
de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.
We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We
Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki
Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...
istence of thresholds (a.k.a., critical prices) (for every set). The result in Theorem 3.4 relates to the characterization of truthful CAs with money and no...with money and no verification, each bidder optimizes her valu- ation minus the critical price over all her demanded sets; in the setting without money...auctions. ICALP, pp. 90-101, 2010.  P. Briest, P. Krysta, and B. Vöcking. Approximation techniques for utilitarian mechanism design. STOC, pp. 39-48
Previously, I studied [Physica D 82, 180-194 (1995)] the emergence and collapse of money in a computer simulation model. In this paper I will revisit the same topic, building a model in the same line. I discuss this problem from the viewpoint of chaotic itinerancy. Money is the most popular system for evading the difficulty of exchange under division of labor. It emerges autonomously from exchanges among selfish agents which behave as automata. And such emergent money collapses autonomously. I describe money as a structure in economic space, explaining its autonomous emergence and collapse as two phases of the same phenomenon. The key element in this phenomenon is the switch of the meaning of strategies. This is caused by the drastic change of environment caused by the emergence of a structure. This dynamics shares some aspects with chaotic itinerancy.
Gino, Francesca; Mogilner, Cassie
Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed.
Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M
.... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Many years ago there was a Federal whistleblower, Deep Throat, who leaked confidential Government information about the Nixon White House to reporters from the Washington Post. Fans of the book and movie will remember that his famous line was, “Follow the money.” That line came to mind when an article appeared in Health Affairs summarizing the US health care expenditures for 2010 (1. The main gist of the article is that the rate of growth in health care expenditures had slowed to only 3.9% and approximated the slowed growth from 2009 which was 3.8%. Previously the growth had been much larger averaging 7.2% from 2000-8 (2. The article points out that during recession expenditures usually slow but the expected decline in healthcare expenditures usually occurs far after the beginning of the recession. The authors state that the “lagged slowdown in health spending growth from the recent recession occurred more quickly …
Wray, L. Randall
This paper argues that the usual framing of discussions of money, monetary policy, and fiscal policy plays into the hands of conservatives. That framing is also largely consistent with the conventional view of the economy and of society more generally. To put it the way that economists usually do, money "lubricates" the market mechanism-a good thing, because the conventional view of the market itself is overwhelmingly positive. Acknowledging the work of George Lakoff, this paper takes the pos...
Virtually all financial innovation in the U.S. money market during the past 20 years has centered on interest rate derivatives, including futures and swaps. Furthermore, money market futures--especially futures contracts on Eurodollar time deposits--have been at the vanguard of the recent explosion of trading activity in interest rate derivatives. While futures markets traditionally have been viewed as markets for the transfer of price risk, recent research shows that they may serve other imp...
Stewart, Molly S.; Moon, Jodi S.
This comprehensive review is part of a three-part report, Follow the "Money: A Detailed Analysis of the Funding Mechanisms of Voucher Programs in Six Cases"; this review contains the cross-case analysis and findings of the funding mechanisms of voucher programs across five states (Arizona, Indiana, Louisiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin) and the…
Pressler, T. G. Jr.
The information required by investment banks from private E and P companies regarding private financing, sales, mergers or acquisitions, was discussed. A bank will always refer to a company's reserve report in its evaluation. Using this and other information at its disposal, the principal role of the investment bank is to advise clients in regard to financial transactions, to help them receive a fair value and to steer them in the direction where the required funds are most likely to be available ('go where the money is'), be it in public or private markets, or through a sale, or merger
In this paper, the author deals with: (1) Definition of government; incentive structure under government: taxation, war and territorial expansion. (2) Origin of money; government and money; the devolution of money from commodity to fiat money. (3) International politics and monetary regimes; monetary imperialism and the drive toward a one-world central bank and fiat currency.
crisis, 146 people were taken hostage by the terrorist group Tupac Amaru (MRTA) at the Japanese Embassy in Peru . Six of those were American...hispanic_heritage/article-9475994 FARC-EP. (2009). Chronology of resistance: FARC-EP, a history of struggle. Retrieved from http://resistencia- colombia.org...index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=463: chronology - of-resistance-farc-ep-a-history-of-struggle&catid=50&Itemid=85 Gladwell, M. (2000). The
Rachma, Meutia Safrina
There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...
Rachma, Meutia Safrina
There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...
The paper relaxes the one unit storage capacity imposed in the basic search-theoretic model of fiat money with indivisible real commodities and indivisible money. Agents can accumulate as much money as they want. It characterizes the stationary distributions of money and shows that for reasonable parameter values (e.g. production cost, discounting, degree of specialization) a monetary equilibrium exists. There are multiple stationary distributions of a given amount of money, which differ in t...
Monga, Ashwani; Zor, Ozum
Consumers are known to spend both time and money. These two resources are often seen as economically comparable because the value of one's time can be equated to a monetary amount, such as one's wage rate. Recent research suggests that even when time and money are economically equivalent, they are psychologically different. We discuss how time (versus money) leads to decision making that is more heuristic rather than systematic, to an orientation that is more emotional rather than value-maximizing, to a thinking process that is more holistic rather than analytic, and to a mindset that is more abstract rather than concrete. Implications arise for a variety of domains such as consumer search, happiness, product evaluation, and charitable giving. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fiat money is a creation of both the state and society. Its value is supported by expectations which are conditioned by the dynamics of trust in government, the socio-economic structure and by outside events such as wars, plagues or political unrest. The micro-management of a dynamic economy is not far removed in difficulty from the micro-management of the weather. However, money and the financial institutions and instruments of a modern economy provide the means to influence expectations and...
Full Text Available The risk assessment system was introduced in the Republic of Croatia in 2009, as a result of harmonization with international standards, especially the Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Risk assessment is an extensive concept which requires not only a legislative framework, but also the application of numerous criteria for its effective implementation in practice. Among these criteria are suspicious transactions, closely related to the assessment of the customer, transaction, product or service.The undeniable contribution of suspicious transactions to the quality of the risk assessment system will be confirmed by a statistical analysis of a number of West and East European countries. A combination of strict, but sufficiently flexible legal provisions governing the system for prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing and a statistical analysis of reported suspicious transactions will lead to conclusions that either support or represent criticism of the efficiency of application of the risk assessment system in practice.The aforementioned statistical analysis will show whether suspicious transactions are a reliable criterion for the risk assessment analysis, and whether they can be considered the only such criterion. There is a possibility that the findings of the analysis will be contradictory to those of some international studies.
Rae, Jonathan A.
This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise th...
Batikas, Michail; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian
Online copyright enforcement, in the form of either direct action against the supply- side (via website shutdowns) or the demand-side (via individual lawsuits against users), has not been very effective in reducing piracy. Regulators have therefore put forward the so called “follow the money...
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
Economists long considered money illusion to be largely irrelevant. Here we show, however, that money illusion has powerful effects on equilibrium selection. If we represent payoffs in nominal terms, choices converge to the Pareto inferior equilibrium; however, if we lift the veil of money...... by representing payoffs in real terms, the Pareto efficient equilibrium is selected. We also show that strategic uncertainty about the other players' behavior is key for the equilibrium selection effects of money illusion: even though money illusion vanishes over time if subjects are given learning opportunities...... in the context of an individual optimization problem, powerful and persistent effects of money illusion are found when strategic uncertainty prevails...
measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need...... to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...
... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...
Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay
.... Persistent Internet and computer security vulnerabilities, which have been widely publicized, may gradually encourage terrorists to develop new computer skills, or develop alliances with criminal...
Jonathan A Rae
Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'
Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
The risks of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) agents in terrorist attacks is well recognized. Serious measures must be in place to respond to terrorist attacks that involve these agents, including cleanup of affected buildings, machinery, land, water and air. This paper describes what is expected from the science community in the development of adequate, reliable and economical decontamination methods and equipment. It also discusses improved detection methods and adequate personal protection. Cleanup after a terrorist attack has much in common with the cleanup of contaminated sites or dealing with the consequences of industrial accidents, particularly as most potential chemical terror agents are represented by toxic industrial chemicals. The major needs of organizations involved in cleanup procedures were reviewed. Issues concerning first responders, assessment of situations, information collecting and the detection of possible chemical, biological and radiological agents were discussed. The development of generic decontamination procedures and equipment was suggested, with reference to the fact that the spectrum of CBRN weapons is very broad. In addition, the development of detection systems and instruments capable of analyzing a broad range of agents was also seen as desirable. New generation instruments such as Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) detectors were reviewed. Guidelines for cleanup procedures and remediation efforts were examined. It was also noted that there is relatively little information available to predict the behaviour of potential agents of CBRN terrorism in a complex urban environment. By studying different complex threat scenarios, scientists, first responders and other parties can achieve a better understanding of how to optimize the deployment of their resources. Mechanical, physiochemical and biological methods of decontamination were evaluated. Issues concerning waste disposal were discussed. It was noted that the
Meutia Safrina Rachma
Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58
Levintal, Oren; Zeira, Joseph
This paper tells the story of how paper money evolved as a result of lending by banks. While lending commodity money requires holding large reserves of commodity money to ensure liquidity, issuing convertible paper money reduces these costs significantly. The paper also examines the possibility of issuing inconvertible notes and shows that while they further reduce the cost of borrowing they also have adverse effects on the stability of the banking system. As a result, governments often inter...
Social entrepreneurship is popular in current academics and other media. This thesis adds to this literature by discovering what the drivers are for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Several stakeholders were identified, creating profiles of the key players in social entrepreneurship. These stakeholders uncovered key factors that represent the drivers for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Key factors were then aligned along the two dimensions: Money and Mission. This crea...
L. Randall Wray
This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...
The study aimed at determining whether or not neuroticism would account for more variance in predicting risk perception and fear of terrorist attack in Ghana compared to conscientiousness. Moreover, it sought to examine the mediating effect of risk perception on the relationship between neuroticism and fear of terrorist ...
Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima
Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…
Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.
Chadha, Jagjit S.; Corrado, Luisa; Sun, Qi
In the canonical monetary policy model, money is endogenous to the optimal path for interest rates and output. But when liquidity provision by banks dominates the demand for transactions money from the real economy, money is likely to contain information for future output and inflation because of its impact on financial spreads. And so we decompose broad money into primitive demand and supply shocks. We find that supply shocks have dominated the time series in both the UK and the US in the sh...
In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to
Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette
We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...
El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam
Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.
This paper explores general equilibrium consumption choices and interest rate determination in a deterministic two-period model in which the production side explicitly describes the thermodynamic process unavoidably connected with production, as argued by Georgescu Roegen. A simple energy based production process is modeled, which is not in a stationary state. The resulting production function is time dependent. In neoclassical general equilibrium the thermodynamic implication of the production process, i.e., the production of waste, will not be taken into account by decision making agents. For welfare optimality, the resulting externality needs to be corrected by a social planner, or through the use of environmental related taxation. However, it is shown that imposing energy as a medium of exchange (money) in the same economy makes agents 'energy conscious' and decreases the externality associated with entropic waste through a market mechanism, without the need for intervention. In the limit case in which production occurs in thermodynamic equilibrium, no entropic waste is produced, and the model collapses to the nested neoclassical model. A contribution of the proposed approach is the determination of energy (money) prices in general equilibrium. Despite the fact that energy does not enter the agents' utility function, and therefore has no direct value, money prices and interest rate can be fully characterized in the model due precisely to the production technology adopted. In this competitive equilibrium the market interest rate will be greater than the real interest rate. The change in the numeraire and medium of exchange used affects the economy due to the non stationarity of the production process, but has no effect in the limit case in which the productive process reaches a steady state. (author)
Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.
Tracing life stories and family histories back to rural Punjab, I explore the development and processes of upward social mobility of the Pakistani community in Denmark from the 1960s onwards. I suggest that social mobility among Pakistani immigrants and their descendants must be seen as the outcome...... of the Danish labour market during the late 1970s and 1980s pushed them into two different long-term strategies of money or education respectively. This created a split in the Pakistani community between educated and non-educated families and shaped the second generation’s way of life in terms of, for example...
Full Text Available The contemporary society has been, is and will probably be dominated "urbi et orbi " (everywhere and for everybody by conflicts expressed through violence, social confrontations, permissiveness, authority collapse, collapse of moral norms. Paradoxically, although it is spoken and written much about terrorism and terrorists, there is still no complete and accepted definition of these terms, and the legal classification is approximate. The analysis of threats is an extremely important decisional asset when setting up plans of direct protection or objective security strategies or institutions suitable to become targets of violent actions, but today's intelligence community has not yet established a clear set of procedures and principles that constitute the expert main frame for a comprehensive analysis of threats and vulnerabilities.
Beatrice de Graaf
Full Text Available On 30 March 2011, ICCT organised an Expert Meeting entitled “Terrorism Trials as Theatre: A Performative Perspective”. The Expert Meeting applied a performative perspective to three well known and recent trials in different parts of the world: the trials against the Dutch Hofstad Group, the Mumbai 2008 Terrorist Attack Trial and the Guantanamo Military Tribunals. As such, the Expert Meeting did not concentrate solely on the immediate judicial performance of the magistrates and/or the defence; instead, the trials were put in their wider sociological context, adopting notions of social drama and communication sciences. This Expert Meeting Paper is a further adaptation of the Discussion Paper that was used as basis for debate during the Meeting.
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.
Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti
Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.
Diane M. Zierhoffer
Full Text Available This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999 poses ten questions about the patterns of thinking and behaviors that may precipitate an attack of targeted violence. Three terrorists are studied to assess the model’s value as a predictor of terrorism. It is assessed for its use within law enforcement, during an investigation of someone brought to attention as a possible terrorist and for family members or friends who suspect potential terrorist behavior. Would these questions encourage someone to report a friend to prevent a possible attack? This threat assessment model provides a foundation for future research focused on developing a structured risk assessment for lone terrorists. In its present form, the questions can assist both citizens and law enforcement personnel in identifying the patterns of thought and behavior potentially indicative of a lone terrorist.
Yougui Wang; Ning Ding; Ning Xi
Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides e...
In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.
Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.125 Anti-money laundering programs for money..., and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program. An effective anti-money laundering program is...
Musgrave, Ralph S.
The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...
Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.
Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would…
Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about money laundering: Why should we fight money laundering? How is money laundered? In which sectors is money laundered? And how can we fight money laundering? The literature mentions 25 effects of money ...
Joseph K. Young
Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.
We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...
Elsea, Jennifer K
... assets to satisfy judgments. After a court ruled that Congress never created a cause of action against terrorist States themselves, but only against their officials, employees, and agents, plaintiffs have based claims on state law...
Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay
... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...
Ludwick, Keith W
.... However, using two well-established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group...
Ludwick, Keith W
.... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...
I.D. AM OLT of PLO A14YOLP of PLO Agua Sandinist TPLF of Turkey 0 TERORISTS 3 4 25 2 GROUP CAPABILITY Unknown Unknown Auto Weapons Sten Gun "DEADLINE...of any terrorist group to different situ - ations are not independent, but reflect a coherent policy regarding violence and willingness to negotiate...importance in this stage is the need to deter future terrorist activities with- out jeopardizing our credibility in future negotiation situ - ations. I8
Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li
Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...
Ludwick, Keith W.
CHDS State/Local Studies of terrorism today focus on psychological and behavioral aspects of individuals. Most research shows that using a single model in an attempt to profile terrorists psychologically is problematic, if not impossible. However, using two well established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group. From that, it is further possible to...
Diane M. Zierhoffer
This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999) poses ten questions about t...
This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem, p...
Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.
The Psychological Science of Money brings together classic and current findings on the myriad ways money affects brain, mind, and behavior to satisfy not only our needs for material gain, but also for autonomy and self-worth. Leading experts trace the links between early concepts of value and modern
Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.
A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’
Full Text Available Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2, income (GDP, and prices (CPI. The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only meet motives of transaction, precaution, and speculation but also of fictional or quasi-fictional future demands due to the fact that they are created without real counterparts. The capacity of production systems in developed countries to respond to increases in money supply by creating more wealth, involves the assumption of money neutrality in the long-run. However, in developing countries, the excess of money supply may lead to inflation trends. The present study has confirmed the long-term non-neutrality of money supply in the USA, and its neutrality in Gabon and Morocco.
The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism
"Photographing money" is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.
Jakob von Uexkull
Full Text Available The widespread failure to understand money creation plays a key role in the current policy impasse. In a world ruled by money, this failure disempowers and prevents serious consideration of alternatives. The key reasons why we are not moving faster in tackling the global crises are, we are told, because it is too expensive, there is not enough money, it is not (yet profitable enough to do etc. Within the current global monetary framework, this is largely true. Therefore, any realistic plan to change course before we are overwhelmed by the inter-linked environmental, social and security threats facing us, is to change this framework to ensure that money becomes our servant again. The current debt crisis offers an opportunity to replace discredited debt-based money created by private banks in their interest with government-created debt-free money benefitting all, which can be used to fund a global emergency programme.“We know now that government by organised money is just as dangerous as government by organised mob.” — President F.D. Roosevelt, 31.10.36“The essence of the contemporary monetary system is creation of money, out of nothing, by private banks’ often foolish lending. Why is such privatisation of a public function right and proper, but action by the central bank to meet pressing public need, a road to catastrophe?” — Martin Wolf, ‘Financial Times’, 9.11.10“The obvious way to reduce our public and private debts is to stop having all our money created as debt.” — James Robertson, ‘Future Money’
Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.
The information brochure on Asse II includes the following contributions: The picture of the blind shaft 3 and what does it mean? What costs the Asse facility? Expensive home country. The history of Asse II shows that safety has to stand before economic interests. The Asse legislation of 203 opens new paths for the waste retrieval.
The paper discovers microeconomic mechanism of Veblen effect as well as of Giffen case as results of the negative marginal utility of money. The marginal utility of consumption also becomes negative. The total consumption-leisure utility is increased due to the increase in leisure time. This overall effect results in the phenomenon of money illusion on the macroeconomic level. This general effect has deep historical and institutional grounds and, in order to minimize its disequilibrium econom...
Andrew B. Whinston; Paula Hernandez-Verme; Haibo Huang
Temzelides and Williamson (2001) provides valuable contribution into the private money literature, however, as pointed out by Schreft (2001), while the model provides insight about historical experiences with private paper monies, it does not provide a clear insight on how a modern system of private electronic money would work and how the necessary network shall function. Our target of this paper is to fill in that gap. We present a model with two types of private electronic currencies with o...
Uthman, Rashidah T.; Sutton, Andrew J.; Jackson, Louise J.
Background Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and findings A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial. Conclusions From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not
Uthman, Rashidah T; Sutton, Andrew J; Jackson, Louise J; Uthman, Olalekan A
Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial. From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not to adopt DAART.
Rashidah T Uthman
Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa.A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial.From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not to adopt DAART.
What are the drivers behind the anti-money laundering (AML) governance framework? Who are the actors and institutions, and what is the policy content? This chapter provides an overview of the processes and mechanisms of AML policy-making. AML is often presented as a financial problem, and something......, moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...
... them. The National Money Laundering Strategy for 2007 identifies areas in which the U.S. government will work to revise, enhance, or renew efforts to enforce existing Federal laws and regulations...
Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago
A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.
Guikema, S.D.; Aven, T.
In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.
Fahd Boundi Chraki
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the link between Marx's monetary theory and its explanation of value, production and circulation. For this, it presents the basic theoretical elements that allow a critique of the quantitative theory, the Chartalist conception of the genesis of money and the post-Keynesian theory of endogenous money. Then, from a Marxist perspective, it analyzes the controversial relationship between the monetization of public debt and the increase in the general level of prices.
Full Text Available In today’s world, globalization and the increased use of information technology have resulted to the significant increases of economic crimes in recent years. Accordingly, financial crimes, such as money laundering misconducts have increased significantly. The police play active roles in the fight against money laundering and related crimes in Turkey. However, professional support is essential in order to effectively combat money laundering. In other words, not only a good level of economics, finance, accounting knowledge is critical; but also, a decent level of law information is crucial in the detection and prevention of these crimes. Increasing the effectiveness of forensic accounting profession, especially in the USA, has an important role in the prevention and detection of money laundering. Since forensic accountants have skills and capacities of litigation support, investigative accounting and expertise.
Bozzio, Mathieu; Orieux, Adeline; Trigo Vidarte, Luis; Zaquine, Isabelle; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni
Wiesner's unforgeable quantum money scheme is widely celebrated as the first quantum information application. Based on the no-cloning property of quantum mechanics, this scheme allows for the creation of credit cards used in authenticated transactions offering security guarantees impossible to achieve by classical means. However, despite its central role in quantum cryptography, its experimental implementation has remained elusive because of the lack of quantum memories and of practical verification techniques. Here, we experimentally implement a quantum money protocol relying on classical verification that rigorously satisfies the security condition for unforgeability. Our system exploits polarization encoding of weak coherent states of light and operates under conditions that ensure compatibility with state-of-the-art quantum memories. We derive working regimes for our system using a security analysis taking into account all practical imperfections. Our results constitute a major step towards a real-world realization of this milestone protocol.
Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay
Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.
Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.
A conception of money as a 'neutral veil' masking a 'real' economy was adopted by orthodox economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic 'commodity' theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann and Runciman, for example, consider the 'economy' exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the 'real' economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.
Suggests utilizing foreign coins and banknotes as teaching aids for geography. Discusses coins portrayal of such issues as societal goals, historical commemorations, or conservation of wildlife. Cites banknotes as a source of even more geographical information than coins. Suggests sources of information, coins, and banknotes. (DK)
Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.
The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.
Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions t...... to 9/11. Novels by Safran Foer (Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close) and Don DeLillo (Falling Man) focus on the personal and private consequences whereas Mohsin Hamid (The Reluctant Fundamentalist) includes the other side....
Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar; Munk, Martin David
This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money....
The Bank of England recently initiated a new survey of the sterling money market on behalf of the Money Market Liaison Group. This market — where short-term wholesale borrowing and lending in sterling takes place — plays a central role in the Bank’s pursuit of its monetary and financial stability objectives. Participants include banks, other financial institutions and non-financial companies, who use the market to manage their liquidity, by investing over short periods and raising short-term ...
Seth Carpenter; Selva Demiralp
The transmission mechanism of monetary policy has received extensive treatment in the macroeconomic literature. Most models currently used for macroeconomic analysis exclude money or else model money demand as entirely endogenous. Nevertheless, academic research and many textbooks continue to use the money multiplier concept in discussions of money. We explore the institutional structure of the transmission mechanism beginning with open market operations through to money and loans to document...
Oguzhan Cepni; Ibrahim Ethem Guney
There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand ...
Full Text Available To obtain objective and unbiased information about the accuracy and completeness of electronic money transactions at the enterprise, it is necessary to conduct an audit. The results of the external audit of electronic money transactions help the company’s management personnel to assess the efficiency and rationality of using such a modern means of payment, such as electronic money, as well as verify the proper functioning of the internal control service. The work substantiates organizational and methodical provisions of the process of conducting an external audit of transactions with electronic money in terms of clarifying the organizational provisions for conducting an audit of transactions with electronic money, namely the definition of the purpose, task, subjects and objects of audit and sources of information. Accordingly, the purpose of the audit of operations with electronic money is to provide the auditor’s unbiased opinion on the reliability of the financial statements of the enterprise in terms of operations with electronic money. Within the scope of this dissertation, the object of external audit is operations with electronic money, since electronic money is a new and contemporary object of accounting, and therefore the development of scientifically grounded order of conducting external audit of the investigated object is necessary. The subject of an external audit of electronic money transactions is a set of business transactions in electronic money settlements, that is, transactions with their acquisition and repayment and the accuracy of displaying information about them in the financial statements. In the course of the study, the procedure for the implementation of external audit procedures during the stages of the process of electronic money audit at the enterprise was determined, which allowed to confirm the correctness of the accounting of a new and modern means of payment such as electronic money. These proposals are aimed
Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)
Khakzad Rostami, N.
The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical
Goetzmann, W.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.
This paper investigates the impact of equity markets and top incomes on art prices. Using a long-term art market index that incorporates information on repeated sales since the eighteenth century, we demonstrate that both same-year and lagged equity market returns have a significant impact on the
Patterson, S.A.; Apostolakis, G.E.
This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures
Full Text Available The article gives general characterisation of the ways in which these organizations use modern communication technologies. Currently, every major terrorist organisation maintain robust media wings, which focus on producing videos, publishing magazines and sharing them with the public via the Web. The empirical system of reference is based on the activity of al-Qaeda, her franchise AQAP (al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and ISIS (the so-called Islamic State. While analysing the media of terrorist organisations, the Lasswell model was applied. This formula is a standard research procedure used for investigating acts of communication by answering the questions: who, says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect?. The author also present typology of videos produced by jihadist organisations, characterised the most important and active media actions of terrorist organisations and a typology of recipients of such messages. The article presents a number of reasons why the Internet has become such an important tool for terrorists.
The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…
Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.
Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and
Farnham, N.T.; Liem, M.C.A.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.
Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…
is their capability to exploit the black market peso exchange or the international foreign exchange arbitrage . Under the scenario of a weak U.S...appears legitimate. By using intermediaries or legitimate businesses, the financial markets are wide open for terrorists to hedge funds and
Singapore, Malaysia , Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines (The International Conference on Terrorist Rehabilitation, 2009). No single methodology to...2009, p. 16). Care Rehabilitation Centers include group meals, art therapy, recreation and other leisure activity to “build teamwork but also
called “Digital Pearl Harbor” (DPH), with the result that 79% of the gamers said that a strategic cyberattack against the United States was likely...terrorist sponsors, five of them — North Korea , Sudan, Syria, Libya, and Cuba — are described as a diminishing concern for terrorism. Only Iran remains
This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of â€˜neutrality of moneyâ€™. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...
Brad T Klontz
Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.
Alberini, Anna; Chiabai, Aline
We use data from a survey of residents of five Italian cities conducted in late spring 2004 to estimate the discount rates implicit in (1) money versus future risk reductions and (2) money versus money tradeoffs. We find that the mean personal discount rate is 0.3-1.7% in (1) and 8.7% in (2). The latter is lower than the discount rates estimated in comparable situations in many recent studies, greater than market interest rates in Italy at the time, and exhibits modest variation with age and gender. The discount rate implicit in money versus risk tradeoffs is within the range of estimates from studies in the United States and Europe, and does not depend on observable individual characteristics. We use split samples to investigate whether a completely abstract risk reduction - one where the risk reduction delivery has been stripped of all specifics, so that respondents should focus on the risks without being distracted by details - results in WTP and discount figures comparable to those from an identified delivery mechanism (a medical test). We find that while WTP for an immediate risk reduction is 42-73% higher with the abstract risk reduction, the discount rate in the money versus risk tradeoffs and the variance of the error term in the WTP equation are the same across the two variants of the questionnaire.
Ralf C. Staudemeyer
Full Text Available Protecting computing infrastructure is an expensive but necessary task. Companies that run their own computing infrastructure need to constantly vigilant in order to guard against intruders on their networks and groups or individuals that seek to intercept their communications. Companies turn to Firewall and Intrusion Detection System vendors to help them safeguard their information and infrastructure. These companies are putting their faith in expensive devices that attempt to distinguish between friendly and malicious traffic. Despite the expense and complexity of these systems, malicious users seem to find ways to avoid detection and news of massive breaches have become an almost daily occurrence. We propose to fundamentally change the way to look at information security. We highlight some of the fundamental flaws in current systems and expose risks that many experts know, but are not aware of.
M. M. Biliaiev
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves the development of a method to assess the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Methodology. To describe the process of chemical agent scattering in the atmosphere, ejected in the event of a terrorist attack, the equation of mass transfer of an impurity in atmospheric air is used. The equation takes into account the velocity of the wind flow, atmospheric diffusion, the intensity of chemical agent emission, the presence of buildings near the site of the emission of a chemically hazardous substance. For numerical integration of the modeling equation, a finite difference method is used. A feature of the developed numerical model is the possibility of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack under different weather conditions and the presence of buildings. Findings. A specialized numerical model and software package has been developed that can be used to assess the territorial risk, both in the case of terrorist attacks, with the use of chemical agents, and in case of extreme situations at chemically hazardous facilities and transport. The method can be implemented on small and medium-sized computers, which allows it to be widely used for solving the problems of the class under consideration. The results of a computational experiment are presented that allow estimating possibilities of the proposed method for assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Originality. An effective method of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemically hazardous substance is proposed. The method can be used to assess the territorial risk in an urban environment, which allows you to obtain adequate data on possible damage areas. The method is based on the numerical integration of the fundamental mass transfer equation, which expresses the law of conservation of mass in a liquid medium. Practical
Full Text Available L'analisi della definizione degli aggregati monetari ha avuto un ruolo di primo piano nel dibattito sul denaro negli anni Sessanta e la prima metà degli anni Settanta . I problemi connessi con il rapporto tra denaro e quasi- denaro ha importanti implicazioni per i vari aspetti fondamentali della teoria monetaria e della politica monetaria . In Italia , per motivi legati alla peculiarità del quadro istituzionale , il problema in questione non ha ricevuto molta attenzione . Solo di recente , a seguito della diffusione di strumenti di mercato monetario , molti partiti hanno sollevato la questione per quanto riguarda l'inclusione di questi strumenti nella definizione dello stock del denaro . Dopo aver spiegato la natura del problema , il presente lavoro fornisce un'analisi empirica della questione .The analysis of the definition of monetary aggregates has had a leading role in the debate on money in the sixties and the first half of the seventies. The problems associated with the relationship between money and quasi-money has important implications for various fundamental aspects of monetary theory and monetary policy. In Italy, for reasons related to the peculiar institutional framework, the issue in question has not received much attention. Only recently, as a result of the diffusion of money market instruments, have many parties raised the question regarding the inclusion of these instruments in the definition of the stock of money. After explaining the nature of the problem, the present work provides an empirical analysis of the issue.JEL: E42, E52
Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo
Many school districts are becoming aggressively entrepreneurial in their efforts to raise money. One district serves as the Internet service provider for their area, another rents buses and drivers to community groups. A sidebar describes a controversial deal between Coca-Cola and the Colorado Springs School District. (MLF)
Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.
Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria
Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.
Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…
If money truly does not matter, and disadvantage cannot be quantified in terms of valuable social or economic goods, then questions of justice become aridly academic. How are resources to be valued? Faulty research design skewed Eric Hanushek's results. More precisely designed studies are revealing relationships between school expenditures and…
Wang, Yougui; Xu, Yan; Liu, Li
In this paper we present the relation between Keynesian multiplier and the velocity of money circulation in a money exchange model. For this purpose we modify the original exchange model by constructing the interrelation between income and expenditure. The random exchange yields an agent's income, which along with the amount of money he processed determines his expenditure. In this interactive process, both the circulation of money and Keynesian multiplier effect can be formulated. The equilibrium values of Keynesian multiplier are demonstrated to be closely related to the velocity of money. Thus the impacts of macroeconomic policies on aggregate income can be understood by concentrating solely on the variations of money circulation.
Hsu, H. Christine
In today's information technology world, real time financial data is readily available via many financial websites, such as MSN Money, Google Finance, Yahoo Finance, etc. The incorporation of computer technology in finance classes has become more popular than ever in this information technology rich environment. Mediated classrooms have rapidly…
During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)
Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.
Emad A. Alghamdi
Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.
Lim, Vivien K G; Sng, Qing Si
A structural model focusing on the spillover effect of parental perceived job insecurity on money anxiety was developed and tested. The crossover effect of parents' money anxiety on their children's money anxiety, money motives, and motivation to work was also examined. Data were collected from a sample of undergraduates and their parents. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported a spillover effect of paternal perceived job insecurity on paternal money anxiety. However, maternal perceived job insecurity was not significantly associated with maternal money anxiety. Results also supported a crossover effect of parental money anxiety on youths' money anxiety. Youths' money anxiety was significantly related to youths' negative money motives. In turn, youths' negative money motives were associated with their intrinsic motivation to work. Implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.
New forms of mobile-based financial applications - known as mobile money ... and shared with teams presently implementing socially-motivated mobile money ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.
hat (Foley and Scobie , 1975:58-9). -12- urbanized and economically developed Latin American countries, with a long record of constitutional rule. A...with their children (Foley and Scobie , 1975:147) Crawshaw (1978:205) charges that many times EOKA, if unable to kill informers, executed their relatives...island. By combining the information in Blaxland with various totals for particular dates given in Grivas (1965) Foley and Scobie (1975) etc., it is
The term digital money refers to various proposed electronic payment mechanisms designed for use by consumers to make retail payments. Digital money products have the potential to replace central bank currency, thereby affecting the money supply. This paper studies the effect of replacing central bank currency on the narrowly defined stock of money under various assumptions regarding regulatory policies and monetary operations of central banks and the reaction of the banking system.
Negoescu Gheorghe; Radu Riana Iren
In full times of crisis, money has become increasingly more important. We put the issue to analyze whether money can be considered a form of energy. The article is taking into consideration the conservation of energy and for money is due to kinetic energy during the boom and to potential energy during the crisis. In the article is also made an illustration of the energetic content of money at a company’s level.
Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...
The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...
Portuese, Aurelien; MacNeil, Iain
Money market funds are widely used by all types of investors, including households, corporate treasurers, pension funds, or insurance companies, who regard money market funds as a ‘safe’ short-term liquid asset class for investing cash. In this case they are proxies to cash deposits. Money market funds are themselves key lenders to issuers of short dated high quality money market instruments. They provide an important source of funding for a variety of institutions such as sovereigns, banks, ...
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping
Money has significant impacts on people's motivation and their work-related behavior in organizations. This study was conducted to develop the Money Ethic Scale (MES) and to examine the initial nomological network of the scale. A 25-page questionnaire on attitudes toward money was distributed to 1,200 subjects, including students and faculty of a…
We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.
... contain adverse effects on the capital markets and other money market funds. In addition, throughout the... acquisition of second tier securities by money market funds might have a negative effect on those issuers of...; Treasury Strategies Comment Letter. Commenters asserted that eliminating money market funds' ability to...
Full Text Available The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research the origin of money and their functionality on the market.The aim of this paper is to analyse the origin of money as a social institution. The appearance and use of money has prehistoric roots. People have turned to the usage of money out of need to facilitate trade. During thousands of years money has known different forms going from money as merchandise, to coins and later to paper money and electronic currency. In this study I have analysed the role of natural money, as well as their production and functionality on the market. The main questionto be answered is whether the production and functionality of paper money nowadays is the consequence of the free market, having the Austrian’s School liberal perspective as a starting point. This methodological approach demonstrates that money is and will remain a social institution and the implication of the authorities in the currency issuing, even from ancient times, has caused distortions in the economic activity.
Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett
This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.
Redus, Kenneth S.
A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex
Given the potential for intentional malevolent acts, the security of radioactive sources should be ensured. In the event of a terrorist attack using a radioactive source, we should care not only about health concerns of victims, especially including first responders who suffer from radiation injury, but also public health activities with affected people during the long recovery phase. Regarding the radiological public health viewpoint, preventive efforts are also important. In fact, regulatory reform is progressing in Japan according to the code of conduct issued by IAEA. One of the difficulties of countermeasures for the security of radioactive sources in Japan is to establish a disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, since radioactive waste has been additionally a point of contention in society since the nuclear disaster. This paper presents an overview of countermeasures for terrorist attacks using a radioactive source, from the viewpoint of public health in Japan including the results of survey targeted hospitals equipped with blood irradiation machines. (author)
Hirshberg, A; Stein, M; Walden, R
The objective of this study was to analyze the utilization of surgical staff and facilities during an urban terrorist bombing incident. A discrete-event computer model of the emergency room and related hospital facilities was constructed and implemented, based on cumulated data from 12 urban terrorist bombing incidents in Israel. The simulation predicts that the admitting capacity of the hospital depends primarily on the number of available surgeons and defines an optimal staff profile for surgeons, residents, and trauma nurses. The major bottlenecks in the flow of critical casualties are the shock rooms and the computed tomographic scanner but not the operating rooms. The simulation also defines the number of reinforcement staff needed to treat noncritical casualties and shows that radiology is the major obstacle to the flow of these patients. Computer simulation is an important new tool for the optimization of surgical service elements for a multiple-casualty situation.
Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.
Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.
Department until 2008.44 Nelson Mandela , the renowned member of the ANC and Nobel Prize laureate, became president of South Africa in 1994 and is...celebrated internationally as one of the most prolific and revolutionary leaders of the 20th century. Mandela received all these awards and accolades—many...models or key players during 44 Mimi Hall, "U.S. has Mandela on Terrorist List," USA Today, http
Beslan Alexeyevich Tarchokov
The paper made an attempt to explore preconditions, motives, reasons and factors capable of facilitating youth’ involvement into terrorist operations, emergence of youth terrorism and its spreading around, including the specifics of social and economic domains, of ideology and politics, psychology and law, etc. all of them taken on the scene of nowadays globalized society. Specifying in greater detail the causes and circumstances that contributed to involvement of young Russians into terroris...
This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused
Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year.
hUMIEe " BDM/W-82-l1 5-TR AUTO11(o 1. CONTR ACT OR GRANT NumURe) J. C. Evanis, M. K. Pilgrim, C. J. Potter EMW-C-0744 9. PER•O^•ING ORGANIZATIN NAME...should, and is expected to, provide leadership in this regard. There exists a variety of experience and planning for responding to terrorist events. The
individual police officers and journalists.55 Originally, the Gulf Cartel recruited them from Mexico’s Special Operations Forces, known as Grupo Aeromóvil de ...fluid situation surrounding the Mexican drug war has led to much speculation about how to classify the powerful drug cartels conducting it. There is... conducting it. There is literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist
Playing the Villain argues that the portrayal and punishment of terrorists in the Western media perpetuates colonialist attitudes, due to the visual connections between these modern images and past or fictional representations of iconic, punished villains. A theory of scapegoating related to intervisuality supports this argument, by explaining that as a ritual dependent on and developed by cultural history and mythology, scapegoating requires engagement with recognisable visual motifs that...
Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H.; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L.; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A.; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K.
U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation’s security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping
Despite the fact that money is important in everyday life, there is a dearth of empirical material and research concerning the meaning of money and people's attitudes towards money in the psychological literature. This study examined the underlying concepts or beliefs people hold about money and the extent to which different needs can be fulfilled…
Resehetin, V. P.
Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided
Racana, R.; Terrado, C.
After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the
Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.
Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)
Some of the key areas of uncertainty are the nature of the physical and chemical interactions of released fission products and of the interactions between a molten core and concrete, the completeness and validity of the computer codes used to predict accidents, and the behavior of the containment. Because of these and other uncertainties, it is not yet possible to reliably predict the consequences of reactor accidents. It is known that for many accident scenarios, especially less severe ones or where the containment is not seriously compromised, the amount of radioactive material expected to escape the reactor is less, even much less, than was previously calculated. For such accidents, the predictions are easier and more reliable. With severe accidents, however, there is considerable uncertainty as to the predicted results. For accidents of the type that terrorists might cause - for example, where the sequence of failure would be unexpected or where redundant safety features are caused to fail together - the uncertainties are still larger. The conclusion, then, is that there are potential dangers to the public from terrorist actions at a nuclear reactor; however, because of the variety of potential terrorist threats and the incompleteness of the knowledge about the behavior of reactor components and fission products during accidents, the consequences cannot yet be assessed quantitatively
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research. This paper explores a possible ‘copycat effect’ in cases of suicide terrorism, which entails a perpetrator being inspired by a preceding attack to carry out a similar attack not long after the original. In the wake of mounting risks of lone wolf terrorist attacks today and due to the general difficulties faced in preventing such attacks, in this paper we explore a potential area of future prevention in media reporting, security and anti-terrorism policies today. Using the START Global Terrorism Database (GTD, this paper investigates terrorist suicide-attack clusters and analyses the relationship between attacks found within the same cluster. Using a mixed-method approach, our analyses did not uncover clear evidence supporting a copycat effect among the studied attacks. These and other findings have numerous policy and future research implications.
Full Text Available This Research Paper discusses several of the key questions related to the subject of impunity of international terrorists, taking both a fundamental and a more practical approach within the context of international law. First, it reflects on a number of core definitional and theoretical questions which have been pushed into the background of day‐to‐day reality, by the actual fight against terrorism. For instance: what does the concept of impunity entail exactly and which kinds of standards could be used in measuring impunity? Is it clear what falls under the header of international terrorism and can it in fact be argued that international terrorists enjoy impunity? In practical terms, the paper explores a number of questions related to the actual prosecution of terrorism. What are the obstacles that national prosecutors face every day when prosecuting suspects of international terrorism? To what extent does a rule that prima facie seems ideal to fight terrorism (aut dedere aut judicare: either extradite or prosecute apply to terrorist offences? And what is the role of international criminal law – and the international criminal tribunals – in fighting terrorism? The Paper concludes with a series of recommendations.
Full Text Available This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives to illuminate the rise and fall of pin money and mad money as uniquely “women’s dollars."
Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work
I study money creation in versions of the Trejos-Wright (1995) and Shi (1995) models with indivisible money and individual holdings bounded at two units. I work with the same class of policies as in Deviatov and Wallace (2001), who study money creation in that model. However, I consider an alternative notion of implementability–the ex ante pairwise core. I compute a set of numerical examples to determine whether money creation is beneficial. I find beneficial e?ects of money creation if indiv...
culture in terms of lists of domain-general, stable traits, such as individualist - collectivist value orientations li7J Researchers operating within this...Estabrooke, ONR Code 30 14. ABSTRACT Two cultural studies were conducted to clarify the ideological characteristics that serve as enablers for...rich source of cultural information that provides important clues as to the beliefs, attitudes and values of group members. Documents and postings from
Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter
Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...
Corina – Maria ENE
Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.
Full Text Available For the problem of estimation of Money demand model of Pakistan, money supply (M1 shows heteroscedasticity of the unknown form. For estimation of such model we compare two adaptive estimators with ordinary least squares estimator and show the attractive performance of the adaptive estimators, namely, nonparametric kernel estimator and nearest neighbour regression estimator. These comparisons are made on the basis standard errors of the estimated coefficients, standard error of regression, Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, and the Durban-Watson statistic for autocorrelation. We further show that nearest neighbour regression estimator performs better when comparing with the other nonparametric kernel estimator.
Chinese excessive liquidity problems are more serious than other main countries. The upgrading industrial structure and the increasing opening degree lead to the excessive money demand and higher money demand elasticity. Bad credits weaken money supply effectiveness and lead to illusive increasing money. We set up the money market disequilibrium model under the condition of the excessive liquidity. The imbalance between money demand and money supply is the key of Chinese excessive liquidity p...
Hurd, Stephen J.
Formal and informal markets for football stickers and children's pocket money budgets are discussed. Included is a questionnaire that can be used by junior high school students to investigate these topics locally. The materials have been successfully used in the classroom. (Author/RM)
Kikulwe, Enoch M.; Fischer, Elisabeth; Qaim, Matin
The use of mobile phones has increased rapidly in many developing countries, including in rural areas. Besides reducing the costs of communication and improving access to information, mobile phones are an enabling technology for other innovations. One important example are mobile phone based money transfers, which could be very relevant for the rural poor, who are often underserved by the formal banking system. We analyze impacts of mobile money technology on the welfare of smallholder farm households in Kenya. Using panel survey data and regression models we show that mobile money use has a positive impact on household income. One important pathway is through remittances received from relatives and friends. Such remittances contribute to income directly, but they also help to reduce risk and liquidity constraints, thus promoting agricultural commercialization. Mobile money users apply more purchased farm inputs, market a larger proportion of their output, and have higher profits than non-users of this technology. These results suggest that mobile money can help to overcome some of the important smallholder market access constraints that obstruct rural development and poverty reduction. PMID:25286032
Kikulwe, Enoch M; Fischer, Elisabeth; Qaim, Matin
The use of mobile phones has increased rapidly in many developing countries, including in rural areas. Besides reducing the costs of communication and improving access to information, mobile phones are an enabling technology for other innovations. One important example are mobile phone based money transfers, which could be very relevant for the rural poor, who are often underserved by the formal banking system. We analyze impacts of mobile money technology on the welfare of smallholder farm households in Kenya. Using panel survey data and regression models we show that mobile money use has a positive impact on household income. One important pathway is through remittances received from relatives and friends. Such remittances contribute to income directly, but they also help to reduce risk and liquidity constraints, thus promoting agricultural commercialization. Mobile money users apply more purchased farm inputs, market a larger proportion of their output, and have higher profits than non-users of this technology. These results suggest that mobile money can help to overcome some of the important smallholder market access constraints that obstruct rural development and poverty reduction.
Enoch M Kikulwe
Full Text Available The use of mobile phones has increased rapidly in many developing countries, including in rural areas. Besides reducing the costs of communication and improving access to information, mobile phones are an enabling technology for other innovations. One important example are mobile phone based money transfers, which could be very relevant for the rural poor, who are often underserved by the formal banking system. We analyze impacts of mobile money technology on the welfare of smallholder farm households in Kenya. Using panel survey data and regression models we show that mobile money use has a positive impact on household income. One important pathway is through remittances received from relatives and friends. Such remittances contribute to income directly, but they also help to reduce risk and liquidity constraints, thus promoting agricultural commercialization. Mobile money users apply more purchased farm inputs, market a larger proportion of their output, and have higher profits than non-users of this technology. These results suggest that mobile money can help to overcome some of the important smallholder market access constraints that obstruct rural development and poverty reduction.
Anand Ajay Shah
Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.
... Money Services Business, FinCEN Form 107. The form will be used by currency dealers or exchangers; check... information will be used to assist supervisory and law enforcement agencies in the enforcement of criminal, tax, and regulatory laws and to prevent money services businesses from being used by those engaging in...
29 avr. 2016 ... The value-for-money discourse is gaining prominence in all areas of society. It also increasingly affects what matters to donors. This report seeks to provide a neutral assessment of value-for-money (VfM), informing and contributing to the larger on-going conversation regarding the most appropriate and ...
Peetz, Johanna; Soliman, Monica
Motivated perception has been shown to affect people's estimates of money (e.g., perceiving coins as larger than real size). In the present research, we examine whether simply varying the size of a picture of money can affect its perceived value and subsequent decisions. Participants presented with a picture of money enlarged by 15% perceived the depicted money as more valuable compared with those seeing a real-size picture (Study 1). When told to imagine their own cash and banked money in the depicted form, participants presented with a picture enlarged by 15% felt more subjectively wealthy and reported fewer intentions to conserve their money compared with those seeing a real-size picture of the same money (Study 2). Together, these studies suggest that judgments about money and even attitudes toward personal spending can be influenced by manipulating the size of a picture of money. © The Author(s) 2016.
.... Since lessons learned from past attacks call attention to the terrorists' ability to overcome military defenses, the importance of well-developed, exercised response plans cannot be overstated...
.... The adversary can be a lone hacker either out for a thrill or with a grudge against the U.S. government, a member of a state-supported cyber-warfare group, or a cyber-terrorist driven by ideology, religion, or money...
T. G. Bondarenko
Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money
Fijat Ljiljana M.
Full Text Available Sport is firmly connected to politics in the whole world, the Republic of Serbia being no exception. Pronounced motives of profit in sport led to the appearance of new problems, like money laundering and business and moral unreliability of the participants. Some of anomalies are connected with politically exposed persons (PEP. Offering services within the banking industry, especially considering the private banking, entails a higher degree of discretion and confidentiality in comparison with the ordinary clients. Misuse of these business relationships by PEP has been identified. This paper surveys the statistically significant differences between domestic banks and the domestic banks with the foreign capital in relation to the groups of procedures concerning PEP based on the Recommendation 6 of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering - FATF. Although the domestic banks with the foreign capital were obliged to apply the procedures related to the FATF's Recommendations to the same extent as the Main Office, significant differences between domestic and foreign banks were not found, in terms of Recommendation 6. Inadequacy of regulations and lack of enforcement procedures jeopardize the program of reforms, threatening, the privatisation in sports.
Dorothy B. Durband
Full Text Available A commonly held view is that arguments about money are associated with marital problems, but relatively little is known about the nature of arguing about money within marriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, this study uses a collective bargaining approach to examine the role of money arguments in marriage. The sample (N = 1,371 consists of married women. A collective bargaining framework provides a context for understanding money arguments within the marital relationship. Results indicate that costly communication is the dominant predictor of money arguments, followed by level and proportion of wife’s income, and household net worth. Because results suggest that both communication and financial resources are important components to understanding money arguments within marriage, a combination of professionals trained in marital therapy and/or financial planning is required for couples interested in seeking assistance to increase their satisfaction and/or avoid divorce.
Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.
Nat’l City Bank v. Banco Para El Comercio Exterior de Cuba, 462 U.S. 611 (1983) (“Bancec”) to judgments against designated terrorist States. Bancec held...to determine both whether an exception to the Cuban Government’s immunity from garnishment also applies to [ Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba, S.A...was eventually reversed on other grounds by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit — Alejandre v. Telefonica Larga Distancia de Puerto Rico
Esther Martínez Pastor
Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements
Raghavan, Vasanthan; Galstyan, Aram; Tartakovsky, Alexander G.
The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and, in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a $d$-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of $d=2$ corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, re...
The endogenous money theory constitutes the core element of the post-keynesian monetary theory. The first formulation of this theory can be found in the works of Kaldor published in the 1970s. Taking these studies as a starting point, the post-keynesians elaborated two versions of the endogenous money theory which differ in their assumptions about the behaviour of the monetary authorities and the banking system, and hence offer different conclusions about the slope of the money supply curve. ...
Hassan, Shahid; Ali, Umbreen; Dawood, Mamoon
This study investigates the factors such as interest rate, GDP per capita, exchange rate, fiscal deficit, urban and rural population to determine money demand function for Pakistan over the period from 1972-2013. We use ARDL Bound Testing approach in order to test long run relation between money demand and its factors whereas both long and short run coefficients will be found using similar approach. The results show that real interest rate exerts significant and negative effect upon money dem...
Camelia ŞERBAN MORĂREANU
Preventing and combating money laundering, the product of the transnational organized crime, in general, is one of the most efficient means of stopping this activity, which is a threat for the national or international economic operations. The penal incrimination and sanction of money laundering is a useful instrument for the accountability of all categories of offenders, but also with the purpose of imposing more severe sanctions for those who commit offences generating dirty money, behind s...
The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...
McLeay, Michael; Radia, Amar; Thomas, Ryland
This article explains how the majority of money in the modern economy is created by commercial banks making loans. Money creation in practice differs from some popular misconceptions — banks do not act simply as intermediaries, lending out deposits that savers place with them, and nor do they ‘multiply up’ central bank money to create new loans and deposits. The amount of money created in the economy ultimately depends on the monetary policy of the central bank. In normal times, this is carri...
Full Text Available The existence of a stable relationship between money demand and its determinants is important for the efficiency of monetary policy. In this paper we carried a preliminary analysis on the variables that can influence money demand in five Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in order to determine which characteristics define the evolution of money demand and its determinants, and how volatile they are. The results indicate a number of similarities in terms of monetary development and also suggest that some additional variables that may influence money demand in this specific sample.
Wolla, Scott A.
They say that "money makes the world go round." Just imagine a world without money as our method of payment for everyday transactions. Without money, we would all need to barter for necessary goods and services. For example, suppose an accountant needs to have her car fixed. Under a barter system, she would have to find someone who needed some tax advice in exchange for car repairs. The search to find a barter partner is time consuming and wasteful. Money solves this problem and many others. ...
L. Randall Wray
This paper integrates the various strands of an alternative, heterodox view on the origins of money and the development of the modern financial system in a manner that is consistent with the findings of historians and anthropologists. As is well known, the orthodox story of money's origins and evolution begins with the creation of a medium of exchange to reduce the costs of barter. To be sure, the history of money is "lost in the mists of time," as money's invention probably predates writing....
Böing, Tobias; Stadtmann, Georg
We empirically evaluate the predictive power of money growth measured by M2 for stock returns of the S&P 500 index. We use monthly US data and predict multiperiod returns over 1, 3, and 5 years with long-horizon regressions. In-sample regressions show that money growth is useful for predicting returns. Higher recent money growth has a significantly negative effect on subsequent returns of the S&P 500. An out-of-sample analysis shows that a simple model with money growth as a single predictor ...
Full Text Available Lawyers are not immune to committing offences and the provisions of criminal law apply to them accordingly. The criminal liability of lawyers represents a natural aspect in the rule of law. Lawyers involved as defendants in criminal cases do not benefit from any special status or privileges compared to other defendants. In the international context of the fight against money laundering, the community law has submitted the profession of lawyer to two obligations concerning vigilance and denouncement. The assimilation of lawyer’s profession to financial or non-regulated professions entails the deformation of rules and principles specific to lawyers, as well as discussing the bases of any democratic society: the professional secrecy of lawyers and their independence.
Bille, Trine; Løyland, Knut; Holm, Anders
on the supply of arts hours. This finding supports arts policy and shows the impact of art grants on artists’ motivation to work on their arts. The causality of wages on supply is demonstrated by estimating the effects of wage shocks (grants) on arts labor supply using fixed-effect and difference......This paper assesses the relative impact of work for money or work for passion on Norwegian artists by examining artists’ labor supply. Our contribution is twofold. The first is to test the work-preference model and the second is to investigate the impact of arts grants on artists’ labor supply...... adds to the literature by estimating the significance of these various income sources on the time allocated to arts work, non-arts work, and leisure. The results provide convincing evidence for the work-preference model, and ad hoc evidence shows that art grants have a significant positive effect...
Bennett, A.F.; Cryer, Bob; Carlisle, Kenneth; Dean, Paul.
The debate concerns the authorisation of payment of the money required to reorganise the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom provided for in the Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill in progress through Parliament. In the Bill the contractorisation of the establishment is recommended and some sort of Government owned company operated scheme set up. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. The issues raised concerned the actual sums likely to be incurred in the formation of a Company to carry out the designated activities of the Bill. These are connected with the research, development, production or maintenance of nuclear devices and the premises needed. The government spokesman suggested the sums required to support the Bill would not be large and the resolution was agreed to without a vote. (UK)
Full Text Available The future science of Economics must be human-centered, value-based, inclusive, global in scope and evolutionary in perspective. It needs to be fundamentally interdisciplinary to reflect the increasingly complex sectoral interconnections that characterize modern society. It must also be founded on transdisciplinary principles of social existence and human development that constitute the theoretical foundation for all the human sciences. This paper examines three fundamental aspects of modern economy to illustrate the types of issues and perspectives relevant to a reformulation of Economics framed within a broader political, social, cultural, psychological and ecological context. It examines the social forces responsible for the present functioning of economies, which can be effectively addressed and controlled only when they are made conscious and explicit. Whatever the powers that have shaped its development in the past, the rightful aim of economic science is a system of knowledge that promotes the welfare and well-being of all humanity. Markets and money are instruments for the conversion of social potential into social power. They harness the power of organization to transform human energies into the capacity for social accomplishment. The distribution of rights and privileges in society determines how these social institutions function and who benefits. Freedom means access to social power and is only possible in the measure all forms of that power—political, economic and social—are equitably distributed. The current system is inherently biased in favor of privileged elites reinforcing domination by the more powerful. The emergence of the individual is the vanguard of social evolution and the widest manifestation of creative individuality is its pinnacle. This emergence can only be fully achieved in conditions of freedom and equality. Economic theory needs to make explicit the underlying forces determining the distribution of power and
Sanford E. DeVoe; Jeffrey Pfeffer; Byron Y. Lee
The authors investigate how the amount and source of income affects the importance placed on money. Using a longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey and evidence from two laboratory experiments, they found that larger amounts of money received for labor were associated with individuals placing greater importance on money; but this effect did not hold for money not related to work. The longitudinal survey analysis demonstrated these differential effects of the source of inco...
The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)
Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete
Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Forest, James J. F.
This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…
Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.E.H.
The article proposes an approach to determine relative terrorist-related security risk levels of pipeline transportation. Pipeline routes are divided into smaller route segments. Subsequently, likelihood scores of possible terrorist-related incidents are determined per route segment and per
Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.
The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist
Bugarin, Darwina S
.... Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S...
Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom
This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.
Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Kim, Jwa K.
Money has been recognized as an important factor to attract, retain, and motivate employees and has significant impacts on people's behavior, performance, and effectiveness in organizations. Created to evaluate the validity of the Money Ethic Scale, this study investigates the measurement and dimensionality of money attitudes through…
Don, Bruce; Frelinger, Dave; Gerwehr, Scott; Landree, Eric; Jackson, Brian
.... This book explores the role that these communications and computer technologies play and the net effect of their use, the purpose and manner in which the technology is used, the operational actions...
used a number of violent video games 7 See, for example, the Anti-Defamation League study on extremist recruitment in prisons (B’nai B’rith, 2002). 8...compelling experience. The latest generations of computer-based, massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), in which many individuals interact in a... effectiveness , those with that potential would require some specialization by the group (e.g., creation or subversion of massively multiplayer games for
Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.
Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing
Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money laundering. 3560.462 Section 3560.462 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Other Actions § 3560.462 Money laundering. The Agency will act in accordance with U.S. Code Title 18...
Investigate how the food you choose affects the amount of money you spend and your health. Calculate how much money you spend on food, explore motives for your food choices, examine the nutritional quality of the food you buy, and identify easy ways to make healthier, lower cost food choices.
Baker, Bruce D.
This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…
Rørdam, Kirsten Bonde; Bech, Morten Linnemann
This paper presents the first topological analysis of Danish money market flows. We analyze the structure of two networks with different types of transactions. The first network is the money market network, which is driven by banks' behavior on the interbank market, the second is the network...
This paper explores an essential but neglected aspect of recent discussions of the banking and financial system, namely money itself. Specifically, I take up a distinction drawn by Susan Strange which has never been fully elaborated: between a financial system that is global, and an international monetary system that remains largely territorial. I propose a sociological elaboration of this distinction by examining each category, 'finance' and 'money', in terms of its distinctive orientation to risk and debt. Money is distinguished by its high degree of liquidity and low degree of risk, corresponding to expectations that derive from its status as a 'claim upon society'- a form of socialized debt. But as Strange argued, these features of money are being undermined by the proliferation of sophisticated instruments of financial risk management -'strange money'- that, as monetary substitutes, both weaken states' capacity to manage money, and more broadly, contribute to 'overbanking'. The ultimate danger, according to Strange, is the 'death of money'. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the distinction for sociological arguments about the changing nature of money. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.
Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.
In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…
The main objective of this paper is to discuss a complex and yet not taken in consideration global public good: money. Money is a social convention created and accepted by people in order to facilitate economic transactions, being a symbol, without an int
... Activities; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Bank Secrecy Act/Money Laundering Risk... entitled, ``Bank Secrecy Act/Money Laundering Risk Assessment,'' also known as the Money Laundering Risk... collection of information set forth in this document. Bank Secrecy Act/Money Laundering Risk Assessment (OMB...
Islam Mohammad Saiful
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering
Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...
Bonke, Jens; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette
In this paper, we analyse the distribution of time and money for Danish wage earner couples, where time is defined as leisure time and money as extended income, i.e. the sum of disposable income and the value of housework. The hypothesis is that individuals being rich in one dimension are more...... likely to be poor in the other dimension, such that individuals can be classified as either money-poor/time-rich or money-rich/time-poor. We analyse two different distributions of income, where the first assumes no sharing and the second complete sharing of income between spouses. The data are from...... the Danish Time-Use Survey 2001, merged with register data. Results show that the substitution of money for time is more prominent for women than for men, because they have a larger income share of time-intensive value of housework, while men have the larger share of disposable income. Furthermore, when...
This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives t...
Casey, Allison L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This guide shows you how easy it is to reduce your energy use at home and on the road. You'll find quick tips you can use to start saving today, as well as information on larger projects that will help save you money over the long term. Find even more information about saving money and energy at home by visiting our website, EnergySaver.gov.
There remains a long-standing argument regarding the need for money management strategies to control poor spending habits among people with substance use disorders. The objective was to review issues relevant to the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions for substance abuse. Using a comparative, cross-cultural framework of anthropology, this manuscript examines three challenges for the design and implementation of money management interventions for substance abuse: (i) clients may not trust mental health centers to manage their money, (ii) clients may have different economic perspectives from clinicians and researchers, and (iii) clients may obtain substances through informal networks of exchange. This article clarifies the inherently complex symbolic and social dimensions of money and addiction and illustrates the need for researchers and clinicians to be mindful of the cultural assumptions that underlie money management interventions for substance abuse. Using an anthropological approach toward understanding the issues surrounding money management for individuals struggling with addiction and mental illness has the potential to strengthen the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions in a manner that is acceptable and meaningful for this target population.
Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas
Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider.
Aaron Mehrotra; Tomáš Slacík
We evaluate the monetary determinants of inflation in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia by using the McCallum rule for money supply. The deviation of actual money growth from the rule is included in the estimation of Phillips curves for the four economies by Bayesian model averaging. We find that money provides information about price developments over a horizon of ten quarters ahead, albeit the estimates are in most cases rather imprecise. Moreover, the effect of excessive mon...
Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.
To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761
Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul
Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity
Shin, Hyeongki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity.
Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A Time Series ... the impacts of money and interest rate on economic growth and development. ... Money Supply, Interest Rates, Economic growth, Co-integration and Inflation.
Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.
Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige
This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige
This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297
Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of money on the quality of life, in the light of the major importance it has on all aspects of our lives. Bearing in mind that money is an everyday, inseperable and unavoidable companion, with all its advantages and power, as well as its numerous challenges, risks and temptations, it inevitably affects all segments of the quality of life. The relation between money and quality of life, therefore, can be viewed not only theoretically, but also at a practical level. In the times we live in, which have been labelled the digital age, with ever increasing change, the key questions which arise are whether and to what extent do people really manage their money, and to what extent does money manage people and their lives, do people own money or does money own people? Although it sounds paradoxical, money causes people financial worries, whether they have it or whether they do not and so can significantly influence their quality of life. Standard macro-economic indicators, traditionally used as measures of the well-being of society, do not always give a real and complete picture of the quality of life, as this encompasses the way of life, as well as the standard of living. The quality of life includes the whole spectrum of factors, not only economic, but also many others which lead to satisfaction, both material and spiritual. These can include financial and material living conditions, employment, health, education, leisure time and social activities, economic and physical safety, human rights and freedoms, protection of the environment and overall life satisfaction. This paper analyses the direct and indirect connections between effective and efficient money management and the aforementioned factors which are decisive in forming the quality of life.
Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.
In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and de...
William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland
This paper documents changes in the cyclical behavior of nominal data series that appear after 1979:Q3 when the Federal Reserve implemented a policy to lower the inflation rate. Such changes were not apparent in real variables. A business cycle model with impulses to technology and a role for money is used to show how alternative money supply rules are expected to affect observed business cycle facts. In this model, changes in the money supply rules have almost no effect on the cyclical behav...
Pokrovskii, Vladimir N.; Schinckus, Christophe
This paper investigates money circulation for a system, consisting of a production system, the government, a central bank, commercial banks and many customers of the commercial banks. A set of equations for the system is written; the theory determines the main features of interaction between production and money circulation. Investigation of the equations in a steady-state situation reveals some relationship among output of the production system and monetary variables. The relation of quantity theory of money is confirmed, whereas a new concept of the efficiency of the system is introduced.
A former version of this paper was published as “Free Money for Social Progress : Theory and practice of Gesell's accelerated money”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 57(8), October, 1998, pp. 469-483.; Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) proposed a system of stamped money in order to accelerate monetary circulation and to free money from interest. This was part of a global socialist system intended to free economy from rent and interest. In the 1930s, Irving Fisher, who proposed the system...
Shraddha Karve; Ketaki Shurpali; Neelesh Dahanukar; Maithili Jog; Milind Watve
Money is a recent phenomenon in the evolutionary history of man and therefore no separate brain centre to handle money is likely to have evolved. The brain areas activated by food reward and money reward are extensively overlapping. In an experimental set-up, hunger was demonstrated to influence money related decisions and money related thoughts to influence hunger. This suggests that the brain areas evolved for handling food related emotions are exapted to handle money and therefore there co...
all stages of a possible incident. Risk perception and stages in risk communication like public information sharing, public outreach and public involvement are discussed. By getting the public on-board and recognizing it as an important stakeholder, a meaningful risk communication strategy can achieve four interrelated missions: (a) reach a common risk assessment enabling the public to be educated and prepared, (b) encourage a well-informed and well-motivated public to contribute to a healthy nuclear security culture, (c) build up public vigilance, persuading citizens to cooperate more closely with law enforcement, and (d) reduce the immediate and long-term physical and psychological impact of a terrorist incident. Ultimately, it all comes down to creating a more resilient and prepared population in the face of terrorist adversaries. Resilience is usually defined as the ability to handle disruptive challenges, characterized as emergencies that can lead to or result in crisis
Full Text Available Levinas confirms: a reflection about a money as a social and economical reality is not possible without a serious analysis of empirical data. On the other hand, this reflection always involves something else, so a money is never a merely economical category. In that sense, Levinas proposes an intriguing meditation about some “dimensions” of a money in the western tradition. Contrary to the traditional moral condemnation of a money - which however remains unquestionable because of the fact that a man always carries a risk of becoming a merchandise - Levinas suggests that money never simply means a reification, but always implies some positive dimensions. Levinas suggests that a money is not something morally bad or simply neutral covering human relationships, but rather a condition of human community. Furthermore, he claims that a money is a fundament of the justice. A money makes possible a community, he explains, because it opens up the dimension of the future, and implies the existence of human beings who give themselves a credit; a credit understood as a time and a confidence. We shall try to address some problems implied by this thesis, particularly the problem of the relationship between time, money and credit. Finally, we are going to ask whether this credit - inseparable from the very essence of the money - is not always already a sort of usury.
The following thesis rectifies the often assumed notion that children are economic innocents and portrays the full complexity of children’s economic lives. It traces the experiences of 17 German 6 to 8 year old children with their own money and explores their perspectives on their money relations. Empirical data is derived from semi-structured individual interviews and focus-group discussions with children, children’s drawings as well as semi-structured interviews with the parents of these ch...
Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.
Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano
Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.
Full Text Available This article concerns the attitudes people have towards money, analysed from an economic and psychological point of view. The article presents an overview of current knowledge on the issues of money attitudes, as well as derived own research derived. This research was designed in order to identify different types of money attitudes as well as their determinants. The study identified five dominant profiles and showed that the most popular is a rational approach, and second – it’s opposite - improvidence. The results have been faced with the most important economic socialization determinants identified during the literature review. The comparison proved to be important, e.g. in the form of receiving pocket money.
Đurđević Dragan Ž.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes corporate responsibility and prevention of money laundering from the point of view of the new emerging business enviroinment, while taking into account the aspects of risk and legal responsibility. Furthermore, it analyzes the legal foundation, international standards, as well as the national Serbian regulatory system approach to anti-money laundering battle. The paper points to the key elements of anti-money laundering activities aimed at protection and safeguarding business interests, using the principles like 'knowing your client well', protecting your employees etc. By doing so, we also protect national interests, increase security and maintain the rule of law and of the stability of democratic society and institutions. Special focus is placed on the activities, roles and responsibilities of management in recognizing money laundering indicators and typologies, as well as the education of corporate staff in this area so as to be able to detect the aforementioned illegal activities in a timely manner.
This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.
competition and entrepreneurship and International Development Research Centre. Antimonopoly ...... multiple methods of the effective usage of such money ... current type of services. .... qualitative changes as a result of scientific- technical ...
Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.
There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.
Zhou, Xinyue; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F
People often get what they want from the social system, and that process is aided by social popularity or by having money. Money can thus possibly substitute for social acceptance in conferring the ability to obtain benefits from the social system. Moreover, past work has suggested that responses to physical pain and social distress share common underlying mechanisms. Six studies tested relationships among reminders of money, social exclusion, and physical pain. Interpersonal rejection and physical pain caused desire for money to increase. Handling money (compared with handling paper) reduced distress over social exclusion and diminished the physical pain of immersion in hot water. Being reminded of having spent money, however, intensified both social distress and physical pain.
Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker
The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...
Oktavia, Adek Laksmi; Sentosa, Sri Ulfa; Aimon, Hasdi
This article focused on analyze (1) Effect of the money supply, income, domestic interest rates, inflation and the trade balance to the exchange rate in Indonesia. (2) The influence of domestic interest rates, output and the exchange rate on the money supply in Indonesia. Data used time series of (I year kuartal 2000 – IV year kuartal 2010). This article use analyzer model equation of simultaneous with method of Two Stage Least Squared (TSLS). The result of research concludes that (1) the ...
Ireland, Peter N
This paper takes an alternative approach to the topic of money and growth by developing a model in which the effects of sustained capital accumulation on an evolving system of payments, in addition to the conventional effects of sustained inflation on growth, are examined. While the effects of inflation on growth are small, the effects of growth on the monetary system are substantial. The results are consistent with ideas about money and growth contained in work that predates that of James To...
Stanley J. Sienkiewicz
This paper discusses the potential money laundering threat that prepaid cards face as they enter the mainstream of consumer payments. Over the past year, several government agencies have issued reports describing the threat to the U.S. financial system, including the use of prepaid cards by money launderers. Also, this paper incorporates the presentations made at a workshop hosted by the Payment Cards Center at which Patrice Motz, executive vice president, Premier Compliance Solutions, and Pa...
Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark
This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K.-S.; Zhang, Bo
Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater “behavioral approach tendency” toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships. PMID:27047415
Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Bo
Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater "behavioral approach tendency" toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.
Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul
This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based u...
Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...
Wang, Xijing; Krumhuber, Eva G
Objectification, which refers to the treatment of others as objectlike things, has long been observed in capitalism. While the negative impact of money on interpersonal harmony has been well documented, the social cognitive processes that underlie them are relatively unknown. Across four studies, we explored whether the love of money leads to objectification, while controlling for social power and status. In Study 1, the love and importance attached to money positively predicted the tendency to construe social relationships based on instrumentality. In Study 2, the likelihood to favour a target of instrumental use was increased by momentarily activating an affective state of being rich. Temporarily heightening the motivation for money further resulted in deprivation of mental capacities of irrelevant others, including humans (Study 3) and animals (Study 4). This lack of perceived mental states partially mediated the effects of money on subsequent immoral behaviour (Study 4). The findings are the first to reveal the role of objectification as a potential social cognitive mechanism for explaining why money often harms interpersonal harmony. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Young, T Kue; Chatwood, Susan; Marchildon, Gregory P
To determine if Canadians are getting value for money in providing health services to our northern residents. Secondary analyses of data from Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Information and territorial government agencies on health status, health expenditures and health system performance indicators. Per capita health expenditures in Canada's northern territories are double that of Canada as a whole and are among the highest in the world. The North lags behind the rest of the country in preventable mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and other performance indicators. The higher health expenditure in the North is to be expected from its unique geography and demography. If the North is not performing as well as Canada, it is not due to lack of money, and policy makers should be concerned about whether healthcare can be as good as it could be. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.
Mas, Ignacio; Klein, Michael
Across the world mobile money schemes are being launched. In such schemes financial service providers interact with clients via mobile phones or other mobile devices such as tablets. Service offerings include payments and saving as well as basic insurance products and sometimes credit based on scoring methods that use information about the client’s payment history. The world of mobile money is still in the experimental stage. Some schemes like M-PESA in Kenya have, at least initially, been ru...
Thomas Urich; Paul Wachtel
This paper examines the impact of the money supply and inflation rate announcements on interest rates. Survey data on expectations of the money supply and consumer and producer price indexes are used to distinguish anticipated and unanticipated components of the announcements. This distinction is used to test for the efficiency of the financial market response to the announcements of new information. The results indicate that the unanticipated components of the announced changes in the Produc...
Hudson, Rex A
...) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure...
Helfand, Neil S
This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...
McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John
.... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...
.... Moreover, there have been no attacks on homeland U.S. targets since September 11. The red team concept provides an innovative method to examine these vulnerabilities from the terrorist perspective...
.... Because of multiple terrorist acts such as the September II, 2001 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, as well as anthrax contaminated mail and the Oklahoma City bombing, there is a...
Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C
Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pprofile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Information § 115.702 What specific sources of money will be accepted for deposit into a trust account? We... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What specific sources of money will be accepted for deposit into a trust account? 115.702 Section 115.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...
Communication about money is a social, cultural and psychological taboo and yet it is essential in the financial planning industry, as a financial planner cannot be effective if all information is not disclosed. This article examines how financial planning students perceive communication about money, their willingness to talk about it and their…
Mellen, Brian C.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis focuses on the nexus between a terrorist group's narrative and the group's success or failure in achieving its strategic goals. This work theorizes that the interaction of competing narratives exerts a systematic impact on the ability of the terrorist group to achieve its strategic goals through the influence that the narratives have over a group's members, the group's adversary, and the affected population. Although a te...
Mollica, Marcello; Dingley, James
This article argues that a major factor in terrorist acts is an appeal to the actor's own community at an emotional and symbolic level, through acts of sacrifice, particularly self-sacrifice. Although other aims also exist, a prime concern is to recall the actor's home audience to the struggle, because the actor regards himself as acting on their behalf. This utilizes the imagery and symbolism of traditional religion, implying a strong communal and non-material impetus to terrorist acts, rath...
Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.
This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. First of all, it presents th...
Dimitrovska, Aleksandra; Dojcinovski, Metodija
The main task of the psychology of terrorism is to explain the psychological aspects of terrorism, trying to provide answers about the behavior of the persons involved in terrorist activities. The literature suggests that there is no a single theory that explains the reasons and the way of "making the terrorists." While the first generation of research have viewed on terrorism as a pathology, explaining it predominantly through mental illness and psychopathic personality, th...
Yi Ming eLi
Full Text Available Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants’ feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners’ physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men’s preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater behavioral approach tendency toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.
The DoD's warfighting Capability and the security of its information infrastructure are at great risk from attacks by foreign intelligence organizations, cyber-terrorists, and the incompetencies of some of its own users...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of money. 31.205-10....205-10 Cost of money. (a) General. Cost of money— (1) Is an imputed cost that is not a form of...) Refers to— (i) Facilities capital cost of money (48 CFR 9904.414); and (ii) Cost of money as an element...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnest money deposit. 291.535... Next Door Sales Program § 291.535 Earnest money deposit. (a) General. The earnest money deposit is the sum of money that must be paid by the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...
Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.
Poston, John, Sr.
In late 1998, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened Scientific Committee 46-14 to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response. These areas included law (both federal and state), public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. This presentation will provide an overview of NCRP Report No. 138 and focus on some of the critical issues raised in the report. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public. This report represented the ``beginning'' of such considerations. It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area.
Alex P. Schmid
Full Text Available This Policy Brief – a short version of a larger Research Paper to be released by ICCT in late 2015 – focuses on the phenomenon of foreign (terrorist fighters (FTFs as it relates to Syria and Iraq. It concentrates on recruits to jihad and the astonishing growth in numbers from less than 1,000 in 2011 to more than 3,500 in 2012, 8,500+ in 2013, 18,000+ in 2014 to more than 25,000 by fall 2015. By October 2015, nearly 30,000 militants from more than 100 countries had become foreign fighters with the so-called “Islamic State” (IS in Syria and Iraq and other militant groups. This Policy Brief first discusses various definitions of FTFs by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of FTFs of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014. Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring some structure and order to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins, with tables presenting the best available estimates for different sides of the conflict at different moments in time since 2011. UN estimates on foreign fighters are juxtaposed with estimates from other sources. The biggest uncertainty is the ratio of foreign fighters to IS own core manpower. It is likely that at least 40 percent of the fighters of IS are foreigners and many more if Iraqis in Syria are counted as such.
There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)
Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S
Shinar, Eilat; Yahalom, Vered; Silverman, Barbara G
Blood services worldwide must be prepared to meet surges in demand for blood components needed by casualties of domestic disasters and acts of terrorism. Israel's National Blood Services, operated by Magen David Adom, has extensive experience in managing blood collections and supply in emergencies. This review summarizes the structure and function of Magen David Adom's national blood program, and relates its experience to other practices that have been reported in the medical literature. Between 2000 and 2005, 7497 victims (85% civilians) were involved in 1645 terrorist attacks in Israel. On-site triage resulted in 967 (13%) deaths at the scene, 615 (8%) with severe injuries, 897 (12%) with moderate injuries and 5018 (67%) with mild injuries. Requests for blood averaged 1.3 blood units and 0.9 components per casualty, or 6.7 units and 4.5 components per severe and moderately injured patient. Public appeals for blood donations were managed centrally to match supply with demand and prevent wastage. This experience illustrates the advantages of a comprehensive program for managing blood operations in emergency situations. A coordinated national program can stabilize in-hospital inventories during routine activities, ensure instant access to precisely defined inventories, facilitate sufficient supply in times of disasters, and minimize outdating and wastage.
Wu, Baichao; Tang, Aiping; Wu, Jie
An attack strength degradation model has been introduced to further capture the interdependencies among infrastructures and model cascading failures across infrastructures when terrorist attacks occur. A medium-sized energy system including oil network and power network is selected for exploring the vulnerabilities from independent networks to interdependent networks, considering the structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability. Two types of interdependencies among critical infrastructures are involved in this paper: physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies, shown by tunable parameters based on the probabilities of failures of nodes in the networks. In this paper, a tolerance parameter α is used to evaluation of the overloads of the substations based on power flow redistribution in power transmission systems under the attack. The results of simulation show that the independent networks or interdependent networks will be collapsed when only a small fraction of nodes are attacked under the attack strength degradation model, especially for the interdependent networks. The methodology introduced in this paper with physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies involved in can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructures further, and provides the insights of vulnerability of interdependent infrastructures to mitigation actions for critical infrastructure protections. - Highlights: • An attack strength degradation model based on the specified locations has been introduced. • Interdependencies considering both physical and geographical have been analyzed. • The structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability have been considered.
In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...
Chen, Siyan; Wang, Yougui; Li, Keqiang; Wu, Jinshan
In this paper, the dynamical process of money creation in a random exchange model with debt is investigated. The money creation kinetics are analyzed by both the money-transfer matrix method and the diffusion method. From both approaches, we attain the same conclusion: the source of money creation in the case of random exchange is the agents with neither money nor debt. These analytical results are demonstrated by computer simulations.
Bank has important role in process of converting illicit money to be legal proceeds. Once opportunity appears, money launderer will take advantage of that situation. Generally, banks which have poor anti-money laundering control become the main priority for offenders to process laundering their illicit money. These typical banks are usually high risk engaged in criminal behaviour, because they do not know whether or not their clients are engaged in money laundering activities. Offenders in ot...
Wojcicki, Janet Maia
This article introduces the concept of ukuphanda, a Zulu verb that is used to describe the sex-for-money exchanges that take place outside of commercial sex work in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa. In line with the ethnographic literature from others areas of sub-Saharan Africa, it is argued that women who exchange sex for money in taverns do not self-identify as commercial sex workers and experience less stigma from the community. Unlike commercial sex work (as characterized by the commercial sex work in Hillbrow, Johannesburg), which is understood to be associated with short skirts and other revealing attire, sex-for-money exchange in the taverns is viewed as more private, ambiguous and informal. Women who work as informal sex workers, or "-phandela imali" ('try to get money'), are understood to be using sex-for-money exchange to survive financially.
Full Text Available The extent of legal regulation of inventory of electronic money in the company is considered. The absence of developed techniques of valuation as well as reflection of electronic money on the accounts, which results in distortion of indicators of financial statements are detected. The author develops the organizational and methodical provisions of inventory of electronic money in accordance with the stages that will ensure the avoidance of misstatements in the financial statements and providing users with more reliable information about the amount and as well as oddments of electronic money at the company on the balance sheet date. The effect of accounting policies, provisions for the organization of accounting as well as job description on the control system for transactions with electronic money, including their inventory, are determined. The author discovers the typical violations that occur during reflecting the transactions with electronic money in accounting, early detection of which will enable appropriate adjustments for the avoidance of misstatements of the information provided in the financial statements of the company.
Ron Z Goetzel
Full Text Available Ron Z Goetzel1, David Shechter2, Ronald J Ozminkowski1, David C Stapleton3, Pauline J Lapin4, J Michael McGinnis5, Catherine R Gordon6, Lester Breslow71Institute for Health and Productivity Studies, Cornell University, Washington, DC; 2Health and Productivity Research, Thomson Medstat, Santa Barbara, CA; 3Cornell Institute for Policy Research, Cornell University, Washington, DC; 4Office of Research, Development, and Information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD; 5National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies, Washington, DC; 6Office of the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington, DC; 7UCLA School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Services, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The impact of an aging population on escalating US healthcare costs is influenced largely by the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. Consequently, preventing or postponing disease onset among the elderly has become a crucial public health issue. Fortunately, much of the total burden of disease is attributable to conditions that are preventable. In this paper, we address whether well-designed health promotion programs can prevent illness, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life. Furthermore, we assess evidence that these programs have the potential to reduce healthcare utilization and related expenditures for the Medicare program. We hypothesize that seniors who reduce their modifiable health risks can forestall disability, reduce healthcare utilization, and save Medicare money. We end with a discussion of a new Senior Risk Reduction Demonstration, which will be initiated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2007, to test whether risk reduction programs developed in the private sector can achieve health improvements among seniors and a positive return on investment for the Medicare program.Keywords: health promotion, return on investment, Medicare, financial
The current upgrading of security measures at sensitive Department of Energy (DOE) facilities reflects the continuing concern over possible terrorist and other criminal acts against these facilities. Security reviews are periodically conducted at DOE facilities, deficiencies are identified, and corrective actions are recommended. While security upgrades are initiated as soon as possible, the process of securing funding and the construction or other activities necessary to complete upgrades can cause delays in correcting security vulnerabilities. Details of security weaknesses at important DOE facilities are classified in order to deny valuable information to terrorists and other malefactors
Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Metcalfe, Robert D; Crockett, Molly J; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J
People show empathic responses to others' pain, yet how they choose to apportion pain between themselves and others is not well understood. To address this question, we observed choices to reapportion social allocations of painful stimuli and, for comparison, also elicited equivalent choices with money. On average people sought to equalize allocations of both pain and money, in a manner which indicated that inequality carried an increasing marginal cost. Preferences for pain were more altruistic than for money, with several participants assigning more than half the pain to themselves. Our data indicate that, given concern for others, the fundamental principle of diminishing marginal utility motivates spreading costs across individuals. A model incorporating this assumption outperformed existing models of social utility in explaining the data. By implementing selected allocations for real, we also found that while inequality per se did not influence pain perception, altruistic behavior had an intrinsic analgesic effect for the recipient.
The prevailing view among economists and policy makers is that money has no impact on production in a longer term characterised by full price and wage flexibility and rational expectations. This book presents a revisionist view of monetary policy and monetary regimes. It presents several new...... mechanisms, indicating that money affects long-term production. The consequent policy implications are also discussed, including: the uses of monetary policy and monetary regimes in achieving macroeconomic goals; the impact of an independent central bank; the effects of a movement from floating exchange...... undergraduate and graduate students in macroeconomics, labour economics and finance. This work offers a revisionist view of monetary policy and monetary regimes. It presents several new mechanisms, indicating that money affects long-term production. The consequent policy implications are also discussed...
This article addresses the therapeutic importance of discussing money at every stage of a couple's relationship, both as a concrete reality and as a metaphor for security, adequacy, competence, commitment, acceptance, and acknowledgment in a relationship. I will present a developmental schema looking at financial issues that couples confront at various stages in the adult life cycle and how these affect and reflect relationship problems. The article also presents a money questionnaire as a useful tool for exploring family-of-origin financial history, affect, and behavior.
Kiyohiko Nishimura; Elod Takáts
When the baby boomers joined the workforce and started saving, money supply and property prices entered a rising trajectory. We conclude that demography was the long-run driver of this process, basing our argument on data from 22 advanced economies for the 1950-2010 period. According to our lifecycle model, large working-age populations saved for their old age by investing in property and broad money instruments, such as deposits. In the past, savings activity by baby boomers drove up propert...
The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research t...
Narayana R. Kocherlakota
This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...
Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst
The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment.
Takamiya, Masataka; Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Niitsu, Hisae; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro
We encountered an autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb. The decedent was a 51-year-old male without significant medical histories. During dinner in a restaurant, the perpetrator suddenly exploded a ball-bearing bomb, the blast from which blew the victim off his chair. The victim was found to be unresponsive, and pronounced dead. X-ray photographs taken before autopsy revealed six spherical shadows. Three penetrating wounds in the head, one in the neck and chest, and two in the left upper arm were observed in vivo. Six projectiles recovered from the body were identified as ball-bearings, one of which traveled through the midbrain, diencephalon, and left temporal lobe. Although blast injuries and penetrating wounds are often combined in bomb attack victims, penetrating brain injury would be the cause of death in this case. Lethal injuries to major organs can thus occur even though the destructive force of a ball-bearing bomb is weak. X-ray films were informative for detecting the ball-bearings in this case, suggesting that autopsy imaging is essential in cases of terrorism victims.
Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism.
Full Text Available The deeply engrained nature of social media in modern life have provided ease of access to information and speed of use within almost every aspect of a person’s life. These same benefit are also available to terrorists and their organizations. The same technology that allows for a globalized world to interact without regard for distance or physical location is also utilized, exploited and adapted to by terrorist organizations to conduct operations, reach candidates and ensure organizational longevity. This article takes the position of observer of these advancements with the end goal of informing counter-violent extremism strategists of the advances that terrorist groups have already made in digital technology; and where the priority of intervention strategies should be aimed. Further, this is intended to guide policy makers to embrace and utilize digital technologies as a mechanism to carry counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism interventions through the same digital potential and reach the same audiences as terrorist organizations. What appears strongly apparent is that social media will not abate from its intrinsic position graphed into daily life. This means that counter-terrorism, counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism strategies must take up the same technology in order to effectively discredit and nullify extremist groups – a digital problem needs a digital solution.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.
This module on how to keep track of one's money is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to prepare a personal…
Full Text Available Abstract Background At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH perspective. Methods Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. Results In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. Conclusions In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH
Campbell, James; Jones, Iain; Whyms, Desmond
At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH) perspective. Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA) and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH. This is a governance issue that will benefit from further
Full Text Available The paper depicts the history of using money in Montenegro covering the period before the Christ until nowadays. Montenegro mostly used foreign currencies throughout its long history, these being Roman, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, Venetian, and even the Napoleon (French gold coin money. The first ideas for Montenegro’s own money came from the Bishop Petar Petrovic Njegoš in the 19th century. The first Montenegrin money, the Perper, was minted in 1906. The King Nikola`s Decree as of 11 April 1906 authorized the Ministry of Finance to mint the nickel and bronze coins. Silver and gold coins were minted later. The Perper disappeared from the scene with Montenegro’s joining the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, putting into circulation the Dinar, a currency of the newly established state. Montenegro, being a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, used the Dinar as its currency after World War II until 1999. Dual currency system consisting of the German Mark and the Dinar was introduced in late 1999, whereby the German Mark became the only legal tender in 2001. With the introduction of the Euro the German Mark was replaced and the Euro became the official means of payment.
Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen; Kao, Ming-ruey
The authors propose a pedagogical apparatus embodying a solid micro-foundation with emphasis on the public's choice between currency and demand deposits being an optimal decision. On the basis of the pedagogical exposition, the authors explain how money supply is related to the combined behaviors of the central bank, commercial banks, and the…
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Saving money on prescription drugs. www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm134215.htm . Updated May 4, 2016. Accessed October 14, 2016. U.S. Food and Drug ...
Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about
Nielsen, Heino Bohn
This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...
Brueckner, M.; Schabert, A.
In this paper it is shown that money can matter for macroeconomic stability under interest rate policy when transactions frictions are non-negligible. We develop a sticky price model with a shopping time function, which induces the marginal utility of consumption to depend on the (predetermined)
Full Text Available In this paper we will clarify the issues related to: the emergence of money - their functions and varieties, the specificity of their demand and supply and the main aspects of the monetary policy of the state with its effects on the economic development.
Goodman, Lynne S.
'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds
Jun 20, 2017 ... The Prospera Digital e-banking program aims to put money in the hands of Mexico's low-income women with just a few taps — and transform their lives in the process. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between IDRC and ...
Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen
Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...
Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.
This booklet on recreation, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook suggests ways to plan recreation expenses for special activities, equipment, and vacation travel. Section 1 looks at the need for recreation…
Financial Markets Department
Throughout fiscal 2007, the Bank of Japan conducted money market operations with the uncollateralized overnight call rate as the operating target. The target level for the uncollateralized overnight call rate remained at "around 0.5 percent" throughout all of fiscal 2007. During this period, the basic loan rate applied to the complementary lending facility was 0.75 percent.
Being money smart has value that offers individuals skills for a lifetime. "Lawmakers had no way of knowing in 2007 that the U. S. economic situation would be where it is today, making financial education for students now even more crucial than at any other time in recent history" (Black, 2009, p. 1). According to Beverly & Burkhalter (2005, p.…
Hill, Andrew T.
Children's economic reasoning follows a developmental sequence in which their ideas about money and other basic economic concepts are forming. Even children in the early primary grades can learn some basic economics and retain understanding of economic concepts if they are taught in developmentally appropriate ways. Given how important economic…
Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem
This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…
Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette
We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...
Cook, Timothy Q., Ed.
This booklet is a compilation of articles on money market instruments which were published in the "Monthly Review" of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond from 1964-1967. They have been revised to include recent changes in the various markets, as well as to reflect currently applicable laws and regulations. The articles are titled: The Money…
The author points out the multifaceted aspects of the problems associated with rural women's need for money and financial services and outlines innovative schemes in this area such as the bank for the landless in Bangladesh, a savings and loan cooperative for market women in Nicaragua, and a savings development movement in Zimbabwe. (CT)
Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin
As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.
Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.
Mariana Rodica TIRLEA
Full Text Available This type of coin and appeared as a result of the needs for a proper management of the financial resources available in the market, but also to improve the payments system in our country. The card is an alternative to the conventional instruments of payment is a payment instrument with and without cash by means of which the holder disposes of the current account. It is a standardized, secure information and individualized, through which you can perform operations of cash withdrawal, payment for the goods or services purchased, payment obligations by the public administration authorities and funds transfers between accounts, other than those ordered and executed by financial institutions, carried out through the electronic payment instrument.
Money laundering was stipulated as an offense by Chinese criminal law more than 10 years ago. However, the judicial situation is such that no one has yet been prosecuted for it. This article describes the phenomena that are closely related to money laundering, namely the current situation of the predicate offences and other factors conducive to money laundering such as corruption, underground bank shops, and shell companies. Based on these facts, the article infers that money laundering is a real problem in China. Then it explores the reasons why case examples of money laundering are not available. Finally, this article presents some of the factors necessary in the investigation of money laundering.
Mesfin, WF; Ghinea, G; Atnafu, S
In developing countries, although money is becoming digital in the form of mobile money, it is not easily used by millions of illiterate users in their everyday transactions. Digitization of material money thus poses a challenge to many users. Existing mobile money systems and platforms represent money in terms of simple numbers, like 13, 50, 0.78, 23.64, 80 etc. This way of money representation is almost unusable by illiterate users, unless they depend on others' help. The literature has ove...
Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T
Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would.
White, Richard T; McGee-Collett, Martin
The objective of this article is to provide a portrait of prefrontal lobotomy performed at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney by the Head of Neurosurgery Dr Rex Money and to describe Dr Money's role in the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney. We draw attention to an oral presentation by Dr Rex Money in 1951, a journal article written by Money, archival information held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, including Dr Money's accounts of his travels and his reports regarding neurosurgery - both internationally and in Australia. Dr Rex Money performed a series of 13 prefrontal lobotomies between 1945 and 1951, and presented the theoretical basis for his series, his operative procedures and the outcomes at the annual meeting of its medical officers' association. Notwithstanding various deficiencies in his clinical research, Money's descriptions give a relatively comprehensive account of one of the first series of prefrontal lobotomies performed in Australia. The current article also describes Dr Money's contributions to the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney, and illustrates the participation of a senior neurosurgeon and of a major Sydney teaching hospital during the psychosurgery saga. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
In this paper, we analyze the process of money creation in a credit economy. We start from the consideration that the traditional money multiplier is a poor description of this process and present an alternative and dynamic approach that takes into account the heterogeneity of agents in the economy and their interactions. We show that this heterogeneity can account for the instability of the multiplier and that it can make the system path-dependent. By using concepts and techniques borrowed f...
Xing, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Wanting; Chen, Liujun; Chen, Jiawei; Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. Eugene
Both money and debt are products of credit creation of banks. Money is always circulating among traders by facilitating commodity transactions. In contrast, debt is created by borrowing and annihilated by repayment as it is matured. However, when this creation- annihilation process is mediated by banks which are constrained by a credit capacity, there exists continuous transfer of debt among debtors, which can be defined as debt circulation. This paper presents a multi-agent model in which in...
Creation and proper functioning of the money market in Romania is subject to a preponderant constancy of private property, to support competition as a factor increasing the efficiency of the economy. Appearance money market in Romania is related to the transformations that have manifested in our country since 1989. As a mechanism of market economy, can not talk about them in existence before 1989. In a centralized economy, instruments, financial categories have ceased to reflect the actual si...
Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.
Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon
Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.
Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Yi, Richard
Evidence that primary rewards (e.g., food and drugs of abuse) are discounted more than money is frequently attributed to money's high degree of liquidity, or exchangeability for many commodities. The present study provides some evidence against this liquidity hypothesis by contrasting delay discounting of monetary rewards (liquid) and non-monetary commodities (non-liquid) that are self-relevant and utility-matched. Ninety-seven (97) undergraduate students initially completed a conventional binary-choice delay discounting of money task. Participants returned one week later and completed a self-relevant commodity delay discounting task. Both conventional hypothesis testing and more-conservative tests of statistical equivalence revealed correspondence in rate of delay discounting of money and self-relevant commodities, and in one magnitude condition, less discounting for the latter. The present results indicate that liquidity of money cannot fully account for the lower rate of delay discounting compared to non-money rewards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The decarbonised future European electricity system must remain secure: reliable electricity supply is a prerequisite for the functioning of modern society. Scenarios like Desertec, which partially rely on solar power imports from the Middle East and North Africa, may be attractive for decarbonisation, but raise concerns about terrorists interrupting supply by attacking the long, unprotected transmission lines in the Sahara. In this paper, I develop new methods and assess the European vulnerability to terrorist attacks in the Desertec scenario. I compare this to the vulnerability of today's system and a decarbonisation scenario in which Europe relies on gas imports for electricity generation. I show that the vulnerability of both gas and electricity imports is low, but electricity imports are more vulnerable than gas imports, due to their technical characteristics. Gas outages (and, potentially, resulting blackouts) are the very unlikely consequence even of very high-number attacks against the gas import system, whereas short blackouts are the potential consequence of a few attacks against the import electricity lines. As the impacts of all except extreme attacks are limited, terrorists cannot attack energy infrastructure and cause spectacular, fear-creating outages. Both gas and electricity import infrastructure are thus unattractive and unlikely terrorist targets. - Highlights: • A comparison of terrorism risks of importing solar power and gas for power generation. • Both scenarios show low vulnerability to terrorist attacks. • Within low vulnerabilities, gas imports are less vulnerable than electricity imports. • Causing spectacular, large and long outages is very difficult for attacker. • The attractiveness of gas and power import infrastructure as terrorist target is low
Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve
Tanklevska Nataliya S.
Full Text Available Essence of the definition of «money flow» of enterprise has been researched. The theoretical basis for the formation of money flows of enterprise, including the developments by mercantilists, marxists, monetarists, and contemporaries has been systematized. Cycles of the money flow and its relationship to the circulation of economic means have been characterized. The money flow discounting factors have been determined, which include inflation, risk, and alternativeness of investment process. The economic, political, social, and techno-economic risks that impact the management of money flows of enterprise have been allocated. The classification of money flows of enterprises by various attributes has been provided. The main sources of formation and modalities of the optimal money flow structure of enterprise have been determined. The advantages and disadvantages of using financial resources to generate money flows of enterprise have been characterized.
increasing attention in the field of monetary and financial economics in recent ... Various assertion has been downplaying the position of money in an economy, ... To determine the impact of inflation on the level of Money Supply in Nigeria.
The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting
Full Text Available This concept paper investigates possibilities to detect terrorist cells based on communications between individuals without the need for wiretapping. The advantages of such procedure are apparent: fewer (if any legal requirements, and, most importantly, the possibility to automate the surveillance. After a brief review of the pertinent literature, we offer three approaches that are designed to aid in the detection of not only terrorist cells, but also the command structures within the cells. The techniques are demonstrated by using a small illustration. The paper concludes by outlining limitations of the procedures described here.
The Greek government unsuccessfully battled leftist terrorist groups from 1975 to 2002, The two most notorious terrorist organizations during this period were the "November 17" group and another group...
BEREZANSKY V.V.; CHALDAEVA L.A.; KILYACHKOV A.A.
Manipulating the banking system for purposes of money laundering is a relatively new phenomenon. This problem was first identified in 1986 in the United States, when it was classified as a criminal offense. In Russia, anti-money laundering measures are regulated with Federal Law No. 115-FZ On Counteracting Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (7 August 2001, as amended). Given the high-speed, digitized nature of banking transactions, the technology for countering money laundering s...
Gunji, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Kenji
In this paper, we study the effect of conventional interest rate policy, quantitative easing and the reserve accounts’ interest rate on the money stock in an industrial-organization model of the banking industry with money creation. Our main findings are as follows. First, under a plausible setting of the parameters, the model with money creation supports the liquidity puzzle, in which tight monetary policy increases the money stock. Second, quantitative monetary easing has a similar effect. ...
C. C. Huang; M. S. Amirrudin; N. A. Ahamad Noruddin; R. Othman
Anti-money laundering is commonly recognized as a set of procedures, laws or regulations designed to reduce the practice of generating income through illegal actions. In Malaysia, the government and law enforcement agencies have stepped up their capacities and efforts to curb money laundering since 2001. One of these measures was the enactment of the Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) in 2001. The implementation costs on anti-money laundering requirements (AMLR) can be burd...
Chiang, Chun-Wei; Anderson, Caroline; Flores-Saviaga, Claudia; Arenas, Eduardo Jr; Colin, Felipe; Romero, Mario; Rivera-Loaiza, Cuauhtemoc; Chavez, Norma Elva; Savage, Saiph
Mobile money can facilitate financial inclusion in developing countries, which usually have high mobile phone use and steady remittance activity. Many countries in Latin America meet the minimum technological requirements to use mobile money, however, the adoption in this region is relatively low. This paper investigates the different factors that lead people in Latin America to distrust and therefore not adopt mobile money. For this purpose, we analyzed 27 mobile money applications on the ma...
Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui
In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...
Palley, Thomas I.
This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...
The theory of money supply is less developed than that of money demand, largely because 19th-century economists believed that money was unimportant and because they viewed the central bank as either an appendage to the economy or as a welfare-maximizing black box. The paper reviews each of these beliefs in turn.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalty assessment. 500.143 Section 500.143... MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Enforcement § 500.143 Civil money penalty assessment. (a) A civil money penalty may be assessed for each violation of the Act or these regulations. (b) In...
Money laundering is the disguising of the illegal origin of money by bringing it back into the legal financial circuit. Therefore, in this dissertation I try to establish a theoretical framework to understand the role of social networks, and the link between criminals and legal actors in the money
Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, M.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, H.-S.; Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X
Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade
Ferwerda, Joras|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, Han-Hsin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357209370; Unger, Brigitte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, Loek|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, Jaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X
Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is trade-based money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalties-assessment. 801.42 Section 801.42... APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Enforcement § 801.42 Civil money penalties—assessment. (a) A civil money penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for any violation may be assessed...
The paper estimated dynamic demand for money (Currency) function for Pakistan. it is concluded that in the long run money demand depends on income, rate of inflation and bond rate. The rate of Inflation and rate of interst on deposits emerged as important determinant of money demand in the short run. Moreover dynamic model remans stable througtout the study period.
... workers. (c) A civil money penalty for each violation of the work contract or a requirement of 8 U.S.C..., with the following exceptions: (1) A civil money penalty for each willful violation of the work... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalty assessment. 501.19 Section 501.19 Labor...
... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Enforcement of Work Contracts § 502.19 Civil money... money penalty for violation of the work contract will not exceed $1,000 for each violation committed... of the work contract, or for willful discrimination, the civil money penalty shall not exceed $5,000...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for payment...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties. 460.46 Section 460.46 Public...) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.46 Civil money penalties. (a) CMS may impose civil money penalties up to the following maximum amounts: (1) For each violation regarding enrollment or...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost of money. 1631.205-10... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-10 Cost of money. For the purposes of FAR 31.205-10(b)(3), the estimated facilities capital cost of money is specifically identified if it...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose varies...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 908.6 Section 908.6... Proceedings § 908.6 Civil money penalties. (a) Notice of assessment—(1) Grounds. The Finance Board may issue and serve a notice of assessment of a civil money penalty on any Bank or any executive officer or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 509.103 Section 509.103... PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Local Rules § 509.103 Civil money penalties. (a) Assessment. In the... may serve an order of assessment of civil money penalty upon the party concerned. The assessment order...
...] RIN 2501-AD59 Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalty Amounts AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends HUD's civil money penalty and civil penalty... outdated cross-reference in its civil money penalty regulations. DATES: Effective Date: February 19, 2013...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties. 73.21 Section 73.21 Public... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.21 Civil money penalties. (a) The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services is delegated authority to conduct investigations and to impose civil money...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 1250.3 Section 1250.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES FLOOD INSURANCE § 1250.3 Civil money... to § 1250.2, the Director of FHFA, or his or her designee, may assess civil money penalties against...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act specifically...
Wright, Joan; Varcoe, Karen
Because money management is often a problem for lower-level military personnel, a resource management educational program called Money Sense was started by the University of California Cooperative Extension at Edwards Air Force Base in 1985. Volunteers for Money Sense were recruited at the base; they attended eight sessions on teaching techniques…
Wood, Rachel Godfrey
Developed countries have pledged billions of dollars a year to help poor nations adapt to climate change. But how should the money be spent? For the world's poor, who are both the most vulnerable to climate change and the most in need of social protection, the best answer may be cash transfer programmes. Giving money out in this way has a strong track record in reaching the poor and helping them improve their nutrition, education and incomes — all of which are vital for building their long-term capacity to adapt to climate change. Cash transfers are also well accepted at the local level and, given the right political backing, can be implemented on a broad scale.
Viaggiu, Stefano; Lionetto, Andrea; Bargigli, Leonardo; Longo, Michele
We build a statistical ensemble representation of two economic models describing respectively, in simplified terms, a payment system and a credit market. To this purpose we adopt the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution where the role of the Hamiltonian is taken by the total money supply (i.e. including money created from debt) of a set of interacting economic agents. As a result, we can read the main thermodynamic quantities in terms of monetary ones. In particular, we define for the credit market model a work term which is related to the impact of monetary policy on credit creation. Furthermore, with our formalism we recover and extend some results concerning the temperature of an economic system, previously presented in the literature by considering only the monetary base as a conserved quantity. Finally, we study the statistical ensemble for the Pareto distribution.
Full Text Available We estimate risk premia in the Czech money market and we pay special attention to the 2008-2009 crisis period. Our results imply a rising forward premium and we argue that the error correction model is the most appropriate method, but median may be used as a first guess estimator. We estimated the term premium between the policy rate and various money market interest rates. In this context, ARCH models proved to be useful in reflection of non-stationarity observed in the data. The financial crisis caused a structural break in our data sample, but the impact on the forward premium was only brief and forward premia normalized quickly. The widening of the term premium proved to be much more persistent, although it declined significantly since the peak of the crisis.
Full Text Available This paper intends to describe the process of money development, the advantages of using it digitally and the difficulties this process is facing. It is focused on the concept of e-purses or e-wallets, describing one of the most successful forms of digital money, the Octopus (Hong Kong based. Its main goal is to help those who wish to study this subject under a corporative strategy point of view. It presents the reasons that led to the development of the Octopus, the steps followed by the companies that manage it, the current situation and the future development perspectives. The paper presents some considerations on the opportunity of adopting other systems that are similar to the Octopus in highly populated areas, as well as the conditions required to its success.