WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrorism reducing vulnerabilities

  1. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  2. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  3. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and... notice is also soliciting comments concerning the Information Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti...

  4. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    security. The relation, if any, to terrorism is explored. The data comes from the World Bank database. Gender Equality. How a country treats women and the...55 Gender Equality...method to evaluate poverty is based upon income inequality . This ap- proach is based upon the belief that poverty is relative, individuals only feel

  5. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  6. Terrorism, distress, and drinking: vulnerability and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Cloninger, Lea

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated effects of 9/11 on distress and drinking outcomes in individuals directly affected and indirectly affected across the United States. Fewer studies have addressed vulnerability and protective factors shown to moderate the effects of stress exposure. We report findings from a Midwestern workplace cohort study. Respondents to a 6 wave longitudinal mail survey completed questionnaires prior to September 11, 2001 and again in 2003 and 2005. Regression analyses encompassed measures of terrorism-related beliefs and fears, workplace stressors (sexual harassment, generalized abuse and low decision latitude), marital and parental status, and perceived social support in 2003, and distress and deleterious drinking outcomes in 2005. Analyses showed that terrorism-related fears significantly interacted with workplace stressors and interpersonal social relationships in predicting distress, drinking or both, controlling for pre-9/11 distress and drinking. Gender differences were also found. This article suggests that certain individuals may be at heightened risk for distressful reactions to and/or deleterious drinking resulting from terrorism-related issues and fears due to additional risk factors involving workplace stressors and inadequate interpersonal bonds. However, limitations of the study were noted and future research was recommended.

  7. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  8. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  9. Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1990-01-01

    The NPT should prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as a contribution to the worldpeace. This aim is also threatened today by the nuclear actions of states and subnational groups. Such actions have occured in the past and are expected in the future. States and specific terrorist groups are able to acquire specific nuclear material by theft and to assault nuclear plants and transport. The main constraint, the deficit of motivation, could be dropped in the future for many reasons. Therefore nuclear terrorism is a 'real threat to civilization' and its probability is increasing. (orig.) [de

  10. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  11. Trophic redundancy reduces vulnerability to extinction cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Thébault, Elisa; Kehoe, Rachel; Frank van Veen, F J

    2018-03-06

    Current species extinction rates are at unprecedentedly high levels. While human activities can be the direct cause of some extinctions, it is becoming increasingly clear that species extinctions themselves can be the cause of further extinctions, since species affect each other through the network of ecological interactions among them. There is concern that the simplification of ecosystems, due to the loss of species and ecological interactions, increases their vulnerability to such secondary extinctions. It is predicted that more complex food webs will be less vulnerable to secondary extinctions due to greater trophic redundancy that can buffer against the effects of species loss. Here, we demonstrate in a field experiment with replicated plant-insect communities, that the probability of secondary extinctions is indeed smaller in food webs that include trophic redundancy. Harvesting one species of parasitoid wasp led to secondary extinctions of other, indirectly linked, species at the same trophic level. This effect was markedly stronger in simple communities than for the same species within a more complex food web. We show that this is due to functional redundancy in the more complex food webs and confirm this mechanism with a food web simulation model by highlighting the importance of the presence and strength of trophic links providing redundancy to those links that were lost. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity loss, leading to a reduction in redundant interactions, can increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to secondary extinctions, which, when they occur, can then lead to further simplification and run-away extinction cascades. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Medical Differential Diagnosis (MDD) as the Architectural Framework for a Knowledge Model: A Vulnerability Detection and Threat Identification Methodology for Cyber-Crime and Cyber-Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley-Ware, Lakita D.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses a real world cyberspace problem, where currently no cross industry standard methodology exists. The goal is to develop a model for identification and detection of vulnerabilities and threats of cyber-crime or cyber-terrorism where cyber-technology is the vehicle to commit the criminal or terrorist act (CVCT). This goal was…

  13. Elements of Terrorism Preparedness in Local Police Agencies, 2003-2007: Impact of Vulnerability, Organizational Characteristics, and Contagion in the Post-9/11 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aki; Roberts, John M., Jr.; Liedka, Raymond V.

    2012-01-01

    Different elements of local police agencies' terrorism preparedness may be associated with different organizational/environmental variables. We use 2003-2007 data (showing considerable adoption and desistance of practices) on medium-to-large-sized local agencies to examine relationships between contingency (vulnerability, organizational…

  14. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Of those cases, 80% were rapes, 9% physical assaults, 7% domestic violence, ... This study explores strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of women to SGBV ... The research findings will be used to strengthen linkages between Kenya's ...

  15. Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2003-01-01

    Persistent computer security vulnerabilities may expose U.S. critical infrastructure and government computer systems to possible cyber attack by terrorists, possibly affecting the economy or other areas of national security...

  16. Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in future. ... It concludes that traditional or conventional, market-based approaches do not adequately explain the root causes of global recessions and that the dominant counter-cyclical Keynesian-type fiscal and monetary policies that characterised the ...

  17. How economic empowerment reduces women's reproductive health vulnerability in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westeneng, J.; D'Exelle, B.S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from Northern Tanzania to analyse how economic empowerment helps women reduce their reproductive health (RH) vulnerability. It analyses the effect of women's employment and economic contribution to their household on health care use at three phases in the reproductive cycle:

  18. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  19. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  20. LEARNING INSTITUTIONS’ VULNERABILITY TO TERRORISM. AN OVERVIEW OF ISSUE COVERAGE IN NOWADAYS’ MEDIA AND SPECIALISED LITERATURE & A CASE STUDY OF GARISSA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Onyango Standslause ODHIAMBO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, (ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have the knowledge and the capability to strike anywhere in Kenya and with Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia in mid-October 2011, the citizens in Mandera, Moyale, Garrisa, Nairobi and Mombasa have been attacked and lives lost. This confirms that Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have been motivated by Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF, now under the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM incursion into Somalia and they will continue to attack Kenya as a way of retaliation. The importance of Learning Institutions makes it a soft target for ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists. The fact that ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists will strike at Learning Institutions is real and this can be confirmed by the Garissa University College, Kenya terror attack where 148 people were killed on 2 April, 2015. The risk of terrorists attack against this critical infrastructure can result in communal disruptions, disarray, and even overreaction on the part of governments and the public as a result of any attack, may be high. We argue that Learning Institutions are vulnerable to ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks. In summary, the article looks at the concepts of terrorism, the dangers of attack on Learning Institutions, Kenya’s Learning Institutions preparedness and concludes with a set of recommendations.

  1. Front end of the nuclear fuel cycle: options to reduce the risks of terrorism and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, E.V.C.; Hoenig, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' assessment of the prospects for advanced front end technologies and fuel assurances becoming effective mechanisms for achieving nonproliferation and antiterrorism objectives is relatively pessimistic unless they are integrated with back end accommodations such as the return of spent fuel. They recommend that further examination of front end assurances be linked to that accommodation. To be sure, certain real technological improvements may postpone the day when commercial use of nuclear explosive fuels, with all their attendant terrorism and proliferation risks, is justified. Indeed, improvements in LWRs, using well-understood technology combined with advanced enrichment techniques, could reduce uranium requirements up to 45% at the beginning of the next century and up to 30% a decade earlier, provided the economic and security incentives are present. On the institutional side, existing supply conditions put little pressure on importing countries to seek long-term supply assurances. Moreover, the political obstacles to creating new international institutions or arrangements are exceedingly difficult to overcome, especially without a heightened consciousness of the growing risks of civilian explosive nuclear materials and the political will to make these risks a high priority. 2 tables

  2. Reducing Community Vulnerability to Wildland Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US fires are not treated like other hazards such as earthquakes but rather as preventable through landscape fuel treatments and aggressive fire suppression. In southern California extreme fire weather has made it impossible to control all fires and thus loss of homes and lives is a constant threat to communities. There is growing evidence that indicate we are not likely to ever eliminate fires on these landscapes. Thus, it is time to reframe the fire problem and think of fires like we do with other natural hazards such as earthquakes. We do not attempt to stop earthquakes, rather the primary emphasis is on altering human infrastructure in ways that minimize community vulnerability. In other words we need to change our approach from risk elimination to risk management. This approach means we accept that we cannot eliminate fires but rather learn to live with fire by communities becoming more fire adapted. We potentially can make great strides in reducing community vulnerability by finding those factors with high impacts and are sensitive to changes in management. Presently, decision makers have relatively little guidance about which of these is likely to have the greatest impact. Future reductions in fire risk to communities requires we address both wildland and urban elements that contribute to destructive losses. Damage risk or D is determined by: D = f (I, S, E, G, H) where I = the probability of a fire starting in the landscape S = the probability of the fire reaching a size sufficient to reach the urban environment E = probability of it encroaching into the urban environment G = probability of fire propagating within the built environment H = probability of a fire, once within the built environment, resulting in the destruction of a building. In southern California, reducing I through more strategic fire prevention has potential for reducing fire risk. There are many ignition sources that could be reduced, such as replacing power line ignitions with

  3. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  4. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in northern Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... Research on climate-related vulnerability among pastoralist ... decisions that affect the use of resources that families depend on in times of stress, while ... these skills and approaches are useful to other areas of NEMA's work.

  5. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  6. Homeland Security -- Reducing the Vulnerability of Public and Private Information Infrastructures to Terrorism: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seifert, Jeffrey W

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the impact of the September 11, 2001 attacks on public and private information infrastructures in the context of critical infrastructure protection, continuity of operations (COOP...

  7. Extreme climatic events: reducing ecological and social systems vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decamps, H.; Amatore, C.; Bach, J.F.; Baccelli, F.; Balian, R.; Carpentier, A.; Charnay, P.; Cuzin, F.; Davier, M.; Dercourt, J.; Dumas, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Jeannerod, M.; Kahane, J.P.; Meunier, B.; Rebut, P.H.; Salencon, J.; Spitz, E.; Suquet, P.; Taquet, P.; Valleron, A.J.; Yoccoz, J.C.; Chapron, J.Y.; Fanon, J.; Andre, J.C.; Auger, P.; Bourrelier, P.H.; Combes, C.; Derrida, B.; Laubier, L.; Laval, K.; Le Maho, Y.; Marsily, G. De; Petit, M.; Schmidt-Laine, C.; Birot, Y.; Peyron, J.L.; Seguin, B.; Barles, S.; Besancenot, J.P.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Hallegatte, S.; Dumas, P.; Ancey, V.; Requier-Desjardins, M.; Ducharnes, A.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Kaniewski, D.; Van Campo, E.; Planton, S.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Le Bars, Y.; Lagadec, P.; Kessler, D.; Pontikis, C.; Nussbaum, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth has to face more and more devastating extreme events. Between 1970 and 2009, at the worldwide scale, the 25 most costly catastrophes all took place after 1987, and for more than half of them after 2001. Among these 25 catastrophes, 23 were linked to climate conditions. France was not spared: the December 1999 storms led to 88 deaths, deprived 3.5 million households of electricity and costed more than 9 billion euros. The 2003 heat wave led to about 15000 supernumerary deaths between August 1 and August 20. The recent Xynthia storm, with its flood barrier ruptures, provoked 53 deaths in addition to many other tragedies that took place in areas liable to flooding. In the present day context of climate change, we know that we must be prepared to even more dangerous events, sometimes unexpected before. These events can have amplified effects because of the urban development, the overpopulation of coastal areas and the anthropization of natural environments. They represent real 'poverty traps' for the poorest countries of the Earth. The anticipation need is real but is our country ready to answer it? Does it have a sufficient contribution to international actions aiming at reducing risks? Is his scientific information suitable? France is not less vulnerable than other countries. It must reinforce its prevention, its response and resilience capacities in the framework of integrated policies of catastrophes risk management as well as in the framework of climate change adaptation plans. This reinforcement supposes the development of vigilance systems with a better risk coverage and benefiting by the advances gained in the meteorology and health domains. It supposes a town and country planning allowing to improve the viability of ecological and social systems - in particular by protecting their diversity. Finally, this reinforcement requires inciting financial coverage solutions for catastrophes prevention and for their management once they have taken place. A

  8. Sugars from woody tissue photosynthesis reduce xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, Niels J F; Salomón, Roberto Luis; De Roo, Linus; Steppe, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    Reassimilation of internal CO 2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration. Acoustic vulnerability curves and derived AE 50 values (i.e. water potential at which 50% of cavitation-related acoustic emissions occur) differed significantly between light-excluded and control branches (AE 50,light-excluded  = -1.00 ± 0.13 MPa; AE 50,control  = -1.45 ± 0.09 MPa; P = 0.007) denoting higher vulnerability to cavitation in light-excluded trees. Woody tissue photosynthesis represents an alternative and immediate source of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) that confers lower xylem vulnerability to cavitation via sugar-mediated mechanisms. Embolism repair and xylem structural changes could not explain this observation as the amount of cumulative AE and basic wood density did not differ between treatments. We suggest that woody tissue assimilates might play a role in the synthesis of xylem surfactants for nanobubble stabilization under tension. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or Protected Critical... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR...

  10. Bus commuters' coping strategies and anxiety from terrorism: an example of the Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Y; Gal, R; Zahavi, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use of three coping strategies: (1) emotion-focused coping (calming-distraction); (2) problem-focused coping (checking-behavior); and (3) denial (reduced perceived vulnerability), and their relationship to anxiety from terrorism among 50 Israeli bus commuters. Their mean age was 31 years (60% females). Commuting frequency was negatively correlated, and problem-focused coping was positively correlated with anxiety from terrorism. Ratios of problem-focused coping/denial and of problem-focused/emotion-focused coping were each positively correlated with anxiety from terrorism. Coping ratios accounted for 15% of the variance in anxiety from terrorism, after considering commuting frequency. Combining minimal problem-focused preventative acts with distraction and reduced perceived vulnerability may be beneficial.

  11. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...

  12. Calibration of groundwater vulnerability mapping using the generalized reduced gradient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Alper

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment studies are essential in water resources management. Overlay-and-index methods such as DRASTIC are widely used for mapping of groundwater vulnerability, however, these methods mainly suffer from a subjective selection of model parameters. The objective of this study is to introduce a calibration procedure that results in a more accurate assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The improvement of the assessment is formulated as a parameter optimization problem using an objective function that is based on the correlation between actual groundwater contamination and vulnerability index values. The non-linear optimization problem is solved with the generalized-reduced-gradient (GRG) method, which is numerical algorithm based optimization method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, a vulnerability map for the Tahtali stream basin is calibrated using nitrate concentration data. The calibration procedure is easy to implement and aims the maximization of correlation between observed pollutant concentrations and groundwater vulnerability index values. The influence of each vulnerability parameter in the calculation of the vulnerability index is assessed by performing a single-parameter sensitivity analysis. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that all factors are effective on the final vulnerability index. Calibration of the vulnerability map improves the correlation between index values and measured nitrate concentrations by 19%. The regression coefficient increases from 0.280 to 0.485. It is evident that the spatial distribution and the proportions of vulnerability class areas are significantly altered with the calibration process. Although the applicability of the calibration method is demonstrated on the DRASTIC model, the applicability of the approach is not specific to a certain model and can also be easily applied to other overlay-and-index methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic materials: Technologies to reduce US import vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Three nations, South Africa, Zaire, and the U.S.S.R., account for over half of the world's production of chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum group metals. These metals are essential in the production of high-temperature alloys, steel and stainless steel, industrial and automotive catalysts, electronics, and other applications that are critical to the U.S. economy and the national defense. With minor exceptions, there is no domestic mine production of any of the four metals. Government actions to assure secure supplies of metals critical to the United States have been limited largely to reliance on the national defense stockpile to ensure the availability of materials required for national defense in time of war, leaving it to the free market to provide a diversity of suppliers for the industrial economy. An overall strategy to reduce U.S. reliance on uncertain sources of supply of strategic materials should be based on a combination of three technical approaches: increase the diversity of the world supply of strategic metals through the development of promising deposits; decrease demand for strategic metals through the implementation of improved manufacturing processes and recycling of strategic materials from scrap and waste; and identify and test substitute materials for current applications and develop new materials with reduced strategic material content for future applications.

  14. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  15. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Sauver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  16. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  17. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    ... between private security and the KCPD. To empower this resource as a terrorism prevention force multiplier the development of a web based virtual knowledge sharing initiative was explored in this study as a solution to provide "one stop...

  18. Do Savings and Credit Institutions Reduce Vulnerability? New Evidence From Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Servin Juarez, Roselia; Berg, van den Marrit

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether membership in a savings and credit society (SACP) reduces vulnerability to poverty, using a representative survey from the National Savings and Financial Services Bank. The sample of households includes those that are and are not members of a SACP during 2004−2007.

  19. Defining Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Notes the lack of a concise meaning for the word terrorism. Develops a working definition which states that terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the attainment of political objectives. (JDH)

  20. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  1. Securing Public Safety Vehicles: Reducing Vulnerabilities by Leveraging Smart Technology and Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    there are technologies available today that would reduce the risk of vehicle theft and misuse by fortifying vulnerabilities. They offer several levels...confirm identity by identify “what I am (what I do)” in the electronic context of “who am I?”80 Furthermore, biometrics is a digital representation of...can build a comprehensive and effective biometric identification system, improve overall performance, improve system robustness, and reduce the

  2. Connecting people and place: a new framework for reducing urban vulnerability to extreme heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, Olga V; Hayden, Mary H

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the intensity and negative impacts of urban heat events, prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability to extreme heat. Analysis of societal vulnerability to extreme heat events requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability at a local level. In this letter, we explore the relationships between people and places, in the context of urban heat stress, and present a new research framework for a multi-faceted, top-down and bottom-up analysis of local-level vulnerability to extreme heat. This framework aims to better represent societal vulnerability through the integration of quantitative and qualitative data that go beyond aggregate demographic information. We discuss how different elements of the framework help to focus attention and resources on more targeted health interventions, heat hazard mitigation and climate adaptation strategies.

  3. Reducing the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism- A Report Card on the Obama Administration’s Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    using methods that did not require HEU and the recovery of roughly 750 radioisotope thermoelectric...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE ...December 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM—A REPORT CARD ON

  4. Putting the puzzle together: Reducing vulnerability through people-focused planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, D.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting and integrating vulnerable persons into emergency management has emerged as an increasing priority in emergency management in Canada. Events such as the 2003 European heat wave and Hurricane Katrina have shown that disasters almost always have the harshest affects on the frail elderly, people with disabilities, the disadvantaged and the least able. While it is neither possible-nor the role of emergency management-to eliminate or reduce many factors that make people vulnerable to hazards, it is important that emergency managers work closely with communities to not only identify risks and vulnerabilities, but also to build on the resources and capacities that enable people to effectively prepare for, respond to and recover from threats of all types. To this end, emergency management must take into account the level of capacities and resources that a community has to prepare for emergencies and disasters, in addition to people's vulnerabilities to extreme events. To be successful, people must be viewed not as a part of the problem to be solved or managed during an emergency, but rather a part of the solution to building more resilient and disaster-resistant societies. This requires 'people-focused' planning methodologies that move beyond planning for to planning with all segments of society, including the most vulnerable and marginalised groups that are more readily overlooked. This not only begins to ensure that emergency planning and response capacities can effectively address the diverse needs of all people, but is also an important step to empowering the most vulnerable to prepare themselves for emergencies and other critical events. (authors)

  5. Analysis of world terror networks from the reduced Google matrix of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zant, Samer; Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2018-01-01

    We apply the reduced Google matrix method to analyze interactions between 95 terrorist groups and determine their relationships and influence on 64 world countries. This is done on the basis of the Google matrix of the English Wikipedia (2017) composed of 5 416 537 articles which accumulate a great part of global human knowledge. The reduced Google matrix takes into account the direct and hidden links between a selection of 159 nodes (articles) appearing due to all paths of a random surfer moving over the whole network. As a result we obtain the network structure of terrorist groups and their relations with selected countries including hidden indirect links. Using the sensitivity of PageRank to a weight variation of specific links we determine the geopolitical sensitivity and influence of specific terrorist groups on world countries. The world maps of the sensitivity of various countries to influence of specific terrorist groups are obtained. We argue that this approach can find useful application for more extensive and detailed data bases analysis.

  6. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  7. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  8. Evidence of reduced vulnerability to tropical cyclones in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Nam, Chaehyeon C.; Kim, Hyeong-Seog

    2015-05-01

    On average, three tropical cyclones (TCs) affect the Republic of Korea each year, causing extensive damage. To alleviate the TC-induced disasters, the Korean government has invested nearly 4% of its annual budget in recent decades in prevention efforts; however, the effectiveness of this costly program has not been evaluated. This study determined whether any evidence shows a reduced vulnerability to TCs in Korea over 1979-2010 by utilizing multi-linear regression. Homelessness, casualties, and property losses were individually examined. These explained variables were normalized into the socio-economic circumstances of 2005 before the regression to eliminate the effect of changing exposure by dealing with population and wealth at provincial levels. Three potential explanatory variables based on nationwide weather-station data were considered, including the maximum wind, maximum rainfall, and number of affected stations over each TC’s damaging period. In addition, the annual per capita income, showing a quasi-linear increasing tendency, was used as an additional explanatory variable to examine how vulnerability is altered. The results revealed that each empirical model of homelessness, casualties, and property losses can account for 47%, 57%, and 57% of each variance, respectively, which is highest when considering all four explanatory variables. Consistently negative coefficients of the per capita income terms for all damage types suggest that the vulnerability to TCs has been significantly reduced. This finding appears to be partly the result of the national prevention effort, although it also can be attributed to other unintended adaptation factors, such as building codes, industrial structures, and land use.

  9. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  10. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  11. Civilian Joint Task Force’ (CJTF – A Community Security Option: A Comprehensive and Proactive Approach of Reducing Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Bamidele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Boko Haram uprising in 2009, the Nigerian government has employed various strategies as counter-terrorism measures to stem the atrocities of the group. These strategies include amnesty negotiations, implementation of emergency law in the northeast, increase in security spending to the deployment of military force. In the midst of these security measures, the civilian Joint Task Force (JTF emerged, first as a community effort, and later as a joint effort with the security forces to help fight Boko Haram. The civilian JTF has helped recover towns and villages from Boko Haram, rescued women in the northeast and helped identify Boko Haram members shielded by some local people. Although doubts have been expressed in some quatres that the civilian JTF could transform into ethnic militias, the Boko Haram security threat neutralized by the group indicates an untapped security potential in Nigerian communities. However, one approach that has yet to be pursued is community security option. Community security option is a model built around proactive citizen-driven communal response. This article explains the role of civilian JTF and how civilian JTF can be used to investigate terrorism in Nigeria. This article will contribute to the discourse on the imperative of African-inspired mechanisms to solving African security problems.

  12. The Flood House Concept : A New Approach in Reducing Flood Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.; Meijer, L.; Hartnack, L.; Rijcken, T.

    2006-01-01

    Deltas throughout the world are vulnerable to natural hazards. New Orleans provides a recent and obvious example. We analyzed the situation in New Orleans and the Mississippi Delta after hurricane Katrina has passed, from a vulnerability perspective. Vulnerability can be subdivided into four

  13. Terrorism and the adolescent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Alyssa; Zalsman, Gil

    2003-01-01

    In recent years suicide bombings have became a part of life in Israel. Adolescents seem to be more vulnerable to the issues of life and death since they have to choose psychologically whether to live or die ("the fourth organizer"). The reaction to terrorism in this age group is unique. After September 11th, a great interest on the subject has arisen in the United States and some new data has been gathered. One of the important messages is that terrorism does not simply equal trauma. The aim of this article is to review current literature on emotional reaction, impact, and therapeutic strategies to terrorism in the adolescent population.

  14. Environmental terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  15. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  16. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  17. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  18. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  19. Climate Change, Forests, and Water Supply: Managing to Reduce Vulnerability in Central Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, J.; Duinker, P.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is increasingly relevant in managing Canada’s forests sustainably. Forest managers are faced with the necessity of incorporating climate change into forest management plans. The formulation and evaluation of potential management strategies to contend with expected impacts of climate change will be necessary to reduce forest sector vulnerability. The Halifax Regional Water Commission manages forest watersheds for the purpose of supplying clean water to much of the Halifax Regional Municipality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the future forest structure of the two principal watersheds supplying the Halifax Regional Municipality using simulation modelling and to develop a framework of adaptive forest management. A combination of uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, and field data collection are used to refine, calibrate, and validate the spatially dynamic landscape disturbance model LANDIS-II prior to the incorporation of climate change scenarios into model simulations. Final model-based analysis will inform framework development dedicated to improving watershed resilience in the face of future climate change. This study is applicable to forest management under a changing climate, but also has further significance to water security, as watershed management and point-source protection are tightly linked to forest management.

  20. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  1. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2008-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  2. Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Intersection crashes between cars and vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, often result in injuries and fatalities. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) can prevent, or mitigate, these crashes. To derive functional requirements for such systems, an understanding of the underlying contributing factors and the context in which the crashes occur is essential. The aim of this study is to use microscopic and macroscopic crash data to explore the potential of information and warning providing ADASs, and then to derive functional sensor, collision detection, and human-machine interface (HMI) requirements. The microscopic data were obtained from the European project SafetyNet. Causation charts describing contributing factors for 60 car-to-VRU crashes had been compiled and were then also aggregated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). The macroscopic data were obtained from the Swedish national crash database, STRADA. A total of 9702 crashes were analyzed. The results show that the most frequent contributing factor to the crashes was the drivers' failure to observe VRUs due to reduced visibility, reduced awareness, and/or insufficient comprehension. An ADAS should therefore help drivers to observe the VRUs in time and to enhance their ability to interpret the development of events in the near future. The system should include a combination of imminent and cautionary collision warnings, with additional support in the form of information about intersection geometry and traffic regulations. The warnings should be deployed via an in-vehicle HMI and according to the likelihood of crash risk. The system should be able to operate under a variety of weather and light conditions. It should have the capacity to support drivers when their view is obstructed by physical objects. To address problems that vehicle-based sensors may face in this regard, the use of cooperative systems is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  4. Reduced population size does not affect the mating strategy of a vulnerable and endemic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Cristina; Neves, Verónica C.; Andris, Malvina; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Jarne, Philippe; Bolton, Mark; Bried, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years. We found no evidence that a genetic bottleneck was associated with this demographic decline. Monteiro's Storm-petrels paired randomly with respect to genetic relatedness and body measurements. Pair fecundity was unrelated to genetic relatedness between partners. We detected only two cases of extra-pair parentage associated with an extra-pair copulation (out of 71 offspring). Unsuccessful pairs were most likely to divorce the next year, but genetic relatedness between pair mates and pair breeding experience did not influence divorce. Divorce enabled individuals to improve their reproductive performances after re-mating only when the new partner was experienced. Re-pairing with an experienced partner occurred more frequently when divorcees changed nest than when they retained their nest. This study shows that even in strongly reduced populations, genetic diversity can be maintained, inbreeding does not necessarily occur, and random pairing is not risky in terms of pair lifetime reproductive success. Given, however, that we found no clear phenotypic mate choice criteria, the part played by non-morphological traits should be assessed more accurately in order to better understand seabird mating strategies.

  5. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  6. Can green roofs reduce urban heat stress in vulnerable urban communities: A coupled atmospheric and social modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Woodruff, S.; Budhathoki, M.; Hamlet, A. F.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas provide organized, engineered, sociological and economical infrastructure designed to provide a high quality of life, but the implementation and management of urban infrastructure has been a continued challenge. Increasing urbanization, warming climate, as well as anthropogenic heat emissions that accompany urban development generates "stress". This rapidly increasing `urban stress' affects the sustainability of cities, making populations more vulnerable to extreme hazards, such as heat. Cities are beginning to extensively use green roofs as a potential urban heat mitigation strategy. This study explores the potential of green roofs to reduce summertime temperatures in the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the Chicago metropolitan area by combining social vulnerability indices (a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), and temperatures from mesoscale model. Numerical simulations using urbanized version the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to measure rooftop temperatures, a representative variable for exposure in this study. The WRF simulations were dynamically coupled with a green roof algorithm as a part of urban parameterization within WRF. Specifically, the study examines roof surface temperature with changing green roof fractions and how would they help reduce exposure to heat stress for vulnerable urban communities. This study shows an example of applied research that can directly benefit urban communities and be used by urban planners to evaluate mitigation strategies.

  7. Earthquake forecasting test for Kanto district to reduce vulnerability of urban mega earthquake disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project on earthquake predictability research. The final goal of this project is to search for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo joined CSEP and started the Japanese testing center called as CSEP-Japan. This testing center provides an open access to researchers contributing earthquake forecast models applied to Japan. Now more than 100 earthquake forecast models were submitted on the prospective experiment. The models are separated into 4 testing classes (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions covering an area of Japan including sea area, Japanese mainland and Kanto district. We evaluate the performance of the models in the official suite of tests defined by CSEP. The total number of experiments was implemented for approximately 300 rounds. These results provide new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. We started a study for constructing a 3-dimensional earthquake forecasting model for Kanto district in Japan based on CSEP experiments under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters. Because seismicity of the area ranges from shallower part to a depth of 80 km due to subducting Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, we need to study effect of depth distribution. We will develop models for forecasting based on the results of 2-D modeling. We defined the 3D - forecasting area in the Kanto region with test classes of 1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years, and magnitudes from 4.0 to 9.0 as in CSEP-Japan. In the first step of the study, we will install RI10K model (Nanjo, 2011) and the HISTETAS models (Ogata, 2011) to know if those models have good performance as in the 3 months 2-D CSEP-Japan experiments in the Kanto region before the 2011 Tohoku event (Yokoi et al., in preparation). We use CSEP

  8. Regional Farm Diversity Can Reduce Vulnerability of Food Production to Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food production must adapt in the face of climate change. In Europe, projected vulnerability of food production to climate change is particularly high in Mediterranean regions. Increasing agricultural diversity has been suggested as an adaptation strategy, but empirical evidence is lacking. We

  9. Terrorism and Investigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mustofa

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed that, for successful implementation of the strategies in investigating terrorism, besides requiring professional skilled investigators, there are some additional requirements that need to be fulfilled. Effective and long term prevention of terrorism should be directed towards producing good social welfare and to minimize every condition that may be conducive to the emergence of terrorism, such as discrimination and marginalization.

  10. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  11. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  13. The role of microcredit in reducing women's vulnerabilities to multiple disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in'multiple disasters'. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that microcredit is a useful tool to replace women's livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

  14. Addiction Potential of Cigarettes With Reduced Nicotine Content in Populations With Psychiatric Disorders and Other Vulnerabilities to Tobacco Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Gaalema, Diann E; Hughes, John R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Durand, Hanna; Bunn, Janice Y; Priest, Jeff S; Arger, Christopher A; Miller, Mollie E; Bergeria, Cecilia L; Davis, Danielle R; Streck, Joanna M; Reed, Derek D; Skelly, Joan M; Tursi, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    A national policy is under consideration to reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes to lower nicotine addiction potential in the United States. To examine how smokers with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction respond to cigarettes with reduced nicotine content. A multisite, double-blind, within-participant assessment of acute response to research cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from levels below a hypothesized addiction threshold to those representative of commercial cigarettes (0.4, 2.3, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco) at 3 academic sites included 169 daily smokers from the following 3 vulnerable populations: individuals with affective disorders (n = 56) or opioid dependence (n = 60) and socioeconomically disadvantaged women (n = 53). Data were collected from March 23, 2015, through April 25, 2016. After a brief smoking abstinence, participants were exposed to the cigarettes with varying nicotine doses across fourteen 2- to 4-hour outpatient sessions. Addiction potential of the cigarettes was assessed using concurrent choice testing, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), and validated measures of subjective effects, such as the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Among the 169 daily smokers included in the analysis (120 women [71.0%] and 49 men [29.0%]; mean [SD] age, 35.6 [11.4] years), reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes decreased the relative reinforcing effects of smoking in all 3 populations. Across populations, the 0.4-mg/g dose was chosen significantly less than the 15.8-mg/g dose in concurrent choice testing (mean [SEM] 30% [0.04%] vs 70% [0.04%]; Cohen d = 0.40; P vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Smokers with psychiatric conditions and socioeconomic disadvantage are more addicted and less likely to quit and experience greater adverse health impacts. Policies to reduce these disparities are needed; reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes should be a policy focus.

  15. Reducing Vulnerability of Ports and Harbors to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.; Goodwin, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific research suggests the Pacific Northwest could experience catastrophic earthquakes in the near future, both from distant and local sources, posing a significant threat to coastal communities. Damage could result from numerous earthquake-related hazards, such as severe ground shaking, soil liquefaction, landslides, land subsidence/uplift, and tsunami inundation. Because of their geographic location, ports and harbors are especially vulnerable to these hazards. Ports and harbors, however, are important components of many coastal communities, supporting numerous activities critical to the local and regional economy and possibly serving as vital post-event, response-recovery transportation links. A collaborative, multi-year initiative is underway to increase the resiliency of Pacific Northwest ports and harbors to earthquake and tsunami hazards, involving Oregon Sea Grant (OSG), Washington Sea Grant (WSG), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Science Policy (CSP). Specific products of this research, planning, and outreach initiative include a regional stakeholder issues and needs assessment, a community-based mitigation planning process, a Geographic Information System (GIS) — based vulnerability assessment methodology, an educational web-site and a regional data archive. This paper summarizes these efforts, including results of two pilot port-harbor community projects, one in Yaquina Bay, Oregon and the other in Sinclair Inlet, Washington. Finally, plans are outlined for outreach to other port and harbor communities in the Pacific Northwest and beyond, using "getting started" workshops and a web-based tutorial.

  16. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  17. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  18. A dynamical model of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Udwadia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.

  19. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  20. A school-based, teacher-mediated prevention program (ERASE-Stress) for reducing terror-related traumatic reactions in Israeli youth: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony

    2009-08-01

    Since September 2000 Israeli children have been exposed to a large number of terrorist attacks. A universal, school-based intervention for dealing with the threat of terrorism as well as with terror-related symptoms, ERASE-Stress (ES), was evaluated in a male religious middle school in southern Israel. The program was administered by the homeroom teachers as part of the school curriculum. It consists of 12 classroom sessions each lasting 90 minutes, and included psycho-educational material, skill training and resiliency strategies delivered to the students by homeroom teachers. One hundred and fourteen 7th and 8th grade students were randomly assigned to the ES intervention or were part of a waiting list (WL). They were assessed on measures of posttraumatic symptomatology, depression, somatic symptoms and functional problems before and 3 months after the intervention or the WL period. Three months after the program ended, students in the experimental group showed significant reduction in all measures compared to the waiting-list control group. The ERASE-Stress program may help students suffering from terror-related posttraumatic symptoms and mitigate the negative effects of future traumatic experiences. Furthermore, a school-based universal program such as the ERASE-Stress may potentially serve as an important and effective component of a community mental health policy for communities affected by terrorism.

  1. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  2. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  3. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  4. Introduction to Teaching About Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historical and conceptual framework for understanding contemporary terrorism. Includes quotations from government officials, syndicated columnists, and scholars regarding terrorism and its effects on society. (JDH)

  5. Role of Education and Training in Agricultural Meteorology to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S. [Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 (South Africa)

    2005-05-01

    Agricultural meteorologists are concerned with many operational aspects of the effects of climate on crop production, livestock, and natural resource management. For them to continue to make a contribution to the economy of a country they must continually sharpen their skills and remain updated on the latest available information. Training should include a variety of skills, including transferable skills (e.g. communication, numeracy), professional skills (including cognitive skills) and information technology skills. Problem-based learning can be used to promote critical thinking, decision making and analytical skills. More use should be made of computer-aided learning for agricultural meteorologists' in-service training. In particular, the Internet or CDs could be used to disseminate specific recently developed techniques and applications to improve the understanding of the variability in climate and its effect on agricultural production and natural resource management. Examples that can address the vulnerability of farmers include crop-climate matching, the use of indices, crop modelling and risk assessment together with seasonal outlooks. A strategy needs to be formulated to address these needs and implement changes in the education and training of agricultural meteorologists. These training needs must be constantly updated to meet the changing demands of new technology to cope with climate change and climate variability.

  6. Reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric symmetry of the sensory system in a rat model of vulnerability to developing depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, E; Gass, N; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A; Goelman, G

    2015-12-03

    Defining the markers corresponding to a high risk of developing depression in humans would have major clinical significance; however, few studies have been conducted since they are not only complex but also require homogeneous groups. This study compared congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats, selectively bred for high stress sensitivity and learned helplessness (LH) behavior, to congenital non-learned helpless (cNLH) rats that were bred for resistance to uncontrollable stress. Naïve cLH rats show some depression-like behavior but full LH behavior need additional stress, making this model ideal for studying vulnerability to depression. Resting-state functional connectivity obtained from seed correlation analysis was calculated for multiple regions that were selected by anatomy AND by a data-driven approach, independently. Significance was determined by t-statistic AND by permutation analysis, independently. A significant reduction in functional connectivity was observed by both analyses in the cLH rats in the sensory, motor, cingulate, infralimbic, accumbens and the raphe nucleus. These reductions corresponded primarily to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity. The main reduction however was in the sensory system. It is argued that reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric connectivity of the sensory system reflects an internal convergence state which may precede other depressive symptomatology and therefore could be used as markers for vulnerability to the development of depression. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  8. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  9. Latin America: Terrorism Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    .... In its annual report on worldwide terrorism, the State Department highlights threats in Colombia, Peru, and the tri-border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The State Department also has designated four terrorist groups (three in Colombia and one in Peru) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Cuba has been listed as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1982.

  10. Terrorism and financial supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, Anatoli van der

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  11. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  12. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  13. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Veldhuis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  14. Exacerbated Vulnerability in Existential Changes: The Essence of Dealing with Reduced Working Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, Sigrún Hulda; Halldórsdóttir, Sigríður

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore people's experience of reduced working capacity and their encounters with professionals in that life situation. We collected data through in-depth interviews with eight individuals. The main finding of the current research is how illness and accident impairing work capacity "exacerbate…

  15. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  17. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  18. Body and Terror: Women’s Bodies as Victims and Perpetrators of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sultana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bodies are vulnerable because they are intrinsically linked to death. Bodies are social and they are embedded with meaning. They cannot be extracted from their specific contexts. The nation is also often equated with body politic. As a result individual bodies become the site of security/ insecurity depending on the social location of bodies. Within this discourse, this article tries to locate the bodies of women. It will look at the bodies of women as victims of terror as well as perpetrators of terror. It will try to understand if in these differentiated roles, women are able to break away from stereotypes or are still caught in heteronormative narratives. Keywords: Body, Suicide Bombers, Victims, Ethnic Conflict, Terrorism.

  19. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  20. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that.

  1. Neonatal vitamin K might reduce vulnerability to alcohol dependence in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    structures is particularly active. Taking advantage of a serendipitous event in the history of treating newborns, we tested the hypothesis that vitamin K supplementation, administered to facilitate the synthesis of blood-clotting proteins within this critical timeframe, might also reduce the development...... on for this article (N = 238), 44 received vitamin K supplementation at birth; 161 were considered high risk, and 66 were categorized as having lower birth weight (.... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, diagnosis of alcohol dependence and a measure of lifetime problem drinking served as the 30-year outcome variables. RESULTS: Vitamin K treatment, inherited risk and low birth weight each independently predicted alcohol dependence...

  2. Poverty and Climate Change. Part 1. Reducing the Vulnerability of the Poor through Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeygunawardena, P. [Asian Development Bank ADB, Tokyo (Japan); Vyas, Y. [African Development Bank AfDB, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Knill, P. [Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ, Bonn (Germany); Foy, T.; Harrold, M.; Steele, P.; Tanner, T. [Department for International Developmen DFID, London (United Kingdom); Hirsch, D.; Oosterman, M.; Rooimans, J. [Development Cooperation DGIS, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Den Haag (Netherlands); Debois, M.; Lamin, M. [Directorate-General for Development, European Commission EC, Brussels (Belgium); Liptow, H.; Mausolf, E.; Verheyen, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, Eschborn (Germany); Agrawala, S.; Caspary, G.; Paris, R. [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Kashyap, A. [United Nations Development Programme UNDP, New York, NY (United States); Sharma, R. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya); Mathur, A.; Sharma, M.; Sperling, F. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Despite international efforts, poverty has become more widespread in many countries in the last decade, making poverty reduction the core challenge for development in the 21st century. In the Millennium Declaration, 189 nations have resolved to halve extreme poverty by 2015 and all agencies involved in this paper are committed to contribute to this aim. However, climate change is a serious risk to poverty reduction and threatens to undo decades of development efforts. This paper focuses on the impacts of climate change on poverty reduction efforts in the context of sustaining progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and beyond. It discusses ways of mainstreaming and integrating adaptation to climate change into poverty reduction and sustainable development efforts. The chief messages emerging from this paper are: Climate change is happening and will increasingly affect the poor; and Adaptation is necessary and there is a need to integrate responses to climate change and adaptation measures into strategies for poverty reduction to ensure sustainable development. This decision to focus on adaptation is deliberate and is taken with the understanding that adaptation cannot replace mitigation efforts. The magnitude and rate of climate change will strongly depend on efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The higher the concentrations of GHGs, the higher the likelihood of irreversible and grave damage to human and biological systems. Therefore, adaptation is only one part of the solution. Mitigation of climate change by limiting greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is the indispensable other part.

  3. Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Margo

    2011-10-01

    has moderated and may reflect habituation to this threat. Key sub-groups remain disproportionately concerned, notably those with lower education and migrant groups. The dissonance observed in findings relating to Australians of migrant background appears to reflect wider socio-cultural concerns associated with this issue. Disparities in community concerns regarding terrorism-related threat require active policy consideration and specific initiatives to reduce the vulnerabilities of known risk groups, particularly in the aftermath of future incidents.

  4. Using a smartphone app to reduce cognitive vulnerability and mild depressive symptoms: Study protocol of an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Cezar; Mogoaşe, Cristina; Cobeanu, Oana; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Mureşan, Vlad; Boian, Rareș

    2016-12-28

    Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms. The aim of this exploratory study is to contrast the efficacy of a smartphone app in reducing cognitive vulnerability and mild depressive symptoms, as risk factors for the onset of depression, against a wait-list condition. More specifically, we aim to test an app designed to (1) decrease general cognitive vulnerability and (2) promote engagement in protective, adaptive activities, while (3) counteracting (through gamification and customization) the tendency of premature dropout from intervention. Romanian-speaking adults (18 years and older) with access to a computer and the Internet and who own a smartphone are included in the study. Two parallel randomized clinical trials are conducted: in the first one, 50 participants free of depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain scores ≤4 on the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) will be included, while in the second one 50 participants with minimal depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain PHQ-9 scores between 5 and 9) will be included. Participants undergoing therapy, presenting with substance abuse problems, psychotic symptoms, and organic brain disorders, or serious legal or health issues that would prevent them from using the app, as well as participants reporting suicidal ideation are excluded. Participants randomized to the active intervention will autonomously use the smartphone app for 4 weeks, while the others

  5. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  6. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...

  7. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  9. Night Terrors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Feferman, Irv

    1988-01-01

    Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.

  10. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.

    2006-01-01

    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  11. 75 FR 2445 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... include trade secrets, confidential commercial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information... and submit an online data collection (the Top-Screen) to DHS. The Department uses the facility's Top... required to submit Top-Screens. See 72 FR 65397-65398. \\2\\ Among other things, the November 2007 rule...

  12. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... from other comments in response to this notice. Comments containing trade secrets, confidential... Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $3,977. Instrument: Notification of a New Top Screen. Frequency: On...

  13. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  14. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  15. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  16. Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775

  17. Reducing Food Poverty and Vulnerability among the Rural Elderly with Chronic Diseases: The Role of the New Rural Pension Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to food poverty is the probability of an individual falling below the food poverty line in the near future, which provides a forward-looking welfare analysis. Applying a nationally representative survey dataset, this study investigates the role of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS in reducing food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly with chronic diseases. By designing province-specific food poverty lines to account for variations in the elderly’s needs, as well as the prices across provinces using a least-cost linear programming approach, the food poverty incidences among the elderly with chronic diseases are calculated. Applying a three-stage feasible generalized least squares (FGLS procedure, the vulnerability to food poverty is estimated. Our results show that food poverty incidence and vulnerability of the elderly with chronic diseases in rural China is 41.9% and 35% respectively, which is 8% and 6% higher, respectively, than the elderly that are in good health. To address the potential endogeneity of pension payment, a fuzzy regression discontinuity (RD regression is employed to investigate the effects of pension income on food poverty and vulnerability for different population groups. We found that pension income decreases the probability of being food poor and the vulnerability to food poverty among the elderly with chronic diseases by 12.9% and 16.8% respectively, while it has no significant effect on the elderly in good health.

  18. Reducing Food Poverty and Vulnerability among the Rural Elderly with Chronic Diseases: The Role of the New Rural Pension Scheme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohua; Luo, Yuxi; Robinson, Derrick

    2018-06-13

    Vulnerability to food poverty is the probability of an individual falling below the food poverty line in the near future, which provides a forward-looking welfare analysis. Applying a nationally representative survey dataset, this study investigates the role of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) in reducing food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly with chronic diseases. By designing province-specific food poverty lines to account for variations in the elderly’s needs, as well as the prices across provinces using a least-cost linear programming approach, the food poverty incidences among the elderly with chronic diseases are calculated. Applying a three-stage feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) procedure, the vulnerability to food poverty is estimated. Our results show that food poverty incidence and vulnerability of the elderly with chronic diseases in rural China is 41.9% and 35% respectively, which is 8% and 6% higher, respectively, than the elderly that are in good health. To address the potential endogeneity of pension payment, a fuzzy regression discontinuity (RD) regression is employed to investigate the effects of pension income on food poverty and vulnerability for different population groups. We found that pension income decreases the probability of being food poor and the vulnerability to food poverty among the elderly with chronic diseases by 12.9% and 16.8% respectively, while it has no significant effect on the elderly in good health.

  19. Socioconomic nature of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and methodological foundations of investigation of the  socioeconomic nature of terrorism are considered. Hypothesis of research is the existence of methodological criteria of territory classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical works of national and foreign authors, normative documents of state and international level the genesis of approaches to the understanding of the essence of modern terrorism, its contents, the subject-object relations and manifestation forms is received. As the result, according to the authors’ definition “terrorism” is understood as an ideology connected with deliberate violence or threats against the civilian population or property to influence on the government or the interstate organizations. In the work, the factors of development and spreading of terrorism in the Russian Federation’s regions are allocated and quantitatively proved. Weight parameters of the specified factors are determined. The methodological differentiation of the specified factors on factors of terrorism external (attacks from the outside and an internal form (distribution and realization of radical ideas within the region in the territory is the distinctive feature of the conducted research. During the research, the cluster analysis of a region is carried out to distribute of Russia’s regions according to the typological characteristic of the region of internal and external terrorism. The obtained data are verified in accordance with empirical data, the hypothesis of the existence of methodological criteria of the region classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism is proved.

  20. Identification of protective actions to reduce the vulnerability of safety-critical systems to malevolent acts: A sensitivity-based decision-making approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tai-Ran; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A classification model based on the Majority Rule Sorting method has been previously proposed by the authors to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. In this paper, we consider a classification model previously proposed by the authors based on the Majority Rule Sorting method to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. The model is here used as the basis for solving an inverse classification problem aimed at determining a set of protective actions to reduce the level of vulnerability of the safety-critical system under consideration. To guide the choice of the set of protective actions, sensitivity indicators are originally introduced as measures of the variation in the vulnerability class that a safety-critical system is expected to undergo after the application of a given set of protective actions. These indicators form the basis of an algorithm to rank different combinations of actions according to their effectiveness in reducing the safety-critical systems vulnerability. Results obtained using these indicators are presented with regard to the application of: (i) one identified action at a time, (ii) all identified actions at the same time or (iii) a random combination of identified actions. The results are presented with reference to a fictitious example considering nuclear power plants as the safety-critical systems object of the analysis. - Highlights: • We use a hierarchical framework to represent the vulnerability. • We use an empirical classification model to evaluate vulnerability. • Sensitivity indicators are introduced to rank protective actions. • Constraints (e.g., budget limitations) are accounted for. • Method is applied to fictitious Nuclear Power Plants.

  1. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  2. Against CBRN terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Although CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) terrorism has seldom happened in recent terrorist attacks, a large number of victims would appear leading to disastrous situation if it arises. This paper discussed what CBRN terrorism is, why terrorists are interested in these weapons, and how to deal with these cases, with reference to the lessons learnt from the Tokyo subway sarin event, which occurred in Japan. It also outlined the features of CBRN terrorism and protective measures against it. CBRN terrorism is the terror activity using unusual weapons and agents such as chemicals, biological agents, radioactive substances, and nuclear weapons. As the reasons why terrorists are interested in CBRN weapons, there are such factors that raw materials are easy to obtain, manufacturing is not difficult, weapons are easy to transport, and indiscriminate and mass slaughter is possible when used. From the lessons from the Tokyo subway sarin event, the Tokyo Fire Department has been engaging in the following items: (1) strengthening knowledge and skills, (2) introduction of detection equipment, (3) construction and strengthening of decontamination system, (4) collaboration among firefighting - police - SDF - medical institutions, and (5) enhancing and strengthening organizational structure. Although protective measures vary depending on the type of chemical agent, biological agent, etc., it is important to prepare in daily life for detoxification, decontamination, evacuation, etc. (A.O.)

  3. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  4. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  5. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  6. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  7. Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear terrorism is widely considered as a major if not ultimate terrorist threat for modern societies. Highly industrialized countries could be extremely sensitive to terrorist aggressions of this kind. Nuclear terrorism is often associated with nuclear proliferation. Strictly speaking, nuclear proliferation deals with the spread of nuclear weapons into states which doesn't posses them. But proliferation can also be understood as the spread of radioactive material or even nuclear explosives into the hands of non-state organizations, such as sub national terrorist or criminal organizations as well as any kind of extreme groups for sabotage, blackmail or any other destabilization or destruction purposes. New driving factors for nuclear terrorism which 'help' terrorists are: the consequence of the break down of the Soviet Union and 'easy' radioactive smuggling and black market. What is 'New terrorism'? In analyzing the treat, one has to start by posing several crucial questions such as 'do such groups or individuals have the skill to complete their aim'? 'Who are these groups and individuals', 'how they can be categorized', 'what is their motivation'? If analysis of the 'new terrorism' is one side of the coin, the other is just as daunting. Who, what, when, where and how would be targeted by 'new terrorism'? Although there are existing different reasons (religious and political/social), mainly the target is civilian population. In many instances the aim is to exert either political or economic pressure on authorities or both. Police, ambulance - first call response teams - local, regional and national authorities have a hard task still ahead of them. The upside is that industrialized nations have acknowledged the need to reassess where we are and what the risk is. The bottom line has to be 'who is likely to want to resort to such methods and what the likelihood of them succeeding would be. (author)

  8. Vulnerable Hunter

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Asha Begum; Y.VishnuPriya; V.ManoranjanBabu; ,O.Srinivasu

    2016-01-01

    This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps c...

  9. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...... because they challenge and intensify the contract that supersaturates today's society.In the welfare society one can observe the existence of a diffuse but widespread social contract, which has become the single most cohesive element in the social fabric. According the terms of this contract, we agree...

  10. Reducing Vulnerability and Building Resilience in the Post-Disaster Context: A Case Study of the 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake Recovery Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Joakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the human and economic costs of natural disaster events have dramatically increased over the past three decades, governments, researchers and humanitarian agencies have increasingly focused on reducing disaster impacts and increasing the resilience of individuals, households and communities. Recent disaster recovery efforts have focused on implementing a holistic social-ecological disaster risk reduction approach popularized through post-2004 tsunami recovery programs under the mantra of ‘building back better’. Although this approach has been increasingly adopted by various government and humanitarian organizations to describe their recovery and reconstruction activities, defining what is meant by ‘better’ and measuring ‘better’ as an outcome has been difficult to conceptualize and operationalize. In order to rectify this gap in the literature, the Post-Disaster Sustainable Livelihoods, Resilience and Vulnerability framework (PD-SLRV was developed for the purposes of analyzing, evaluating and monitoring disaster recovery using the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods.Using the 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia earthquake as a case study, this paper will explore how the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods inform the disaster recovery process, the nature of the relationship between these concepts as well as their usefulness in evaluating disaster recovery efforts. Through a detailed analysis of the various vulnerabilities and resiliencies that exist within recovering communities, the complex and dynamic nature of resilience and vulnerability is revealed, indicating a multifaceted relationship dependent on scale, context and place.

  11. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  12. Protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. Is Jamaica prepared to deal with this potential threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    courts of the land. Our airports, oil refinery and some utility facilities are located in close proximity to the sea. This is very accessible to attack from the sea. Our other essential facilities are not as easily accessed as they are located inland and may be more difficult to access. All these facilities have security protection, but none is equipped to deal with any level of terrorism. No security equipment currently being used has the capability to combat, detect and or prevent any terrorist attacks or acts of sabotage. The nation needs to expand resources to set up units to focus on this potential threat. This unit should focus on analysis of threats from: terrorism; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; vulnerabilities attended on increasing economic and societal dependence on information technologies. There is a wide variety of novel attacks available to the terrorist today; it would be advised that the unit, through constant training and workshops, be aware of as many of these attack methods as possible. There should be collaboration between several entities to analyze and plan for the potential threats. The army and police forces will have to be complemented by scientists who have expert knowledge on this subject area. Experts could be drawn from: i. Information and communications centers; ii. Banking and finance entities; iii. Utility entities; iv. Environment protection agencies; v. Land, air and sea transportation agencies; vi. Fire services; vii. Law enforcement agencies; viii. Defense (army and police); ix. Health services; x. Oil and gas refineries; xi. Disaster preparedness program. This group would examine issues such as: How to reduce the vulnerabilities of their institutions to terrorist attacks (threat/vulnerability management); How to respond to terrorist acts? Guideline or rules to follow when faced with the problem of terrorism (crisis management); How to deal with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, including providing essential aids

  13. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  14. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out... sport facilities, malls, movie theaters, and more. Grossman argues that American society has put forth enormous effort preparing and preventing harm to

  15. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  18. Terrorism and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the General Assembly at the opening of its debate on international terrorism (1 to 5 October 2001), the Secretary-General warned that a single attack involving a nuclear or biological weapon could kill millions. While the world was unable to prevent the II September attacks, there is much we can do to help prevent future terrorist acts carried out with weapons of mass destruction, he emphasized, calling for redoubled efforts to implement key treaties relating to those arms, closer cooperation among international organizations dealing with them, and tighter national legislation covering the exports of goods and technologies used in their production. Many representatives from all countries and all regions echoed the Secretary-General's sentiment during the debate. The general conclusion was that all countries could be affected in some form or another by such a fearful proposition, and all countries must work together to prevent it. To gain a greater understanding of the increased threat of international terrorism today, the Department for Disarmament Affairs sponsored a panel of high-level experts to discuss terrorism and its relationship to disarmament. Two leading experts from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, Professor Wilkinson and Dr. Gunaratna, put the attacks on the United States in an historical perspective, present some of the repercussions of the unprecedented scope of the attacks and give their views on how international institutions and agreements can assist in combating future acts of this kind. Mr Vladimir P Salov of the Russian Federation addresses the suppression of financing of terrorism and how Russia works towards that end. The IAEA has been trying for almost 50 years to safeguard nuclear materials from diversions to nuclear-weapon users and, in recent years, working more intensively on physical protection of nuclear material. Dr Nilsson's presentation

  19. Extreme climatic events: reducing ecological and social systems vulnerabilities; Evenements climatiques extremes: reduire les vulnerabilites des systemes ecologiques et sociaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decamps, H.; Amatore, C.; Bach, J.F.; Baccelli, F.; Balian, R.; Carpentier, A.; Charnay, P.; Cuzin, F.; Davier, M.; Dercourt, J.; Dumas, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Jeannerod, M.; Kahane, J.P.; Meunier, B.; Rebut, P.H.; Salencon, J.; Spitz, E.; Suquet, P.; Taquet, P.; Valleron, A.J.; Yoccoz, J.C.; Chapron, J.Y.; Fanon, J.; Andre, J.C.; Auger, P.; Bourrelier, P.H.; Combes, C.; Derrida, B.; Laubier, L.; Laval, K.; Le Maho, Y.; Marsily, G. De; Petit, M.; Schmidt-Laine, C.; Birot, Y.; Peyron, J.L.; Seguin, B.; Barles, S.; Besancenot, J.P.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Hallegatte, S.; Dumas, P.; Ancey, V.; Requier-Desjardins, M.; Ducharnes, A.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Kaniewski, D.; Van Campo, E.; Planton, S.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Le Bars, Y.; Lagadec, P.; Kessler, D.; Pontikis, C.; Nussbaum, R.

    2010-07-01

    The Earth has to face more and more devastating extreme events. Between 1970 and 2009, at the worldwide scale, the 25 most costly catastrophes all took place after 1987, and for more than half of them after 2001. Among these 25 catastrophes, 23 were linked to climate conditions. France was not spared: the December 1999 storms led to 88 deaths, deprived 3.5 million households of electricity and costed more than 9 billion euros. The 2003 heat wave led to about 15000 supernumerary deaths between August 1 and August 20. The recent Xynthia storm, with its flood barrier ruptures, provoked 53 deaths in addition to many other tragedies that took place in areas liable to flooding. In the present day context of climate change, we know that we must be prepared to even more dangerous events, sometimes unexpected before. These events can have amplified effects because of the urban development, the overpopulation of coastal areas and the anthropization of natural environments. They represent real 'poverty traps' for the poorest countries of the Earth. The anticipation need is real but is our country ready to answer it? Does it have a sufficient contribution to international actions aiming at reducing risks? Is his scientific information suitable? France is not less vulnerable than other countries. It must reinforce its prevention, its response and resilience capacities in the framework of integrated policies of catastrophes risk management as well as in the framework of climate change adaptation plans. This reinforcement supposes the development of vigilance systems with a better risk coverage and benefiting by the advances gained in the meteorology and health domains. It supposes a town and country planning allowing to improve the viability of ecological and social systems - in particular by protecting their diversity. Finally, this reinforcement requires inciting financial coverage solutions for catastrophes prevention and for their management once they have taken

  20. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  1. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  2. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  3. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Barody, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  4. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  5. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Marks; Anna Olsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more acto...

  6. Probabilistic risk analysis and terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles; Bennett, Steven P; von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Sokolowski, John; Collins, Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), considerable efforts have been made to estimate the risks of terrorism and the cost effectiveness of security policies to reduce these risks. DHS, industry, and the academic risk analysis communities have all invested heavily in the development of tools and approaches that can assist decisionmakers in effectively allocating limited resources across the vast array of potential investments that could mitigate risks from terrorism and other threats to the homeland. Decisionmakers demand models, analyses, and decision support that are useful for this task and based on the state of the art. Since terrorism risk analysis is new, no single method is likely to meet this challenge. In this article we explore a number of existing and potential approaches for terrorism risk analysis, focusing particularly on recent discussions regarding the applicability of probabilistic and decision analytic approaches to bioterrorism risks and the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment methodology used by the DHS and criticized by the National Academies and others.

  7. Responding to nuclear terrorism. Chapter 3. Combating radiological terrorism - A multi-faceted challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Yaar, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the twentieth century, radioactive sources have become extensively used in everyday life. These sources, in the hand of terror organizations, can become a threat to the security of civilized nations, causing severe disruption to normal life. On of the main challenges of the civilized world is to keep ahead of the terrorist organizations and take appropriate preventive measures in order to prevent and reduce to minimum the impact of their actions. In order to succeed, a joint and comprehensive effort has to be undertaken to address the scientific, technological, organizational, sociological, psychological and educational aspects of the radiological terrorism threat. In this paper, some of the main activities required for preventing radiological terror events, and the way in which a modular response plan can be prepared are discussed

  8. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215 Section 27.215 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...

  9. Terrorism-related fear and avoidance behavior in a multiethnic urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies.

  10. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  11. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  12. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Farhana Ali describes terrorism against an occupier as an attempt to achieve freedom from tyranny.66 Recruiters encourage women to resist for a...fringe phenomenon and insurgents are all around you.’”71 O’Rourke also acknowledges the freedom and relaxed inspection women are afforded.72 Bloom and...lives as Moscow controlled the land and people. Suspicious of Islam and of religion in general, the Soviets forbade its practice, fearing expansion.110

  13. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  14. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  15. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Terrorism, Outraged World Seeks an Answer." U. News and World Report, September 18, 1972, p. 16. Arendt , Hannah . Crisis of the Republic. N. Y., Harcourt...Brace Jovanovich, 1972. Arendt , Hannah , On Violence. N. Y. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1970. Arendt , Hannah . On Revolutions. N. Y., Viking Press, 1965... Arendt , Hannah . "Reflections on Violence." Journal of International Affairs, 23:1, 1969. "Are the Skies Really Friendly?" Proposed Theories of Relief for

  16. Terrorism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  17. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging...... density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  18. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, food systems must be resilient, i.e., able to deliver sustainable and equitable food and nutrition security in the face of multiple shocks and stresses. The resilience of the European food system that relies mostly on conventional agriculture is a matter of genuine concern and a new approach is called for. Does then organic farming have the potential to reduce vulnerabilities and improve the resilience of the European food system to shocks and stresses? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure to external disturbances. Further, we evaluate whether organic farming can reduce the vulnerabilities. We argue here that organic farming has some potential to bring resilience to the European food system, but it has to be carefully designed and implemented to overcome the contradictions between the dominant socio-economic organization of food production and the ability to enact all organic farming’s principles—health, ecology, fairness and care—on a broader scale.

  19. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  20. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more actors and partnerships to combat these crimes, which led to adoption of the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, (Forced Labour Protocol in June 2014. Examples from Malaysia and Thailand highlight the role that trade unions can play in policy development and service provision, and also some of the challenges associated with unionisation of a vulnerable, temporary, and often repressed, migrant workforce.

  1. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples.

  2. A Taxonomy of Terror - About the Effect of Different Kinds of Terror on Risk Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism is an increasing problem; still, research systematically investigating the impact of varying kinds of terrorism is scarce. The present investigation uses hypothetical scenarios to look at effects of diverging sorts of terrorism on risk perceptions in a student- and a tourist sample. Two characteristics of terrorism were varied systematically: frequency (whether terrorism hits a destination where terrorism is frequent or infrequent) and degree of organization (whether terrorism is co...

  3. Actions aimed at reducing the vulnerability of a mangrove sector south of the province of Artemisa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis López Pérez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the geographical location of the area under study, Playa Cajío, Güira de Melena municipality, Artemisa province; The mangroves have suffered serious alterations, mainly due to global climate changes, especially sea level rise, hurricanes and storms, which have caused severe sea penetrations, as well as prolonged droughts. The present investigation had as starting point four fundamental studies carried out, as main antecedents, following as a general objective, proposing actions aimed at the restoration of the mangrove of the "El Cajío" sector, based on an integral program (water rehabilitation project, reforestation, monitoring and control, vulnerability. To do this, theoretical methods of documentary research were used, as well as in situ diagnosis, as the first descriptive stage that demonstrated the state of deterioration of the forest, in a second stage or integral management, the water rehabilitation and mitigation projects were elaborated. sources that affect the good development of the mangrove, reforestation and monitoring and control, all with community participation and involved organisms, culminating with the reforestation and the success of it. In addition, vulnerability studies were carried out in the area, which places it in a medium to high position.

  4. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  5. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  6. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  7. Green Tourism in Mountain Regions - Reducing Vulnerability and Promoting People and Place Centric Development in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular. The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry market, uncontrolled numbers of tourists and related haphazard infrastructural facilities in the vulnerable mountain regions pose serious environmental implications. The ecological pressures are threatening land, water and wild life resources through direct and indirect environmental impacts together with generation of solid and liquid wastes, so green tourism is emerging as an important task in order to develop new relationship between communities, government agencies and private sectors. The strategy focuses on ecological understanding, environmental protection and ecodevelopment. The major attributes of the green tourism include environmental conservation and education and distribution of income to local people based on strong partnership. Various knowledge systems go a long way for achieving the goals of the green tourism, which creates awareness about the value of environmental resources.Mountains have ecological, recreational, educational and scientific values, which need to be utilised in sustainable way. Various tourist activities and facilities need to be diversified in order to achieve multiple benefits including scientific field excursion,recreation in natural and cultural areas, community festivals and sport tourisms. Green tourism considers tourism development as an integral part of a national and regional development. The paper discusses the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the green tourism with particular reference to village tourism development programme taking empirical evidences from the Himalaya. Such programme also minimises biophysical and human

  8. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  10. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  11. The age of terrorism: to the problem statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yevtyagina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article analyzes the problem of terrorism. Historical essay on the topic helps clarify the concept of the term «terrorism», as well as its causes. The existing classification of terrorism reveals the different types and ways of influencing people by terrorists to achieve their goals. The author suggests the age classification, namely, adult and adolescence terrorism. Discussed in detail adolescence terrorism. The possible reasons for solutions to the problems teenagers violently. On the example of the terrorist act in Moscow school number 263 attempts to analyze the causal relationships aggressive behavior among adolescents in relation to their peers and teachers. Author shows the factors influencing the formation of the propensity to aggression (the terrorist behavior: the crisis of spirituality and morality, reducing cultural awareness, conflict resolution based on adults imitation, striving for leadership, using aggression, the substitution of the present reality of the computer world, acceptance of immoral behavior for conventional norm, plenty of scenes of cruelty and violence in the media, national intolerance. Also in the article are recommendations to prevent teenage terrorism, emphasizes the need for joint activities of the school psychologist, teachers, children and their parents.

  12. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  13. Modern terrorism: concept and approach analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  14. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P profile was similar to that of adults, however, adolescents presented with less internal injuries, more contusions, and superficial wounds to extremities and were more likely to require surgery for mild to moderate wounds. Differences in hospital utilization and outcomes by age groups were observed when data were stratified by injury severity. Compared to adults, children, and adolescents exposed to terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  15. Counter-Productive Counter-Terrorism. How is the dysfunctional discourse of Prevent failing to restrain radicalisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Powell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores why the Prevent strand of the UK Government’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST, is failing to achieve success in reducing radicalisation of young Muslims. By refusing to engage with extremists, and denying ‘extreme’ ideas a platform for expression, this paper will explain how the importance of cultural-linguistic epistemologies, and their role in extremism, has been overlooked. Rather than striving to understand how socio-political factors influence one’s reading of religious doctrines or interpretation of ideology, Prevent understands ideology to be the core radicalising agent, used by influential figures who can exploit the grievances of the vulnerable. The problematic repercussions of this will be addressed throughout, highlighting the various, and extensive, criticisms that Prevent has faced from academics, practitioners and commentators – primarily that it is counter-productive. The importance of the post-9/11 neoconservative paradigm in underpinning Prevent will be explained, but a Neo-Weberian approach, as a better lens through which to understand radicalisation, will be proposed, to ultimately trump the simplistic, yet currently dominant, ‘Conveyor Belt’ theory. Based on this, recommendations are made for an improved Prevent, rooted in the notion that radicalisation, extremism, or terrorism cannot be prevented, without knowing the motives, the views, and the assumptions of the radicals, the extremists, and those vulnerable to engaging with them.

  16. Reducing regional vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Trindade, Bernardo; Jonathan, Herman; Harrison, Zeff; Gregory, Characklis

    2016-04-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern US are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative management strategies. Results show that the sampling of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM can aid in the discovery of management actions that substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be explored jointly to decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from cooperative regional water portfolio planning.

  17. Co-infection with HIV associated with reduced vulnerability to symptoms of depression during antiviral treatment for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Harrison, Neil; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard

    2017-07-01

    In this prospective study, we examined new-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and the differential expression of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 HCV mono-infected and 40 HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating pegylated interferon-based treatment, including protease inhibitor therapy. The semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) was used to assess MDD. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of the total sample, 60 patients (34.9%) developed SCID-I defined MDD during antiviral treatment. The proportion of HCV mono- and HIV/HCV patients developing MDD during treatment was not significantly different (37.9% vs. 25%; p=0.185). In both groups, there was a significant increase in HAMD total score from baseline to week 4, and a significant decrease between week 24 and 6 months post-treatment cessation. The greatest increase was observed in the symptoms of the neurovegetative syndrome. HCV mono-infected patients reported higher scores than co-infected patients, particularly impaired activity and somatic symptoms, but the differences were only significant at week 12. The finding that co-infected patients appear less vulnerable to the development of depressive symptoms during HCV treatment than HCV mono-infected patients warrants further exploration, including a thorough analysis of the biological and psychosocial factors associated with this emergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Vandana; Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Maddur, Srinath; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-10-02

    critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.

  19. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    , discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.

  20. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  1. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  2. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  3. Reducing regional drought vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2017-06-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in many urban regions are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative drought management strategies. Our results show that appropriately designing adaptive risk-of-failure action triggers required stressing them with a comprehensive sample of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM. Search under the new ensemble of states-of-the-world is shown to fundamentally change perceived performance tradeoffs and substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Search under deep uncertainty enhanced the discovery of how cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be employed jointly to improve regional robustness and decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. Insights from this work have general merit for regions where

  4. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  5. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  6. On the complex quantification of risk: systems-based perspective on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2011-08-01

    This article highlights the complexity of the quantification of the multidimensional risk function, develops five systems-based premises on quantifying the risk of terrorism to a threatened system, and advocates the quantification of vulnerability and resilience through the states of the system. The five premises are: (i) There exists interdependence between a specific threat to a system by terrorist networks and the states of the targeted system, as represented through the system's vulnerability, resilience, and criticality-impact. (ii) A specific threat, its probability, its timing, the states of the targeted system, and the probability of consequences can be interdependent. (iii) The two questions in the risk assessment process: "What is the likelihood?" and "What are the consequences?" can be interdependent. (iv) Risk management policy options can reduce both the likelihood of a threat to a targeted system and the associated likelihood of consequences by changing the states (including both vulnerability and resilience) of the system. (v) The quantification of risk to a vulnerable system from a specific threat must be built on a systemic and repeatable modeling process, by recognizing that the states of the system constitute an essential step to construct quantitative metrics of the consequences based on intelligence gathering, expert evidence, and other qualitative information. The fact that the states of all systems are functions of time (among other variables) makes the time frame pivotal in each component of the process of risk assessment, management, and communication. Thus, risk to a system, caused by an initiating event (e.g., a threat) is a multidimensional function of the specific threat, its probability and time frame, the states of the system (representing vulnerability and resilience), and the probabilistic multidimensional consequences. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will

  8. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  9. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallen, Jr, George W

    2007-01-01

    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  10. The Newsworthiness of International Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Gabriel; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the newsworthiness of international terrorism. Relates the concept of deviance as a predictor of newsworthiness to the specific attributes of terrorist events and their impact on media selection (coverage or no coverage) and prominence of coverage. (SR)

  11. Cyber-Terrorism: Modem Mayhem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    .... The arrival of the information age has created a new menace cyber terrorism. This threat recognizes no boundaries, requires minimal resources to mount an attack, and leaves no human footprint at ground zero...

  12. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  13. Low Dopamine D2 Receptor Increases Vulnerability to Obesity Via Reduced Physical Activity, Not Increased Appetitive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A; Faust, Rudolf P; Turkson, Susie; Ye, Honggang; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2016-06-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a reward deficiency and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity. We generated a D2R knockdown (KD) mouse line and assessed both energy expenditure and appetitive motivation under conditions of diet-induced obesity. The KD mice did not gain more weight or show increased appetitive motivation compared with wild-type mice in a standard environment; however, in an enriched environment with voluntary exercise opportunities, KD mice exhibited dramatically lower activity and became more obese than wild-type mice, obtaining no protective benefit from exercise opportunities. These data suggest the primary contribution of altered D2R signaling to obesity lies in altered energy expenditure rather than the induction of compulsive overeating. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LOW DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR INCREASES VULNERABILITY TO OBESITY VIA REDUCED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NOT INCREASED APPETITIVE MOTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Faust, Rudolf P.; Turkson, Susie; Ye, Honggang; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2015-01-01

    Background The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a “reward deficiency” and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity. Methods We generated a D2R knockdown (KD) mouse line and assessed both energy expenditure and appetitive motivation under conditions of diet-induced obesity. Results The KD mice did not gain more weight or show increased appetitive motivation compared to wild-type (WT) in a standard environment; however, in an enriched environment with voluntary exercise opportunities, KD mice exhibited dramatically lower activity and became more obese than WT, obtaining no protective benefit from exercise opportunities. Conclusions These data suggest the primary contribution of altered D2R signaling to obesity lies in altered energy expenditure rather than the induction of compulsive overeating. PMID:26281715

  15. Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie

    2006-01-01

    School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…

  16. Ungoverned Territories. Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Presence on the Colombia-Venezuela Border SOURCE: Office of the Vice-President Colombia, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos . RAND MG561-12.4 Dutch Antilles... Derechos Humanos (2005). a Indicates the illegal armed group is a “mobile” group. Table 12.3 Crime and Drug Trade Statistics in the Colombian Border...President Colombia, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos (2005); Fundación Seguridad y Democracia (2005). NOTE: Numbers in parentheses indicate

  17. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  18. Ceruloplasmin deficiency reduces levels of iron and BDNF in the cortex and striatum of young mice and increases their vulnerability to stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Texel

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin (Cp is an essential ferroxidase that plays important roles in cellular iron trafficking. Previous findings suggest that the proper regulation and subcellular localization of iron are very important in brain cell function and viability. Brain iron dyshomeostasis is observed during normal aging, as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, coincident with areas more susceptible to insults. Because of their high metabolic demand and electrical excitability, neurons are particularly vulnerable to ischemic injury and death. We therefore set out to look for abnormalities in the brain of young adult mice that lack Cp. We found that iron levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex of these young animals are significantly lower than wild-type (WT controls. Also mRNA levels of the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known for its role in maintenance of cell viability, were decreased in these brain areas. Chelator-mediated depletion of iron in cultured neural cells resulted in reduced BDNF expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism, suggesting a causal link between low brain iron levels and reduced BDNF expression. When the mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of focal ischemic stroke, we found increased brain damage in Cp-deficient mice compared to WT controls. Our data indicate that lack of Cp increases neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury by a mechanism that may involve reduced levels of iron and BDNF.

  19. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application.

  20. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  1. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  2. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  3. Bringing the State Back into Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeley, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Orthodox terrorism studies tend to focus on the activities of illiberal nonstate actors against the liberal democratic states in the North. It thus excludes state terrorism, which is one of a number of repressive tools that great powers from the North have used extensively in the global South in\\ud the service of foreign policy objectives. I establish the reasons for the absence of state terrorism from orthodox accounts of terrorism and argue that critical–normative approaches could help to o...

  4. Understanding Terrorism from an Economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the contemporary society. Nation States are reliant on their counter-terrorism laws for checking terrorism and deterring terrorists. To understand the effectiveness of these counter terrorism laws, it is important to first understand the behaviour of terrorists, so as to comprehend what actions can dissuade terrorist’s behaviour and decision to propagate violence. This paper will first look at behaviour of terrorist in decision making from an economi...

  5. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  6. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  7. Nuclear terrorism: Facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The study tries to assess the risk of nuclear terrorism in the light of recent developments in the area of nuclear weapons proliferation, and to develop suggestions of how to cope with existing challenges. First of all the term of ''nuclear terrorism'' is defined and differentiated from other forms of nuclear crimes. In a second step the attempt is made to compile the findings and assessments of the past on the problem of nuclear terrorism. Since, as a rule, a threat potential is composed of 'intentions' and 'capabilities', a third part is dedicated to terrorist intentions and studies the degree of probability of terrorists considering nuclear weapons an appropriate means for their aims. In connection with 'capabilities' it is scrutinized whether terrorist groups will be able at all to procure, design or initiate nuclear warheads. This leads to the question as to which consequences result from nuclear safety shortcomings - in particular in Russia - with a view to nuclear terrorism. Based on the preceding considerations, several proposals for coping with the danger of nuclear terrorism are made. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Diagnosis without treatment: responding to the War on Terror | Cox ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is like a doctor diagnosing gout and recommending to the patient that they reduce the level of uric acid in their big toe. We argue that diagnosis without treatment is endemic in literature on the War on Terror and the ills of liberal democracy. We divide this literature into five categories and examine representative works ...

  9. The boomerang affect of the war on terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Goerzig

    2010-11-01

    /11.Preemption does not help to reduce the terrorism risk, but on the very contrary leads to its increase. The argument will be taken a step further by claiming that, in fact, the war on terror increases the likelihood of catastrophic terrorism, because the risk of terrorism increases as such that terrorists might seek indiscriminate violence not shying away to use weapons of mass destruction. The war on terror therewith turns into a risk paradox - carrying consequences which, arguably, are even more risky than the original risk itself. In order to demonstrate this point, this article applies the concept of risk to terrorist groups and relates it to the paradox implications of the war on terror.Keywords: war on terror; terrorism risk; risk paradox; catastrophic terrorism; 9/11

  10. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  11. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  13. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø.; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Background Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care. PMID:24872862

  14. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  15. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  16. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  17. Preventing radiological terrorism - opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Maegon E.

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Radiological Security (ORS), within the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, enhances global security by preventing high activity radioactive materials from use in acts of terrorism. This is a challenging task considering that high activity radiological materials are ubiquitous, constantly moving and mostly found in operational civil facilities. The implementation of the ORS mission is based on a three pillar strategy - protect, remove and reduce. ORS works both domestically and internationally with government authorities, law enforcement, and businesses to protect radioactive sources used for vital medical, research, and commercial purposes, remove and dispose of disused radioactive sources, and reduce the global reliance on radioactive sources through the promotion of viable non-isotopic alternative technologies. ORS has active engagement in all 50 States and in over 80 countries. This presentation will provide an overview of ORS protect, remove, and reduce strategy, as well as security challenges and opportunities

  18. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  19. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  20. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  1. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  2. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  3. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Anderton; John Carter

    2004-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, while basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.

  4. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  5. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  6. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  7. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-21

    The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.

  8. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  9. Vulnerability in the power network - a pre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoelle, Gerd H.; Uhlen, Kjetil; Rolfseng, Lars; Stene, Birger

    2006-02-01

    Vulnerability in the power distribution network has been made a current topic because of various factors, from terror attacks to a strained power balance, large breakdowns in the power system in Europe and North America in recent time and an anticipated increase in climate-related challenges in the coming years; all related to the modern society's critical dependence on reliable power supply. Several questions are posed; whether there is a foundation to say that the vulnerability in the power network is increasing because of factors like cuts in staffing, reduced investments and increased exploitation of the capacity in the power systems, or increased average age on the air network. Different development features can indicate that the power network's ability to resist high stress is about to weaken. Examples of this is the slowly increasing trend in the number of non-reported interruptions, as well as an increase in the error frequency for power lines in the distribution network and for distribution transformers. In the pre-study there has not been found enough evidence to give a clear answer to whether the vulnerability in the power network is in fact on the rise. This is mainly due to the lack of good indicators, measuring methods and the foundation for documentation. Suggestions for methodology in order to identify unwanted incidents, estimate the probability and classify consequences for vulnerability analyses of power networks are presented. The methodology is concretised and exemplified in relation to a specific case: Power loss in the southern Norway affecting more than 250 000 people for 8-12 hours. Such a consequence is classified as critical. For four sub areas it has been exemplified which incidents may potentially cause such breaks. A summary is made of the most important challenges related to making vulnerability analyses of power networks. Comprised here are appropriate concepts, definitions, standards and measuring scales as well as data foundation

  10. The Impact of Terrorism on the Tourism Sector of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Survila

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Practically every day there are terrorist attacks executed somewhere. For this reason, the need to reveal the impact of terrorism on tourism sector of Lithuania and how well it is ready for this challenge occurs. The analysis of scientific literature and secondary data was used as well as two surveys (qualitative and quantitative were carried out. Since the possibility of a terrorist attack in Lithuania is trivial, the research focuses on the Lithuanian outbound tourism sector. The survey of interaction between terrorism and tourism and impact of terrorism to tourism in different countries is provided. It is worth emphasising that tourists become the victims of not only preplanned but also of individual terrorist attacks. Events of recent several years have caused the emergence of the terrorist tourism, when people with radical attitudes travel to, e.g., Syria. Despite the various attacks and subsequent dips in tourism the world of travel and hospitality has entered a new era of growth and transformation. The purpose of the research was to identify how Lithuanian tourists and experts perceive dangers and whether this affect their choice of trips and what measures can reduce the impact of terrorist attacks on tourism. Both the Lithuanian tourists and experts understand that the threat from terrorism has been growing, nevertheless the comparison with other surveys can lead to the statement that there is a specific tourist market in Lithuania which is characteristic of courage, inflexibility in terms of price and poor perception of possible threats.

  11. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  12. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Laitin, David. Hegemony and Culture : Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba . Chicago...such improvements might take. Definitions Terrorism: Definitions of terrorism differ among nations and organizations, because the social and cultural

  13. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  14. Dismantling Terrorism: Developing Actionable Solutions for Today's Plague of Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2007-01-01

    .... The bibliography is divided into the following sections: causes and origins of terrorism, geographical distribution of terrorist groups, terrorist financing, terrorist groups and networks, the psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, remedies...

  15. The dislocations of terror: Assessments of risk during the Second Intifada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilerman, Seymour; Stecklov, Guy

    2013-05-01

    The goal of terrorism is to create havoc and disrupt the normal functioning of society. To understand the impact of terrorism on a country it is useful to consider two types of country experiences with these shocks to the social order-the instance of a very small number of attacks against high profile targets and the case of chronic terror with a great number of attacks, generally against targets that are part of routine daily activities. The present study explores the Israeli experience with chronic terror. Using expenditure information from coffee shops and restaurants we examine how individuals assess their vulnerability to an attack and adjust their behavior. Specifically, we explore whether distance from the site of an attack, and similarity of a contemplated undertaking to the target of a recent attack, influence decision making in a context of chronic terror. We find strong support for a situational similarity effect but only weak evidence for a proximity effect. We examine the implications of these findings for the organization of economic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  17. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  18. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  19. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the ext...

  20. ‘War on piracy’: the conflation of Somali piracy with terrorism in discourse, tactic and law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Singh (Currun); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that since 2005, the global security discourse has confused maritime piracy off the Horn of Africa with terrorism. American and European policymakers and financiers have tapped a vulnerable public imaginary to exaggerate Somali pirates as ‘maritime terrorists’ linked to

  1. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  2. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  3. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    nesses (e.g., Ford, Coca - Cola , American Airlines, " Destruction of Pan American Flight 103 over American Express, Holiday Inn, Citibank, ChaseDesruin...network, involving links between many clandestine, undeclared war. governments. Cases in which a consortium of gov- State sponsorship refers to the...Syria has setup centers constitutes concrete and convincing evidence of in Syria itself, in Lebanon’s Beka’a Valley (which is sponsorship of terrorism.𔄁

  4. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  5. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come.

  6. Terrorism: some philosophical and ethical dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...

  7. Against acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  8. Technical considerations in nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velardo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is an evil application of nuclear energy, in the same way that chemical and biological terrorism could be considered as the evil side of chemistry and biology. This paper presents two effects of nuclear terrorism. First, dirty bombs or radioactive bombs or radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), and second, crude atom bombs or improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The paper analyses as well the probabilities of an attack, its biological effects and nuclear risk. Experiments carried out so far indicate that the lethal effects produced by RDDs are likely the same that the effects produced by the chemical explosive used in the bomb. These type of bombs are rather bounded to generate panic and have implicit a high cost of decontamination. It will be described the measures to be adopted. INDs will be also considered. Uranium INDs by gun-method are more feasible to be made. They can be disassembled and their components transported to the target place. Plutonium INDs by the implosion-method are complex and required high precision technology. Their disassembly is very difficult

  9. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  10. Protection against nuclear terrorism: the IAEA response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the events of 11 September 2001, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) identified possible threats from acts of nuclear terrorism. A report to the Board of Governors in November 2001 summarized the IAEA's ongoing work in areas relevant to the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of such acts and outlined proposals for a number of new and/or enhanced activities. Four main threats were addressed: theft of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material; acquisition of other radioactive material; and violent acts against nuclear facilities. These proposals have been further refined and the new plan was approved in principle at the March 2002 board meeting. In the beginning, implementation will be dependent on member state contributions to a voluntary fund. Proposed new or enhanced activities are grouped into eight areas: I. Physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; II. Detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; III. State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; IV. Security of radioactive material other than nuclear material; V. Assessment of safety/security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities; VI. Response to malicious acts, or threats thereof; VII. Adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations; VIII. Nuclear security co-ordination and information management. After an overview, this paper focuses on activity area IV, which deals with the radiological terrorism issues involving radioactive sources. A strategy for evaluation of the IAEA's role is presented, covering an analysis of the likely threats and possible scenarios. This leads to an assessment of the most desirable sources from a terrorist's viewpoint. The strategy then examines how terrorists might acquire such sources and attempts to determine the best ways to prevent their acquisition. Further activities are proposed to prevent the use

  11. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on te...

  12. Terrorism, Governance, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    technology reduced public sector absenteeism in Pakistan among workers who lacked strong political connections (Callen et al., 2015b). Evaluation of...civilians in the production of violence and whether reconstruction activities under the Civil Operations and Rural Development Support (CORDS) program...especially in regions where their survival depends on an illegal organization or an illegal product . Their results suggest that such preference

  13. Terrorism 101 - Knowledge about the What and Why of Terrorism as a State and Local Law Enforcement Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Zimbardo, “How Social Science can Reduce Terrorism,” The Chronicle of Higher Education (2004), http://www.socialpsychology.org/ pdf /chronicle04. pdf ...the children of Satan ; believers must prepare for the second coming of Yahweh by taking action “Religious” is one of five “motivations...Christian Identity Groups – Christian Bible is used to justify reasons behind beliefs • U.S. Constitution is extension of Bible • Philosophy is based

  14. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Courtney B.

    2004-01-01

    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  15. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  16. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  17. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  18. Dirty hands : Government torture and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests that the use of harsh repression can exacerbate the incidence and duration of terrorism. Micro- and macro-level analyses have shown that coercive government responses to terrorism can radicalize sympathizers, increase recruitment, and undermine community support for

  19. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  20. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  1. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  2. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  3. Residential Stability Reduces Unmet Health Care Needs and Emergency Department Utilization among a Cohort of Homeless and Vulnerably Housed Persons in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Gadermann, Anne; Duhoux, Arnaud; Naismith, Trudy E; Norena, Monica; To, Matthew J; Hwang, Stephen W; Palepu, Anita

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the association of housing status over time with unmet physical health care needs and emergency department utilization among homeless and vulnerably housed persons in Canada. Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals completed interviewer-administered surveys on housing, unmet physical health care needs, health care utilization, sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and health conditions at baseline and annually for 4 years. Generalized logistic mixed effects regression models examined the association of residential stability with unmet physical health care needs and emergency department utilization, adjusting for potential confounders. Participants were from Vancouver (n = 387), Toronto (n = 390), and Ottawa (n = 396). Residential stability was associated with lower odds of having unmet physical health needs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.82; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.67, 0.98) and emergency department utilization (AOR, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.62, 0.88) over the 4-year follow-up period, after adjusting for potential confounders. Residential stability is associated with fewer unmet physical health care needs and lower emergency department utilization among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. These findings highlight the need to address access to stable housing as a significant determinant of health disparities.

  4. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  5. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglewer, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  6. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  7. Epidemiology of international terrorism involving fatal outcomes in developed countries (1994-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to describe the public health burden and epidemiology of international terrorism (i.e. involving foreign nationals) with fatal outcomes in developed countries. Data was abstracted from a United States Department of State database for 21 'established market economy' countries and 18 'former socialist economies of Europe' for 1994-2003. To put the findings in a wider context, comparisons were made with WHO data on all homicides for each country. A total of 32 international terrorist attacks causing fatalities were identified over the 10-year period. These resulted in 3299 deaths, giving a crude annual mortality rate of 0.3 per million population. The mortality burden attributable to international terrorism in these countries was 208 times less than that attributable to other homicide. Even for the country with the highest mortality burden from international terrorism (the United States), this ratio was 60. There was no statistically significant trend in the number of attacks over time, but the attack severity (in terms of deaths per attack) was higher in the latter part of the 10-year period. A number of limitations with this data set were identified. If a more rigorous definition of 'international terrorism' was used, then this would substantially reduce the total number of such attacks defined in this way. In conclusion, there is a need for better quality data and improved classification systems for describing international terrorism. Nevertheless, the available data indicates that the mortality burden from international terrorism in developed countries is small compared to that from other homicide.

  8. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  9. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  10. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final... Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 (``Extension Act'') and the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  11. Prospects for nuclear terrorism: psychological motivations and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In considering the implications of psychological understandings to the specific case of nuclear terrorism, it is emphasized that distorted decision making does not equate to totally irrational decision making. In certain circumstances, however, the distorted individual and group decision-making psychology could influence the group toward a high-risk option such as nuclear terrorism. For terrorists operating within their own national boundaries, a terrorist act producing mass casualties would generally be counterproductive. For groups acting across national boundaries, however, this constraint does not apply to nearly the same degree. Although the opprobrium of the West will be a constraint for some, it will not be equally so for all terrorist groups. The degree of disincentive will relate in particular to the major audience of influence. Also, there are the terrorist losers who are being shunted aside and losing the recognition they seek. Such a group could justify a terrorist spectacular in order to regain influence on the basis of a what have we got to lose rationale. In thinking about the possibility of nuclear terrorism, it is important to distinguish between the actual detonation of a device and the use of a device for extortion and influence. The constraints against the latter are significantly reduced in contrast to acts producing mass casualties. The constraints are even more reduced in the case of the plausible nuclear hoax, an option that can be expected to become more frequent

  12. Hotels as a target for terrorism: a study of the Helsinki area hotels’ preparedness for an attack

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalevskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is an issue that is not to be taken lightly in the world of today. The year 2015 has sadly been marked with an unsettlingly high number of acts of terror across the globe that claimed a multitude of civilian lives. The hospitality industry and hotels in particular are especially vulnerable to a potential terrorist attack, and this fact attracted the author’s attention to the issue of the prevention of such attacks and the measures (if any) that the Helsinki hotels are ...

  13. Cyber Terrorism demands a Global Risks and Threats Strategic Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The world is in the third wave of development, which is digital managed and networked. Information, which creates the knowledge is transferring thorough the Internet by exponential function. The rapid advancement of the computer technology has a great influence over the development of the critical information infrastructure, thus changing the safety environment and the national values and interests. This advancement produces threats and risks from computer perspective which are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and particularly in cyber terrorism. The main aim of this paper is based on a thorough analysis of what is scientifically known and practiced when nowadays critical information infrastructure is in the focus of the cyber terrorism. The rapid IT development demands changes in the strategic management focus. As a result of a time-consuming theoretical and empirical research this paper suggests a methodology for strategic managing of: threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The proposed methodology is seen as a mean to increase the human security conscious in every sense of the word, and to promote the need for rules, procedures and standards establishment from the aspect of the strategic management in the new information epoch concerning. In addition, through a scientific discourse, a short attempt is made to relate Macedonian reality with the phenomenon mentioned above. The most fundamental set phrase is that the efficiency and promptly made decisions during strategic planning are a projection of the systematic organization of functions and models for managing the risks and threats of the critical information infrastructure. Hence, this paper could be seen as a perspective when taking in consideration the regional strategic management, and the cyber space vital functioning. (author)

  14. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V

    2005-07-01

    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  15. Unconditional cash transfers for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities: effect on use of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Liu, Sze Yan; Walter, Stefan; Pabayo, Roman; Saith, Ruhi; Lhachimi, Stefan K

    2017-11-15

    Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown. To assess the effects of UCTs for improving health services use and health outcomes in vulnerable children and adults in LMICs. Secondary objectives are to assess the effects of UCTs on social determinants of health and healthcare expenditure and to compare to effects of UCTs versus CCTs. We searched 17 electronic academic databases, including the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE and Embase, in May 2017. We also searched six electronic grey literature databases and websites of key organisations, handsearched key journals and included records, and sought expert advice. We included both parallel group and cluster-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and controlled before-and-after (CBAs) studies, and interrupted time series studies of UCT interventions in children (0 to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) in LMICs. Comparison groups received either no UCT or a smaller UCT. Our primary outcomes were any health services use or health outcome. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant records for inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We tried to obtain missing data from study authors if feasible. For cluster-RCTs, we generally calculated risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes from crude frequency measures in approximately correct analyses. Meta-analyses applied the inverse variance or Mantel

  16. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  17. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  18. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    . These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression....... Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber...

  19. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  20. American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    Goodnough, and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/us...Abby Goodnough and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2009/10/22/us...July 8, 2009); Tony Allen-Mills, “FBI ‘Lured Dimwits’ into Terror Plot,” The Sunday Times, London, May 24, 2009, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news

  1. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  2. Conducting Field Research on Terrorism: a Brief Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dolnik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the practical aspects of field research on terrorism. Firstly, it  outlines some issues involved in the process of attaining a human research ethics/institutional review board clearance in order to be able to even begin the field research. It suggests some ways in which researchers can positively influence this review process in their favor. Secondly, the article focuses on the real and perceived dangers of field research, identifying practical steps and preparatory activities that can help researchers manage and reduce the risks involved. The article also covers the formalities and dilemmas involved in gaining access to the field. It then provides some insights into the topic of operating in conflict zones, followed by a section covering the ways of gaining access to sources, effective communication skills and influence techniques and addresses key issues involved in interviewing sources in the field. The final section focuses on identifying biases and interfering factors which researchers need to take into account when interpreting the data acquired through interviews. This article is a modest attempt to fill a gap in the literature on terrorism research by outlining some of the key issues involved in the process of doing field research. It incorporates insights from diverse disciplines as well as the author’s personal experiences of conducting field research on terrorism in places like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Colombia, Mindanao, Uganda, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and India.

  3. Talking about terrorism: Q and A with Jessica Stern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism remains a potent threat. We have known for some time that terrorist groups have been seeking weapons of mass destruction. There are various ways that terrorists could use nuclear and other radioactive materials: they could acquire a nuclear weapon from a nuclear State; they could acquire the necessary fissile material and produce a weapon on their own, creating an improvised nuclear device; they could attack a nuclear power plant; or they could create a radiation dispersal device, a so-called dirty bomb. The first possibility would be the most devastating, but it is also probably the least likely. Stealing a bomb would be difficult because of the generally high security of facilities where nuclear weapons are stored. And a State that gave nuclear weapons to terrorists would have to seriously consider the probability that the source of the bomb could be identified, so retaliation against the State would be likely. In this regard, the revelation that terrorist groups were carrying out reconnaissance missions at Russian nuclear-weapon storage sites in 2001 was troubling; but the terrorists' efforts quickly became known to security personnel. The second possibility-the risk that terrorists will acquire nuclear-weapons usable materials-must be taken extremely seriously, especially in light of revelations about meetings between Pakistani nuclear scientists and al Qaeda, and about a clandestine effort to export nuclear technology run by the Khan network. Terrorists' dispersal of radioactive materials - either by attacking a nuclear plant or disseminating those materials with a home-made device-is the most likely scenario. Still, it is important to keep the threat in perspective. Dirty bombs are far more frightening than lethal. The article provides responses of Jessica Stern on questions about how big a threat nuclear terrorism is, how to minimize the risks of nuclear terrorism, the behaviour of states to combat the roots and reach of nuclear terrorism

  4. ANTI-TERROR POLICY OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY OF THE SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  5. The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.

  6. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  7. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  8. Fighting Terrorism With Strategy: Revisiting Competing Visions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schluckebier, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ... the threat of international terrorism requires America to make a grand strategic choice, This paper examines those choices by presenting four post-Cold War strategy options neo-isolationism, selective...

  9. Combatting Terrorism: A New National Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    .... Conducted by organized, highly trained, and technologically sophisticated paramilitary units, terrorism is in fact a form of warfare waged against the United States and its allies. But current U.S...

  10. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  11. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  12. On Teaching About Terrorism: A Conceptual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the use of conceptual mapping, case studies, and springboards to discussion and inquiry as viable approaches to the study of terrorism in secondary classrooms. Provides numerous examples of conceptual maps. (JDH)

  13. Islamic Law and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jihād and terrorism are not the same. In the context of sharia that implementation of the jihād has parameters measured with a layer of ethics based on the commands Al Quran and the Hadith of Prophet and the explanation the Ulama. Muslims in Indonesia views that the essentially not much different from the views on jihād and terror in other Islamic countries, especially the Middle East. In the context of Islamic law, jihād has multi spectral studies, but none of these studies that equate the meaning of jihād with terrorism, or none of them agreed that acts of terror as has been demonstrated by radical groups that are part of the concept Islam.

  14. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    OpenAIRE

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan

    2011-01-01

    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  15. Why is terrorism a man's business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2018-04-01

    Terrorism, whether it is group-related or performed as lone actor terrorism, is a predominantly male phenomenon. Generally and throughout history, young males have been the main protagonists of criminal and political violence.This article aims to contribute, from different perspecives, to the question of what makes young men violent. These include neurobiological aspects, such as sex differences in the brain that predispose males to physical aggression and violence; gender role aspects, with regard to aggression and violence being basic components for demonstrating and reconstructing masculinity; demographic aspects of male youth bulges as potential breeding grounds for terrorism; aspects of group dynamics and identity fusion in the process of radicalization; and psychosocial characteristics of lone actor terrorists, which differ from group-related terrorists.It is concluded that in addition to ideological, political, economic, regional, demographic, or psychosocial causes, experiences of threatened masculinity may be an underlying factor and driving force for terrorism.

  16. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  17. State of terror: women at risk

    OpenAIRE

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-01-01

    Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  18. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  19. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  20. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  1. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section 27.240 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.240 Review and approval...

  2. On immorality of terrorism and war

    OpenAIRE

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others) who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable mora...

  3. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  4. The impact of terrorism on the FDI of the EU and EEA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Bezić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The key goal of this research is to empirically determine the effects of terrorism on FDI of the selected EU and EEA member countries. The methodology is based on a system-GMM estimator for dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 29 countries, and 13-year periods from 2000 to 2013. The main results confirm that terrorism incidents, economic and institutional variables are found to depress FDI of analysed EU and EEA countries. It can be concluded that terrorism and institutional stability are most influential on FDI inflows of the observed EU and EEA countries. The results indicate that terrorist activities reduce security and confidence of investors in countries exposed to terrorist activities, reducing the inflow of foreign direct investment. The recommendations and proposals are given based on the results of empirical analysis.

  5. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Social Protection and Vulnerability to Climate Shocks: a Panel Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ' autonomous adaptation by reducing vulnerability to climatic shocks. This paper examines the role of the Productive Safety Net Program in reducing vulnerability to climate related shocks and its impacts on autonomous adaptation strategies ...

  8. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures; La menace du terrorisme nucleaire: de l'analyse aux mesures de precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-12-15

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  9. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  10. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    simulated casualties that will follow the evacuation route from point zero to the ED. Knowledge and exercise will reduce terror (fear from radiation and help the community as a whole better cope with such an event. This article will review the general information of radiation types, their biological damage, clinical appearance and general concepts of nuclear event planning, focusing on medical response and focus on the Israeli perspective.

  11. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H

    2011-01-01

    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  13. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  14. Modeling a Strategy for the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Darral

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...

  15. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  16. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  17. 174 THE MORALITY OF SUICIDE TERRORISM AND BOKO HARAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    philosophically consider the moral implication of suicide terrorism with particular .... define terrorism is political rather than theoretical. Brian Berkey (2010) is of ..... elements of relativism to the concept of morality because an. Islamic cleric who ...

  18. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  19. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  20. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehr, W.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  1. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Avi; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Solomon, Zahava

    2006-01-01

    Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002), however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate). In total, 501 people (60.5%) agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS), percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic stress (TS) resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2%) were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2%) had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9%) met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4%) were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5%) who felt depressed, 50 (10.4%) felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47%) felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7%) felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity. This study

  2. Variant BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphism is Associated with Layer-Specific Alterations in GABAergic Innervation of Pyramidal Neurons, Elevated Anxiety and Reduced Vulnerability of Adolescent Male Mice to Activity-Based Anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Surgent, Olivia; Rana, Barkha S; Lee, Francis; Aoki, Chiye

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we determined that rodents' vulnerability to food restriction (FR)-evoked wheel running during adolescence (activity-based anorexia, ABA) is associated with failures to increase GABAergic innervation of hippocampal and medial prefrontal pyramidal neurons. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes GABAergic synaptogenesis, we hypothesized that individual differences in this vulnerability may arise from differences in the link between BDNF bioavailability and FR-evoked wheel running. We tested this hypothesis in male BDNF-Val66Met knock-in mice (BDNFMet/Met), known for reduction in the activity-dependent BDNF secretion and elevated anxiety-like behaviors. We found that 1) in the absence of FR or a wheel (i.e., control), BDNFMet/Met mice are more anxious than wild-type (WT) littermates, 2) electron microscopically verified GABAergic innervations of pyramidal neurons of BDNFMet/Met mice are reduced at distal dendrites in hippocampal CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex, 3) following ABA, WT mice exhibit anxiety equal to those of the BDNFMet/Met mice and have lost GABAergic innervation along distal dendrites, 4) BDNFMet/Met mice show blunted ABA vulnerability, and 5) unexpectedly, GABAergic innervation is higher at somata of BDNFMet/Met mice than of WT. We conclude that lamina-specific GABAergic inhibition is important for regulating anxiety, whether arising from environmental stress, such as food deprivation, or genetically, such as BDNFMet/Met single nucleotide polymorphism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  4. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  5. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Office of Justice... promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program... international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is effective April 11, 2011. Comment...

  6. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  7. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  8. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  9. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  10. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  11. BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: THE NOTION, ESSENCE AND MAIN AREAS OF COUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sarankina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  12. Understanding and Teaching the Semantics of Terrorism: An Alternative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques conventional definitions of terrorism. Advocates sensitizing students to the semantics of terrorism and teaching skepticism of leaders who manipulate such concepts. Recommends using historical case studies to clarify issues, inform students about state and state-sponsored terrorism, and challenge students' preconceptions. Includes a…

  13. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  14. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  15. Reframing domestic violence as torture or terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the phenomenon of domestic violence and the distinctive features for which is it may be recognized as a specific form of torture and/or terrorism at home. The author provides an overview of the scientific debate among feminist authors on this conception which has given rise to an innovative approach to understanding the concept of domestic violence. Underscoring the substantive similarity of domestic violence with the acts of torture and/or terrorism, the author urges for state action arguing that domestic violence as a form of gender-based violence should be approached by applying the same logic and strategies which are employed in response to traditional torture and terrorism.

  16. Terrorism reports: The tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Taragin, Mark; Bar-On, Zvia; Cohen, Osnat; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2017-01-01

    Medical impact of terror is a public health issue as the threat is growing all over the world. Our objective was to compare the number of injured and incidents in the three different databases and reports [Global Terrorism Database (GTD), Israeli Security Agency (ISA) and National Insurance Institute (NII)] in Israel. Retrospective study. Analyses of three different databases (GTD, ISA and NII) and basic comparison. The victims reimbursed for medical expenses are the largest population. The number of injured as described by GTD and ISA database are less important. The 2010-2013 years are marked by more incidents recognized in Israel vs GTD assessment (except in 2014). The number of victims being reimbursed for medical and mental health services is radically different from the GTD and the ISA reports. Public Health specialists should be advised of this phenomenon to deliver their right approach (including mental health) to growing threat and develop new definition of victim of terror.

  17. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  18. Terrorism and Other Threats to Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-07-01

    In the Seminars on Planetary Emergencies, we have for more than a decade had a strong focus on terrorism, and, indeed, on megaterrorism. We realized early that there was much that could be achieved to mitigate the consequences of terrorists' acts, and so our original PMP, ably chaired by Kamal, was split into PMP-MTA (Mitigation of Terrorists Acts) and PMP-Motivation of Terrorism. Clearly, terrorism doesn't just happen, but is performed by people, either relatively spontaneously or in an organized fashion. I will not presume to report on the considerations and accomplishments of our colleagues, chaired by John Alderdice, who have studied terrorist motivations and worked hard to eliminate such motivations...

  19. TOURISM AND TERRORISM: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  20. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  1. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak

    2014-01-01

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  2. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  3. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A

    2007-09-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  5. Terrorism and resilience: adolescents' and teachers' responses to September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, Illene C; Noppe, Lloyd D; Bartell, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of terrorism on adolescents, who may be resolving developmental issues regarding their vulnerability to death. Approximately 4 months after the September 11th attacks, a survey was given to 973 Upper Midwest adolescents and teachers. Quantitative analyses indicated that adolescents (especially girls) were frightened and upset but also used many coping strategies. Qualitative analyses suggested that adolescents were angry as well as tired of hearing about the events. Teachers discussed the attack's historical significance, student safety, and a desire to resume "normalcy." Adolescence resilience was seen by the making of a coherent narrative of September 11th and by focusing on their daily living.

  6. CONSTANTA DIVING CENTRE’S CONTRIBUTION TO PREVENT AND COMBAT TERRORISM IN UNDERWATER CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona RUS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Strategy on Preventing and Combating Terrorism, The Strategy of Romanian National Security, and the Concept for combat training of the Romanian professional divers, in conjunction with divers at any level (national, international, regional, all consolidate their efforts to fight against this serious threat to global security. For a correct assessment of the need for better protection of underwater structures and in full accord with European directives, The Diving Centre participates in efficient identification of risks, threats and vulnerabilities in the areas of responsibility.

  7. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  8. VULNERABILITIES, TERRORIST AND BIOTERRORIST THREATS AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ORDEANUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has been, is and will probably be dominated "urbi et orbi " (everywhere and for everybody by conflicts expressed through violence, social confrontations, permissiveness, authority collapse, collapse of moral norms. Paradoxically, although it is spoken and written much about terrorism and terrorists, there is still no complete and accepted definition of these terms, and the legal classification is approximate. The analysis of threats is an extremely important decisional asset when setting up plans of direct protection or objective security strategies or institutions suitable to become targets of violent actions, but today's intelligence community has not yet established a clear set of procedures and principles that constitute the expert main frame for a comprehensive analysis of threats and vulnerabilities.

  9. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  10. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  11. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  12. Confronting the risks of terrorism: making the right decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Garrick, B.; Hall, James E.; Kilger, Max; McDonald, John C.; O'Toole, Tara; Probst, Peter S.; Rindskopf Parker, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Robert; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Van Arsdale, Lee A.; Zebroski, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This report offers a methodology for assessing, quantitatively, the risks of terrorism. The purpose of the methodology is to support effective decision making to combat terrorism. The emphasis is on terrorist attacks that could have catastrophic consequences. The perspective taken is that in order to make the right decisions about combating terrorism, their needs to be a systematic means of assessing the likelihood of such attacks. A process of implementation of the decisions resulting from risk assessment is essential. That process includes (1) an understanding of the nature of the threat, (2) an information system linked directly to 'intelligence' on terrorism, and (3) organizational structures that can take timely, coordinated, and effective actions. There must also be sound evidence that the methodology can be successfully applied. A description of the nature of terrorism, a terrorism risk assessment methodology, information requirements to fight terrorism, and recommendations for successful implementation is what this report is about

  13. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income–terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators’ nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators’ nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls. PMID:28579636

  14. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Phillips

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  15. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  16. Seeing climate vulnerabilities through lived experience in Madagascar

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... ... both vulnerability and strategies for reducing risk, and the project is in the process of producing a range ... of the team's effort to paint a composite map of climate vulnerability and risk to agrarian systems. ... Feeling stressed?

  17. The Dilution of Terrorism - Internship report at the International Center for Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bærentzen, Marc Theis

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this report will be how theory and methodology is a necessary mean for an academic understanding of terrorism, using different theories and examples to substantiate my argument. Terrorism has become a diluted concept that is used in a variety of ways to define violence against civilians. But is this enough to claim that we are dealing with a terrorist threat? In academic work these kind of reflections are important to the drawn conclusion. The problematic issue of an absent metho...

  18. A national survey of terrorism preparedness training among pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelly D; Bush, Anneke C; Lynch, Julia A

    2006-09-01

    Domestic terrorism is a real threat focusing on a need to engage in effective emergency preparedness planning and training. Front-line physicians are an important component of any emergency preparedness plan. Potential victims of an attack include children who have unique physiologic and psychological vulnerabilities in disasters. Front-line providers need to have adequate training to effectively participate in local planning initiatives and to recognize and treat casualties including children. The goal of the survey was to assess the current state of terrorism preparedness training, including child victims, by emergency medicine, family practice, and pediatric residency programs in the United States and to assess methods of training and barriers to establishing effective training. A survey was e-mailed to a comprehensive list of all US pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine residency programs 3 times between September 2003 and January 2004. The survey measured the perceived risk of terrorist attack, level of training by type of attack, level of training regarding children, method of training, and barriers to training. Overall, 21% of programs responded (46 of 182 pediatric, 75 of 400 family practice, and 29 of 125 emergency medicine programs). Across all of the event types, emergency medicine programs were more likely to report adequate/comprehensive training. However, terrorism preparedness funding, these data suggest that we are failing to provide adequate training to front-line providers who may care for children in a catastrophic domestic terrorist event.

  19. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

    2010-07-01

    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.

  20. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor 1 reduces vulnerability to chronic alcohol intake-induced cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction: role of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Li, Qun; Turdi, Subat; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels are closely associated with cardiac performance although the role of IGF-1 in alcoholic cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of severe liver IGF-1 deficiency (LID) on chronic alcohol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) dysfunction. Adult male C57 and LID mice were placed on a 4% alcohol diet for 15 weeks. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-relengthening (TR(90) ), change in fura-fluorescence intensity (ΔFFI) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Levels of apoptotic regulators caspase-3, Bcl-2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), the ethanol metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), as well as the cellular fuel gauge AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated. Chronic alcohol intake enlarged myocyte cross-sectional area, reduced PS, ± dL/dt and ΔFFI as well as prolonged TR(90) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay, the effect of which was greatly attenuated by IGF-1 deficiency. The beneficial effect of LID against alcoholic cardiac mechanical defect was ablated by IGF-1 replenishment. Alcohol intake increased caspase-3 activity/expression although it down-regulated Bcl-2, ALDH2 and pAMPK without affecting JNK and AMPK. IGF-1 deficiency attenuated alcoholism-induced responses in all these proteins with the exception of Bcl-2. In addition, the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside abrogated short-term ethanol incubation-elicited cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Taken together, these data suggested that IGF-1 deficiency may reduce the sensitivity to ethanol-induced myocardial mechanical dysfunction. Our data further depicted a likely role of Caspase-3, ALDH2 and AMPK activation in IGF-1 deficiency induced 'desensitization' of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. © 2011 The

  1. On complex adaptive systems and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.; Elgazzar, A.S.; Hegazi, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ubiquitous in nature. They are basic in social sciences. An overview of CAS is given with emphasize on the occurrence of bad side effects to seemingly 'wise' decisions. Hence application to terrorism is given. Some conclusions on how to deal with this phenomena are proposed

  2. IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA Plans of activities include, General Conference in September 2001 which reviewed activities relevant to preventing nuclear terrorism and proposed master plan. The Board of Governors approved new Nuclear Security Plan for the next four years. Three activity areas are; - needs assessment, analysis and coordination, prevention and detection and response.

  3. Cyber terrorism prevention and counteraction workshop review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastukhov, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Training Course (ATC ) on Cyber Terrorism Prevention and Counteraction workshop, held in Kiev on September 27-29, 2010, allowed the participants to share their experiences with experts from Ukraine, a Partnership for Peace country. The participants exchanged their ideas on the ways

  4. The human rights and the terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  5. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  6. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okolie-Osemene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  7. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  8. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  9. Delineating Concept Meanings: The Case of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton; Mahlios, Marc

    1990-01-01

    Presents a teacher-initiated model for reaching class consensus on the meaning of confusing or interchangeable concepts in social studies classrooms. Illustrates the model by delineating terrorism. Shows procedural steps that involve students in self and small group interviews where definitions are clarified until consensus is reached. Suggests…

  10. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  11. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  12. Updates in the War against Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an update of new court cases related to Part IV of the series on Information and the War Against Terrorism. Discusses civil liberties versus security involving the legality of mandatory commercial use of biometrics as identification; and communication of privileged information between a person and his or her attorney. (LRW)

  13. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  14. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  15. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  16. The Cost of Biological Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey

    1997-01-01

    Most Americans are or will be facing a threat more real than crimes or terrorism-it is the threat of cancer. Indeed, one-fourth of all Americans alive today will ultimately die from cancer. Yet the level of funding for cancer research in 1998 and beyond remains in doubt. The Senate Appropriations Committee has proposed a higher funding figure than the House and the difference will be resolved in negotiations this September. President Clinton has recommended a meager 2.5% increase in spending on cancer. This sum is simply not enough. Although Americans may fool themselves into thinking the government has been at war against cancer, the current funding ceiling for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget demonstrates that this so-called offensive is little more than a skirmish. Careful scrutiny of this budget reveals that every time a citizen pays ten dollars in taxes, only one penny goes to cancer research. What the government is spending in cancer research would not buy or maintain two stealth bombers-hardly evidence of a major military strike. For those of us fighting the deadly scourge of cancer, the 1,550 Americans killed each day by this disease are painful and enduring casualties. Imagine five fully loaded jumbo jets crashing with no survivors on the same day. These headlines would generate fast and effective calls for funding for improved safety regulations, and yet cancer takes this number of lives daily-and in one year more lives than all the U.S. combat fatalities in this century. And yet there is a virtual silence as Congress meets to determine the level of monies to direct to cancer research efforts which might halt this carnage. In the past, medical research stopped the horrors of pain associated with amputations and operations conducted without anesthesia, and research stopped the epidemic of polio and the massive deaths from typhoid fever. Soon research will stop the deaths from AIDS. Will cancer be prevented or cured within your lifetime? It

  17. ¿Existe un terrorismo bueno y un terrorismo malo? (Is there a Good Terrorism and Bad Terrorism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gabriela Rodríguez Morales

    2012-12-01

    the issue, the absence of guidance with academic-scientific perspective have reduced Macondian theme in a literature that has contributed little to global issue, other countries instead (Israel, United Kingdom, Spain and the United States have made great advances in the discipline of terrorism, Colombia is indebted to the international community which has to do with the study, analysis and diagnosis of the issue.

  18. Nuclear Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce the Threat of Nuclear Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finlay, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    The study below acknowledges that the US government has taken important steps to prevent nuclear proliferation and to detect and interdict the international transfer of potentially dangerous nuclear materials...

  19. Review and expectations of terror attack emergency rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wen WANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of anti-terror struggle since the 9/11 event has indicated adequately that terrorism is a global problem and international danger. Likewise, anti-terror emergency rescue is also an important task which will influence the safety and benefit of every country all over the world. This paper reviews the main progress and result of international anti-terror struggle in the last ten years, and also introduces the new characteristic of the international anti-terror activity. Besides that, this paper also brings forward the further consideration about the anti-terror emergency medical rescue and the researches remaining to be carried out. The latter includes: (1 to further perfect the high-efficient medical rescue command organization; (2 to further perfect the emergency medical rescue prearranged scheme; (3 to further perfect the construction of rescue system and rescue base after various types of terror attack; (4 to further promote the anti-terror consciousness in the public, and pay more attention to the prevention and investigation of the psychological disaster; (5 to further carry out the basic investigation on emergency medical rescue after various terror attack injuries (for example the types and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology and prevention and treatment of stress-psychological effect induced by terror attack, new high-efficient medical rescue measure and equipments, and so on.

  20. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  1. Clandestine nuclear trade and the threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear netherworld may ultimately contribute to the danger of nuclear terrorism in at least three ways. First, as national governments exploit this underground market and nuclear weapons spread to additional states, the possibility that terrorists will gain access to them will grow. Such weapons in nuclear threshold countries are likely to be more vulnerable to terrorist seizure than they are in today's more advanced nuclear weapons states. Second, terrorist groups might seek to exploit the nuclear gray market themselves, using the same subterfuges that national governments use. Although in today's nuclear netherworld, subnational groups cannot obtain nuclear arms or nuclear weapons material and cannot hope to build the complex installations needed to produce the latter, they might be able to engage in a form of barter with sympathetic emerging nuclear states (for example, offering raw materials or needed nuclear hardware in return for nuclear weapons material. Finally, there is always the risk that nuclear arms or nuclear weapon materials will someday become available on the nuclear black market. There is evidence indicating that terrorist organizations might well be interested in acquiring such items. Understanding underground nuclear commerce in its current form is essential to prevent such future dangers

  2. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  3. Epidemiology of terror-related versus non-terror-related traumatic injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Waisman, Yehezkel; Dannon, Yehuda L; Peleg, Kobi

    2003-10-01

    In the past 2 years hundreds of children in Israel have been injured in terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effect on the health care system. The objective of this study was to review the accumulated Israeli experience with medical care to young victims of terrorism and to use the knowledge obtained to contribute to the preparedness of medical personnel for future events. Data on all patients who were younger than 18 years and were hospitalized from October 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry. The parameters evaluated were patient age and sex, diagnosis, type, mechanism and severity of injury, interhospital transfer, stay in intensive care unit, duration of hospitalization, and need for rehabilitation. Findings were compared with the general pediatric population hospitalized for non-terror-related trauma within the same time period. During the study period, 138 children were hospitalized for a terror-related injury and 8363 for a non-terror-related injury. The study group was significantly older (mean age: 12.3 years [standard deviation: 5.1] v 6.9 years [standard deviation: 5.3]) and sustained proportionately more penetrating injuries (54% [n = 74] vs 9% [n = 725]). Differences were also noted in the proportion of internal injuries to the torso (11% in the patients with terror-related trauma vs 4% in those with non-terror-related injuries), open wounds to the head (13% vs 6%), and critical injuries (Injury Severity Score of 25+; 25% vs 3%). The study group showed greater use of intensive care unit facilities (33% vs 8% in the comparison group), longer median hospitalization time (5 days vs 2 days), and greater need for rehabilitative care (17% vs 1%). Terror-related injuries are more severe than non-terror-related injuries and increase the demand for acute care in children.

  4. Country Reports on Terrorism 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... success in dismantling terrorist organizations and disrupting their leadership This has contributed to reduced terrorist operational capabilities and the detention or death of numerous key terrorist...

  5. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  6. Legislating for Terrorism: The Philippines’ Human Security Act 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Eadie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2007 the Philippine Senate passed the Human Security Act (HSA otherwise known as Republic Act No. 9372: An Act to Secure the State and Protect our People From Terrorism. Philippine Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. was heavily involved in the final drafting of the HSA. He gave it its final name shortly before the Senate Chamber passed it into law. Previously the Act had been known by various titles including ‘An Act to Deter and Punish Acts of Terrorism and for Other Purposes’ (Senate Bill No. 2137 and ‘An Act to Define and Punish the Crime of Terrorism, the Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism, and the Crime of Proposal to Commit Terrorism, and for Other Purposes (Senate Bill No. 2187. Thus the Human Security Act exists as an instrument of counter terrorism as opposed to human security policy.

  7. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  8. Automated Software Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Emre C.; Kil, Chongkyung; Ning, Peng

    Despite decades of research, software continues to have vulnerabilities. Successful exploitations of these vulnerabilities by attackers cost millions of dollars to businesses and individuals. Unfortunately, most effective defensive measures, such as patching and intrusion prevention systems, require an intimate knowledge of the vulnerabilities. Many systems for detecting attacks have been proposed. However, the analysis of the exploited vulnerabilities is left to security experts and programmers. Both the human effortinvolved and the slow analysis process are unfavorable for timely defensive measure to be deployed. The problem is exacerbated by zero-day attacks.

  9. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Freedman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews. Then there are virtual networks, such as the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI, that try to create synergies between a wide array of researchers and topics.

  10. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  11. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. On the origin of domestic and international terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Liebert, Helge; Schulze, Günther G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the origin of domestic and international terrorism in a large panel data set of 159 countries spanning from 1970 to 2007. We show that terror increases with GDP per capita, a higher POLITY score measuring a more open and competitive political system and experiences of domestic conflict, anarchy and regime transitions. Our evidence thus contradicts the notion that terrorism is rooted in economic deprivation or that strongly autocratic regimes breed more terrorist...

  13. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    37 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich, (Washington D.C.: Woodrow...52 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich (Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center...Hitler?” in Mass Hate: the Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (New York , London: Plennium Press), p.165 55 Albert Bandura p.45 56 Ibid. 32 As

  14. Lone-actor Terrorism and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2017-11-01

    In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Both indirect and direct assessment guidelines are proposed, with an emphasis upon self-report, psychological testing, collateral data gathering, and historical records. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  16. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  17. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  18. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  19. Reconceptualizing the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    when the label war is assigned, the population logically applies, either consciously or subconsciously , the fundamental assumptions of warfare in a...the Nation.” 26 42 Pace, National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 7. 43 Robert Gates, “A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the...Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age.” 48 Clark A. Murdock et al., Beyond Goldwater-Nichols: Defense Reform for a New Strategic

  20. Terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiets metoder er ikke nok. Pædagogikken må i brug. Hvilken pædagogik? Diskontinuitetens pædagogik! Det er navnet på den type af pædagogik, der kan skabe modstandskraft mod radikalisering. Men har vi...

  1. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  2. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    ethnicity, religion, class, gender , language, accent, dress, political ideology or any combination of these factors may serve to delineate the sub...against another. Lack of parity in resourcing compounds the issue of a community that is securitize in nature. Complex adaptive systems theory... Parity in emphasis would not only garnish a greater level of community trust for all forms of terrorism, but it would deemphasize the need of the current

  3. Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in

  4. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  5. Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Equipment includes 45 armoured personnel carriers (APC) one Lockheed Jetstar, two Mi-8s, two Mi-17s, and roughly 40,000 small arms. These include automatic...President George Bush is acting against terrorism. We will act the same way.”127 Sensing his ability to play the underdog , Arafat claimed early...tinians as the weak and downtrodden underdog . Thus, the image of the powerful IDF being used against poorly armed Palestinians is a powerful

  6. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Johnson, N. F; Restrepo, J. A; Becerra, O; Bohórquez, J. C; Restrepo, E. M; Zarama, R

    2006-01-01

    we report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence in three high profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardles of their underlying idealogies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent...

  7. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2018-04-01

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  8. Future Roles of Air and Space Power in Combatting Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAlpine, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... The political, economic, and informational instruments of power play primary roles in addressing and eliminating the root causes behind terrorism attacks, but the military instrument will prevent...

  9. The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004 is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law. The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. The latest outcome is the revised definition reprinted below. It is the result of three rounds of consultations among academics and other professionals. A description how it was arrived at can be found on pp. 39 - 98 of Alex P. Schmid (Ed.. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. The same volume also contains 260 other definitions compiled by Joseph J. Easson and Alex P. Schmid on pp. 99 -200.

  10. Biological Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce Global Biothreats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    program for pro- jects that advance BEP objectives. Global Cooperation to develop bio- safety and pathogen security stan- dards that are consistent with...security. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) has recently developed voluntary biosecurity guidelines for implementation...Abbreviations AG Australia Group BEP Biosecurity Engagement Program BSL Biosafety level BWC Biological Weapons Convention BWC-ISU Biological Weapons

  11. Integration of Social Sciences in Terrorism Modelling: Issues, Problems and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resnyansky, L

    2007-01-01

    ...; terrorists behaviour; the structure of terrorist organisations and networks; terrorism threat; and influence strategies and actions directed towards terrorism threat anticipation and minimisation.

  12. Combatting Domestic Terrorism: A Strategic Approach for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sienrukos, John

    1999-01-01

    .... In order to reach sound, strategic recommendations for combating terrorism, the author will begin with some background on terrorism, review the various definitions as defined by the Department...

  13. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney B. Siegel; Peter Pyle; James H. Thorne; Andrew J. Holguin; Christine A. Howell; Sarah Stock; Morgan W. Tingley

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed i...

  14. Highlighting the Role of Groundwater in Lake– Aquifer Interaction to Reduce Vulnerability and  Enhance Resilience to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yihdego

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available method is presented to analyze the interaction between groundwater and Lake Linlithgow (Australia as a case study. A simplistic approach based on a “node” representing the groundwater component is employed in a spreadsheet of water balance modeling to analyze and highlight the effect of groundwater on the lake level over time. A comparison is made between the simulated and observed lake levels over a period of time by switching the groundwater “node “on and off. A bucket model is assumed to represent the lake behaviour. Although this study demonstrates the understanding of Lake Linlithgow’s groundwater system, the current model reflects the contemporary understanding of the local groundwater system, illustrates how to go about modeling in data-scarce environments, and provides a means to assess focal areas for future data collection and model improvements. Results show that this approach is convenient for getting first‐hand information on the effect of groundwater on wetland or lake levels through lake water budget computation via a node representing the groundwater component. The method can be used anywhere and the applicability of such a method is useful to put in place relevant adaptation mechanisms for future water resources management, reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience to climate change within the lake basin.

  15. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  16. The Vulnerability Assessment Code for Physical Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2007-01-01

    To neutralize the increasing terror threats, nuclear facilities have strong physical protection system (PPS). PPS includes detectors, door locks, fences, regular guard patrols, and a hot line to a nearest military force. To design an efficient PPS and to fully operate it, vulnerability assessment process is required. Evaluating PPS of a nuclear facility is complicate process and, hence, several assessment codes have been developed. The estimation of adversary sequence interruption (EASI) code analyzes vulnerability along a single intrusion path. To evaluate many paths to a valuable asset in an actual facility, the systematic analysis of vulnerability to intrusion (SAVI) code was developed. KAERI improved SAVI and made the Korean analysis of vulnerability to intrusion (KAVI) code. Existing codes (SAVI and KAVI) have limitations in representing the distance of a facility because they use the simplified model of a PPS called adversary sequence diagram. In adversary sequence diagram the position of doors, sensors and fences is described just as the locating area. Thus, the distance between elements is inaccurate and we cannot reflect the range effect of sensors. In this abstract, we suggest accurate and intuitive vulnerability assessment based on raster map modeling of PPS. The raster map of PPS accurately represents the relative position of elements and, thus, the range effect of sensor can be easily incorporable. Most importantly, the raster map is easy to understand

  17. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  18. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  19. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  20. Terrorism in Indo-Pak nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Issue of terrorism, militancy and nuclear security of South Asia evokes a lot of concern not only to South-Asians but also to the larger world. The most difficult problem in relations between India and Pakistan since partition in August 1947 has been their dispute over Kashmir. A summary of root cause analysis has been presented in the paper. Nuclear terrorism, should it emerge, could prove the final destruction of sanity in South Asia. Widespread availability of radioactive materials worldwide makes threat of radiological terrorism plausible. Terrorist groups are trying to strangulate and talibanize Pakistan, sucking it into vortex of failed states, nuclear banana republics with their praetorian culture, and a whole new category of 'North Koreas' in the central Asian region. This would be highly unstable, as these rabid adventurous states would pose extreme risks to the neighboring states in the future. Two case studies have been presented in the paper, estimating horrifying future of the unfolding story, with visions of a nuclear attack on energy sectors at Mumbai in India, and Karachi in Pakistan; may be a crude bomb or a radiological dispersal devices. The statistical consequences of the strike are horrifying to say the least. Methodology of preventing such a happening has been worked out with deep analysis of society and bringing out remedial measures. Methodology of conflict management has been discussed at length. With suggestive organization, its relevance modus operandi, role and limitations. There is a great need to think rationally, indeed, compassionately and charitably. The resumption of serious, high-level dialogue provides an opening for Indian and Pakistani leaders to depart from scripts that reduce room for diplomatic manoeuvre. Given the multiplicity of targets and terrorist scenarios, India and Pakistan need to be persuaded that nuclear weapons make the world a more dangerous, not a safer, place and to take a step back and realize that

  1. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  2. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  3. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide...

  4. The Study of Terrorism: An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Bob

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that terrorism, in its domestic and international forms, is a subject worthy of attention in social studies. Provides a list of causes of terrorism, a list of reasons why the United States is often a terrorist target, and three application lesson ideas. (CFR)

  5. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  6. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  7. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  8. El cine de terror español

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Llorente, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    La autora comienza haciendo un estudio del cine de terror desde sus inicios, sus subgéneros, mecanimos utilizados para provocar el miedo en el espectador para finalmente centrarse en el cine de terror español a través de cinco películas representativas del género.

  9. Terrorism: Supplement to the Second Edition. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Guy D.

    The annotated bibliography describes 85 materials related to terrorism which were collected by the National Criminal Reference Service. Although no consensus exists on the definition of terrorism, the term is interpreted in this document to include both illegal and destructive acts against society and governments and violent means undertaken to…

  10. Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Inst. of Peace, Washington, DC.

    Dealing with terrorism has become the centerpiece of United States foreign policy today. Yet terrorism--its definition, causes, and methods of dealing with it--has rarely been dealt with in high school courses. The United States Institute of Peace has developed this 3-lesson plan (for 45-minute class periods) teaching guide, aimed at grades 11 and…

  11. A proposed universal medical and public health definition of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jeffrey L; Ortenwall, Per; Birnbaum, Marvin L; Sundnes, Knut Ole; Aggrawal, Anil; Anantharaman, V; Al Musleh, Abdul Wahab; Asai, Yasufumi; Burkle, Frederick M; Chung, Jae Myung; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Debacker, Michel; Della Corte, Francesco; Delooz, Herman; Dickinson, Garth; Hodgetts, Timothy; Holliman, C James; MacFarlane, Campbell; Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Stok, Edita; Tsai, Ming-Che

    2003-01-01

    The lack of a universally applicable definition of terrorism has confounded the understanding of terrorism since the term was first coined in 18th Century France. Although a myriad of definitions of terrorism have been advanced over the years, virtually all of these definitions have been crisis-centered, frequently reflecting the political perspectives of those who seek to define it. In this article, we deconstruct these previously used definitions of terrorism in order to reconstruct a definition of terrorism that is consequence-centered, medically relevant, and universally harmonized. A universal medical and public health definition of terrorism will facilitate clinical and scientific research, education, and communication about terrorism-related events or disasters. We propose the following universal medical and public definition of terrorism: The intentional use of violence--real or threatened--against one or more non-combatants and/or those services essential for or protective of their health, resulting in adverse health effects in those immediately affected and their community, ranging from a loss of well-being or security to injury, illness, or death.

  12. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  13. 239 Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In recent times, terrorism has become one of the most dangerous threats to .... groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience”. (ITSR ... terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon ..... Books. Imobighe, T.A. (2006b). “Combating Terrorism in Africa: An Integrated.

  14. Freedom of expression and the Ethiopian anti-terrorism proclamation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freedom of expression and the Ethiopian anti-terrorism proclamation: a comparative analysis. ... Though surveillance and interception undermine democracy, a mere suspicion of terrorism gives the National Intelligence and Security Service a power to conduct surveillance or intercept any type of communications.

  15. The Role Of Education In Combating Terrorism | Oni | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-07

    The world is witnessing series of repeated political, religious conflict and terrorism, particularly worrisome is the acts of terrorism, which is now prevalent across the world. The phenomenon of 9/11/2001 on U.S and the recent attack on June 7, 2005 in London and some other parts of the world revealed the devastation, pains ...

  16. On Terrorism: An Analysis of Terrorism as a Form of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    unwitting political terrorists subconsciously reacting to their political and social environment. Given this, it is necessary to subject the...overt political rationale, there are some who would argue that it was, at least subconsciously , a product of sincere political motivations. For example...Isolate 3) Expansion Guerrilla War Physically Isolate 4) Victorious Conventional Physically Destroy 5) Consolidation Terrorism Reprogram Populace 6

  17. Correlation of Concepts "Extremism" and "Terrorism" in Countering the Financing of Terrorism and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisagatova, Diana B.; Kemelbekov, Saken T.; Smagulova, Diana A.; Kozhamberdiyeva, Aigul S.

    2016-01-01

    The main threats to world order are terrorist and extremist activities. On the world stage, countries unite into a coalition with the aim to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism. At the local level, the terrorist threat is fought by the security services. In order to prevent global human victims, which may arise as a result of…

  18. “Counterterrorism Bookshelf” – 23 Books on Terrorism & Counter-terrorism Related Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sinai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This column consists of two parts: capsule reviews of ten books recently published on terrorism and counterterrorism-related topics, and - continuing the series begun in the previous column of highlighting books by significant publishers (listed in alphabetical order - capsule reviews of 13 important books published by CRC Press. 

  19. The Economics of Terrorism: Economics Methods of Analysis in the Study of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    addition to outlining definitions, data sources, choice theory , game theory , and the economic consequences of terrorism, this study identifies how...stratégiques. Les auteurs sont le Maj Alain Rollin, le Maj Meaghan Setter et Mme Rachel Lea Heide, Ph.D., sous la direction du Lcol William Yee...18 7 Choice Theory and its Applications 7.1

  20. The Impact of Exercise on the Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons to Cell Death in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zigmond, Michael J; Smith, Amanda; Liou, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease results in part from the loss of dopamine neurons. We hypothesize that exercise reduces the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxin exposure, whereas stress increases vulnerability...

  1. Variance, Violence, and Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Sautter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the debate surrounding contemporary studies of terrorism focuses upon transnational terrorism. However, historical and contemporary evidence suggests that domestic terrorism is a more prevalent and pressing concern. A formal microeconomic model of terrorism is utilized here to understand acts of political violence in a domestic context within the domain of democratic governance.This article builds a very basic microeconomic model of terrorist decision making to hypothesize how a democratic government might influence the sorts of strategies that terrorists use. Mathematical models have been used to explain terrorist behavior in the past. However, the bulk of inquires in this area have only focused on the relationship between terrorists and the government, or amongst terrorists themselves. Central to the interpretation of the terrorist conflict presented here is the idea that voters (or citizens are also one of the important determinants of how a government will respond to acts of terrorism.

  2. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  3. IAEA to hold special session on nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA this week for an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. The Special Session, which will bring together experts on nuclear terrorism from around the world, will deal with the following issues: The Psychology of terrorism; Intelligence, police and border protection; Guarding nuclear reactors and material from terrorists and thieves; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Intentional dispersal of radioactive material - Sabotage of fixed installations or transport systems; The Legal Framework: Treaties and Conventions, Laws; Regulations and Codes of Practice; IAEA Nuclear Security and Safety Programmes

  4. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  5. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  6. British torture in the 'war on terror'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, Ruth; Raphael, Sam

    2017-06-01

    Despite long-standing allegations of UK involvement in prisoner abuse during counterterrorism operations as part of the US-led 'war on terror', a consistent narrative emanating from British government officials is that Britain neither uses, condones nor facilitates torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment. We argue that such denials are untenable. We have established beyond reasonable doubt that Britain has been deeply involved in post-9/11 prisoner abuse, and we can now provide the most detailed account to date of the depth of this involvement. We argue that it is possible to identify a peculiarly British approach to torture in the 'war on terror', which is particularly well-suited to sustaining a narrative of denial. To explain the nature of UK involvement, we argue that it can be best understood within the context of how law and sovereign power have come to operate during the 'war on terror'. We turn here to the work of Judith Butler, and explore the role of Britain as a 'petty sovereign', operating under the state of exception established by the US executive. UK authorities have not themselves suspended the rule of law so overtly; indeed, they have repeatedly insisted on their commitment to it. Nevertheless, they have been able to construct a rhetorical, legal and policy 'scaffold' that has enabled them to demonstrate at least procedural adherence to human rights norms while, at the same time, allowing UK officials to acquiesce in the arbitrary exercise of sovereignty over individuals who are denied any access to appropriate representation or redress in compliance with the rule of law.

  7. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  8. Terror Operations: Case Studies in Terrorism (U.S. Army TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1.01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-25

    terrorism topics. Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. Proponent Statement. Headquarters, U.S. Army...Economic and political disruptions can have profound global consequences. Sources of instability within the region include hegemony , terrorism

  9. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  10. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  11. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  12. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  13. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  14. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  16. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cind Du Bois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  17. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  18. Journals Supporting Terrorism Research: Identification and Investigation into Their Impact on the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Daryl R.; Irving, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of two preeminent terrorism journals ("Terrorism and Political Violence" and "Studies in Conflict and Terrorism") was used to identify 37 additional social science journals of significant importance to terrorism research. Citation data extracted from the "Web of Science" database was used to…

  19. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on the...

  20. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified Anti-Terrorism...

  1. Political Terrorism: A Mini-Course for High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    By participating in the 2-week mini-course, high school students will learn that (1) there is a difference between political terror and other criminal activity; (2) governments as well as nongovernmental groups engage in political terrorism; (3) political terrorism has been present throughout history; (4) political terrorism is a world wide…

  2. A measure of vulnerability and damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present probabilistic definitions of 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance'. A new measure of damage is also proposed. Disastrous failures, such as of the Titanic or the Chernobyl reactor, have revealed that some systems can be highly vulnerable. A seemingly insignificant damage can reduce such a system's resistance severely. Attempts to write design code requirements for damage tolerance or structural integrity have not been successful so far. One reason is that these ideas have not been defined with the necessary precision. The suggested definitions aim to be general, applicable to all engineered systems, and readily specializable to particular system types. Vulnerability is defined as the ratio of the failure probability of the damaged system to the failure probability of the undamaged system. It is argued that 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance' are complementary concepts. Damage tolerance is defined as the reciprocal of vulnerability. Vulnerability and damage tolerance both concern hypothetical future damage. A damage factor, applicable for the analysis of an existing structure in an assessed state of damage, is defined analogous to vulnerability. Application is illustrated by examples

  3. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  4. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  5. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  6. Intelligence and the prevention of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper first defines intelligence and nuclear terrorism and analyzes the nature of the problem from both a specifically US and a more generally Western viewpoint. As used here, intelligence refers broadly to the collection and reporting of information, the production of assessments, and the presentation of judgments by intelligence specialists who work for public and national security authorities. Intelligence encompasses the entire range of investigative and reporting activities at all levels of government - from local police units to allied military commands - that could contribute to the discovery and disarming of nuclear terrorists. Nuclear terrorism, in contrast, refers only to credible threats or acts of extreme violence by forces outside the direct control of any state through false threats or actual use of a nuclear bomb. This definition excludes other highly menacing or damaging activities involving nuclear materials, facilities, weapons, or phobias such as poisoning the air or water supplies with radioactive substances; stealing nuclear materials, sabotaging nuclear powerplants, occupying a facility or seizing a vehicle with nuclear weapons, or inflaming public fears in the event of a nuclear accident. These events can be extremely frightening, as in the case of public reactions throughout Europe to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. However, their potential destructiveness and exploitability by terrorists do not match the threat of nuclear explosion

  7. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2013-06-01

    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  8. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  9. New trends in terrorism : the use of social media, cyber-terrorism, the role of open-source intelligence and the cases of rightwing extremism and lone wolf terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Καραδήμα, Σοφία

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism has existed almost as long as humanity, and has appeared in various forms, creating new and evolving trends, making the definition of terrorism even more difficult to define. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the new trends in terrorism after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, as well as attempting to find the factors that facilitate the emergence and/or recurrence of trends in terrorism, by examining the related Literature, creating case studies and providing supp...

  10. Legal Challenges of Combating Terrorism: International Humanitarian Law Implications of ‘Signature Strikes’ by Drones.

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism has become the main international security challenge of the 21st century. From a historical perspective, terrorism has always been a serious concern for governments and nation states. The modern threat posed by terrorism has a much wider scope because of its international character. The much bigger threat posed by modern terrorism can also be explained by technological innovations and the reliance of terror networks on social networks both to propagate their message and as a recruit...

  11. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  12. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Diamond, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to identify connections between technology needs and the underlying science and technology, and to establish research strategies that will advanced our ability to counter this form of terrorism. The objectives were met by bringing together international experts familiar with the relevant technologies and policies at a four-day workshop that was held at the Regional Advanced Science and Technology Center (ASTEC), Yerevan, Armenia during October 2005. The many topics covered included: radiation detector development, risk assessment and decision making, decontamination techniques, structural materials resistance to conventional explosives, vulnerability and physical protection of nuclear facilities, security of radiation sources, response to radiological dispersion devices, relevant international and national laws, and non-proliferation

  13. Improbable Success: Risk Communication and the Terrorism Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    never aspired to be anything more than a bureaucratic construct partnered with the media. It has taken years to fully understand the unintended...terrorism plan. http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/rwpattach.nsf/ VAP /(3273BD3F76A7A5DEDA E36942A54D7D90)~National+Counter-Terrorism+Plan+- +Alert+System...Australian Government National Security. (2009a). National Counter-Terrorism Alert System Fact Sheet. http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/rwpattach.nsf/ VAP

  14. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  15. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W

    2017-07-19

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  16. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  17. A Criminal Law Approach to Terrorism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    2 Veja Magazine, “Exclusivo: Documentos da CIA, FBI e PF Mostram Como Age a Rede do Terror Islamico no Brasil” [Exclusive: Documents from CIA, FBI...exclusivo-documentos-da-cia-fbi-e-pf-mostram-como-age-a- rede - do-terror-islamico-no-brasil. 3 Ibid. 4 Brazilian Federal Government,” Legislacao/Lei 7170/83...60 Ibid. 61 Veja Magazine, “Exclusivo: Documentos da CIA, FBI e PF Mostram como Age a Rede do Terror Islamico no Brasil.” April

  18. The problems of informational terrorism in African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyuk Eugenia Vasylivna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of informational terrorism in African countries, especially in SADC countries, are analyzed as well as the ways to combat information terrorism in this region. The major issues related to information terrorism are highlighted, which include data exfiltration, social engineering, insider threats, database breaches as well as poor identity and access management. The essence of Computer Security (Cyber Security is revealed and its main tasks are characterized: accessibility, integrity, including authenticity and confidentiality. The main threats for cyberspace are distinguished.

  19. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  20. Posttraumatic play in young children exposed to terrorism: An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Esther; Chazan, Saralea; Lerner, Moran; Maimon, Efrat

    2010-03-01

    The phenomenon of "posttraumatic play" (PTP) has received much clinical recognition and little empirical support. The objective of this study was to examine various aspects of PTP in young children exposed to terror events and their relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individual play sessions, conducted with 29 young Israeli children directly exposed to terrorism (M age = 5.47, SD = 1.34) and 25 matched unexposed children (M age = 5.62, SD = 0.87), were coded using the Children's Play Therapy Instrument-Adaptation for Terror Research (CPTI-ATR; S.E. Chazan & E. Cohen, 2003). Analyses using these ratings showed (a) significant differences between the two groups, (b) significant associations with the caregiver's reports on child's exposure, and (c) significant associations with the caregiver's reports on the child's PTSD symptoms. Play activity ratings of predominant negative affects, frequent acting-out/morbid themes, lowered developmental level, and reduced awareness of the child of him- or herself as a player significantly predicted more PTSD symptoms. PTP which included more coping strategies classified as "overwhelmed reexperiencing" and less "reenactment with soothing" was associated with a higher level of PTSD. Play analysis with the CPTI-ATR may be helpful in identifying PTSD in children and also guide the selection of therapeutic techniques. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  2. Detecting C Program Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Ermakov; Natalia, Kushik

    2011-01-01

    C/C++ language is widely used for developing tools in various applications, in particular, software tools for critical systems are often written in C language. Therefore, the security of such software should be thoroughly tested, i.e., the absence of vulnerabilities has to be confirmed. When detecting C program vulnerabilities static source code analysis can be used. In this paper, we present a short survey of existing software tools for such analysis and show that for some kinds of C code vu...

  3. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  4. Terror in time: extending culturomics to address basic terror management mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesne, Mark; Bandt-Law, Bryn

    2018-04-11

    Building on Google's efforts to scan millions of books, this article introduces methodology using a database of annual word frequencies of the 40,000 most frequently occurring words in the American literature between 1800 and 2009. The current paper uses this methodology to replicate and identify terror management processes in historical context. Variation in frequencies of word usage of constructs relevant to terror management theory (e.g. death, worldview, self-esteem, relationships) are investigated over a time period of 209 years. Study 1 corroborated previous TMT findings and demonstrated that word use of constructs related to death and of constructs related to patriotism and romantic relationships significantly co-vary over time. Study 2 showed that the use of the word "death" most strongly co-varies over time with the use of medical constructs, but also co-varies with the use of constructs related to violence, relationships, religion, positive sentiment, and negative sentiment. Study 3 found that a change in the use of death related words is associated with an increase in the use of fear related words, but not in anxiety related words. Results indicate that the described methodology generates valuable insights regarding terror management theory and provide new perspectives for theoretical advances.

  5. An Examination of How the Availability of State-backed Terrorism Insurance Programs and Commercial Terrorism Insurance Affects the Operational Decisions of Multinational Companies.

    OpenAIRE

    GREY, William / WJG

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the extent to which the operational decisions of multinational companies (MNCs) are affected by the availability of State-backed terrorism insurance programs and commercial terrorism insurance. The initial hypothesis made is that MNCs will be reluctant to invest in zones or countries with high terrorism or political risks, especially when insurance for these risks may be limited or unavailable. This investigation finds that the availability of State-backed terrorism...

  6. The Development of a United Nations Counter-Terrorism Policy: A pragmatic approach to the problem of a definition of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Turney-Harris, Latasha

    2014-01-01

    The primary object of this thesis is to propose a pragmatic solution to the legitimacy problems associated with the absence of a definition of Terrorism within United Nations Counter Terrorism Policy. It contends that the attempts to draft such a definition within the Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism have now come to a political standstill and are unlikely to result in a strong legal definition of terrorism. Any outcome is likely to be a political compromise in nature. This thesis therefore ...

  7. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  8. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  9. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell disorders and the concurrent use of some medications such as beta adrenergic ...

  10. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  11. Nuclear terrorism: after the Washington summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the author comments the issues addressed by the 2016 Nuclear Safety Summit (NSS) of Washington, and the content of its final statement. He notices that the scope of addressed topics has evolved since the first summits (issues related to highly enriched uranium and to plutonium), that not only technological but also political and diplomatic issues are taken into account, and that GNOs are always more involved. The author briefly comments some aspects of the content of the final statement: threat of nuclear terrorism, improvement of nuclear safety since 2010, recall of the three main pillars of the non proliferation Treaty (non proliferation, disarmament, specific uses of nuclear energy), implementation of nuclear safety under at the own responsibility and duty of countries possessing nuclear materials. Finally, the author discusses how the NSS process will go on, and evokes remaining questions regarding the existence of an actual international constraining regime, and financial and functional issues

  12. THE NARRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM DISCOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Rosdiawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While polemics is still shadowing the internationally accepted definition, the word “Terrorism” becomes more controversial when it is paralleled with “Islam”. The Islamic Terrorism discourse is more likely to be an elusive concept if not a Fata Morgana. Its very existence appears as a real entity but its form can hardly be described. It would be always be problematic to posterize such a terrible notion as “terrorism” and put it side by side with a noble concept as in “Islam”. The fact, however, shows that the two-word has been widely discussed in global arena. “Islamic Terrorism” has become a trending topic in global politics and academic discourses in the first decade of the millennium.

  13. CINE DE TERROR Y BIOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Richard Jiménez Peñuela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta presentación, se abordan los resultados del “Proyecto Transversal Ciencia Gráfica”, relacionados con la proyección de cine de terror, a educandos de ciclo III. Además de las proyecciones, el proyecto desarrollo la habilidad gráfica de los estudiantes en relación con la biología y el arte, a partir de lecciones sobre dibujo biológico, y la fabricación de juguetes con motivos biológicos por parte de los estudiantes. De esta manera, se emprenden acciones conjuntas desde arte y biología para la comprensión de los temas vistos en el área de ciencias naturales, aplicando los conocimientos de ambos campos en la comprensión estética de la relación humano-naturaleza.

  14. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  15. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Abel, Guy J.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate–migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability. PMID:29707262

  16. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J; Abel, Guy J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate-migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability.

  17. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N H

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  18. Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lois M; Mariano, Louis T; Pace, Jennifer E; Cotton, Sarah K; Steinberg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism...

  19. The Role of Targeted Killing in the Campaign Against Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cullen, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    .... Some commentators view it as an indispensable tool in the fight against terrorism and argue for its expanded use, while others question its legality and claim that it is immoral and ultimately ineffective...

  20. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.