WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrorism event technical

  1. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  2. RESEARCH ON VISUAL ANALYSIS METHODS OF TERRORISM EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events’ spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event’s spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on “5W” theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  3. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  4. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  5. Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office. 2008 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    events. Little data existed on the physiological effects or the risks of cognitive impairment as a result of multiple blast exposures. The U.S...that fl uid losses of as little as 2% of total body weight can lead to noticeable compromises in physical and cognitive performance. Dehydration...solution to sustain dolphins in an expeditionary environment. For phase one of the program, SPAWAR developed an in-water, climate-controlled

  6. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  7. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  8. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyu Ding

    Full Text Available Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before.

  9. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyu; Ge, Quansheng; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Hao, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before.

  10. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyu; Ge, Quansheng; Fu, Jingying; Hao, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before. PMID:28591138

  11. Careers; Current Events; Government, U.S.; Insects; Science Experiments; Terrorism, War on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites for grades K-8 focuses on careers, current events, government, insects, science experiments, the war on terrorism, and calendar connections for Martin Luther King Day and other January observances. Specific grade levels are indicated for each annotation. (LRW)

  12. Are ethical norms and current policies still relevant in face of the recent mass terror events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Adini, Bruria

    2016-10-04

    The widespread utilization of social media in recent terror attacks in major European cities should raise a "red flag" for the emergency medical response teams. The question arises as to the impact of social media during terror events on the healthcare system. Information was published well before any emergency authority received a distress call or was requested to respond. Photos published at early stages of the attacks, through social media were uncensored, presenting identifiable pictures of victims. Technological advancements of recent years decrease and remove barriers that enable the public to use them as they see fit. These attacks raise ethical considerations for the patients and their rights as they were outsourced from the medical community, into the hands of the public. The healthcare system should leverage social media and its advantages in designing response to terror, but this requires a re-evaluation and introspection into the current emergency response models.

  13. Statistical Property and Model for the Inter-Event Time of Terrorism Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Fang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The inter-event time of terrorism attack events is investigated by empirical data and model analysis. Empirical evidence shows that it follows a scale-free property. In order to understand the dynamic mechanism of such a statistical feature, an opinion dynamic model with a memory effect is proposed on a two-dimensional lattice network. The model mainly highlights the role of individual social conformity and self-affirmation psychology. An attack event occurs when the order parameter indicating the strength of public opposition opinion is smaller than a critical value. Ultimately, the model can reproduce the same statistical property as the empirical data and gives a good understanding for the possible dynamic mechanism of terrorism attacks.

  14. Technical approaches to on-person bomb detection for counter-terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Steve

    2004-09-01

    Western democracies can reasonably expect an increase in homicide bombings as a major terrorist weapon of choice causing fear and economic damage far in excess of the actual loss of life and property caused by the explosives. The terrorists will strike at public venues (transportation, shopping, sporting events, schools, and governmental facilities) greatly multiplying the complexity and cost of effective defense. The author argues for accelerated research in multiple electromagnetic and passive technologies and fielding single and multi-sensor fixed, mobile and manportable systems to attempt to stay one step ahead of the growing reality of global terrorism.

  15. Countermeasures and vaccination against terrorism using smallpox: pre-event and post-event smallpox vaccination and its contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-09-01

    Smallpox, when used as a biological weapon, presents a serious threat to civilian populations. Core components of the public health management of a terrorism attack using smallpox are: vaccination (ring vaccination and mass vaccination), adverse event monitoring, confirmed and suspected smallpox case management, contact management, identifying, tracing, monitoring contacts, and quarantine. Above all, pre-event and post-event vaccination is an indispensable part of the strategies. Since smallpox patients are most infectious from onset of the rash through the first 7-10 days of the rash, vaccination should be administered promptly within a limited time frame. However, vaccination can accompany complications, such as postvaccinial encephalitis, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, and generalized vaccinia. Therefore, vaccination is not recommended for certain groups. Public health professionals, as well as physicians and government officials, should also be well equipped with all information necessary for appropriate and effective smallpox management in the face of such a bioterrorism attack.

  16. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  17. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  18. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  19. Biological terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Gregory J; Talan, David A; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2008-03-01

    A biological terrorism event could have a large impact on the general population and health care system. The impact of an infectious disaster will most likely be great to emergency departments, and the collaboration between emergency and infectious disease specialists will be critical in developing an effective response. A bioterrorism event is a disaster that requires specific preparations beyond the usual medical disaster planning. An effective response would include attention to infection control issues and plans for large-scale vaccination or antimicrobial prophylaxis. This article addresses some general issues related to preparing an effective response to a biological terrorism event. It will also review organisms and toxins that could be used in biological terrorism, including clinical features, management, diagnostic testing, and infection control.

  20. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can contribute to sleep terrors, such as: Sleep deprivation and extreme tiredness Stress Sleep schedule disruptions, travel ... such as depression and anxiety In adults, alcohol use Risk factors Sleep terrors are more common if ...

  1. Assessment of Nuclear Medicine Capabilities in Responding to a Radiological Terrorism Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    les premiers intervenants et la communication avec les médias. En reconnaissant la valeur potentielle de ces professionnels à réagir à un incident...success. Yet, terrorism is designed specifically to have a psychological impact, and has the potential to pose serious and long-lasting social

  2. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM) stage. Night terrors happen during deep non-REM sleep. A night terror is not technically a dream, but more like a sudden reaction of fear that happens during the transition from one sleep stage to another. Night ... stage of non-REM sleep to lighter REM sleep. Usually this transition ...

  3. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2017-08-17

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Modern terrorism as a product of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    KASUMOV RUSLAN TOFIKOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the affirmation of terrorism in a new form is associated with global processes. The author perceives this not only in technical equipment, organization and scale of modern terrorism. To a greater extent update of the terrorism is seen in its political aspiration expressed in the claim to statehood. The author argues this position based both on the essential principles of terrorism and post-modern trends of the world politics.

  5. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  6. Terrorism in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanduorkov, George

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria is one of the smallest countries in southeastern Europe and has little experience with terrorist acts. During the past 20 years, only nine terrorism-related events have been recorded in Bulgaria, and no unconventional weapons have been used. Factors contributing to terrorism in Bulgaria have been: (1) Communist Party domination of the government and political process from 1944 to 1989; (2) ethnic and religious conflicts between the Bulgarian Orthodox Christian majority and the Turkish Muslim minority from 1983 to 1987; and (3) the relatively high level of organized crime after the Communist regime ended in 1990. The structure and function of the Disaster Relief System in Bulgaria not only are focused on the prevention of terrorism, but also on preparedness for the emergency response to terrorism-related events. Institutional components of the Disaster Relief System structure responsible for the emergency response to terrorism-related events include: (1) the Government of Bulgaria; (2) the State Agency for Civil Protection with 28 regional directorates; (3) the Ministry of Health with five national hospitals, 28 regional hospitals, and 28 EMS systems; (4) the Ministry of Defense with special military units for response to unconventional terrorist events, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; (5) the Ministry of Internal Affairs with 28 police departments, 28 fire departments, and specialized anti-terrorist units; and (6) the Bulgarian Red Cross. A major future challenge in Bulgaria is the prevention of terrorism through political stability, economic prosperity, ethnic and religious tolerance, and more effective measures against organized criminal activities. A related challenge will be to improve the level of preparedness of all components of Disaster Relief.

  7. Urban planning after terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Paizs, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism is a targeted way to hurt a population but also to destroy and annihilate a part of the civilization by attacking the built environment, especially iconic and symbolic buildings with its values of collective memory and cultural heritage, which is at the latest created by the iconic act of destruction. The resilient city with its integrated plans and programs but also technical, personal or physical security aims to reduce the probability and the dimension of terrorist attacks. Howev...

  8. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  9. Can Chinese Cities Achieve Higher Technical Efficiency after Hosting Mega Events?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun Kwok Lei

    2013-01-01

      This study applies the stochastic frontier approach to estimate the technical efficiency of a group of Chinese cities which have hosted mega events such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, etc. since 2000s...

  10. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  11. Terrorism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  12. The Impact of Terrorism Across Industries: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Berrebi, Claude; Esteban F. Klor

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses scoring matching techniques and event study analysis to elucidate the impact of terrorism across different economic sectors. Using the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a case study, we differentiate between Israeli companies that belong to the defence, security or anti-terrorism related industries and other companies. The findings show that whereas terrorism has a significant negative impact on non defence-related companies, the overall effect of terrorism on defence and securi...

  13. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  14. Attitudes and Perceptions of Urban African Americans of a “Dirty Bomb” Radiological Terror Event: Results of a Qualitative Study and Implications for Effective Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R.; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a “dirty bomb” is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with “shelter in place” recommendations. Methods Thirty-seven 18–65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. Results The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the “whole truth” because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Conclusion Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place. PMID:25611688

  15. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  16. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-19

    threatened societies muse remain within the rule of law while going to the limit of what the law allows. 6. Conclusions. John Wolf provides a "Battle...with Eakadi Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Hamnmer and Sickle Cooperative Young Militants Iberian Liberation Moivement (MIL) Internationol Revolutionary...Studies, No. 67, p. 9. 36. Ibid., p. 12. 37. Wolf , John B., "Controlling Political Terrorism in a Free Society," Orbis, Journal published by the Foreign Policy Research Institute, Volume XIX, Winter 1976, #4. 25 . .

  18. Terrorism and hazardous material trucking: promoting perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention among Canadian hazardous-material truck drivers. Results supported the impact of the intervention in increasing perceived efficacy for terrorism prevention. Implications for theory, research, and application are discussed.

  19. Economics, Politics and Young Males. Root Causes of Terrorism on the Aggregate Level in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldsnes, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The research question posed in this thesis is: what are the root causes of terrorism on the aggregate level in Europe. There is little convergence on the root causes of terrorism in the field of terrorism research, and many findings are challenged on data and conceptual grounds. The analysis is done with two dependent variables each representing an operationalization of terrorism, a count of the number of killed in terrorism events for each country-year observation and a count of the numbe...

  20. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans; Dückers, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines' scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation.

  1. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  2. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    density, illiteracy , new democracies, unfair balance of trade, and linguistic diversity. Two or more findings included a negative relationship for...data sets, books , journals, and legal documents [11]. Only events that meet the aforementioned inclusion criteria are recorded as terrorist attacks in...Criminology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 489–516, 2006. 11. Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, “Code- book : Inclusion criteria and variables

  4. Preparing for terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E

    1993-06-01

    Terrorists enjoy their exposure in the international press. Their acts and treats of violence are heralded in headlines and broadcast throughout the world. They purposely inflict damage in public places where there are large numbers of victims, with the potential for a great deal of destruction and debris. They intend to inflict economic loss, instill fear and disrupt everyday life, while at the same time believing their need to maim and kill is justified. Is it no wonder that the World Trade Center was a highly prized target? You must remember that terrorism involves the perpetrator's willful, calculated choice to use innocent victims as targets, and that the terrorist's acts are deliberate, systematic murders to inspire fear for political or criminal ends. As Brian Jenkins stated back in 1983, "terrorism is never a short-term event...you never really get over it...and its effects can't be buried or forgotten." Thus, our responsibility, as EMS providers, is to recognize the threat and refuse to be lulled into a sense of complacency. The United States is at risk, and our greatest threat may even come from our own ranks: political crusaders, activists, hate groups, drug merchants and gangs. The criminals, zealots, fanatics and extremists of the world will continue to believe their crusades and turf battles can be won through terrorist acts. It's up to us to respond effectively to the aftermath.

  5. The New Terrorism: The Nature of the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kometer, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    ...), and Irish Republican Army (IRA) -- to the new terrorism, the militant Islamic movement. The study concludes that there is a "new terrorism" that is not merely terrorism but a global insurgency...

  6. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... Al-Shabaab, a fundamentalist group in Somalia immediately claimed responsibility. These events sparked widespread debate within scholarly circles as far as the counter-terrorism agenda in the Greater Horn of Africa is concerned. In recent years, terrorism has grown to become a vice of global magnitude.

  7. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Sociopolitical events and technical innovations may affect the content of delusions and the course of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, L

    2000-12-01

    The influence of culture on patients with psychiatric disorders has been well documented in the psychiatric literature. The unique emphasis of this paper is the influence of current social and political events on psychotic patients. Current events can be classified into two groups: (1) Communal stressful events that affect everyone (shared stressors), such as earthquakes, wars, etc.; and (2) Public events, highly reported by mass media, but not personally stressful, e.g., elections. This article is devoted to the discussion about the effect of sociopolitical non-traumatic events on persons with psychotic disorders. The author reviewed evidence that sociopolitical events and technical innovations affect patients with psychotic disorders. The author suggests that social events and scientific innovations may change the content of delusions and affect the course of psychotic disorders. The author also suggests that physicians should be sensitive to the clinical impact of sociopolitical events. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  9. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  10. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SUICIDE TERRORISM by Zane K. Crawford June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Tristan Mabry Second Reader: Thomas Johnson THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT......the 20th century. This thesis focuses on one product of this alliance: the emergence of female suicide terrorism (FST) in the first (1994–1996) and

  11. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...

  12. Terrorism and financial supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, Anatoli van der

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  13. Terrorism and cabinet duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassebner, M.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; Mierau, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorism can strengthen or weaken electoral support for ruling governments. We show in a simple model of coalition formation that, regardless of the direction of a public opinion shock, the impact of terrorism on cabinet duration is ambiguous. However, in an analysis of a data set including 2,400

  14. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  15. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    following mental disorders motivate political terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy (anti-social personality disorder); narcissism; the Freudian...terrorism and terrorism in general involves the personality disorder identified either as a sociopathy or psychopathy. According to Pearce and Cooper...required of political terrorists and the absence by definition of the same characteristics in the sociopathy personality. Cooper does not ignore the

  16. Nightmares and sleep terrors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinary bladder distension, a noisy environment and central nervous system depressants. This article discusses the differences between nightmares and sleep terrors and provides a management approach for the family practitioner. Introduction. Nightmares and sleep terrors are clas- sified under the parasomnias accord-.

  17. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  18. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Victimologist Looks at Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    State terrorism is defined as terrorism undertaken by a government against people within its own national boundaries. This article reviews the 12-point anti-terrorism program of Amnesty International, lists the psychological needs of victims, and catalogs the various methods of torture used in state terrorism. (JDH)

  20. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its design and implementation balance maintaining economic...

  1. Countering terrorism engagement, development, deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The war on terrorism has not reduced the threat from terrorism. Terrorism as a tactic cannot be defeated. States policies cannot rely on force alone in an attempt to defeat the use of a tactic. States need to use more effective counterterrorism policy options than coercion and force to deter groups from using terrorism. Groups choose to use terrorism as a tactic as a means to bring attention to be engaged and their grievances addressed...

  2. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  3. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  4. Terror breeds terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  5. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V

    2005-07-01

    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  6. Terrorism: American Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    involving adventure or having entertainment value, and somehow affecting the lives of those being informed of them. (6:14) As Professor Walter Laquer ...No. 10 (October 1986), pp. 9-10. 15. Laquer , Walter. "The Futility of Terrorism." Current News (Special Edition), 31 October 1985, pp. 51-52. 16...VIOLENCE BECAUSE OF POLITICAL OR EMOTIONAL FEELINGS. IS THE NEWS MEDIA GIVING TERRORISM TOO MUCH COVERAGE? PROFESSOR LAQUER AND MR NETANYAHU BOTH AGREE

  7. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  8. INTERNATIONAL CRIMINALISATION OF TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Matija

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism in international law and highlights its relevant contemporary developments, paying particular attention to its criminalisation under international criminal law. A more practical dimension is presented using the example of regional (EU) and national (Slovenian) normative measures following the terrorist attacks of September 2001. Initially, focus is placed on the understanding of “international terrorism,” its definition and the consequences of...

  9. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  10. Terrorism Risk Concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether differences of terrorism risk perception across all European countries reflect their underlying differences in terrorism risk, which we decompose into a long term and innovation component. We employ longitudinal country-level data on terrorism risk concern and our modeling approach is motivated by the Bayesian framework. We conclude that the observed risk perception variation is significantly explained by the long term terrorism countries face, while the cyclical part of te...

  11. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  12. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  13. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  14. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  15. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  16. Terrorism, war, and peace

    OpenAIRE

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...

  17. The psychodynamics of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, I; Nicholls, W

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose a dynamic and social explanation for the 'malignant aggression' of the terrorist. No specific terrorist character is to be looked for. Rather, terrorism can occur whenever political conditions provide social legitimation for the acting out of deeply repressed hatred. The origins of this hatred lie in parental abuse, leading to murderous rage in the child, which must be deflected onto safer targets than the terrifying parent, such as the parent's enemies, or the authorities of one's country. Political terrorism therefore involves the exploitation of mental illness, connived at in turn by the international public through the media.

  18. The human rights and the terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  19. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information... represents a national-level effort to minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its design and...

  20. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  1. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  3. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Islam. 72min. Princeton: Films Media Group, 2007. DVD. (BP161.3 .E93 2007) 9 LONG WAR Books, Documents, and Internet Resources Aaron, David, ed...253pp. (PN4784 .T45N11 2007) Steuter, Erin, and Deborah Wills. At War with Metaphor: Media, Propaganda, and Racism in the War on Terror. Lanham

  5. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Perspective. Trans. Cecilia Gaul. New York, Seabury, 1969. Elliott, John D. "International Terrorism." Armed Forces Journal International, 114:38-39, September...the Game (Uruguay)." Economist, January 16, 1971, p. 19. Payne , Pierre Stephen Robert. Portrait of-e Revolutionary. London, Abelard-Schuman, 1961. Payne

  6. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out...or Mexico . Terrorist organizations attempting to mimic Beslan, Mumbai, and Nairobi cross border attack methodology may find a less welcoming host...

  7. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  8. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  9. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  10. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miroslav Mareš

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods...

  11. Technical note: Efficient online source identification algorithm for integration within a contamination event management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerlein, Jochen; Meyer-Harries, Lea; Guth, Nicolai

    2017-07-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are part of critical infrastructures and are exposed to a number of different risks. One of them is the risk of unintended or deliberate contamination of the drinking water within the pipe network. Over the past decade research has focused on the development of new sensors that are able to detect malicious substances in the network and early warning systems for contamination. In addition to the optimal placement of sensors, the automatic identification of the source of a contamination is an important component of an early warning and event management system for security enhancement of water supply networks. Many publications deal with the algorithmic development; however, only little information exists about the integration within a comprehensive real-time event detection and management system. In the following the analytical solution and the software implementation of a real-time source identification module and its integration within a web-based event management system are described. The development was part of the SAFEWATER project, which was funded under FP 7 of the European Commission.

  12. Technical note: Efficient online source identification algorithm for integration within a contamination event management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deuerlein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water distribution networks are part of critical infrastructures and are exposed to a number of different risks. One of them is the risk of unintended or deliberate contamination of the drinking water within the pipe network. Over the past decade research has focused on the development of new sensors that are able to detect malicious substances in the network and early warning systems for contamination. In addition to the optimal placement of sensors, the automatic identification of the source of a contamination is an important component of an early warning and event management system for security enhancement of water supply networks. Many publications deal with the algorithmic development; however, only little information exists about the integration within a comprehensive real-time event detection and management system. In the following the analytical solution and the software implementation of a real-time source identification module and its integration within a web-based event management system are described. The development was part of the SAFEWATER project, which was funded under FP 7 of the European Commission.

  13. Terrorism, Tourism and Religious Travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, A.; Raj, R.; Griffin, K.; Clarke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Curiously, while tourism is cited as the world’s largest industry (UNWTO, 2016), it is simultaneously a fragile industry that is highly vulnerable to the impact of the ongoing threat of terrorism. Internationally, terrorism influences the tourist mind-set in a number of ways, in particular it creates fear for travellers and causes economic and social impacts to change the behaviour of people and dissuade them from visiting certain places in the world. Thus, the impact of terrorism has caused ...

  14. International terrorism and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gurská, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: International Terrorism and Human Rights Key words: international terrorism, antiterrorist measures, human rights First part of the thesis is centered on characteristics of international terrorism, concept of human rights and three aspects of their mutual relationship: the immediate impact of terrorist attacks on human rights of their direct victims and the society as a whole and aspects linked to the states' response consisting of human rights breaches of suspects during repressive ...

  15. Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-15

    websites with counter-information or disinformation. Alone, these actions bear the same relation to cyber-terrorism that theft, vandalism , or graffiti ...then terror tactics should be considered “the art and science of employing violence, terror and intimidation to inculcate fear in the pursuit of...critical functions and would be directly impacted if they were successfully attacked. Consider the impact on unit deployment if a successful cyber attack

  16. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  17. Coping with terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a tool of low-intensity conflict used to undermine Western and moderate governments. There is evidence that the US faces a new threshold of terrorist threat both at home and abroad because the tools are available, media attention is global and often undisciplined, and the motives for terrorist attack span a wide spectrum. The US has no internal consensus of how to respond to acts of terrorism. The goal of the terrorists is to erode faith in the government and the democratic system. The author analyzes the threat and examines opportunities for an adequate response. Among his recommendations are to make infrastructure networks more robust and less vulnerable, the use of new technologies that enhance security, clear guidelines for intelligence gathering and analysis, specially trained response forces, and political moderation and cooperation.

  18. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  19. ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  20. "State of the Art" of technical protection measures in Austria and the effectiveness documented during bedload and debris flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Rudolf-Miklau, Florian; Suda, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Since the beginning of systematic torrent control in Austria 130 years ago, barriers are constructed for protection purposes. Until the end of the 1960s, solid barriers were built at the exits of depositional areas to prevent dangerous debris flows from reaching high consequence areas. The development of solid barriers with large slots or slits to regulate sediment transport began with the use of reinforced concrete during the 1970s (Rudolf-Miklau, Suda 2011). In order to dissipate the energy of debris flows debris flow breakers have been designed since the 1980s. By slowing and depositing the surge front of the debris flow, downstream reaches of the stream channel and settlement areas should be exposed to considerably lower dynamic impact. In the past, the technological development of these constructions was only steered by the experiences of the engineering practice while an institutionalized process of standardization comparable to other engineering branches was not existent. In future all structures have to be designed and dimensioned according to the EUROCODE standards. This was the reason to establish an interdisciplinary working group (ON-K 256) at the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI), which has managed to developed comprehensive new technical standards for torrent control engineering, including load models, design, dimensioning and life cycle assessment of torrent control works (technical standard ONR 24800 - series). Extreme torrential events comprise four definable displacement processes floods; fluvial solid transport; hyper-concentrated solid transport (debris floods) and debris flow (stony debris flow or mud-earth flow). As a rule, the design of the torrential barriers has to follow its function (Kettl, 1984). Modern protection concepts in torrent control are scenario-oriented and try to optimize different functions in a chain of protections structures (function chain). More or less the first step for the designing the optimal construction type is

  1. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unable to write their names in Mandarin. The paper contended that this language barrier , coupled with poverty and “enthusiasm for religion,” made this...important responsibilities for counterterrorism policy, and provide a venue that can help overcome bureaucratic barriers and coordinate and guide...345 Minnie Chan, “Mainland’s Elite Forces Go through ’ Hell ’ to Prepare for War against Terror

  2. Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    These sorts of inferences are trivial for humans, but they can’t be performed by machines that lack the commonsense knowledge that makes them valid...inference abilities in conjunction with its commonsense geospatial knowledge enable it to conclude the fact that Rafik was not in Los Angeles at T, from...comprehensive knowledge base ontology and schema, formulated by and agreed upon by panels of internationally recognized terrorism experts; produced a

  3. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    learned skills and behaviors. Expense is a barrier to more extensive training for specifi c terrorism preparedness. Corporate Terorism Preparedness...organizations and individuals, having lectured on the topic both in the United States and in Europe . His publications include the entry on “War and Confl ict...than anticipated. Site Visits Corporation One is in agricultural and food processing. With operations in the U.S., Canada, Latin America, Europe

  4. State Instability and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    militias took on a government role of using terror as they took over the anti-insurgency role from the government.] Rebellion breaks out in Darfur ...victims groups include Fur, Zaghawa, Masaleit, and other non- Arab peoples of the Darfur region [genocide]. In Iran from 1981 to 1992, a...Century. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. Harff, Barbara. 2003. No lessons learned from the Holocaust : Assessing risks of

  5. Information-Age Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Arquilla, John; Ronfeldt, David; Zanini, Michele

    2000-01-01

    JOHN ARQUILLA is a professor of defense studies at the Naval Postgraduate School and a RAND consultant. DAVID RONFELDT is a senior social scientist at RAND. MICHELE ZANINI is a doctoral fellow at the RAND Graduate School. This article draws on the authors’ “Networks, Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism,” in Zalmay M. Khalilzad and John P. White, eds., Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1999). Today, an instan...

  6. The Terrorism Threat and Countering Terrorism from Jordanian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    compound "Islamic fiqh " has presented a terrorism definition during its summit in January 4, 2002 which including a group of scientists as" terrorism is...p p 164-165. 9 Islamic Fiqh Academy available from http://www.themwl.net/Bodies/Decisions/ default.aspx?d=1&did=70&l=AR; Internet; accessed

  7. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  8. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  9. Risks from Worldwide Terrorism: Mortality and Morbidity Patterns and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-01-25

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. The data involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), 91,346 cases of casualty (either injury or death) and 25,408 deaths. Analyses revealed a number of interesting patterns and apparently significant trends. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (ISR) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (AOR). ISR had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of AOR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in AOR, which have increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2% (10%) of harm-ranked events in OAR (ISR). Extreme values of victim/event rates were found to be well modeled by classic or generalized Pareto distributions, indicating that these rates have been as predictable as similarly extreme phenomena such as rainfall, sea levels, earthquakes, etc. This observation suggests that these extreme-value patterns may be used to improve strategies to prevent and manage risks associated with terror-related consequences.

  10. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  12. Trend of Terrorism in Republic of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Fatos HAZIRI; Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-01-01

    The effect of terrorism today has much more international impact because of the interconnectedness of markets, the mobility and the advanced technological capabilities of individuals and terrorist groups. The international community must act as a united front against all forms of terrorism and that there can be no justification for terrorism and the war against terrorism cannot be selective.

  13. Working with Children Who Have Experienced War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Paula Sunanon; Harris, Yvette R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the consequences of war, terrorism, and disaster on children's physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. Next, they discuss the "resiliency promoting" strategies that adults who work with children may employ prior to and after a catastrophic event. The article concludes with…

  14. From Classical Terrorism to ‘Global’ Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history and the development of terrorism as a research subject for social sciences. It gives an impression of how the subject’s theoretical remit has changed over the last decades — explicitly taking into account the characteristics of a modern and global world and their impact on current understandings of terrorism. Terrorism is a minor object for the social sciences; it was even long considered “illegitimate” and neglected by researchers. There are several explanations for this, which I think my long experience in research authorizes me to evoke here.

  15. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  16. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  17. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  18. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available VII International Conference on research and conservation of raptors in North Eurasia will be hold in Sochi (Russia on the basis of the Sochi National Park in 19–24 September 2016. Annual Meeting of the Raptor Research Foundation will be hold in 16–20 October 2016 in the Cape May (New Jersey, USA supported by the New Jersey Audubon Society’s Cape May Bird Observatory. IV Neotropical Raptor Network Conference will be hold in La Fortuna (Costa Rica in 10th–13th October 2016. la Fundacion Rapaces Costa Rica. V World Owl Conference will be hold in Venaus (Italy in 22–26 March 2017. 4th International Peregrine Conference will be hold in Budapest (Hungary in 27 September – 1st October 2017. Webcams on nests of Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis and Tawny Owl (Strix aluco are installed in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia in 2016. Hour broadcast has been organized since April on the website of the Russian Raptor Research Network and on the website of the Ivideon company. The equipment and technical solutions from Ivideon. MTS has provided communication.

  19. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  20. The role of ethnocultural variables in response to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Katrina L; Chestnut, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    The threat of terrorism is having a profound impact on Americans. This study examined ethnocultural variables of ethnic background, gender, age, and educational background to better understand first reactions to, explanations for, and responses to what happened on September 11, 2001. Data were obtained from a sample of university students, church and civic group members, and people of the general community. Results suggest that ethnic background, gender, and age influence reactions to terrorism. Ethnic background and gender influenced causal explanations about the attacks. Strong gender differences were noted in how participants were affected by the attacks; strongest similarities were observed in reports of first reactions to news of the events, with most people experiencing shock and disbelief. Conclusions stress the importance of future mental health interventions and research giving strong consideration to ethnocultural variables when dealing with victims of terrorism.

  1. The impact of repetitive and chronic exposure to terror attacks on Israeli mothers' and children's functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory-Bitton, Mally

    2013-01-01

    Studies point to the pathogenic impact of exposure to terror. however, most focus on specific traumatic events. the current study focused on the impact of continuous ongoing exposure to terror attacks. it examined the extent to which children's PtSD and behavior problems are a function of mothers' PtSD, child and mother exposure to terror events, and child and mother fear. a sample of 152 mother and children dyads, all living in communities on israel's southern border, were surveyed. results indicate that children's posttraumatic symptoms are significantly and positively predicted by their exposure to terror events, their fear, and their mothers' posttraumatic symptoms. in addition, children's current behavioral and social problems are positively predicted by mothers' posttraumatic symptoms. results are discussed in light of the importance of subjective interpretation. the findings suggest that further research should examine additional cognitive and social contextual factors.

  2. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  3. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  4. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallen, Jr, George W

    2007-01-01

    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  5. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  6. Book Examines Fractured Globalism, Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES As marginalized fundamentalist societies feel ever-more threatened by accelerating globalization, new educational approaches are needed to thwart individuals in those societies from resorting to terrorism. That is one of the...

  7. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  8. Globalization, Terrorism and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Sertif; Varlık, Ali Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The main discussion point of this article is to explore the cause-effect relation between the weakening of nation state and the intensification of global terrorism by the influence of globalization. The main thesis of the article is that the malign effects of globalization have considerably weakened nation states or dragged them into a situation in which the security and stability would no longer be sustained as desired. Global terrorism can stem from the adverse effects of globalization, imb...

  9. Living with terror, not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Waxman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of chronic terrorism on a targeted society by examining the case of Israeli society during the second Intifada. The Israeli case demonstrates both the extensive effects of repeated terrorist attacks and their limitations. The article argues that while Israelis were seriously affected by Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second Intifada, this did not result in major, lasting changes in Israeli behaviour. Despite being profoundly affected by terrorism, Israeli society was not demoralized by it, and in this respect Palestinian terrorism failed to achieve its aim. This is because the Israeli public grew accustomed to chronic terrorism and possessed a high level of social resilience.   

  10. Worry about terror among young adults living in ongoing security uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Mass-Friedman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable, with the exogenous variables being media viewing, differentiation of self, and trait anxiety, and the endogenous variables being somatic symptoms and perceptions of security-related stress. Participants were divided into two groups by age/academic level: 248 high school students and 191 university students. A pathway correlation model was used to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable. The central finding was that worry about terror was a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the extent of media viewing following terror events and the level of perception of security-related stress. That is, young people who said they worried a lot reported a high level of stress relating to the terror events they saw covered in the media. In addition, trait anxiety was found to have an effect on stress perception only via the level of worry about terror. This means that high levels of stress are not experienced by all highly trait-anxious people, but only by those who suffer from higher levels of worry about terror.

  11. Living with terror, not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society

    OpenAIRE

    Dov Waxman

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of chronic terrorism on a targeted society by examining the case of Israeli society during the second Intifada. The Israeli case demonstrates both the extensive effects of repeated terrorist attacks and their limitations. The article argues that while Israelis were seriously affected by Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second Intifada, this did not result in major, lasting changes in Israeli behaviour. Despite being profoundly affected by terrorism, I...

  12. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    ... it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life...

  13. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  14. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary LaFree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD, an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS.[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies employed to improve the quality and comprehensiveness of the data, addressing also the strengths and weaknesses of Open Source data in general and the GTD in particular. The paper also provides descriptive statistics on the contents of the most recently available version of the GTD and offer observations about the future of event databases. 

  15. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  16. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  17. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  18. Epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.

  19. On terrorism and legal response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjëll Likmeta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal Albanian doctrine encompasses different meanings in relation to terrorism. This paper aims to give a general overview on various definitions of terrorism, as one of the main threatening phenomenon of our society. The paper also treats the origin of the word ‘terrorism’, back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries. In this paper will be treated the main factors that have affected over the creation and development of terrorism, the content, format and main characteristics of terrorism, the main forms of occurrence of terrorist acts and Albanian legal mechanisms in the fight against terrorism, including the International agreements of which Albania is part of. Special attention will be paid to the moment when terrorist activities started in Albania and which are the most common forms of terror in Albania. The study of terrorism is multi-disciplinary, spanning a number of fields including political science, psychology, criminology, sociologist, history and many others. There are not few criminal norms provided in the Albanian Criminal Code that condemn terrorism. The Albanian Criminal Code expresses in separated articles the punishment of everyone who finances terrorism, hides funds and other assets that finance terrorism, even collects funds for terrorism financing, recruits persons for committing acts of terrorism or for terrorist financing, trains for committing terrorism acts, or makes public calls with terrorist purposes. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism.

  20. The Role of Physicists in Anti-Terrorism: Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Physicists, along with many other categories of scientists, participate in efforts against terrorism in a multitude of ways, including developing explosive detectors, sensors, security procedures, technical analyses, and decision tools. Transportation, especially civil aviation, is a field of focus within the anti- and counterterrorism arenas. The most spectacular terrorist acts have generally aimed at this sector and this trend is likely to continue. Physicists play their roles in all sectors: government, private industry, and even academia. Defense against terrorism has become a national priority in the United States, and one may expect the roles of scientific experts to become more important. The tactics of terrorists will change and develop, so it will become necessary to develop ever more sophisticated measures to fight them. Technology is part of the answer, but human factors, vulnerability analyses, threat assessment, and security procedures are equally important.

  1. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  2. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  3. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. A Criminal Law Approach to Terrorism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Legislation About Terrorism and the Major Events], trans. Carlos H. Oliveira de Sousa, SAGRES Politica e Gestao Estrategica Integradas Organization...http://ultimosegundo.ig.com.br/ politica /2013-07-14/relator-promete-rigor-em-lei-de-terrorismo-e-nega- risco-para-movimentos-sociais.html. 11 III... Politica e Social” [Crimes Against National Security and Political and Social Order], conceiving national security as an array of measures aimed at

  5. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  6. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  7. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  8. Terror: Social Media and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    extremist groups operate with impunity. Facebook recruitment is more akin to the frog in a boiling pot of water than a spontaneous combustion of terror...tweeted, "I am a Tweeter by heart , I am in favor of freedom of speech but I also defend our right to live in tranquility and peace.ඊ The legislation of

  9. Terrorism, Intelligence, and the Law,

    Science.gov (United States)

    stress. Obviously the first line of defense is the law enforcement agencies, and they’re doing a good job. However, the problem of terrorism is so...critical that it cannot be left to the law enforcement agencies alone. Much technology is available, and new technology usually can be developed to deal

  10. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  11. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  12. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  13. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-01-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail.
The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content

  14. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  15. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  16. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  17. Technical Note: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous underdose and overdose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisotzky, Eric, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@charite.de, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@ipk.fraunhofer.de; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking radiotherapy is complex as the beam pattern needs to be modified due to the planned intensity modulation as well as the real-time target motion. The target motion cannot be planned; therefore, the modified beam pattern differs from the original plan and the MLC sequence needs to be recomputed online. Current MLC tracking algorithms use a greedy heuristic in that they optimize for a given time, but ignore past errors. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed and improved an algorithm that minimizes large underdose and overdose regions. Additionally, previous underdose and overdose events are taken into account to avoid regions with high quantity of dose events. Methods: The authors improved the existing MLC motion control algorithm by introducing a cumulative underdose/overdose map. This map represents the actual projection of the planned tumor shape and logs occurring dose events at each specific regions. These events have an impact on the dose cost calculation and reduce recurrence of dose events at each region. The authors studied the improvement of the new temporal optimization algorithm in terms of the L1-norm minimization of the sum of overdose and underdose compared to not accounting for previous dose events. For evaluation, the authors simulated the delivery of 5 conformal and 14 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-plans with 7 3D patient measured tumor motion traces. Results: Simulations with conformal shapes showed an improvement of L1-norm up to 8.5% after 100 MLC modification steps. Experiments showed comparable improvements with the same type of treatment plans. Conclusions: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous dose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy has been developed and investigated. Reductions in underdose/overdose are observed for conformal and IMRT delivery.

  18. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  19. Beyond the crime-terror nexus : socio-economic status, violent crimes and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljujic, Vanja; van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Weerman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The literature on terrorism suggests a strong link between criminal offending and terrorism – the crime-terror nexus. Building upon a strain theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to suggest that devalued socio-economic status (i.e. limited education and unemployment) and criminal

  20. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  1. Terror and Reprisal - An Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-19

    International Terrorism: Problems of Deterrence", Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 110-11 6 . 4Walter Laquer , Terrorism (Boston: Little, Brown...by Laquer , p.59. 9Some terrorists, notably kidnappers in Italy and brigands in Argentina, are more concerned with money than politics. Jay Mallin...Walzer, p.204. 19Walzer, p.205. 20 Laquer , p.22 6 . 21Laquer, p.4. 22Pyotr Kropotkin, "The Spirit of Revolt", first published in Le R~voltA (Geneva,1880

  2. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  3. Contemporary terrorism as a global threat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek, Mirosław; Żuber, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has been present in human history since ancient times, but it was not considered a serious threat for global security. The attacks on the World Trade Center have demonstrated that it is a threat of a global nature. It is an effective weapon used by the "weaker" against the stronger opponents. The subject of terrorism is very complex, difficult and elusive. There is a divergence among the scholars in understanding terrorism studies due to the lack of uniform criteria for the deter...

  4. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  5. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  6. Psychiatry and terrorism: the profession's role in disaster response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Siegel, Everett R; Heitt, Michael C; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    While America wages the "war" on terrorism and endeavors to protect the physical safety of its citizens, it is imperative to plan for the population's mental health needs in future terrorist/disaster scenarios. The importance of psychiatry's potential role in preparing the community for the psychological impact of terrorism is underscored against the historical backdrop of the field being "carved out" from the organization, delivery, and financing of health services in our society. A practical framework is offered for designing an organization's mental health disaster plan, including recommendations for strategic infrastructure and tactical response capabilities. Finally, the unique features of clinical practice with disaster victims are noted, including intra-clinician conflicts between professional/community interests and personal/family obligations during acute disaster events.

  7. Youth Exposed to Terrorism: the Moderating Role of Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shur, Lia; Gilady, Ayelet

    2016-05-01

    The present review examines the moderating role of ideology on the effects of war, armed conflict, and terrorism on youth. Ideology is an important factor given the central role played by religio-political ideology and nationalism in present-day conflicts. Ideologies or worldviews represent cognitive frameworks that imbue the traumatic situation with meaning and order. Analysis of the pool of studies identified three categories of ideologically based moderating factors, each representing an aspect of social construction of traumatic events, namely, religion, political ideology, and self-concept. The two closely related categories of religion and politico-religious beliefs showed both positive and negative effects on psychological and psychiatric outcomes among youth. The third category of different aspects of self-concept yielded consistently positive moderating effects. The mechanisms by which each category of ideology moderates effects of exposure to war, armed conflict, and terrorism are discussed, and research and clinical implications are presented.

  8. Probabilistic thinking and death anxiety: a terror management based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Schuler, Eric R; Page, Kyle S; Carver, Kellye S

    2014-01-01

    Terror Management Theory has been utilized to understand how death can change behavioral outcomes and social dynamics. One area that is not well researched is why individuals willingly engage in risky behavior that could accelerate their mortality. One method of distancing a potential life threatening outcome when engaging in risky behaviors is through stacking probability in favor of the event not occurring, termed probabilistic thinking. The present study examines the creation and psychometric properties of the Probabilistic Thinking scale in a sample of young, middle aged, and older adults (n = 472). The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability for each of the four subscales, excellent overall internal consistency, and good construct validity regarding relationships with measures of death anxiety. Reliable age and gender effects in probabilistic thinking were also observed. The relationship of probabilistic thinking as part of a cultural buffer against death anxiety is discussed, as well as its implications for Terror Management research.

  9. On the future of civilian plutonium: An assessment of technological impediments to nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedon, Roger Edmond

    This dissertation addresses the value of developing diversion- and theft-resistant nuclear power technology, given uncertain future demand for nuclear power, and uncertain risks of nuclear terrorism and of proliferation from the reprocessing of civilian plutonium. The methodology comprises four elements: Economics. An economic growth model coupled with market penetration effects for plutonium and for the hypothetical new technology provides a range of estimates for future nuclear demand. A flow model accounts for the longevity of capital assets (nuclear plants) over time. Terrorism. The commercial nuclear fuel cycle may provide a source of fissile material for terrorists seeking to construct a crude nuclear device. An option value model is used to estimate the effects of the hypothetical new technology on reducing the probability of theft. A game theoretic model is used to explore the deterrence value of physical security and then to draw conclusions about how learning on the part of terrorists or security forces might affect the theft estimate. The principal uncertainties in the theft model can be updated using Bayesian techniques as new data emerge. Proliferation. Access to fissile material is the principal technical impediment to a state's acquisition of nuclear weapons. A game theoretic model is used to determine the circumstances under which a state may proliferate via diversion. The model shows that the hypothetical new technology will have little value for counter-proliferation if diversion is not a preferred proliferation method. A technology policy analysis of the choice of proliferation method establishes that diversion is unlikely to be used because it has no constituency among the important parties to the decision, namely the political leadership, the scientific establishment, and the military. Value. The decision whether to develop a diversion- and theft-resistant fuel cycle depends on the perceived value of avoiding nuclear terrorism and proliferation

  10. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.

  11. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Buçaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism phenomena in line with the principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in the context of cyber attacks events in attempt to establish a legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  12. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism pheromone in line with principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none-European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in context of cyber-attacks events in attempt to establish legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber-attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  13. The suffering is similar--is the treatment equal? An intervention with Arab Terror injured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Unger-Arnov, Yael; Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Tessler, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the last Intifada and during the Second Lebanon War, all citizens of Israel were exposed to waves of terrorism that claimed many people wounded and killed, unrelated to religious differences, age, gender, or nationality: Jews and Arabs suffered alike. The acts of terror exposed all inhabitants equally to injury, suffering, and the need to adjust. The professional literature attests that minority groups are at a higher risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms as a result of exposure to acts of terror. This article describes the treatment with terror injured, Jews and Arabs, in the frame of the project for terror victims at Rambam Medical Center, in cooperation with Operation Embrace. It also covers the project intervention with casualties of the shooting incident in the Arab town of Shefaram, with the cooperation of Shefaram Social Welfare department. The psycho-social work conducted with the injured, Jews and Arabs, emphasized their similarities, their common fate, and the fact that any of us could be injured in a terror act or a war. The suffering, the loss, and the hurt are common to us all. At the same time, the interventions referred to cultural differences and the diverse ways of coping with the aftermath of the events, based on values, faith, and outlook on life arising from cultural background.

  14. On the Explanation of Narratives Used in the Context of Terror and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Nahide

    2004-01-01

    After the events of September 11 th, the issue of terror, violonce and religion has once again come into intense discussion and debate. Especially after this event, “Islamic Terror and ’’Prophet Muhammad and Terror” has started to discuss again. In this context this question recurs again.”Was Prophet Muhammad “terrorist”? Some of authors claim that Prophet Muhammad was terrorist. In this conditions this subject needs to academic research. In order to understand Prophet Muhammad’s life truly a...

  15. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  16. Exploring Support for Terrorism Among Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cherney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine factors that influence support for terrorism, using the PEW 2010 Global Attitudes Survey. We assess aggregate results, drawing on items fielded to all Muslim respondents to identify broad factors that appear to indicate likely support for suicide terrorism. Results from a logistic regression model suggest that being female, having an educational degree, a commitment to certain Muslim beliefs and values, and being a member of the Shi’a minority might be probable indicators of support for terrorism. Some of the results were also counterintuitive. We consider the implications of our findings for understanding passive and active support for terrorism among Muslim communities.

  17. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  18. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  19. Country Reports on Terrorism 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    manuals , and maps. In April, during a search of another suspected terrorist hideout, Serbian police killed Ismail Prentic, the suspected leader of the...Grupo de Operaciones Policiales Especiales (GOPE), a 300-person unit of the Carabiñeros police force, served as the nation’s primary...drug trafficking and terrorism-related accounts on Colombian government orders. Aerial and manual eradication of illicit drugs in Colombia, key to

  20. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ćetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  1. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  2. Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A H; Matthews, B M; Oakey, M; Crutchfield, M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in whom a diagnosis of sleepwalking (six) or night terrors (six) was confirmed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychological characteristics as measured at the time of clinical assessment by means of the Eysenck personality questionnaire, the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire, and the Crown-Crisp experiential index. RESULTS--Both groups scored exceptionally highly on the hysteria scale of the Crown-Crisp experiential index and the night terrors group also scored highly on the anxiety scale. The patients with sleepwalking also scored highly on a measure of externally directed hostility. CONCLUSIONS--The physiological and psychological features identified in these patients, possibly reflecting different expressions of a constitutional cerebral characteristic, may be explored in terms of hysterical dissociation. The findings contribute to the debate concerning the nature of sleepwalking, in particular with and without the forensic aspects. PMID:2106985

  3. Risks of Mortality and Morbidity from Worldwide Terrorism: 1968-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-02-10

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. Adjusted data analyzed involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), and 86,568 ''casualties'' (injuries) of which 25,408 were fatal. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (IS) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (OR). IS had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of OR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in OR that increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2.5% (or 10%) of harm-ranked events in OR (or IS). Extreme values of victim/event rates were approximated fairly well by generalized Pareto models (typically used to fit to data on forest fires, sea levels, earthquakes, etc.). These results were in turn used to forecast maximum OR- and IS-specific victims/event rates through 2080, illustrating empirically based methods that could be applied to improve strategies to assess, prevent and manage terror-related risks and consequences.

  4. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available September 11 th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole - and the medical community in particular - must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of

  5. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagby, Moti; Goldberg, Avishay; Becker, Steven; Schwartz, Dagan; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    September 11th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole – and the medical community in particular – must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of simulated casualties that

  6. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55

  7. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  8. A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN DIMENSION*. Abstract. Terrorism is a behavioural flu plaguing the entire world at an alarming rate. Legal prescriptions based on legal prognosis have been in the form of application of sanctions directed against terrorists. Additionally, a hostile attitude to ...

  9. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  10. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  11. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  12. Democracy and Terrorism: What Roles for Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Beverly; Hickey, Suzanne; Khoury, Issam

    2008-01-01

    In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, the study of terrorism has become prominent as a function of the social sciences. The purpose of this article is to examine how terrorism studies relate to university engagement in an effort to reduce violence and terrorist acts across the globe. Illustrations will be explicated from the University of St…

  13. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Courtney B.

    2004-01-01

    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  14. Risk Reduction in Terrorism Cases: Sentencing and the Post-Conviction Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Berkell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores existing underpinnings in the United States criminal justice system for post-conviction risk reduction measures in terrorism cases. The purpose of these measures is to reduce the risk of future criminality by those already convicted of violent extremist offenses, thereby protecting public safety while also benefiting individuals and communities. Specifically, integrating specialized risk and needs assessments into terrorism cases at sentencing and during the corrections process constitutes one possible risk reduction measure. When administered to individuals convicted of providing material support or other terrorism-related offenses, rigorous evaluations can supply courts with information significant for sentencing and, when appropriate, structuring individualized rehabilitation approaches. In addition to assessment tools, rehabilitation and reintegration programs constitute potential risk reduction measures. Risk reduction programs would supplement and enhance, not replace, existing correctional methods including incarceration and supervised release. The District of Minnesota federal court is pioneering a program of disengagement and deradicalization for terrorism defendants, and other courts likely will develop similar approaches. However, appropriate judicial bodies have yet to adopt proactive roles in developing national policy guidance in this area. This article aims to further the discussion of reducing recidivism risk in terrorism cases by clarifying the legal and technical issues that would require resolution as prerequisites for the consideration and potential development of post-conviction programming.

  15. Violence-related Versus Terror-related Stabbings: Significant Differences in Injury Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-01-24

    To demonstrate the gap between injury epidemiology of terror-related stabbings (TRS) and non-terror-related intentional stabbings. Terror attacks with sharp instruments have multiplied recently, with many victims of these incidents presented to hospitals with penetrating injuries. Because most practical experience of surgeons with intentional stabbing injuries comes from treating victims of interpersonal violence, potential gaps in knowledge may exist if injuries from TRS significantly differ from interpersonal stabbings (IPS). A retrospective study of 1615 patients from intentional stabbing events recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the period of "Knife Intifada" (January 2013-March 2016). All stabbings were divided into TRS and IPS. The 2 categories were compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources, and clinical outcomes. TRS patients were older, comprised more females and were ethnically homogenous. Most IPS incidents happened on weekdays and at night hours, whereas TRS events peaked midweek during morning and afternoon hours. TRS patients had more injuries of head, face, and neck, and severe head and neck injuries. IPS patients had more abdomen injuries; however, respective injuries in the TRS group were more severe. Greater injury severity of the TRS patients reflected on their higher hospital resources utilization and greater in-hospital mortality. Victims of terror stabbings are profoundly different in their characteristics, sustain injuries of a different profile and greater severity, require more hospital resources, and have worse off clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need of the healthcare systems to adjust itself appropriately to deal successfully with future terror attacks.

  16. Chemical-biological terrorism and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W, Shannon; Julia A, McMillan

    2006-09-01

    Children remain potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. In recent years, children have even been specific targets of terrorist acts. Consequently, it is necessary to address the needs that children would face after a terrorist incident. A broad range of public health initiatives have occurred since September 11, 2001. Although the needs of children have been addressed in many of them, in many cases, these initiatives have been inadequate in ensuring the protection of children. In addition, public health and health care system preparedness for terrorism has been broadened to the so-called all-hazards approach, in which response plans for terrorism are blended with plans for a public health or health care system response to unintentional disasters (eg, natural events such as earthquakes or pandemic flu or manmade catastrophes such as a hazardous-materials spill). In response to new principles and programs that have appeared over the last 5 years, this policy statement provides an update of the 2000 policy statement. The roles of both the pediatrician and public health agencies continue to be emphasized; only a coordinated effort by pediatricians and public health can ensure that the needs of children, including emergency protocols in schools or child care centers, decontamination protocols, and mental health interventions, will be successful.

  17. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  18. Through the looking glass: The role of ethnicity and affiliation in responses to terrorism in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  19. Through the Looking Glass: The Role of Ethnicity and Affiliation in Responses to Terrorism in the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  20. Through the Looking Glass: The Role of Ethnicity and Affiliation in Responses to Terrorism in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images. PMID:28018258

  1. Dynamics of the world terror and the war in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of world terror and the war in Iraq were studied from different aspects. World terror displays a scaling growth while the rate equations of the civilian and the US-soldier casualties in Iraq both display zero-order chemical kinetics. The fractal dimensions of scattering diagrams were evaluated. Animal diagrams were obtained from scattering diagrams. A similarity/dissimilarity ratio was defined to relate any casualty event to a former one. This ratio implies that the dynamics of civilian casualties in Iraq is very complex. The changes of topological indices of animal diagrams were evaluated with respect to time and the area of the blank zones. The topological index changes linearly with time, and there exists a scaling relation between the topological index and the area of the blank zones in the case of world terror. The area of blank zones in the scattering diagram of US-soldiers decreases with the increase of topological index implying that the dynamics is confined to the scattering diagram. The area keeps almost constant for civilian casualties in Iraq with a jump after some time, and it implies that the dynamics has a growing tendency. There are two self-similarity patterns in the scattering diagram of world terror; one is peak-like and expanding, and the other is triangular and controls the growth. There is only a triangular controlling pattern for the scattering diagram of civilian casualties, and there is no significant self-similarity pattern for the scattering diagram of the US-soldier casualties in Iraq.

  2. 75 FR 2445 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 27 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Department... issues related to certain regulatory provisions in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS...-Terrorism Standards COI--Chemical(s) of Interest CVI--Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information DHS...

  3. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  4. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  5. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  6. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  7. TERRORISM IMPACT ON INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu UZLAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a more and more discussed topic. All over the world common people and experts talk about victims, casualties and physical damage. What about economic effects? Not only in terms of costs, but also regarding how terrorist acts affect different branches of the economy. Before 2001, September 11th insurance industry did not think about taking into consideration terrorist risk and assess them accordingly. In financial terms, does this industry gain or lose? In the following work a few issues regarding these questions might be answered.

  8. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  9. Russia’s Contribution as a Partner in the War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Nr 35-F3), “On Coun- tering Terrorism,” signed by President Putin on March 6, 2006, after it was ratified by both chambers of the Russian...the event directly, or conducting a bloody and spectacular attack in Russia which would overshadow the games. For Moscow, this is the pri- mary

  10. Shooting the Messenger: Diplomats Crushed by Wave of New Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Diplomats Crushed by Wave of New Terrorism Sb. GRANTNUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Justin NI. Geineti, U.S. Department...bombers with armed assaulters in which none of Ihe attackers intend to survive. The Global Terrorism Database shows the numberofattacks against diplomatic...the Cold War and is potentially explained by tite ‘new terrorism ” tlteory attd Robert Pape’s theory on suicide terrorism . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Terrorism

  11. The Impact of Terrorism on Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Kinyanjui

    2014-01-01

    This paper assessed the relationship between terrorism and foreign direct investment in Kenya. Secondary data on the Terrorism attacks and FDI from 2010 to 2012 was used for the study. Multiple regression model was used to test of the relationship between the study variables. By applying the model, the study found that terrorism negatively affects FDI in Kenya. It was concluded that Terrorism activities negatively affect the FDI in Kenya. Terrorism activities decrease the foreign investor con...

  12. Motivational dynamics of suicide terrorism: organizational and individual perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Üstünel Yırcalı, Ayşe; Ustunel Yircali, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    There is no abundance in the quantity and quality of research realized in the area of suicide terrorism. Although suicide terrorism is as old a phenomenon as terrorism, the scope of research investigating the latter outweighs and usually encloses the former as a subtopic. The increasing trend in suicide terrorism and the high rate of casualties it inflicts on its target enemy raises significant questions such as what accounts for the rise in suicide terrorism, what kind of people and groups a...

  13. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  14. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on the causes and economic impact of terrorist activities; • reveals that appearance of evaluation categories in the field of terrorism resulted in a formation of a specific world market - a terrorism market; • considers problems related to the effectiveness of budgetary and extra-budgetary expenditure linked to threats of international terrorism in the countries of the integrated world; • highlights the economic losses incurred by Ukraine because of the terrorist activity in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in 2014; • defines theoretical aspects of anti-terrorist Ukrainian policy analysis in the context of international, especially European and Euro-Atlantic, anti-terrorism cooperation; The conducted analysis shows that one of the priority tasks of the state regarding to improving the efficiency of antiterrorist activity should be the construction of the system of prevention of terrorism as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, including by means of creating a system of regulatory actions of authorized authorities and other institutions of civil society in this area.

  16. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  17. The impact of terrorism on children: a two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Mor, Meirav; Amir, Lisa; Peleg, Kobi

    2003-01-01

    To review and analyze the cumulative two-year, Israeli experience with medical care for children victims of terrorism during the prehospital and hospital phases. Data were collected from the: (1) Magen David Adom National Emergency Medical System Registry (prehospital phase); (2) medical records from the authors' institutions (pediatric triage); and (3) Israel Trauma Registry (injury characteristics and utilization of in-hospital resources). Statistical analyses were performed as appropriate. During the recent wave of violence in Israel and the surrounding region, hundreds of children have been exposed to and injured by terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology and management of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effects on the healthcare system. This study focuses on four aspects of terrorism-related injuries: (1) tending to victims in the prehospital phase; (2) triage, with a description of a modified, pediatric triage algorithm; (3) characteristics of trauma-related injuries in children; and (4) utilization of in-hospital resources. During the study period, 41 mass-casualty events (MCEs) were managed by Magen David Adom. Each event involved on average, 32 regular and nine mobile intensive care unit ambulances with 93 medics, 19 paramedics, and four physicians. Evacuation time was 5-10 minutes in urban areas and 15-20 minutes in rural areas. In most cases, victims were evacuated to multiple facilities. To improve efficiency and speed, the Magen David Adom introduced the use of well-trained "first-responders" and volunteer, off-duty professionals, in addition to "scoop and run" on-the-scene management. Because of differences in physiology and response between children and adults, a pediatric triage algorithm was developed using four categories instead of the usual three. Analysis of the injuries sustained by the 160 children hospitalized after these events indicates that most were caused by blasts and penetration by

  18. Urban Fears and Global Terrors: Citizenship, Multicultures and Belongings after 7/7

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Urban Fears and Global Terrors After 7/7 explores the disruption around that day, taking people back to the events and the sense of loss, fear and mourning that followed. By framing a new landscape of urban fear Victor Seidler shows how new technologies helped to shape responses to a global terror that had been anticipated but was dreadful in its reality. By listening to the narratives people shaped for themselves Seidler shows the need for new forms of social theory that can come to terms wi...

  19. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  20. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.

    2009-04-01

    The persisting and heavy rainstorms from 20th to 22nd August in 2005 resulted in loss of human lives and tremendous damage on infrastructure all over Switzerland. Many of the measures taken hitherto to protect against such natural hazards were stressed to their limits or even beyond due to water saturation of the soils and extreme discharges of the torrents. This particular configuration offered the possibility to investigate the reliability of technical and biological measures taken within the scope of slope stabilisation, torrent and gully control. In the context of a joint project the ancient sliding area "Schwandrübi" in Dallenwil (Switzerland) providing joint technical and biological measures was chosen to address aspects concerning the reliability of technical supporting structures, the development of biological measures in the course of time and their performance under the extreme impact as well as the effects of biological measures on the stability of slopes. During 1981 and 1982 joint technical and biological measures had been taken on a large scale with minor follow-ups shortly after to stabilise the "Schwandrübi". The underlying strategy was based on several pilot surveys as thorough soil analysis, e.g. grain size distribution and determination of the angle of internal friction (Φ') related to the porosity (n) and the dry unit weight (γ), respectively. Basically, the spatial arrangement of the gabions was in accordance with the theoretical guidelines. However, based on the angle of internal friction (Φ') determined on the loose moraine soil material, it was not possible to meet the soil mechanical criterion of inclination between the constructions in all cases. Regardless of the extreme impact during the rainstorm (~100-year event), no serious damage occurred neither on the roughly 25-year old gabions nor on the torrent control structures. The recalculated peak discharge in the outlet channel was ~60 m3s-1 superimposed by high bed load

  1. How Terrorism News Reports Increase Prejudice against Outgroups: A Terror Management Account

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim (Studies 1-3) and Muslim (Study 3) participants were exposed to news about either Islamic terrorist acts or to control news. When Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh was murdered in Amster...

  2. Trust and terrorism: citizen responses to anti-terrorism performance history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2010-09-01

    The "intuitive detection theorists" model of trust posits greater trust for correctly distinguishing danger from safety and an activist response under uncertainty about danger. An American sample evaluated U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) performance after two possible terrorism events in which DHS has the same activist or nonactivist response bias. Outcomes were two successes (bombing prevented or lack of threat accurately foretold), two failures (bombing or DHS action against high school prank leads to student deaths), or a mix. Hindsight empathy (a belief one would have made the same decision) differed across treatments but trust less so; contrary to a similar one-event experiment in Germany, an active but incorrect response did not raise trust relative to passive incorrect action. Political conservatives were much more trusting and empathetic than liberals, and all ideological groups (including moderates) exhibited little internal variation reflecting experimental conditions. Consistently accurate outcomes rated significantly higher in empathy than either inconsistent results or consistent inaccuracy (the lowest rated); trust exhibited no significant differences. Results in this study show actual (experimentally manipulated) performance being trumped by the interpretive screen of political ideology, but this seemed less the case in the earlier German study, despite its finding of a strong moderating effect of right-wing authoritarianism. Trust scholars need to attend more to effects of performance history (i.e., a sequence of events) and their limiting factors. More systematic testing of effects of ideology and performance history would enhance future research on trust. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-07-22

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  4. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Perry W; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-07-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism.

  5. A longitudinal study of changes in psychological responses to continuous terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Solomon, Zahava; Bleich, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    The impact of ongoing terror over time has received little attention. This study assesses longitudinally prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms' trajectories, namely resistance, resilience, late-onset and chronicity in the course of intensive and ongoing terror. Two surveys were performed at a two-year interval among 153 Jewish Israeli adults. Results show probable PTSD prevalence, number of traumatic stress related symptoms (TSRS), and rate of severe posttraumatic symptomatology (PTSS) to increase over time (from 18.2% to 31.2%). With this, many (66.7% of those with PTSD and 39.3% of those with PTSS at wave 1) recovered. Late-onset of severe PTSS (19.6% of the sample) was predicted by income reduction, a major lifetime traumatic event, sense of threat, dissociation, coping via disengagement and low mood. Chronicity was predicted by sense of threat, pessimism, dissociation and disengagement. Continuous exposure to terror has a strong negative impact on mental health. Secondly, even within a chronic situation of terror, a large proportion of individuals with elevated levels of posttraumatic symptomatology recover over time; third, prolonged exposure to terror may also exacerbate symptomatology, but not per-se trigger new PTSD cases.

  6. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  7. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  8. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan

    2011-01-01

    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle...

  9. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  10. Islamic Law and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jihād and terrorism are not the same. In the context of sharia that implementation of the jihād has parameters measured with a layer of ethics based on the commands Al Quran and the Hadith of Prophet and the explanation the Ulama. Muslims in Indonesia views that the essentially not much different from the views on jihād and terror in other Islamic countries, especially the Middle East. In the context of Islamic law, jihād has multi spectral studies, but none of these studies that equate the meaning of jihād with terrorism, or none of them agreed that acts of terror as has been demonstrated by radical groups that are part of the concept Islam.

  11. Bibliography on Future Trends in Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn; Hudson, Rex

    1998-01-01

    ...), particularly against the United States. Accordingly, many of the 295 monographs and journal articles surveyed in this bibliography discuss the potential threats of nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism and the countermeasures...

  12. Terrorism: Near Eastern Groups and State Sponsors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    .... Pressured by international sanctions and isolation, Sudan and Libya appear to have sharply reduced their support for international terrorist groups, and Sudan has told the United States it wants to work to achieve removal from the terrorism list.

  13. The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.

  14. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  15. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  16. Bibliography on Future Trends in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    counterterrorism; combating terrorism Library of Congress — Federal Research Division Future Trends in Terrorism 60 Pilat , Joseph F. "Chemical and Biological...diagnose anxiety , depression, bereavement, and organic brain syndromes to provide treatment, reassurance, and the relief of pain. Keyword(s): first...travel attitude, age, gender, education, income, and presence of children in a household. The study is based on a mail survey of 240 tourists from the

  17. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-01-01

    At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on...

  18. Combating Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    Methodology This research project was conducted utilizing library and Internet based research of subject matter experts from primary source terrorist analysts...modern day Islamic transnational terrorism as the Sicilians were to the American Italian Mafia or Cosa Nostra: which translates to: “our thing.” Like...14 September 2001, accessed 09October 2002); available from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-network.cfm; Internet . Beck, Ulrich. 2000. What is

  19. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  1. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H

    2011-01-01

    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  3. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  5. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  6. Integrating international responses to complex emergencies, unconventional war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2005-01-01

    The world is experiencing unprecedented violence and threats of violence, taking the form of complex internal nation-state conflicts, unconventional or guerrilla warfare against established governments, and stateless threats of terrorism by potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear weapons. What happens locally has immediate ramifications internationally. Real and potential health consequences of these events have evoked global concerns and realization that capacities and capabilities to respond to such events require unparalleled integration, coordination, and cooperation of the international community. However, politics and the institutions singular governments form are inherently limited in their objectives and capability to effectively respond. Public health, broadly defined, must be recognized as a security and strategic requirement, one that serves to build a foundation for an international integrated response capacity.

  7. On the Determinants of Terrorism Risk Concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether differences in terrorism risk are mirrored on terrorism risk concern across European countries for the period 2003-2007. We find that the average propensity for terrorism risk concern is indeed affected by actual risk levels. Furthermore, country and individual heterogeneity contribute substantially to the variation of observed risk concern. According to our findings, males, singles and individuals with white collar jobs are less likely to mention terrorism as one of th...

  8. Recollection Bias and Its Underpinnings: Lessons from Terrorism Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W Kip; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2017-05-01

    Recollection bias is the phenomenon whereby people who observe a highly unexpected event hold current risk beliefs about a similar event that are no higher than their recollection of their prior beliefs. This article replicates and extends the authors' previous study of recollection bias in relation to individuals' perceptions of the risks of terrorism attacks. Over 60% of respondents in a national U.S. sample of over 900 adults believe that the current risk of a future terrorist attack by either an airplane or in a public setting is no higher than they recall having believed, respectively, before the 9/11 attack and before the Boston Marathon bombing. By contrast, a rational Bayesian model would update to a higher currently assessed risk of these previously uncontemplated events. Recollection bias is a persistent trait: individuals who exhibited this bias for the 9/11 attack exhibited it for the Boston Marathon bombing. Only one-fifth of respondents are free of any type of recollection bias. Recollection bias is negatively correlated with absolute levels of risk belief. Recollection bias in relation to highly unexpected terrorist events-the belief that perceived risks did not increase after the surprise occurrence-dampens support for a variety of anti-terrorism measures, controlling for the level of risk beliefs and demographic factors. Persistent recollection bias for both 9/11 and the Boston Marathon bombing is especially influential in diminishing support for protective policy measures, such as surveillance cameras in public places. Given that public attitudes influence policy, educating the public about risk is critical. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  10. Fear of future terrorism: Associated psychiatric burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, T; Udofia, O; Sheikh, T L; Yusuf, D A

    2017-02-04

    The mental health burden from fear of future terrorism has not been given much research attention compared to the immediate mental distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such neglected ongoing mental health morbidity associated with threats of terrorism had been described as pre-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). The study highlighted this phenomenon (PTSS) in Nigeria by examining the catastrophic burden of the fear of future terrorism and associated psychiatric burden among adult population in Kaduna city. Participants were students and staff of Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna Polytechnic, and students awaiting admission into Kaduna State University. They responded to the following instruments after obtaining their informed consents: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Terrorism Catastrophising Scale (TCS), and the depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) portion of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The TCS showed that 78.8% of the participants had from moderate to severe clinical distress on fear of terrorism. The TCS has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.721 and also had significant moderate correlation with depression (r=0.278; pterrorism was high and this was relatively related to depression and GAD. This highlighted the need for ongoing monitoring and called for their effective prevention from the identified underlying cognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  12. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs..., Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) for an additional 30 days. \\1\\ See 77 FR 74677. The 60... that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  13. 77 FR 74677 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism... Part 27. CFATS represents a national-level effort to minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its...

  14. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting AGENCY: Departmental... (``Treasury'') is issuing this proposed rule as part of its implementation of Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of...

  15. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  16. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  17. Terrorism-Related Loss of Citizenship - A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. TERRORISM -RELATED...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TERRORISM -RELATED LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP — A POLICY REVIEW 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...terrorist organization, or engaging in or supporting terrorism . Although several of our allies, including the U.K., Australia, and France, have

  18. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  19. 75 FR 1552 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 27 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Department... related to certain regulatory provisions in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) that... Used in This Document ASP--Alternative Security Program CFATS--Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism...

  20. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  1. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  2. Jordan Stands at the Front Line of Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    financial and material gain.  Psychic – This means magical beliefs, myths and superstitions induced by fanatical religious beliefs.  War – Terrorism is... Disorders and Terrorism (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), 3. Cited from James. M. Poland, Understanding Terrorism (New Jersey

  3. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  4. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  5. The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and early adverse events following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J; Kennedy, Kevin F; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on early outcomes is not well studied. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim technical failure and major early adverse events. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major early adverse event in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major early adverse event (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified. Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or early adverse events. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  7. Gas: the greatest terror of the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padley, A P

    2016-07-01

    The Great War began just over a century ago and this monumental event changed the world forever. 1915 saw the emergence of gas warfare-the first weapon of mass terror. It is relevant to anaesthetists to reflect on these gases for a number of reasons. Firstly and most importantly we should acknowledge and be aware of the suffering and sacrifice of those soldiers who were injured or killed so that we could enjoy the freedoms we have today. Secondly, it is interesting to consider the overlap between poison gases and anaesthetic gases and vapors, for example that phosgene can be formed by the interaction of chloroform and sunlight. Thirdly the shadow of gas warfare is very long and covers us still. The very agents used in the Great War are still causing death and injury through deployment in conflict areas such as Iraq and Syria. Industrial accidents, train derailments and dumped or buried gas shells are other sources of poison gas hazards. In this age of terrorism, anaesthetists, as front-line resuscitation specialists, may be directly involved in the management of gas casualties or become victims ourselves.

  8. Terrorism and Other Threats to Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-07-01

    In the Seminars on Planetary Emergencies, we have for more than a decade had a strong focus on terrorism, and, indeed, on megaterrorism. We realized early that there was much that could be achieved to mitigate the consequences of terrorists' acts, and so our original PMP, ably chaired by Kamal, was split into PMP-MTA (Mitigation of Terrorists Acts) and PMP-Motivation of Terrorism. Clearly, terrorism doesn't just happen, but is performed by people, either relatively spontaneously or in an organized fashion. I will not presume to report on the considerations and accomplishments of our colleagues, chaired by John Alderdice, who have studied terrorist motivations and worked hard to eliminate such motivations...

  9. TOURISM AND TERRORISM: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  10. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  11. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war.

  12. Shooting History: An interview with Swiss artist Christoph Draeger about the re-enactment of terrorism in his video installation Black September (2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Baden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces to the video installation Black September (2002 by Swiss artist Christoph Draeger and presents statements of the artist given in an interview in 2012. Draeger collects media representations of disasters in order to reconfigure their inherent sensationalism later in his artworks. The video installation Black September consists of appropriated footage from a documentary movie and video sequences from a re-enactment of the historical events of September 5th 1972, the terrorist attack during the 20th Olympic Games in Munich. Even the artist himself gets involved in the play in his mimikry of a hostage-taker and terrorist. Thus he questions the conditions of the mutual constitution of cultural memory and collective memory. His video installation creates a “counter image” in reaction to the “omnipresent myth of terrorism”, generated by the tragedy of 9/11 and the media reports in its aftermath. Both terrorist attacks, in Munich 1972 and in New York 2001, mark a turning point in the visual dominance of terrorism. In the case of September 11th, the recurring images of the airplane-attacks and the explosion of the WTC, followed by its collapsing, symbolize the legacy of the “terror of attention”, that would affect every spectator. The video questions the limits of the “disaster zone” in fictional reality and mass media. The artwork re-creates central scenes of the event in 1972. It brings the terrorist action close to the spectator through emersive images, but technically obtains a critical distance through its mode of reflection upon the catastrophe.The installation Black September stimulates and simulates history and memory simultaneously. It fills the void of a traumatic narrative and tries to recapture the signs that have been unknown yet.

  13. Oil terrorism-militancy link: Mediating role of moral disengagement in emergency and crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafimisebi, Oluwasoye Patrick; Thorne, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The controversial issues of terrorism and militancy have generated contemporary interests and different interpretations have emerged on how to combat and manage these dangerous events. This study widens understanding of moral disengagement mechanism application in the perpetuation of inhumanities within the context of oil terrorist and militant behaviors. The research findings and model are explicit on how people form moral evaluations of agents who are forced to make morally relevant decisions over times in context of crisis situations. Quite crucially, understanding the context of terrorism and militancy provides policymakers, emergency and crisis managers better analysis and response to such events. The research fundamental purpose was to investigate the mediating role of moral disengagement on delinquency of oil terrorism and militancy; and considered implications for emergency and crisis management practices. The study found that situational-induced crises such as oil terrorism and militancy were sufficient to account for an individual's misdeeds and unethical or inhumane decisions made under frustration and agitation may be perceived as less indicative of one's fundamental character. Findings suggest that more repugnant delinquencies could have been committed in the name of justice than in the name of injustice, avenues for future research. In context, the result of the moral disengagement scale shows that morality of delinquency (oil terrorism and militancy) is accomplished by cognitively redefining the morality of such acts. The main finding is that people in resistance movements are rational actors making rational choices. The authors argue that theorists, policymakers, and practitioners must give meaningful attention to understanding the multidimensional nature of emergency, crisis and disaster management for better strength of synthesis between theory and practice. The research is concluded by thorough examination of the implication and limitations for

  14. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  16. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    their focus and interventions to the Muslim community and their investment in security into counter terrorism.87 As the de facto body for public...conations, the ETF is nothing more than an advisory body . Furthermore, Prevent needs to completely disengage itself from any efforts to tackle extremism...ref:E54732C1AD61A8#.VIjxeMstDIU. 113 BBC, “Mother betrayed by her son’s terror sentence,” last modified, December 7, 2014, accessed December 10, 2014, http

  17. [Preparedness response to hazard and toxic incidents and food terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-06-01

    The nerve gas sarin has been responsible for tragic disasters in Matsumoto city, Nagano in 1994 and in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, which was a terrorist attack against non-military citizens. These chemical weapons exposures shocked the world, and have become sources of social concern. Thereafter there were several toxic substance-evoked incidents in Japan, specifically a poisoning due to curry containing arsenite at Wakayama city and foods and drinks containing other toxic chemicals. Following these tragic events, the Japanese government started to prepare a risk and medical management system for countering chemical and biological terrorism by developing a network of nationwide highly-sophisticated analytical instruments in police research institutes and emergency hospitals. Various ministries and National Research Institutes also provide information, guidelines and treatments for chemical and biological agents. In the event of an emergency such as a mass chemical exposure or mass food poisoning, information on "when, where, who, whom, what, how" should be reported rapidly and accurately to the first responding national organizations, such as police and fire departments, health care centers, and hospitals. Pharmaceutical scientists and pharmacists have been educated and trained on the handling of toxic chemical substances as well as drugs, and thus in the case of an event, they can become advisers for risk assessment and the analysis of drugs and chemicals. Japan has experienced food- and drink-poisonings as terrorism-like attacks. Poisonings caused by the herbicide paraquat and other pesticides including organophosphate insecticides, potassium cyanate and the above-mentioned arsenite-poisoned curry food have occurred. Because of easy access to internet-aided purchases of toxic substances and the import and export of foods, we must pay attention to possible massive exposures through foods and develop emergency management measures to counter them.

  18. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    96 See discussion of Daliberti v. Republic of Iraq in: Keith Sealing , "’State Sponsors of Terrorism’ Is a Question, Not an Answer: The Terrorism...34Foreign Terrorist Organizations." 101 See discussion of Flatow, Cicippio, and Anderson in: Sealing , ""State Sponsors of Terrorism" Is a Question, Not...Philip Roessler, "Can a Leopard Change Its Spots? Sudan’s Evolving Relationship with Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Horn of Africa (Washington D.C

  19. Terrorism in Brazil: critical analysis of the legal and institutional framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Faria Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a delict that requires multilateral cooperation, moreover because of its transnational dimension. Nevertheless, there is no universal legal definition for terrorism. Hence, states discuss the necessity of prevent and punish an undefined delict. This article analyses the legal and institutional Brazilian framework concerning terrorism. Brazil ratified the main global and regional acts about this subject and, recently, has passed laws in an attempt to curb the financing and reach a legal definition. This is the consequence of the pressure for the implementation of the UNSC resolutions and FATF recommendations and the promotion of international events such as the Olympic Games (2016. The adequacy of the legal framework to the international guidelines concerning the financing of the terrorism was a good decision but the definition adopted by the antiterrorism law (n. 13.260/2016 is flawed and reveals the Brazilian purpose of harmonizing the aspiration to assert itself as a global player and the traditional policy of neutrality and preference for the soft power.

  20. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income–terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators’ nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators’ nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls. PMID:28579636

  1. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A; Sandler, Todd

    2016-03-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income-terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators' nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators' nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls.

  2. 9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…

  3. Prevalence and Course of Symptom-Defined PTSD in Individuals Directly or Indirectly Exposed to Terror: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marianne Bang; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nissen, Alexander; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that direct exposure to terrorism can result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may also develop symptoms of PTSD. This study examined the prevalence and course of symptom-defined PTSD in employees who were present and not present at the site of a workplace terror attack. Survey data from ministerial employees were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the 2011 bombing in the government district of Oslo. A total of 3,520 employees were initially invited to the study. Response rates of eligible participants were 56% (N = 1,974) at T1, 55% (N = 1,780) at T2, and 54% (N = 1,578) at T3. PTSD was measured using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific (PCL-S). Symptom-defined PTSD was specified as meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), B, C, and D criteria. Our findings showed a low and declining prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD in employees indirectly exposed to a workplace terror attack (4%, 3%, and 2% at the three respective times). In employees present at the site of the explosion, PTSD was six- to eightfold more prevalent (24%, 17%, and 17%). Individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may develop long-lasting posttraumatic stress reactions fulfilling PTSD symptom criteria. Due to the large number of individuals that may be indirectly exposed to terrorism, even a low risk of PTSD may result in high numbers of individuals with substantial posttraumatic stress. Our findings have implications for the planning and implementation of health care services beyond those directly exposed after large-scale terror events.

  4. An overview of terrorism and its impact on biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John M

    2003-11-01

    Since the '9/11' and anthrax-contaminated-letter events of 2001, American society has given the term "bioterrorism" much attention. The author clarifies the definitions associated with bioterrorism and terrorism, provides an historical perspective regarding bioweapons, defines and characterizes the types of agents used as bioweapons, reviews pertinent bioterrorism legislation, and concludes by assessing the impact of these elements on biomedical research facilities.

  5. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera S. Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The psychological di...

  6. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS: THE KEY TO A MORE AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    second opportunity to stop the terror narrative occurs during the event itself (i.e., kidnapping , the taking of hostages, the placement of an...explosive device, or a hijacking). A prime example of this is the 2014 kidnapping of American photojournalist Luke Somers. Somers was taken hostage while... kidnapping of non-combatant foreigners such as journalists and members of non-governmental organizations providing aid. The Islamic State has perfected the

  7. Nuclear terrorism: triage and medical management of radiation and combined-injury casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Daniel F; Goans, Ronald E

    2006-06-01

    This article addresses the medical effects of nuclear explosions and other forms of radiation exposure, assessment of radiation dose, triage of victims, definitive treatment of radiation and combined-injury casualties, and planning for emergency services after a terrorist attack involving a nuclear device. It reviews historical events of mass radiation-induced casualties and fatalities at Hiroshima, Chernobyl, and Goiania, and discusses various scenarios for nuclear terrorism.

  8. Japan’s security policy and the war on terror : steady incrementalism or radical leap?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2002-01-01

    The study of globalisation carries important conceptual insights into the contemporary security agenda following the events of 9/11. This working paper argues that globalisation can be defined in a variety of ways, ranging from liberalisation to Westernisation, and can also be extended into concepts of supra-territorialisation. In combination, these definitions help to explain the generation of 9/11 style-conflict by providing the political-economic motivation for hyper-terrorism, by facilita...

  9. The Effect of Economic and Cultural Globalization on Anti-U.S. Transnational Terrorism 19712000*

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Lizardo

    2015-01-01

    The events of 9/11 have rekindled interest in the social sciences concerning the global factors responsible for transnational terrorism. Two opposing frameworks currently dominate the scene: proponents of a destructive globalization approach argue that processes related to the transnationalization of capital produce native resistance in the more economically disadvantaged areas of the globe that is manifested as transnational terrorist attacks, especially against the U.S., civilizing globaliz...

  10. Concern and death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave: The moderating role of direct vs. indirect exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Shani; Zaken, Adi; David, Udi Y; Bergman, Yoav S

    2017-05-25

    The current study examined whether emotional concern over one's security situation is connected with death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave, and whether type of exposure (media exposure vs. contact with witnesses) moderates this connection. A total of 345 individuals, aged 18-70, were sampled during an ongoing wave of terror in Israel and filled out scales measuring death anxiety, concern over security situation, and type of exposure. Results indicated that increased concern was connected with enhanced death anxiety. Moreover, this connection was more pronounced among individuals exposed to the events through the media, in comparison with individuals who had first-hand contact with witnesses.

  11. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  12. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  13. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  14. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okolie-Osemene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  15. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...

  16. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  17. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...

  18. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  19. Psychiatric and Societal Impacts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieger, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    ... is one consequence of terrorism. Even emotional and behavioral changes that do not reach the level of a diagnosable disorder may contribute significantly to the overall health burden resulting from terrorist attacks. Psychiatric disorders will occur in a relatively small percentage of the exposed population. The course of illness for those in whom suc...

  20. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  1. A Geographic Approach for Teaching about Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Geography is in a unique position to address the topic of terrorism both inside and outside the classroom and has much to offer in terms of crafting effective measures to counter some of the most pressing threats to international security. As little consideration has been given to teaching about this important subject matter at the university…

  2. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  3. Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775

  4. The sleepwalking/night terrors syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are inconvenienced or threatened. The constitutional basis of the disorder is beyond doubt, although the actual expression may be related to stressful life-events resulting from an individual's personality, relationships and circumstances. Treatment may include the provision of a secure environment, counselling, and the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. PMID:8977941

  5. Children's response to terrorism: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Gurwitch, Robin H; Nagumalli, Sridevi; Brandt, Edward N; Robertson, Madeline J; Aceska, Alexandra; Saste, Vishal S

    2003-06-01

    The advent of major terrorist assaults has ushered in a sense of insecurity and vulnerability heretofore unknown in the US. There is information about the impact of disasters and trauma on children, but relatively little data on the effects of terrorism. The events of September 11, 2001 have underscored the need to examine this issue. This report summarizes recent studies that address the impact of terrorist incidents on children, and examines issues related to mental health services for children in the post-attack environment. Work related to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the 1998 bombing of the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, and the September 11 attacks are reviewed. This article indicates significant challenges in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of children potentially in need of attention.

  6. Visualizing uncertainty for geographical information in the global terrorism database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Josh; Chang, Remco; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty. Traditional uncertainty visualization techniques, such as those that change primitive attributes or employ animation, can create large amounts of clutter or actively distract when visualizing geospatially uncertain events within large datasets. To effectively identify geo-spatial trends within the Global Terrorism Database of the START Center, we have developed a novel usage of squarified treemaps that maintains the strengths of traditional map-viewing but incorporates some measure of data verity.

  7. Using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling for regulatory benefit-cost analysis: application to the Western hemisphere travel initiative in the land environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; LaTourrette, Tom

    2008-04-01

    distribution of risks it is intended to manage. But, continued research to develop additional tools and data is necessary to support application of these approaches. These include refinement of models and simulations, engagement of subject matter experts, implementation of program evaluation, and estimating the costs of casualties from terrorism events.

  8. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Palombini, Luciana; Pelayo, Rafael; Chervin, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders. Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that

  9. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  10. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Freedman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews. Then there are virtual networks, such as the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI, that try to create synergies between a wide array of researchers and topics.

  11. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  12. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Erik H.

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists...

  13. Terrorism and Stock Market Linkages: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Imtiaz; Suleman, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the impact of prolonged terrorist activities on stock prices of different sectors listed in Karachi Stock Exchange by using newly developed terrorism impact factor index with lingering effect (TIFL) and monthly time series data from 2002(Jan) to 2011(Dec). Johansen and Jeuselius cointegration revealed long run relationship between terrorism and stock price. Normalized cointegration vectors are used to test the effect of terrorism on stock price. Results demonstrated si...

  14. Symbolic Violence as Subtle Virulence: The Philosophy of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Beever, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard’s semiotic analysis of violence leads us to understand the form of violence as three-fold: aggressive, historical, and semiotically virulent. Violence of the third form is the violence endemic to terrorism. If violence has been typically understood as of the first two types, terrorism should be understood as the virulence of simulacra. The conflation of these types of violence explains the failure of militaristic responses to terrorism. This paper will explore Baudrillard’s ...

  15. Switzerland and efforts to combat the financing of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    de Watteville, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Combating international terrorism has long been one of Switzerland's main concerns. Furthermore Switzerland has worked closely with other nations in combating terrorism and will continue to do so in future, both in the context of international treaties and on the basis of the law on mutual assistance in criminal matters. International co-operation to combat the financing of terrorism is taking place at several levels. The instruments for combating money laundering are also important for comba...

  16. Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection 5a...meet high standards for re- search quality and objectivity. Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Henry H...across differ- ent urban areas, to assess terrorism risks within a metropolitan area, and to target intelligence analysis and collection efforts. The

  17. Deconstruction of Jihad Radicalism in Islamic Law: A Conceptual Proposal to Combat Isis Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkum Sumitro, SH, MH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic State of Iran and Syria (ISIS has become a global movement that penetrates into Indonesia. This movement leads back to the trauma of Indonesian nation to a series of destructive events of terrorism in the country. The meaning of jihad in Islam is hijacked by ISIS activists into violence and war against western infidels in their perspective. They do not care if their target is civilian or military. Meanwhile, the actual concept of jihad in Islam is essential jihad, namely jihad by striving earnestly to improve the quality of individual and community. A wrong interpretation of jihad can not only be solved by force because enforcement effort through violence leaves an endless conflict between terrorists and law enforcer. One conceptual proposal in combating terrorism in Indonesia is by deconstructing the perspective of the physical jihad into essential jihad.

  18. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R; Hobfoll, S E

    2007-03-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors' current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust.

  19. Investigating the Aftermath of Terror: Fundamental Outcomes, Methodological Choices, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2016-06-01

    Acts of terrorism are becoming increasingly common throughout the world. These events represent a significant public health concern given the associated health consequences. Although it is clear that terrorist attacks have mental and physical health sequelae, the exact nature and prevalence of these consequences are unclear. Epidemiological research can play an important role in better understanding the mental and physical impact of terrorist attacks. In this editorial, we highlight recent epidemiological research on these terrorism-related health outcomes. We also provide suggestions for how future studies can build on the existing literature and describe ways in which epidemiological methods can be harnessed to extend the current literature. Lastly, we offer recommendations on how to best prepare communities for the aftermath of terrorist attacks, highlighting secondary intervention and prevention strategies. Overall, multilevel strategies are needed to adequately cope with the growing rise of terrorist acts, and these strategies will have to be reassessed as the nature of terrorist attacks changes.

  20. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  1. Pathways to sympathies for violent protest and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Topciu, Raluca A; Jones, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Radicalisation is proposed to explain why some individuals begin to support and take part in violent extremism. However, there is little empirical population research to inform prevention, and insufficient attention to the role of psychiatric vulnerabilities. To test the impact of depressive symptoms, adverse life events and political engagement on sympathies for violent protest and terrorism (SVPT). A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women from two English cities. Weighted, multivariable, logistic regression yielded population estimates of association (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals) against a binary outcome of SVPT derived from a three-group solution following cluster analysis. Depressive symptoms were associated with a higher risk of SVPT (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.59-4.23, P<0.001), but mediated little of the overall effects of life events and political engagement, which were associated with a lower risk of SVPT (death of a close friend: OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.74; donating money to a charity: OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Independent of SVPT associations with depressive symptoms, some expressions of social connectedness (measured as life events and political engagement) are associated with a lower risk of SVPT. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  3. MONEY LAUNDERING AS ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan economic dimensionof terrorism through analysis of terrorist organizations needs for funding, modules of financing terrorism and links to money laundering. Financial resourcesare one of the most important conditions for maintaining infrastructure of terrorist organizations and carrying out terrorist activities. Assets acquired through legal and illegal channels members of the terrorist organization carry out through financial system by using techniques ofmoney laundering in order to conceal the trace of money needed for organizing terrorist attacks. Due to the global nature of the problem of money laundering and terrorist financing, preventive mechanisms include cooperation of financial intelligence agencies and international organizations as well as strengthening of national institutions that are dealing with this problem. Numerous recently adopted guidelines, conventions and recommendations (within the EU, OUN, FATF draw attention for detection terrorist activities in the preparatory phase, such as travel of terrorists, financing logistical support for their activities and weapons (explosives supply required for carrying out terrorist attacks.

  4. Has successful terror gone to ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Arnold

    2015-04-01

    This article considers all 87 attacks worldwide against air and rail transport systems that killed at least two passengers over the 30-year period of 1982-2011. The data offer strong and statistically significant evidence that successful acts of terror have "gone to ground" in recent years: attacks against aviation were concentrated early in the three decades studied whereas those against rail were concentrated later. Recent data are used to make estimates of absolute and comparative risk for frequent flyers and subway/rail commuters. Point estimates in the "status quo" case imply that mortality risk from successful acts of terror was very low on both modes of transportation and that, whereas risk per trip is higher for air travelers than subway/rail commuters, the rail commuters experience greater risk per year than the frequent flyers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department of...

  6. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2017-10-26

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  7. The Impacts of Terrorism and Capitalist Incorporation on Indigenous Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asafa Jalata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the connections between terrorism, colonial state formation, and the development of the capitalist world system, or globalization, exploring the consequences of colonial terrorism on indigenous American peoples. First, the piece introduces the central argument and conceptualizes and theorizes terrorism. Second, it examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to specific colonial policies and practices. Third, it explains the ideological justifications that Euro-American colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity and dispossessing the homelands of indigenous Americans, as well as in amassing wealth/capital by ignoring moral, ethical, and philosophical issues and human rights.

  8. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide....... Digging just a little deeper, the divergence, which is best explained using the language of criminology, stems from the political nature of the war on terror. Terrorism is a policy offence utilised by states in pursuit of broader governance objectives....

  9. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  10. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  11. Terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiets metoder er ikke nok. Pædagogikken må i brug. Hvilken pædagogik? Diskontinuitetens pædagogik! Det er navnet på den type af pædagogik, der kan skabe modstandskraft mod radikalisering. Men har vi...

  12. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Galito, Maria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  13. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  14. Countering Small Boat Terrorism in Territorial Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Tyre , up to the Litani River. However, despite the superiority of the IDF and the high casualties on both sides, the operation did not destroy the...Figure 11. RADAR HORIZON RANGE 59 Alan Bole, Bill Dineley and Alan Wall, Radar and ARPA, Burlington...Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2009. Bole, Alan , Dineley, Bill

  15. A Network Design Approach to Countering Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    newspaper Charlie Hebdo on January 7, 2015. Two days later, an ISIS follower attacked a market in Porte de Vincennes, France. On January 15, 2015, Belgian...Parliament, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the stock market , and a military base, to avenge Muslims killed abroad and end Canada’s...Three cups of tea : One man’s mission to fight terrorism and build nations—one school at a time. New York, NY: Viking. Oliver, K. (2014, June 25

  16. Body and Terror: Women’s Bodies as Victims and Perpetrators of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sultana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bodies are vulnerable because they are intrinsically linked to death. Bodies are social and they are embedded with meaning. They cannot be extracted from their specific contexts. The nation is also often equated with body politic. As a result individual bodies become the site of security/ insecurity depending on the social location of bodies. Within this discourse, this article tries to locate the bodies of women. It will look at the bodies of women as victims of terror as well as perpetrators of terror. It will try to understand if in these differentiated roles, women are able to break away from stereotypes or are still caught in heteronormative narratives. Keywords: Body, Suicide Bombers, Victims, Ethnic Conflict, Terrorism.

  17. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  18. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  19. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  20. Om medier og terror i 'Mad City'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    Populærkulturens spillefilm er meget mere end blot underholdning. I denne bog demonstrerer 10 yngre forskere, hvordan en række udvalgte spillefilm kan tjene som ramme om en analyse og diskussion af væsentlige spørgsmål relateret til terror og terrorbekæmpelse: Hvad er præventiv krig, og hvilke...... medierne og terroristerne - se Mad City! Filmmediet fungerer som en form for eksperimentarium i forhold til komplicerede moralske og politiske spørgsmål. Derfor kan film anvendes som en pædagogisk løftestang i forståelsen og diskussionen af mulige løsninger på udfordringerne for nutidens samfund. Terror og...... film åbner for en anderledes og sjovere måde at lære på - og dermed for en mere varieret og inspirerende undervisning i fx gymnasiet. Ved at tage udgangspunkt i, hvad vi allerede ved fra timerne foran lærredet eller skærmen, men måske ikke har begreber for, letter bogen forståelsen af, hvad terror er...

  1. Addressing the Needs of Preschool Children in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism: Clinical Pictures and Moderating Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Daniel; Wolmer, Leo; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel

    2017-07-01

    This paper surveys the existent theoretical and research literature regarding the needs of preschool children in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding (a) the consequences of such events for young children and (b) the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association to learn how to enhance their resilience. Consequences include a variety of emotional, behavioral, and biological outcomes. Implications for refugee children are discussed. Main moderating variables were mother's sensitivity and mother's PTSD symptoms. Exposure to disasters and terrorism may have severe effects on the mental health and development among preschool children. Future research should explore the implications of different levels of exposure and the effects of moderating psychosocial and biological variables, including the parent-child triad, on the event-consequence relationship.

  2. "Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror", de Lee Jarvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo de Toledo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available


    Resenha do livro "Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror", de Lee Jarvis

  3. Terror cognoscitivo y terror metafísico en la obra de Jorge Luis Borges

    OpenAIRE

    Castany Prado, Bernat

    2011-01-01

    Los cuentos de Jorge Luis Borges pertenecen, de algún modo, al género de la literatura de terror. No en un sentido estricto, claro está, pero tampoco en un sentido meramente metafórico. Ciertamente, los cuentos que integran Ficciones o El Aleph aterrorizan a todo el mundo, pues muchos no los leen por miedo de no entenderlos y el resto, al leerlos, se ven embargados por ese terror metafísico que provoca la violentación de nuestros modos de entender la realidad. Borges es, pues, un terrorista, ...

  4. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  5. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a

  6. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Yuval

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002, however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate. In total, 501 people (60.5% agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS, percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, traumatic stress (TS resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2% were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2% had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9% met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4% were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5% who felt depressed, 50 (10.4% felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47% felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7% felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity

  7. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Avi; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Solomon, Zahava

    2006-08-27

    Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002), however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate). In total, 501 people (60.5%) agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS), percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic stress (TS) resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. In total, 56 participants (11.2%) were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2%) had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean +/- SD of 5.0 +/- 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9%) met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4%) were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5%) who felt depressed, 50 (10.4%) felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47%) felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7%) felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity. This study revealed less depression

  8. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  9. Nigeria and the threats of terrorism: myth or reality | Ogundiya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-09-11

    Terrorism is a socio-political disorder that has grown to the detriment of the international security system and global economy. Acts of Terrorism have increased over the years since September 11, 2001 terrorist attack directed at the United States of America. Since then, some nations including Nigeria have been suspected ...

  10. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  11. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Cyber-terrorism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism has entered a new wave in that the latest battleground to emerge is cyberspace. Cyber-terrorism reflects a current concern in the way terrorists will seek to strike the innocent and wreak havoc. Since explosives are no longer the only...

  12. The Role Of Education In Combating Terrorism | Oni | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-07

    The world is witnessing series of repeated political, religious conflict and terrorism, particularly worrisome is the acts of terrorism, which is now prevalent across the world. The phenomenon of 9/11/2001 on U.S and the recent attack on June 7, 2005 in London and some other parts of the world revealed the devastation, pains ...

  13. Researching terrorism in South Africa: More questions than answers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa confronts a tangible terror threat in the form of some terrorists targeting the country itself, whilst others find it useful as an operational base to strike at targets elsewhere. Far from attempting to provide a comprehensive study of this phenomenon, this article aims to point out the pitfalls of researching terrorism in ...

  14. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  15. Pirates of Africa's Somali coast: On terrorism's brink? | Swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will examine and evaluate the potential threat of maritime terrorism in Africa, in particular the threat posed at present off the Somali coast. Africa's porous borders have provided an ideal conduit for the export of terrorism on land, and now its unguarded coastlines are a potential new thoroughfare for maritime ...

  16. State culture and terrorism in Nigeria: an alternative approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since September 11th, 2001 world attention has again been riveted on terrorism as a sudden menace. The memory of the 1998 horrific bombings in Kenya lasted as long as the public outrage followed by the March 11th, 2004 attacks in Madrid. Terrorism is not confined to any specific geopolitical space, and cannot always ...

  17. The Politics of International Terrorism in the Security Complexes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-13

    Jun 13, 2006 ... The article attempts to analyse the phenomenon of international terrorism in the. Greater Horn Security Complexes, with the emphasis on the role of Uganda's. Movementocratic government. The article is premised on the thesis that 'Interna- tional Terrorism', apart from its local, national, regional and global ...

  18. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  19. El cine de terror español

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Llorente, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    La autora comienza haciendo un estudio del cine de terror desde sus inicios, sus subgéneros, mecanimos utilizados para provocar el miedo en el espectador para finalmente centrarse en el cine de terror español a través de cinco películas representativas del género.

  20. Threat Perceptions in Europe: Domestic Terrorism and International Crime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This paper focuses on two areas of security concern for the European Union: terrorism and international crime. I present a model of game-theoretic interaction between a European state and a domestic dissident group, who, on occasion, may resort to acts of terrorism. Here,

  1. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  2. Nightmares and sleep terrors | Scribante | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleep terrors may be provoked by a number of factors, such as: fever, sleep deprivation, urinary bladder distension, a noisy environment and central nervous system depressants. This article discusses the differences between nightmares and sleep terrors and provides a management approach for the family practitioner.

  3. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    No 20843 vol. 30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and...30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and Political

  4. The Impact of Terrorism on School Safety Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses why history and "thinking outside of the box" should encourage schools to acknowledge that they are potentially vulnerable targets of terrorism. Presents new safety and security issues raised by the threat of terrorism, including anthrax scares, cell phone use, and field trips. Describes "heightened security"…

  5. [Psychological impacts of terrorism on victims and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Dominique; Ferreri, Maurice

    2007-06-01

    Terrorism is a major public health concern. The impact of violence against the civilian population is reinforced by the media reporting. Thus, terrorism has a psychological impact not only on its direct victims but also on the population as a whole. More research is needed on how to manage these consequences.

  6. 239 Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    according to International Terrorism and Security Research (ITRS 2010). The first perspective is that of the ... binding, criminal law definition currently exists, terrorism can therefore be defined as those violent acts which .... should be organized into a single directorate headed by a director- general who will be responsible ...

  7. Religion: A Precursor of Terrorism in the Nigerian State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrorism is a serious problem that has threatened the security of various countries the world over for a long time, more especially the nations of the West. It should however be noted that the tentacles of terrorism has recently spread to Africa in general, in the past three decades and Nigeria in particular, in the past decade.

  8. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  9. Diplomatic assurances - a permissible tool in the struggle against terrorism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2011-01-01

    With the noble intentions of combating terrorism, numerous initiatives in the form of counter-terrorism measures have appeared on the global scene. States wanting to expel persons considered to be a threat to national security have aimed to establish so-called diplomatic assurances as a guarantee...

  10. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficient biological weapon. There is a need for proper differentiation between natural and intentional events although in the first stages the medical response should be similar; however, the course of incident management would take different paths later on. Biological agents’ investigation of dangerous pathogens, from natural unusual outbreaks or bioterrorist attacks/other intentional use, imply the collaboration of different institutions with responsibilities in public health but also in national security and defense. The National Security and the Defense System institutions think mainly in security terms while national health care system institutions think principally` in medical care/prevention terms. These two ways of acting have to be combined in order to deal properly with hazardous biological agents.

  11. Correlation of Concepts "Extremism" and "Terrorism" in Countering the Financing of Terrorism and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisagatova, Diana B.; Kemelbekov, Saken T.; Smagulova, Diana A.; Kozhamberdiyeva, Aigul S.

    2016-01-01

    The main threats to world order are terrorist and extremist activities. On the world stage, countries unite into a coalition with the aim to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism. At the local level, the terrorist threat is fought by the security services. In order to prevent global human victims, which may arise as a result of…

  12. Literature Review on Anti-Terrorism and Selected Bibliography on Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    34The Dowger and the Hitman," Police Magazine, November 1978. Blakely , S. "Capitol Security Strengthened After Terrorist Bomb Explodes," Congressional...Greensberg, M & Norton, A. ( Eds.) Studies in Nuclear Terrorism. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1979. Gross, F. Violence in Politics. The Hague: Mouton , 1972. Guirard, J

  13. On Terrorism: An Analysis of Terrorism as a Form of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Robespierre to Arafat. (New York: Vanguard Press, Inc., 1976) p. 33. 298Ibid. Manson and his group sought to cause a race war by killing whites and...Strategy, p. 68. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984. Parry, Albert. Terrorism: From Robespierre to Arafat. New York: Vanguard Press, Inc., 1976. Paskins

  14. Rachid Boudjedra's Representations of Terrorism: Le vainqueur de coupe and La Vie à l'endroit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne D. Rogers

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary fiction either idealizes or demonizes the terrorist as a cultural figure of collective values. In his two contemporary novels, Le vainqueur de coupe and La vie à l'endroit , Rachid Boudjedra, an Algerian novelist, renders two very distinct narratives although both center around terrorist activity and a major sporting event. The first novel is a sympathetic portrait of a young Algerian who gives up his studies to become part of L'Organization. Sentenced to life imprisonment, the young man becomes an international hero. Le vainqueur de coupe offers an explanation for understanding terrorism. In the second novel, La Vie à I'endroit , written sixteen years later, Boudjedra describes the horrors of living under a reign of terrorism for a man similar to himself and his lover, an European doctor. The striking discrepancy in the posture taken towards terrorism in the two novels reveals the need for a closer look at the social complexities and human ethics involved in today's violence and the romanticization of the terrorist as a literary hero. While the first novel makes a compassionate plea for humanizing the terrorist, the second novel witnesses the deadly aftermath of political self-righteousness rooted in past victimization.

  15. Revisiting Downs' Issue-Attention Cycle: International Terrorism and U.S. Public Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Karen K. Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamenting the lack of public awareness of international events and U.S. foreign policy is not a particularly novel exercise; yet, explaining the process by which issues enter and exit the public realm remains a challenging endeavor. Despite contributions from researchers working in international relations and mass communication, explaining public inattentiveness continues to vex scholars. However, in his article, "Up and Down with Ecology: The 'Issue-Attention Cycle,'" Anthony Downs provides a parsimonious and tractable model of public opinion that can be applied to foreign policy issues.1 While Downs concerns himself exclusively with domestic issues, particularly environmental issues, his model has thepotential to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the public and policymakers over critical issues such as international terrorism. With minor modifications, the model has the potential to explain public support for failed foreign policies as well. Downs' model, when applied to international terrorism, explains why policymakers seek simple solutions, why the public supports such solutions, and why the media fail to provide meaningful coverage of intractable issues such as international terrorism. Before discussing Downs' model, the basic tenets and shortcomings of some of the more prevalent theories of the relationship between public opinion and foreign policy are discussed below.

  16. Technical Modification Within the Healthcare Industry: Improving Both the Efficacy of the National Drug Code Carrier and the Accessibility of Electronic Health Records to Reduce Adverse Drug Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    feedback and satisfaction survey on receipts and checkout papers • Dental office ceiling or similar unexpected site • Directional signs, maps, event...barcode_software/qrcode.html Barnette , J. (2011). How quick response codes can help pharma engage with patients. Retrieved September 16, 2012, from

  17. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  18. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  19. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  20. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  1. 75 FR 20893 - National Day of Service and Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There... Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, we pause to remember victims of terrorism at home and... terrorism and their families, though bound at first by anguish and loss, are united by extraordinary acts of...

  2. Journals Supporting Terrorism Research: Identification and Investigation into Their Impact on the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Daryl R.; Irving, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of two preeminent terrorism journals ("Terrorism and Political Violence" and "Studies in Conflict and Terrorism") was used to identify 37 additional social science journals of significant importance to terrorism research. Citation data extracted from the "Web of Science" database was used to…

  3. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified Anti-Terrorism...

  4. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on the...

  5. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  6. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. CINE DE TERROR Y BIOLOGÍA

    OpenAIRE

    John Richard Jiménez Peñuela

    2014-01-01

    En esta presentación, se abordan los resultados del “Proyecto Transversal Ciencia Gráfica”, relacionados con la proyección de cine de terror, a educandos de ciclo III. Además de las proyecciones, el proyecto desarrollo la habilidad gráfica de los estudiantes en relación con la biología y el arte, a partir de lecciones sobre dibujo biológico, y la fabricación de juguetes con motivos biológicos por parte de los estudiantes. De esta manera, se emprenden acciones conjuntas desde arte y biología p...

  8. Regarding Terror: On Art and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Nowak

    2008-01-01

    ‘Regarding Terror: The RAF Exhibition’, held in Berlin in 2005, presented art works and documents dealing with the Red Army Faction (or Baader-Meinhof Group), a left-wing terrorist association active in Germany from the late 1960s until well after the controversial deaths of key members of the group in 1977. For some, the initial plans for the exhibition threatened to turn the RAF into heroes at the expense of any acknowledgement of the RAF’s victims. As a result, the government withdrew its ...

  9. Media Discourse on Jihadist Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Reinke de Buitrago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the manner in which European print media discuss jihadist terrorism in Europe. It presents key results from a qualitative analysis of media discourse following three selected attacks in seven European countries in 2010: the attack on the cartoonist Westergaard, the Yemen cargo plane plot, and the Stockholm suicide attack. The article finds that attack type is a factor shaping media discourse across different media in Europe. Considering that terrorists also aim to impact discourse for their own agenda, the article presents implications for policy reactions on the basis of attack type, and not as desired by terrorists.''

  10. THE NARRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM DISCOURSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Rosdiawan

    2014-01-01

    While polemics is still shadowing the internationally accepted definition, the word “Terrorism” becomes more controversial when it is paralleled with “Islam”. The Islamic Terrorism discourse is more likely to be an elusive concept if not a Fata Morgana. Its very existence appears as a real entity but its form can hardly be described. It would be always be problematic to posterize such a terrible notion as “terrorism” and put it side by side with a noble concept as in “Islam”. The fact, howeve...

  11. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cind Du Bois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  12. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  13. Legal Challenges of Combating Terrorism: International Humanitarian Law Implications of ‘Signature Strikes’ by Drones.

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism has become the main international security challenge of the 21st century. From a historical perspective, terrorism has always been a serious concern for governments and nation states. The modern threat posed by terrorism has a much wider scope because of its international character. The much bigger threat posed by modern terrorism can also be explained by technological innovations and the reliance of terror networks on social networks both to propagate their message and as a recruit...

  14. New trends in terrorism : the use of social media, cyber-terrorism, the role of open-source intelligence and the cases of rightwing extremism and lone wolf terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Καραδήμα, Σοφία

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism has existed almost as long as humanity, and has appeared in various forms, creating new and evolving trends, making the definition of terrorism even more difficult to define. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the new trends in terrorism after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, as well as attempting to find the factors that facilitate the emergence and/or recurrence of trends in terrorism, by examining the related Literature, creating case studies and providing supp...

  15. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2013-06-01

    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  16. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade.

  17. Universal preventive interventions for children in the context of disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana

    2014-04-01

    This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S; Shannon, M

    2005-12-01

    In today's world the increased potential of terrorist attacks places unique burdens and consequences on health care workers. Hospitals and hospital personnel must now be prepared to react immediately to such events. They must also implement, in advance, policies to protect their own health care personnel while providing care to victims. In this review, we discuss the four major forms of mass casualty terrorism (biological, chemical, nuclear, and thermomechanical) including clinical signs and symptoms for each, the impact on health care personnel, and special considerations for children. We will then outline key principles of hospital preparation with regard to paediatrics in anticipation of such emergencies.

  19. The Impact of Terrorism on Well-being: Evidence from the Boston Marathon Bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew E.; Doyle, Orla; Stancanelli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature concludes that terrorism impacts the economy, yet less is known about its impact on utility. This paper estimates the impact of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing on well-being, by exploiting representative U.S. daily data. Using both a regression discontinuity and an event study design, whereby the 2012 Boston marathon serves as a counterfactual, we find a sharp reduction in well-being, equivalent to a two percentage point rise in annual unemployment. The effect is stronge...

  20. The International Haemovigilance Network Database for the Surveillance of Adverse Reactions and Events in Donors and Recipients of Blood Components: technical issues and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, C; Wiersum, J C; Richardson, C; Robillard, P; Jorgensen, J; Renaudier, P; Faber, J-C; Wood, E M

    2016-11-01

    The International Haemovigilance Network's ISTARE is an online database for surveillance of all adverse reactions (ARs) and adverse events (AEs) associated with donation of blood and transfusion of blood components, irrespective of severity or the harm caused. ISTARE aims to unify the collection and sharing of information with a view to harmonizing best practices for haemovigilance systems around the world. Adverse reactionss and adverse events are recorded by blood component, type of reaction, severity and imputability to transfusion, using internationally agreed standard definitions. From 2006 to 2012, 125 national sets of annual aggregated data were received from 25 countries, covering 132.8 million blood components issued. The incidence of all ARs was 77.5 per 100 000 components issued, of which 25% were severe (19.1 per 100 000). Of 349 deaths (0.26 per 100 000), 58% were due to the three ARs related to the respiratory system: transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO, 27%), transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI, 19%) and transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD, 12%). Cumulatively, 594 477 donor complications were reported (rate 660 per 100 000), of which 2.9% were severe. ISTARE is a well-established surveillance tool offering important contributions to international efforts to maximize transfusion safety. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  2. Terror attacks increase the risk of vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N = 1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS ≥ 16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  3. 75 FR 43233 - Designation of ANWAR AL-AULAQI Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 and the Global Terrorism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR Part 594 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism,'' and the Global Terrorism Sanctions... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including the...

  4. A psychosocial risk assessment and management framework to enhance response to CBRN terrorism threats and attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Corneil, Wayne; Craig, Lorraine; Boutette, Paul; Tyshenko, Michael; Karyakina, Nataliya; Clarke, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Evidence in the disaster mental health literature indicates that psychosocial consequences of terrorism are a critical component of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) events, both at the clinical level and the normal behavioral and emotional levels. Planning for such psychosocial aspects should be an integral part of emergency preparedness. As Canada and other countries build the capacity to prevent, mitigate, and manage CBRN threats and events, it is important to recognize the range of social, psychological, emotional, spiritual, behavioral, and cognitive factors that may affect victims and their families, communities, children, the elderly, responders, decision makers, and others at all phases of terrorism, from threat to post-impact recovery. A structured process to assist CBRN emergency planners, decision makers, and responders in identifying psychosocial risks, vulnerable populations, resources, and interventions at various phases of a CBRN event to limit negative psychosocial impacts and promote resilience and adaptive responses is the essence of our psychosocial risk assessment and management (P-RAM) framework. This article presents the evidence base and conceptual underpinnings of the framework, the principles underlying its design, its key elements, and its use in the development of decision tools for responders, planners, decision makers, and the general public to better assess and manage psychosocial aspects of CBRN threats or attacks.

  5. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W

    2017-07-19

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  6. Sentidos y sensualidad pervertida... erotismo y terror en la Regenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz Canseco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Si hay una novela que corrobore el indisociable vínculo, para muchos, entre erotismo y terror, esta ha de ser La Regenta, de Leopoldo Alas, Clarín. Aquí, haremos el seguimien- to de algunos de los episodios eróticos, con sus respectivos terroríficos corolarios, que inundan la obra. Veremos, de este modo, a través de qué elementos y personajes se ma- nifiestan ambos elementos, erotismo y terror; las escenas más representativas, y los tipos de sexualidad que el autor ha querido retratar en la novela.

  7. Sentidos y sensualidad pervertida... erotismo y terror en la Regenta

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Ortiz Canseco

    2005-01-01

    Si hay una novela que corrobore el indisociable vínculo, para muchos, entre erotismo y terror, esta ha de ser La Regenta, de Leopoldo Alas, Clarín. Aquí, haremos el seguimien- to de algunos de los episodios eróticos, con sus respectivos terroríficos corolarios, que inundan la obra. Veremos, de este modo, a través de qué elementos y personajes se ma- nifiestan ambos elementos, erotismo y terror; las escenas más representativas, y los tipos de sexualidad que el autor ha querido retratar en la n...

  8. CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF TERRORISM IN RUSSIA: HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Зюфяр Шакирович Гатауллин

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the historical aspects of the prosecution of terrorism cases. An increasing number of terrorist acts committed resonance, their low level of detection. The excitation and subsequent investigation of the criminal case, and the maintenance of public prosecution in the court identified as the main form of prosecution of terrorism cases. Expressed concern about the procedural provisions of the prosecutor in the prosecution deprived of authority to initiate criminal proceedings. Made suggestions to improve the effectiveness of the criminal prosecution of terrorism cases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-70

  9. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hare, Marianne M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions. PMID:28753940

  10. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  12. Terrorism as war by other means: national security and state support for terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekmekci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach in the discipline of International Relations is to treat terrorist organizations as "non-state" actors of international relations. However, this approach is problematic due to the fact that most terrorist organizations are backed or exploited by some states. In this article, I take issue with the non-stateness of terrorist organizations and seek to answer the question of why so many states, at times, support terrorist organizations. I argue that in the face of rising threats to national security in an age of devastating wars, modern nation states tend to provide support to foreign terrorist organizations that work against their present and imminent enemies. I elaborate on my argument studying three cases of state support for terrorism: Iranian support for Hamas, Syrian support for the PKK, and American support for the MEK. The analyses suggest that, for many states, terror is nothing but war by other means.

  13. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Howie

    2014-01-01

    Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terr...

  14. The Economics of Terrorism: Economics Methods of Analysis in the Study of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    allocate capital and labour between terrorist activity (carrying out attacks) and non-terrorist activity (fundraising, recruitment). Then, the...Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia , Pakistan, Saudi Arabia. Cooperating countries can try to internalize or adjust these external costs by bargaining...more readily absorb economic shocks produced by acts of terrorism, whereas small countries dependent on a few large industries are at a greater risk of

  15. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  16. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  17. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  18. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utøya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clusters: Elucidating the dynamics of ionization events and ensuing reactions in the condensed phase. Final technical report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Chemical reactions that proceed following either a photophysical or ionizing event, are directly influenced by the mechanisms of energy transfer and dissipation away from the site of absorption. Neighboring solvent or solute molecules can affect this by collisional deactivation (removal of energy), through effects in which dissociating molecules are kept in relatively close proximity for comparatively long periods of time due to the presence of the solvent, and in other ways where the solvent influences the energetics of the reaction coordinate. Research on clusters offers promise of elucidating the molecular details of these processes. The studies have focused on providing critical information on problems in radiation biology through investigations of reactions of molecules which simulate functional groups in biological systems, as they proceed following the absorption of ionizing radiation. The overall objective of the program has been to undertake basic underpinning research that contributes to a quantification of the behavior of radionuclides and pollutants associated with advanced energy activities after these materials emanate from their source and are transferred through the environment to the biota and human receptor. Some of the studies have dealt with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter yielding new data that finds value in assessing photoinduced transformation of pollutants including reactions which take place on aerosol particles, as well as those of species which become transformed into aerosols as a result of their chemical and physical interactions.

  20. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  1. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  2. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    regional Tourism. Industry in the Face of War. Alfred Anangwe*. Abstract. This paper discusses both positive and negative implications of fighting interna- tional terrorism and how it impacts on trust between East African countries, ...

  3. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  4. Book Review: International terrorism. Current research and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: International terrorism. Current research and future directions. Book Author: Alan D. Buckley & Daniel D. Olson (Eds.) Wayne Avery Publishing Group, 1980. 113pp., Illustrations ...

  5. Context Mediation Demonstration of Counter-Terrorism Intelligence Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Madnick, Stuart E.; Moulton, Allen; Siegel, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate the applicability and value of the context mediation approach in facilitating the effective and correct use of counter-terrorism intelligence information coming from diverse heterogeneous sources.

  6. Understanding Terrorism: Contested Concept, Conflicting Perspectives and Shattering Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Terrorism is an old phenomenon but its modern manifestation was first noted in the 19th century with the anarchist group who assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881. Since then it has continued unabated but its intensity and frequency increased in the 21st century. This study examines the trends in international terrorism and, in particular, analyses its causes and consequences. Based upon extensive literature and documentary research, this study found at least three perspectives that explain terrorism either as a reaction to socio-economic deprivation or as the product of religious fundamentalism or as a legitimate struggle to wipe out injustices perpetrated by the powerful against the powerless. Muslims condemn terrorism and suggest that the Western powers cease their policies of victimising the vulnerable populations, of sponsoring terrorists, of siding with Israel, and of denying others their right to liberty and sovereignty.

  7. Islam, Terrorism, and the Strategy of Enlightened Moderation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Irfan A

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on analyzing the ongoing acts of violence and radicalism by individuals associated with Islam, in the light of teachings and principles of this great religion of peace, which denounces terrorism...

  8. Islamic Banking: Financing Terrorism or Meeting Economic Demand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrell, Ron

    2007-01-01

    ...? Although there are areas in the industry that need regulating and monitoring, this study ultimately concludes that Islamic banking s ties to terrorism are anecdotal, the expansion is the result...

  9. Perceived impact of terrorism on Nigerian youths and society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinsola, Esther F; Ojo, Adebusola

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism is a hydra-headed global phenomenon but it has recently become a recurring menace in Nigeria, unleashing trauma, fear and psychological disorientation on individuals and the Nigerian society...

  10. A terror management analysis of the psychological functions of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kenneth E; Rothschild, Zachary K; Weise, Dave R; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    From a terror management theory (TMT) perspective, religion serves to manage the potential terror engendered by the uniquely human awareness of death by affording a sense of psychological security and hope of immortality. Although secular beliefs can also serve a terror management function, religious beliefs are particularly well suited to mitigate death anxiety because they are all encompassing, rely on concepts that are not easily disconfirmed, and promise literal immortality. Research is reviewed demonstrating that mortality salience produces increased belief in afterlife, supernatural agency, human ascension from nature, and spiritual distinctions between mind and body. The social costs and benefits of religious beliefs are considered and compared to those of secular worldviews. The terror management functions of, and benefits and costs associated with, different types of religious orientation, such as intrinsic religiosity, quest, and religious fundamentalism, are then examined. Finally, the TMT analysis is compared to other accounts of religion.

  11. Terror medicine as part of the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  12. Fighting Terrorism, Avoiding War: The Indo-Pakistan Situation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lavoy, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... They include the presence of the Taliban and al Qaeda militants in Pakistan and possibly Kashmir, anti-American and anti-national terrorism in both nations, turmoil in the disputed state of Kashmir...

  13. PIRATES OF AFRICA'S SOMALI COAST: ON TERRORISM'S BRINK?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    can be failed or failing states, poorly controlled land or maritime borders or airspace, ..... Puntland, the semi-autonomous region in the northeast of the country, .... terrorism in Somalia and could include motivations that extend well beyond the.

  14. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper discusses both positive and negative implications of fighting international terrorism and how it impacts on trust between East African countries, peace building in the region and tourism development in East Africa.

  15. Mitigating Key Intelligence Gaps In Colombian War On Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Jefferey

    2003-01-01

    Successfully transitioning from a war on drugs to a war on terrorism in Colombia is a national security concern for the United States and poses significant operational readiness challenges for USSOUTHCOM...

  16. The Double-Edged Effects of Social Media Terror Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication...... that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more....... However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue...

  17. [International community efforts in prevention of nuclear terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilijas, Boris

    2006-06-01

    Terrorism is now a global threat, spreading its shadows over regions which were previously regarded as the exclusive domain of the military superpowers. One of the prime threats is nuclear terrorism, using nuclear or radiological agents. To assess the threat, it is important to include all factors that make it possible. A nuclear terrorist attack can be conducted in three basic ways, by detonation of a nuclear weapon, by sabotage or diversion of a nuclear facility or by dispersion of radioactive material into the environment (radiological weapon). Each possibility is specific and with different consequences. Nuclear terrorism can be prevented by establishing a global system which requires from all countries to strictly follow international rules of trading, storing and using nuclear and radioactive materials and to produce an efficient national legislation. The United Nations have provided a basis for such legislation in the form of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

  18. International terrorism and mental health: recent research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L

    2008-03-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and then present central findings from studies conducted in the United States and Europe, which mainly focus on negative impacts on mental health, such as emotional stress and PTSD. Furthermore, the authors outline experiments that focus on social interaction processes thought to be triggered by international terrorism and which are assumed to be related indirectly to mental health processes. Next, they highlight the potential positive outcomes on the resilience side, in line with the current theory on posttraumatic growth in adversity. Finally, theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.

  19. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  20. CINE DE TERROR Y BIOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Richard Jiménez Peñuela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta presentación, se abordan los resultados del “Proyecto Transversal Ciencia Gráfica”, relacionados con la proyección de cine de terror, a educandos de ciclo III. Además de las proyecciones, el proyecto desarrollo la habilidad gráfica de los estudiantes en relación con la biología y el arte, a partir de lecciones sobre dibujo biológico, y la fabricación de juguetes con motivos biológicos por parte de los estudiantes. De esta manera, se emprenden acciones conjuntas desde arte y biología para la comprensión de los temas vistos en el área de ciencias naturales, aplicando los conocimientos de ambos campos en la comprensión estética de la relación humano-naturaleza.

  1. Health services utilization in Jerusalem under terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levav, Itzhak; Novikov, Ilya; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Rosenblum, Joseph; Ponizovsky, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    The authors explored the effects of an escalation of terrorism on the help-seeking behavior of the general population in Jerusalem, a city that offers an adequate supply of medical and psychiatric services. Time-series analyses were applied to examine the utilization of health services (primary medical care and ambulance calls) and mental health services (clinics, hospitals, and telephone hotlines) by Jerusalem residents before and during part of the current intifada. The authors assessed seasonality, general linear trends (from factors such as health education and increased access), short-term intifada impact (reflecting reactions that peaked at the third month and ended 1 year thereafter), and long-term impact (starting at the intifada outbreak and reflecting a more stable population behavior). Adult psychiatric outpatient visits did not change except for the elderly in ongoing care who had both short- and long-term increases. The proportion of recorded ICD-10 diagnoses reflecting intifada-related reactions remained generally stable. Short-term effects included an increase in psychiatric readmissions. First contacts to substance abuse clinics remained unchanged. While long-term effects included a decrease in new psychiatric hospitalizations, the rate of monthly general practitioner visitors and the number of monthly ambulance and hotline calls increased. Except for the elderly and previously hospitalized persons, Jerusalem residents did not increase their use of psychiatric services but did increase their use of some other health services. These results suggest that this terrorism-affected population did not perceive their mental and social suffering as requiring specialized intervention.

  2. Catching Seriously Bad Dudes: US Counter-terrorism strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardyová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 34-38 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : terrorism * counter- terrorism * US * 9/11 Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/156_socioweb_7_08.pdf

  3. Trends and Developments in Terrorism: a Research Note

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2012-01-01

    In the current issue and in future ones, Richard J. Chasdi, member of the Editorial Board of ‘Perspectives on Terrorism’ and author of three large monographs on terrorism (including “Counterterror Offensives for the Ghost War World” [2010]), will share with readers of this journal statistics, graphs and tables, based on newly released quantitative data in order to depict developments and trends in terrorism and political violence.

  4. Trends and Developments in Terrorism: a Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current issue and in future ones, Richard J. Chasdi, member of the Editorial Board of ‘Perspectives on Terrorism’ and author of three large monographs on terrorism (including “Counterterror Offensives for the Ghost War World” [2010], will share with readers of this journal statistics, graphs and tables, based on newly released quantitative data in order to depict developments and trends in terrorism and political violence.

  5. Oppressive Governments, US Closeness, and Anti-US Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Redlin, Margarete; Gries, Thomas; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attacks more attention has been given to the question why the United States is a major target for transnational terrorism. What conditions motivate these terrorist activities? Are there specific characteristics in the terrorists home countries that provide a breeding ground for anti-US terrorism? In particular, we ask whether oppressive and bad governments in these countries and/or close connections with the US encourage attacks against the US. Oppressive and bad government beh...

  6. The Effects of Terrorism on the Travel and Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    David Mc. A Baker

    2014-01-01

    The impact of terrorism on the travel and tourism industry can be enormous. It can lead to unemployment, homelessness, deflation, and many other social and economic ills. The contribution of tourism for many countries is so great that any downturn in the industry is a cause of major concern for many governments. The repercussions are left in many other industries associated with tourism like airlines, hotels, restaurants and shops that cater to the tourists and allied services. Terrorism is a...

  7. Domestic Terrorism: Fighting the Local Threat with Local Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    destruction of this riot included fires, breaking windows, and looting of local businesses.87 As part of its efforts to get ahead of the unrest and...137 Ellen Cannon, “Chicago Police Department Creating New Counter Terrorism Unit,” Examiner.com, September 9, 2011. http...http://www.cityofboston.gov/police/pdfs/2005AnnualReport.pdf. Cannon, Ellen . “Chicago Police Department Creating New Counter Terrorism Unit

  8. Impact of terrorism on FDI flows to Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Murtaza; Anwar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the adverse impacts of terrorism on the net Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows to Pakistan. Since 2003, terrorist violence has killed over 52,000 individuals in Pakistan. The unrelenting violence has substantially increased investment and security risks. This study uses time series econometrics to develop theoretically and empirically sound estimates for the impact of terrorism on FDI flows. This study has found that an increase in terrorist violence reduces FDI. Furthe...

  9. The Economic Costs of Separatist Terrorism in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Firat Bilgel; Burhan Can Karahasan

    2013-01-01

    Turkey has been suffering from separatist terrorism and the political conflict it implies since the mid-1980s, both of which are believed to have a negative impact on economic welfare. This article investigates the economic costs of PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) terrorism, particularly in the Eastern and Southeastern provinces of Turkey by invoking the synthetic control method. We create a synthetic control group that mimics the socioeconomic characteristics of the provinces exposed to terro...

  10. Nigeria: Boko Haram and the regionalization of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Tull, Denis M.; Weber, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The wave of violence unleashed in north-eastern Nigeria by the militant terror group Boko Haram and the regionalization of terrorism have spurred neighboring Chad, Cameroon and Niger into action. Since March 2015, they have been conducting military operations in the border regions, sometimes on Nigerian territory, in an effort to push back the terrorists. Nigeria and its neighbors have officially agreed a multilateral military operation with the aim of neutralizing Boko Haram. However, for do...

  11. A Course on Terror Medicine: Content and Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A; Natal, Brenda; Fox, Adam; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl A; Connell, Nancy D; Sugalski, Gregory; Kulkarni, Miriam; Feravolo, Michael; Lamba, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    The development of medical school courses on medical responses for disaster victims has been deemed largely inadequate. To address this gap, a 2-week elective course on Terror Medicine (a field related to Disaster and Emergency Medicine) has been designed for fourth year students at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School in Newark, New Jersey (USA). This elective is part of an overall curricular plan to broaden exposure to topics related to Terror Medicine throughout the undergraduate medical education. A course on Terror Medicine necessarily includes key aspects of Disaster and Emergency Medicine, though the converse is not the case. Courses on Disaster Medicine may not address features distinctively associated with a terror attack. Thus, a terror-related focus not only assures attention to this important subject but to accidental or naturally occurring incidents as well. The course, implemented in 2014, uses a variety of teaching modalities including lectures, videos, and tabletop and hands-on simulation exercises. The subject matter includes biological and chemical terrorism, disaster management, mechanisms of injury, and psychiatry. This report outlines the elective's goals and objectives, describes the course syllabus, and presents outcomes based on student evaluations of the initial iterations of the elective offering. All students rated the course as "excellent" or "very good." Evaluations included enthusiastic comments about the content, methods of instruction, and especially the value of the simulation exercises. Students also reported finding the course novel and engaging. An elective course on Terror Medicine, as described, is shown to be feasible and successful. The student participants found the content relevant to their education and the manner of instruction effective. This course may serve as a model for other medical schools contemplating the expansion or inclusion of Terror Medicine-related topics in their curriculum.

  12. Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-01-01

    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel.

  13. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  14. ANALISIS INSTRUMEN CYBER-TERRORISM DALAM KERANGKA SISTIM HUKUM INTERNASIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    SAMAD, ALFIRA NURLILIANI

    2015-01-01

    2015 ALFIRA NURLILIANI SAMAD (B11109468) Analisis Instrumen Cyber- terrorism Dalam Kerangka Sistim Hukum Internasional. Penulisan skripsi ini dibimbing oleh Bapak Dr. Abd. Maasbah Magasing sebagai pembimbing I dan Bapak Maskun sebagai pembimbing II. Bentuk baru dari kejahatan terorisme menjadi cyber-terrorism telah berpengaruh pada aturan-aturan hukum yang berlaku di negaranegara maupun hukum internasional, karena aturan-aturan tentang terorisme, baik aturan hukum n...

  15. Ukraine After the Orange Revolution: Can It Complete Military Transformation and Join the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Launched almost 5 years ago, the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is a U.S.-led campaign with the twin aims of ending international terrorism through the defeat of terrorist groups, and ending state sponsorship of terrorism...

  16. On the Concept and Definition of Terrorism Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Guikema, Seth

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we provide some reflections on how to define and understand the concept of terrorism risk in a professional risk assessment context. As a basis for this discussion we introduce a set of criteria that we believe should apply to any conceptualization of terrorism risk. These criteria are based on both criteria used in other areas of risk analysis and our experience with terrorism risk analysis. That is, these criteria offer our perspective. We show that several of the suggested perspectives and definitions have weaknesses in relation to these criteria. A main problem identified is the idea that terrorism risk can be conceptualized as a function of probability and consequence, not as a function of the interactions between adaptive individuals and organizations. We argue that perspectives based solely on probability and consequence should be used cautiously or not at all because they fail to reflect the essential features of the concept of terrorism risk, the threats and attacks, their consequences, and the uncertainties, all in the context of adaptation by the adversaries. These three elements should in our view constitute the main pillars of the terrorism risk concept. From this concept we can develop methods for assessing the risk by identifying a set of threats, attacks, and consequence measures associated with the possible outcome scenarios together with a description of the uncertainties and interactions between the adversaries. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The age of terrorism: to the problem statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yevtyagina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article analyzes the problem of terrorism. Historical essay on the topic helps clarify the concept of the term «terrorism», as well as its causes. The existing classification of terrorism reveals the different types and ways of influencing people by terrorists to achieve their goals. The author suggests the age classification, namely, adult and adolescence terrorism. Discussed in detail adolescence terrorism. The possible reasons for solutions to the problems teenagers violently. On the example of the terrorist act in Moscow school number 263 attempts to analyze the causal relationships aggressive behavior among adolescents in relation to their peers and teachers. Author shows the factors influencing the formation of the propensity to aggression (the terrorist behavior: the crisis of spirituality and morality, reducing cultural awareness, conflict resolution based on adults imitation, striving for leadership, using aggression, the substitution of the present reality of the computer world, acceptance of immoral behavior for conventional norm, plenty of scenes of cruelty and violence in the media, national intolerance. Also in the article are recommendations to prevent teenage terrorism, emphasizes the need for joint activities of the school psychologist, teachers, children and their parents.

  18. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out against the so- called terrorist factions in tribal areas and some other parts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP, renamed as Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973 of Pakistan. With a majority Pashtun population, KPK has been a target of the War on Terror due to its social structure, cultural restraints and the religion of its inhabitants on the boundary with Afghanistan. The socio-cultural similarities and geographical proximity with Afghanistan have made it a sanctuary for Al-Qaeda members. The War on Terror in KPK has had negative political, economic and social repercussions for the region and thus has created hatred among the Pashtuns. This paper is an attempt to analyze the factors which made the Pashtuns of this area prone to militancy. It will analyze the political, economic and social implications of the War on Terror for KPK in general and its Pashtun population in particular.

  19. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Silva, Carol L. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  20. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will

  1. 6 CFR 27.120 - Designation of a coordinating official; Consultations and technical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS General § 27.120 Designation of a... facilities regarding compliance with this Part and shall, as necessary and to the extent that resources... covered facility shall submit a written request for consultation or technical assistance to the...

  2. Fighting terrorism in the Netherlands; a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Janse

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch government and legislature are in the process of introducing an unprecedented set of anti-terrorist measures. It is claimed that these measures are necessary and justified, as terrorism today threatens the security of Dutch society as never before. But does it? In the present state of excitement, it is all too easy to forget that Dutch society has had to face terrorism before. Indeed, if the number of people killed or targeted is a measure of the gravity of a terrorist threat, terrorism in the 1970s was more serious than current terrorism has been up until now. Yet in the 1970s, the Dutch government did not introduce a comprehensive set of anti-terrorist measures, unlike, for example, the British and German governments. In this paper, the Moluccan actions, the most serious terrorist actions Dutch society has experienced so far, and the reaction by the government to these actions, are discussed. This leads to the conclusion that current terrorism is less different from old-style terrorism than the government claims it to be, although there may be one important difference: the risk that current terrorists use deeply destructive weapons. This is not to say that the government’s policies were better in the 1970s than they are now. However, a sense of what the record tells us may help us in disciplining current fears and in taking a more critical stance towards the view that the present anti-terrorist measures are necessary and justified because we never saw anything like current terrorism before.

  3. Dreamlike mentations during sleepwalking and sleep terrors in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Pottier, Michel; Buzare, Marie-Annick; Brion, Agnès; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2009-12-01

    Sleep terrors and sleepwalking are described as arousals from slow wave sleep with no or poor mental recollection. To characterize the mental content retrospectively associated with sleep terrors or sleepwalking. University Hospital. Controlled prospective cohort. Forty-three patients referred for severe sleepwalking/sleep terrors (age: 26 +/- 7 y, 46% men, 5 with sleep terrors only, 8 with sleepwalking only, and 30 with both), matched with 25 healthy control subjects. Thirty-eight of the 43 patients (88%) underwent an interview about the frequency, time, behaviors, and mental content associated with the episodes of sleepwalking and sleep terrors, whenever they occurred over a lifetime. The mental contents were classified for complexity (Orlinski score), and for characters, emotions, fortune/misfortune, and social interactions (Hall and Van de Castle categories). Patients and control subjects underwent an overnight video-polysomnogram. Seventy-one percent of the patients reported at least 1 dreamlike mentation associated with the sleepwalking/sleep terrors episode. The dreamlike mentation action corresponded with the observed behavior. A total of 106 dreamlike mentations were collected (mean: 3 +/- 3.4 dreamlike mentations/patient, range 0-17). Most (95%) dreamlike mentations consisted of a single visual scene. These dreamlike mentations were frequently unpleasant, with aggression in 24% (the dreamer being always the victim), misfortune in 54%, and apprehension in 84%. The patients with dream mentations reported more severe daytime sleepiness. Short, unpleasant dreamlike mentations may occur during sleepwalking/sleep terrors episodes, suggesting that a complex mental activity takes place during slow wave sleep. Sleepwalking may thus represent acting out of the corresponding dreamlike mentation.

  4. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI in 2010 (N=2038. Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR=2.07, p=0.001 learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05, establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness and are a viable intervention target for terrorism preparedness initiatives. Raising individual coping perceptions may promote greater general and

  5. The Politics of Terrorism: Power, Legitimacy, and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and juxtaposes discourses about terrorism, violence, and political leadership. It presents generalizations about terrorism—a form of political violence by, for, and against the state—and politics and violence based on the theories of Max Weber and Hannah Arendt. The stark contrasts drawn from these theories include power as non-violent strength (Arendt versus power as violence-dependent (Weber and the struggle for legitimacy between different agents (states and individuals as well as terrorism by, for, and against the state. This reframing of power leads to judging a lack of power where there is violence, and the presence of power where one observes non-violence. An examination of political and criminal violence leads to questions about deliberate and purposeful violence, indirect and structural violence that has political consequences, and their relationship to terrorism. It expands the application of terrorism to include indirect structural violence by indicating its relationship to direct violence, not only in traditionally-viewed terrorist action but in the ignored terror of, for example, inner cities. Terrorism has many forms by many actors. To synthesize the results of these lines of reasoning leads to a conclusion with considerable implications for politics and for political leadership. The politics of terrorism suggest a central counter-terrorist approach: de-politicizing the violence of terrorists whenever possible and using the authority and power of the state to institutionalize it as criminal violence. This, in turn, also means politicizing other forms of violence, such as capital punishment, and their indirect and structural forms, such as the inner city.

  6. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  8. On the Compatibility of Terror Management Theory and Perspectives on Human Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landau, Mark J; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that the uniquely human awareness of death gives rise to a potential for debilitating terror, which is averted by the construction and maintenance of cultural worldview...

  9. Policy Watch: Challenges for Terrorism Risk Insurance in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role that insurance has played in dealing with terrorism before and after September 11, 2001, by focusing on the distinctive challenges associated with terrorism as a catastrophic risk...

  10. 75 FR 18214 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (BSC, COTPER) \\1\\ \\1\\ The Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response has been renamed and is now the Office of Public...

  11. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man-made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  12. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Ariel Merari, “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol 5, No. 4 (Winter 1993): 224. 50 Reich, Origins of...Spring, MD. : Interests, Ltd., 1990. Merari, Ariel . “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency.” Terrorism and Political Violence. Vol 5, No. 4 Winter...world.guns.ru/main-e.htm#md; Internet; Accessed 31 October 2002. Prados , Alfred B. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Issue Brief for Congress

  13. Extreme Left Terrorism in Contemporary Europe: from “Communist Combatant Parties” to Militant Campaigns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategy and tactics of the of extreme left terrorism in Europe. Traditional red terrorist organizations (combatant communist parties like the RAF, the RB etc. have been replaced by small militant groups, by violent militancy campaigns, by anti-globalist violence or by “single-issue” terrorism. The militant extreme left may itself be both a direct and indirect ally to other forms of terrorism, including Islamist terrorism.

  14. Evolution and Impact of Terrorism in the 20th Century and the U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    West into action against international terrorism. Others point to the subsequent IsLaeli destruction of Black September and the perpetrators of the...speaking in Palm Beach, Florida, Secretary of State Shultz delineated the current U.S. policy and thought on international terrorism. His theme was that...14. George P. Shultz, "The Struggle Against Terrorism," address in Palm Beach Florida, February 12, 1988. 15. L. Paul Bremer III, "Terrorism: Myths and

  15. The impact of urban form on travel behaviour in three Baghdad neighbourhoods affected by terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhyaa Molan Faraj Albayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines: 1 how travel behaviour was influenced by urban form in three terrorism-affected Baghdad districts; and 2 how the responses to terrorism in these neighbourhoods affected travel behaviour. The results suggest that urban form can mediate the impacts of terrorism and counter-terrorism with traditional urban form districts being more resilient than modern high-rise districts.

  16. The boomerang affect of the war on terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Goerzig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:The goal of the war on terror is to prevent a new 9/11. In order to achieve this, the preemptive strike has been introduced to tackle the terrorism risk. However, this precisely leads to the increasing unpredictability of terrorism and hence the likelihood of a new 9

  17. INTERPOL's Surveillance Network in Curbing Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the role that International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) surveillance—the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND)—played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applying methods developed in the treatment‐effects literature, this paper establishes that countries adopting MIND/FIND experienced fewer transnational terrorist attacks than they would have had they not adopted MIND/FIND. Our estimates indicate that, on average, from 2008 to 2011, adopting and using MIND/FIND results in 0.5 fewer transnational terrorist incidents each year per 100 million people. Thus, a country like France with a population just above 64 million people in 2008 would have 0.32 fewer transnational terrorist incidents per year owing to its use of INTERPOL surveillance. This amounts to a sizeable average proportional reduction of about 30 percent.

  18. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that.

  19. Regarding Terror: On Art and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Nowak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Regarding Terror: The RAF Exhibition’, held in Berlin in 2005, presented art works and documents dealing with the Red Army Faction (or Baader-Meinhof Group, a left-wing terrorist association active in Germany from the late 1960s until well after the controversial deaths of key members of the group in 1977. For some, the initial plans for the exhibition threatened to turn the RAF into heroes at the expense of any acknowledgement of the RAF’s victims. As a result, the government withdrew its funding, the exhibition was reconceptualised, and it was decided to present the material in as unbiased way as possible. The controversy and discussion surrounding ‘Regarding Terror’ exposes some critical issues regarding art’s relationship with politics. It is argued in this article that while individual art works and curatorial decisions influence our responses to political issues, shortcomings exist in the way the relationship between art and its subject matter is implicitly understood. These issues are explored by investigating the extent to which the fears about the exhibition and the debate surrounding it are indicative of a need to rethink the relationship between art and politics in the light of considerations of the implications of art’s autonomy and of art’s relationship with reality. Such a rethinking would bring into focus the nature of art’s responsibility to politics

  20. Visions of the future: social processes and terrorism in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    When we think of terrorism, we tend to think of Islamic terrorism but in fact most of the violent happenings in our societies are caused by 'domestic terrorism' and it has been suggested by authors such as Twemlow that there is a developmental continuum between social activism and terrorism. The generalized rise in what the author terms 'a terrorist worldview' has been linked to many different social, political, economic and psychological conflicts but the present paper suggests that this is not sufficient and that in order to understand it it is necessary to take into consideration certain processes in contemporary civilization. At present, I am suggesting that Western civilization is characterized by the generalized breakdown of values and of signifying structures and by the gradual weakening of the models of state power and institutions that previously guaranteed the unity and security of our societies. The result is a crisis of identity which is particularly evident among the youth of today and when this is exasperated by the failure of authority to provide an adequate explanatory system of contemporary reality and by the tendency to resort to repressive mechanisms, all too often the result is the degeneration of social activism into social violence. It is becoming urgent that our societies reflect on more efficient ways of preventing social activism degenerating into terrorism, both internationally and domestically.

  1. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Cohen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists react differently terrorism at the destination. Overall, Jews are proportionally more likely than non-Jews to continue to visit Israel during times of conflict, but this varies among Diaspora communities. Moreover, among US Jewish tourist, the strongly religious populations represented a greater percentage of visitors during years of high terrorism. This preliminary analysis explores how internal structural features of the Jewish community (such as Jewish educational settings and family ties to Israelis, external factors of the home country (such as anti-Semitism or the economic situation and national and cultural value orientation affect tourism patterns. The impact of these factors on tourism deserves continued research.

  2. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel... commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security... Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR part 27, require high-risk chemical facilities to submit...

  3. 75 FR 6678 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment...: Title: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form Number...

  4. Impact of Terrorism on Managerial Efficiency of Heads of Secondary Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Usman Ghani; Iqba, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism has adversely affected the educational environment in Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa Province. This study was conducted to know the impact of Terrorism on managerial efficiency of heads of secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa that included Malakand, Mangawara, Dir, Hangu , Bannu and D I Khan which are the highly affected areas of terrorism.…

  5. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim Expense...

  6. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or other...

  7. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the Program... extension approval by the Office of Management and Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office... [email protected] or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk...

  8. 78 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Paperwork Reduction Act: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This is a proposed extension... Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Customs-Trade...

  9. 78 FR 30934 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment is...: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form Number: None. Abstract...

  10. 28 CFR 501.3 - Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a) Upon... violence or terrorism. The authority of the Director under this paragraph may not be delegated below the...

  11. 31 CFR 596.404 - Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. 596.404 Section 596.404 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 596.404 Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. For the purposes of this part only, a financial...

  12. examining some of the raisons d'être for the ethiopian anti-terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    Whether the law is needed at all was one of the contentious issues deliberated on. Proponents argue that the clear and present danger of terrorism in Ethiopia ... Ethiopian anti-terrorism law, Domestic terrorism, SC Resolution 1373, Report ..... or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act, which.

  13. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third

  14. Dynamism and the erosion of procedural safeguards in international governance of terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Contemporary international governance of terrorism reflects a conceptualisation of terrorism as a global public problem that both affects and needs to be responded to by all sectors of global society. Consequently, counter-terrorism has taken the form of proactive risk

  15. Risk Groups in Exposure to Terror: The Case of Israel's Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniger, Yariv; Yuchtman-Yaar, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses a largely ignored question in the study of terror: who are its likely victims? An answer was sought through analysis of comprehensive data on civilian victims of terror in Israel from 1993 through 2003. The chances of being killed in seemingly random terror attacks were found unequally distributed in Israeli society, but…

  16. 76 FR 34720 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR Part... Section 550, the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, 6 CFR Part 27. Section 550 requires that DHS...

  17. 31 CFR 596.504 - Certain financial transactions with Terrorism List Governments authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Terrorism List Governments authorized. 596.504 Section 596.504 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 596.504 Certain financial transactions with Terrorism List Governments authorized. (a) United States...

  18. 78 FR 29759 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...- Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program'' for 14 days.\\1\\ This extension of the comment period is...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI),\\2\\ Sensitive Security Information (SSI),\\3\\ or Protected Critical...

  19. Preparedness and response to terrorism: a framework for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, Rosa

    2005-02-01

    Political group violence in the form of terrorist actions has become a reality worldwide, affecting the health and economies of populations. As a consequence, preparedness and response are becoming an integral part of public health action. Risk appraisal, preservation of human and civil rights and communications within and between countries are all issues to be considered in the process. The combination of the natural history of terrorist actions and the epidemiological triangle model has been adapted in this paper and suggested as a comprehensive approach for preparedness and action. It covers preparedness (pre-event), response (event) and the consequences (post-event) of a terrorist attack. It takes into account the human factor, vectors and environment involved in each one of the phases. Terrorism is a global reality with varying underlying causes, manifestations and impact on the health of the public. Preparedness, response and rehabilitation are an integral part of public health action. Consideration of the pre-event, event and post-event phases in terrorist actions, together with the human factor, vector/agent and environment in each of these phases, offers a framework for public health preparedness, response and rehabilitation. Planning should consider risk assessment, risk communication, inter-sectorial cooperation, enactment of laws and regulations which consider protection of the public's health and civil liberties. Allocation of resources would need to make allowance for maintenance and development of ongoing public health activities.

  20. Shame and guilt in the aftermath of terror: the Utøya Island study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Røysamb, Espen; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in trauma-related shame and guilt and their relationship to mental health. Little is known, however, about shame and guilt following mass traumas, such as terrorism. This study investigates the potential associations of trauma-related shame and guilt with posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions after the terrorist attack of July 22, 2011 on Utøya Island in Norway. Interviews were conducted with 325 of the 490 survivors 4 to 5 months after the event. Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to investigate associations. In the month previous to the interview, 44.1% (n = 143) of participants had experienced at least some guilt for what happened during the attack, and 30.5% (n = 99) had experienced at least some shame. Shame and guilt were both uniquely associated with PTS reactions after adjusting for terror exposure, gender, and other potential confounders (frequent shame: B = 0.54, frequent guilt: B = 0.33). We concluded that trauma-related shame and guilt are related to mental health after mass trauma. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.