WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrorism event classification

  1. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  2. RESEARCH ON VISUAL ANALYSIS METHODS OF TERRORISM EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events’ spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event’s spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on “5W” theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  3. Seismic event classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  4. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  5. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  6. TOURISMOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTING EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.

  7. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  8. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  9. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyu Ding

    Full Text Available Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before.

  10. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyu; Ge, Quansheng; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Hao, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before.

  11. Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyu; Ge, Quansheng; Fu, Jingying; Hao, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Terror events can cause profound consequences for the whole society. Finding out the regularity of terrorist attacks has important meaning for the global counter-terrorism strategy. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method using relatively popular and robust machine learning methods to simulate the risk of terrorist attacks at a global scale based on multiple resources, long time series and globally distributed datasets. Historical data from 1970 to 2015 was adopted to train and evaluate machine learning models. The model performed fairly well in predicting the places where terror events might occur in 2015, with a success rate of 96.6%. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the model with optimized tuning parameter values successfully predicted 2,037 terrorism event locations where a terrorist attack had never happened before. PMID:28591138

  12. Careers; Current Events; Government, U.S.; Insects; Science Experiments; Terrorism, War on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites for grades K-8 focuses on careers, current events, government, insects, science experiments, the war on terrorism, and calendar connections for Martin Luther King Day and other January observances. Specific grade levels are indicated for each annotation. (LRW)

  13. Are ethical norms and current policies still relevant in face of the recent mass terror events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Adini, Bruria

    2016-10-04

    The widespread utilization of social media in recent terror attacks in major European cities should raise a "red flag" for the emergency medical response teams. The question arises as to the impact of social media during terror events on the healthcare system. Information was published well before any emergency authority received a distress call or was requested to respond. Photos published at early stages of the attacks, through social media were uncensored, presenting identifiable pictures of victims. Technological advancements of recent years decrease and remove barriers that enable the public to use them as they see fit. These attacks raise ethical considerations for the patients and their rights as they were outsourced from the medical community, into the hands of the public. The healthcare system should leverage social media and its advantages in designing response to terror, but this requires a re-evaluation and introspection into the current emergency response models.

  14. Statistical Property and Model for the Inter-Event Time of Terrorism Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Fang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The inter-event time of terrorism attack events is investigated by empirical data and model analysis. Empirical evidence shows that it follows a scale-free property. In order to understand the dynamic mechanism of such a statistical feature, an opinion dynamic model with a memory effect is proposed on a two-dimensional lattice network. The model mainly highlights the role of individual social conformity and self-affirmation psychology. An attack event occurs when the order parameter indicating the strength of public opposition opinion is smaller than a critical value. Ultimately, the model can reproduce the same statistical property as the empirical data and gives a good understanding for the possible dynamic mechanism of terrorism attacks.

  15. Countermeasures and vaccination against terrorism using smallpox: pre-event and post-event smallpox vaccination and its contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-09-01

    Smallpox, when used as a biological weapon, presents a serious threat to civilian populations. Core components of the public health management of a terrorism attack using smallpox are: vaccination (ring vaccination and mass vaccination), adverse event monitoring, confirmed and suspected smallpox case management, contact management, identifying, tracing, monitoring contacts, and quarantine. Above all, pre-event and post-event vaccination is an indispensable part of the strategies. Since smallpox patients are most infectious from onset of the rash through the first 7-10 days of the rash, vaccination should be administered promptly within a limited time frame. However, vaccination can accompany complications, such as postvaccinial encephalitis, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, and generalized vaccinia. Therefore, vaccination is not recommended for certain groups. Public health professionals, as well as physicians and government officials, should also be well equipped with all information necessary for appropriate and effective smallpox management in the face of such a bioterrorism attack.

  16. Power quality event classification: an overview and key issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used for PQ events' classifications. Various artificial intelligent techniques which are used in PQ event classification are also discussed. Major Key issues and challenges in classifying PQ events are critically examined and outlined. Keywords: Power quality, PQ event classifiers, artificial intelligence techniques, PQ noise, ...

  17. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  18. Keyframe labeling technique for surveillance event classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaykol, Ediz; Baştan, Muhammet; Güdükbay, Uğur; Ulusoy, Özgür

    2010-11-01

    The huge amount of video data generated by surveillance systems necessitates the use of automatic tools for their efficient analysis, indexing, and retrieval. Automated access to the semantic content of surveillance videos to detect anomalous events is among the basic tasks; however, due to the high variability of the audio-visual features and large size of the video input, it still remains a challenging task, though a considerable amount of research dealing with automated access to video surveillance has appeared in the literature. We propose a keyframe labeling technique, especially for indoor environments, which assigns labels to keyframes extracted by a keyframe detection algorithm, and hence transforms the input video to an event-sequence representation. This representation is used to detect unusual behaviors, such as crossover, deposit, and pickup, with the help of three separate mechanisms based on finite state automata. The keyframes are detected based on a grid-based motion representation of the moving regions, called the motion appearance mask. It has been shown through performance experiments that the keyframe labeling algorithm significantly reduces the storage requirements and yields reasonable event detection and classification performance.

  19. Automatic Classification of Kepler Threshold Crossing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauliff, Sean; Catanzarite, Joseph; Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2014-06-01

    Over the course of its 4-year primary mission the Kepler mission has discovered numerous planets. Part of the process of planet discovery has involved generating threshold crossing events (TCEs); a light curve with a repeating exoplanet transit-like feature. The large number of diagnostics 100) makes it difficult to examine all the information available for each TCE. The effort required for vetting all threshold-crossing events (TCEs) takes several months by many individuals associated with the Kepler Threshold Crossing Event Review Team (TCERT). The total number of objects with transit-like features identified in the light curves has increased to as many as 18,000, just examining the first three years of data. In order to accelerate the process by which new planet candidates are classified, we propose a machine learning approach to establish a preliminary list of planetary candidates ranked from most credible to least credible. The classifier must distinguish between three classes of detections: non-transiting phenomena, astrophysical false positives, and planet candidates. We use random forests, a supervised classification algorithm to this end. We report on the performance of the classifier and identify diagnostics that are important for discriminating between these classes of TCEs.Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  1. Crossing the Rubicon: Making a Case for Refining the Classification of Jihadist Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wayne Hand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that our current understanding of Jihadist Terrorism as a monolithic sub-type of Political Terrorism is flawed and that as a result our governments counter this threat with inappropriately-adapted methods.  The author argues: (A There is a 'sub-type' of Jihadist Terrorism that is more consistent with Walter’s ‘Military Terrorism’ or Feldman and Hinojosa’s ‘Guerrilla Warfare’ than within the typology of Political Terrorism; (B The author-proposed sub-type of ‘War Terrorism’ should be accepted, examined, defined, and established; and (C Establishing the author’s sub-type will allow western democracies to devise better counter-terrorism strategies while protecting the civil liberties of their citizens.

  2. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  3. Biological terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Gregory J; Talan, David A; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2008-03-01

    A biological terrorism event could have a large impact on the general population and health care system. The impact of an infectious disaster will most likely be great to emergency departments, and the collaboration between emergency and infectious disease specialists will be critical in developing an effective response. A bioterrorism event is a disaster that requires specific preparations beyond the usual medical disaster planning. An effective response would include attention to infection control issues and plans for large-scale vaccination or antimicrobial prophylaxis. This article addresses some general issues related to preparing an effective response to a biological terrorism event. It will also review organisms and toxins that could be used in biological terrorism, including clinical features, management, diagnostic testing, and infection control.

  4. Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence: Classification Variability Across Five Methods to Distinguish Johnson's Violent Relationship Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Jessica J

    2017-10-10

    Johnson's (1995, 2008) theory of violent relationship types represents an opportunity to resolve debates surrounding intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence and to adapt policy and treatment options for victims accordingly. However, the use of quantitative methods to distinguish between situational couple violence (SCV) and intimate terrorism (IT) remains in its initial stages of discovery. This study included a 2-phase (N = 840; via targeted community and agency sampling) online survey design comparing the utility and grouping variability across 5 methods of IT/SCV classification: victimization-variables and coercive-control-variable hierarchical clustering, vignette-choice, cutoff scoring, and expert coding. Findings are discussed in terms of contributions to differing IPV-research perspectives, researchers' understanding of existing classification methods, and practitioners' awareness of victims' voices in quantitative research.

  5. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can contribute to sleep terrors, such as: Sleep deprivation and extreme tiredness Stress Sleep schedule disruptions, travel ... such as depression and anxiety In adults, alcohol use Risk factors Sleep terrors are more common if ...

  6. Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs. The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  7. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting indus-trial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify "human error......" rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical struc-ture and its compatibility with Isprals ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented...

  8. Assessment of Nuclear Medicine Capabilities in Responding to a Radiological Terrorism Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    les premiers intervenants et la communication avec les médias. En reconnaissant la valeur potentielle de ces professionnels à réagir à un incident...success. Yet, terrorism is designed specifically to have a psychological impact, and has the potential to pose serious and long-lasting social

  9. A classification of event sequences in the influence network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James Lyons; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2017-06-01

    We build on the classification in [1] of event sequences in the influence network as respecting collinearity or not, so as to determine in future work what phenomena arise in each case. Collinearity enables each observer to uniquely associate each particle event of influencing with one of the observer's own events, even in the case of events of influencing the other observer. We further classify events as to whether they are spacetime events that obey in the fine-grained case the coarse-grained conditions of [2], finding that Newton's First and Second Laws of motion are obeyed at spacetime events. A proof of Newton's Third Law under particular circumstances is also presented.

  10. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2017-08-17

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Event-Based User Classification in Weibo Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendong; Cheng, Shiduan; Que, Xirong

    2014-01-01

    Weibo media, known as the real-time microblogging services, has attracted massive attention and support from social network users. Weibo platform offers an opportunity for people to access information and changes the way people acquire and disseminate information significantly. Meanwhile, it enables people to respond to the social events in a more convenient way. Much of the information in Weibo media is related to some events. Users who post different contents, and exert different behavior or attitude may lead to different contribution to the specific event. Therefore, classifying the large amount of uncategorized social circles generated in Weibo media automatically from the perspective of events has been a promising task. Under this circumstance, in order to effectively organize and manage the huge amounts of users, thereby further managing their contents, we address the task of user classification in a more granular, event-based approach in this paper. By analyzing real data collected from Sina Weibo, we investigate the Weibo properties and utilize both content information and social network information to classify the numerous users into four primary groups: celebrities, organizations/media accounts, grassroots stars, and ordinary individuals. The experiments results show that our method identifies the user categories accurately. PMID:25133235

  12. A Hierarchical Convolutional Neural Network for vesicle fusion event classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haohan; Mao, Yunxiang; Yin, Zhaozheng; Xu, Yingke

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of vesicle exocytosis and classification of different modes of vesicle fusion from the fluorescence microscopy are of primary importance for biomedical researches. In this paper, we propose a novel Hierarchical Convolutional Neural Network (HCNN) method to automatically identify vesicle fusion events in time-lapse Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) image sequences. Firstly, a detection and tracking method is developed to extract image patch sequences containing potential fusion events. Then, a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is applied on each image patch of the patch sequence with outliers rejected for robust Gaussian fitting. By utilizing the high-level time-series intensity change features introduced by GMM and the visual appearance features embedded in some key moments of the fusion process, the proposed HCNN architecture is able to classify each candidate patch sequence into three classes: full fusion event, partial fusion event and non-fusion event. Finally, we validate the performance of our method on 9 challenging datasets that have been annotated by cell biologists, and our method achieves better performances when comparing with three previous methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  14. Classification of Overlapped Audio Events Based on AT, PLSA, and the Combination of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Leng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Audio event classification, as an important part of Computational Auditory Scene Analysis, has attracted much attention. Currently, the classification technology is mature enough to classify isolated audio events accurately, but for overlapped audio events, it performs much worse. While in real life, most audio documents would have certain percentage of overlaps, and so the overlap classification problem is an important part of audio classification. Nowadays, the work on overlapped audio event classification is still scarce, and most existing overlap classification systems can only recognize one audio event for an overlap. In this paper, in order to deal with overlaps, we innovatively introduce the author-topic (AT model which was first proposed for text analysis into audio classification, and innovatively combine it with PLSA (Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis. We propose 4 systems, i.e. AT, PLSA, AT-PLSA and PLSA-AT, to classify overlaps. The 4 proposed systems have the ability to recognize two or more audio events for an overlap. The experimental results show that the 4 systems perform well in classifying overlapped audio events, whether it is the overlap in training set or the overlap out of training set. Also they perform well in classifying isolated audio events.

  15. Terrorism in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanduorkov, George

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria is one of the smallest countries in southeastern Europe and has little experience with terrorist acts. During the past 20 years, only nine terrorism-related events have been recorded in Bulgaria, and no unconventional weapons have been used. Factors contributing to terrorism in Bulgaria have been: (1) Communist Party domination of the government and political process from 1944 to 1989; (2) ethnic and religious conflicts between the Bulgarian Orthodox Christian majority and the Turkish Muslim minority from 1983 to 1987; and (3) the relatively high level of organized crime after the Communist regime ended in 1990. The structure and function of the Disaster Relief System in Bulgaria not only are focused on the prevention of terrorism, but also on preparedness for the emergency response to terrorism-related events. Institutional components of the Disaster Relief System structure responsible for the emergency response to terrorism-related events include: (1) the Government of Bulgaria; (2) the State Agency for Civil Protection with 28 regional directorates; (3) the Ministry of Health with five national hospitals, 28 regional hospitals, and 28 EMS systems; (4) the Ministry of Defense with special military units for response to unconventional terrorist events, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; (5) the Ministry of Internal Affairs with 28 police departments, 28 fire departments, and specialized anti-terrorist units; and (6) the Bulgarian Red Cross. A major future challenge in Bulgaria is the prevention of terrorism through political stability, economic prosperity, ethnic and religious tolerance, and more effective measures against organized criminal activities. A related challenge will be to improve the level of preparedness of all components of Disaster Relief.

  16. Simulation and classification of power quality events based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The STFT and Discrete Wavelet Transform are used for feature extraction. Acquired features of this step are decreased using advance algorithm of feature selection. Then these extracted features were given to the neural network as input. The simulation results showed that the classification precision of data caused by the ...

  17. Bag-of-Audio-Words Approach for Multimedia Event Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    animal 114 Landing a fish 86 Wedding ceremony 89 Working on a woodworking project 100 Table 1: Event class names and number of segments in the DEV-T test...intersection kernel) to observe how results vary for each of the five video event classes. Results are presented in Figure 4. The woodworking project...the typical video properties for each event. Woodworking projects largely contain the same type of 1 2 5 10 20 40 60 80 90

  18. Real-time detection and classification of anomalous events in streaming data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Goodall, John R.; Iannacone, Michael D.; Laska, Jason A.; Harrison, Lane T.

    2016-04-19

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The events can be displayed to a user in user-defined groupings in an animated fashion. The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The atypical traffic patterns can then be classified as being of interest or not. In one particular example, in a network environment, the classification can be whether the network traffic is malicious or not.

  19. Detection and fine-grained classification of cyberbullying events

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hee, Cynthia; Lefever, Els; Verhoeven, Ben; Mennes, Julie; Desmet, Bart; De Pauw, Guy; Daelemans, Walter; Hoste, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of online interactions, both positive and negative experiences are abundant on the Web. As in real life, negative experiences can have a serious impact on youngsters. Recent studies have reported cybervictimization rates among teenagers that vary between 20% and 40%. In this paper, we focus on cyberbullying as a particular form of cybervictimization and explore its automatic detection and fine-grained classification. Data containing cyberbullying was collected from the soci...

  20. A New Classification Method of Infrasound Events Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrasound is a type of low frequency signal that occurs in nature and results from man-made events, typically ranging in frequency from 0.01 Hz to 20 Hz. In this paper, a classification method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT and support vector machine (SVM is proposed to discriminate between three different natural events. The frequency spectrum characteristics of infrasound signals produced by different events, such as volcanoes, are unique, which lays the foundation for infrasound signal classification. First, the HHT method was used to extract the feature vectors of several kinds of infrasound events from the Hilbert marginal spectrum. Then, the feature vectors were classified by the SVM method. Finally, the present of classification and identification accuracy are given. The simulation results show that the recognition rate is above 97.7%, and that approach is effective for classifying event types for small samples.

  1. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  2. Continuous robust sound event classification using time-frequency features and deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Ian; Zhang, Haomin; Xie, Zhipeng; Song, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Phan, Huy

    2017-01-01

    The automatic detection and recognition of sound events by computers is a requirement for a number of emerging sensing and human computer interaction technologies. Recent advances in this field have been achieved by machine learning classifiers working in conjunction with time-frequency feature representations. This combination has achieved excellent accuracy for classification of discrete sounds. The ability to recognise sounds under real-world noisy conditions, called robust sound event classification, is an especially challenging task that has attracted recent research attention. Another aspect of real-word conditions is the classification of continuous, occluded or overlapping sounds, rather than classification of short isolated sound recordings. This paper addresses the classification of noise-corrupted, occluded, overlapped, continuous sound recordings. It first proposes a standard evaluation task for such sounds based upon a common existing method for evaluating isolated sound classification. It then benchmarks several high performing isolated sound classifiers to operate with continuous sound data by incorporating an energy-based event detection front end. Results are reported for each tested system using the new task, to provide the first analysis of their performance for continuous sound event detection. In addition it proposes and evaluates a novel Bayesian-inspired front end for the segmentation and detection of continuous sound recordings prior to classification.

  3. ACTIVE: Activity Concept Transitions in Video Event Classification (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    approach yet achieves impressive results. It fol- lows the Bag-of-Words (BoW) scheme with the following three steps: low-level feature extraction , fixed...activity concept. Every two concepts i, j have a transition probability P (Cj |Ci) from concept i to j. Each observation is a feature vector x extracted from...activity concept classification. DT tracks points densely and describes each tracklet with its shape and the HoG , HoF, MBH features around the tracklet

  4. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  5. Identification of new events in Apollo 16 lunar seismic data by Hidden Markov Model-based event detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Hammer, Conny

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of interesting events in single-station seismic data with little prior knowledge and under tight time constraints is a typical scenario in planetary seismology. The Apollo lunar seismic data, with the only confirmed events recorded on any extraterrestrial body yet, provide a valuable test case. Here we present the application of a stochastic event detector and classifier to the data of station Apollo 16. Based on a single-waveform example for each event class and some hours of background noise, the system is trained to recognize deep moonquakes, impacts, and shallow moonquakes and performs reliably over 3 years of data. The algorithm's demonstrated ability to detect rare events and flag previously undefined signal classes as new event types is of particular interest in the analysis of the first seismic recordings from a completely new environment. We are able to classify more than 50% of previously unclassified lunar events, and additionally find over 200 new events not listed in the current lunar event catalog. These events include deep moonquakes as well as impacts and could be used to update studies on temporal variations in event rate or deep moonquakes stacks used in phase picking for localization. No unambiguous new shallow moonquake was detected, but application to data of the other Apollo stations has the potential for additional new discoveries 40 years after the data were recorded. Besides, the classification system could be useful for future seismometer missions to other planets, e.g., the InSight mission to Mars.

  6. Systematic approaches to adverse events in obstetrics, Part I: Event identification and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettker, Christian M

    2017-04-01

    Despite our best intentions to improve health when a patient presents for care, adverse events are ubiquitous in medical practice today. Known complications related to the course of a patient's illness or condition or to the characteristics of the treatment have been an openly stated part of taking care of patients for centuries. However, it is only in the past decade that preventable adverse events, instances of harm related to error and deviations in accepted practice have become a primary part of these conversations. Human and system errors are an innate part of working in a complex environment like health care and we are now well aware of this burden in medicine. Now, we are building ways to react to adverse events from error in systematic ways. A systematic approach to identifying and classifying events is a critical part of any safety program, let alone an obstetric safety program. This article reviews the various systems that are used to identify adverse events, in particular sentinel events, state reportable events, and the significant local adverse "trigger" events in obstetrics. These events typically become identified through robust reporting systems where staff can report adverse, near-miss events, or precursor safety events. After events are reported, a system for classifying events, including a structured tracking and reporting system with built in accountability, is necessary. The concept of the "serious safety event," and how these differ from known complications or unpreventable events, and how this is classified are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Classifications and definitions of adverse events in primary care: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keriel-Gascou, Maud; Figon, Sophie; Letrilliart, Laurent; Chaneliére, Marc; Colin, Cyrille

    2011-11-01

    In an aim to standardize the terminology used in patient safety research, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of internationally acceptable patient safety concepts for the collection and classification of adverse events and near misses in health care settings worldwide. The principal aims of this study were to clarify patient safety terminology and concepts, to suggest a comprehensible definition of medical error, and to propose patient safety classifications for use in primary health care. Systematic review and synthesis of the international medical literature. In order to define "medical error" as a health care term and to identify various published or unpublished classifications of medical errors, we searched the Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Pascal, and French Data Bank of Public Health bibliographical medical databases for the years 2000 through 2011. A grey literature search was carried out using the Google and Google Scholar search engines. We used the recommendations of WHO to analyze these classifications. The principal key words used were: primary care, family practice, patient safety event, adverse event and taxonomy. The online search identified 191 documents; among these, 51 articles, eight reports and two books were deemed appropriate. Twelve classifications were analyzed and compared using WHO recommendations. Eight definitions of medical error were identified during this analysis. The WHO Alliance for Patient Safety has clarified the definition of several terms - medical error, adverse event, patient safety event, and near miss - through the development of the International Patient Safety Event Classification. This conceptual framework and classification for patient safety should be applicable across the full spectrum of health care, including primary health care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. CIFAR10-DVS: An Event-Stream Dataset for Object Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmin; Liu, Hanchao; Ji, Xiangyang; Li, Guoqi; Shi, Luping

    2017-01-01

    Neuromorphic vision research requires high-quality and appropriately challenging event-stream datasets to support continuous improvement of algorithms and methods. However, creating event-stream datasets is a time-consuming task, which needs to be recorded using the neuromorphic cameras. Currently, there are limited event-stream datasets available. In this work, by utilizing the popular computer vision dataset CIFAR-10, we converted 10,000 frame-based images into 10,000 event streams using a dynamic vision sensor (DVS), providing an event-stream dataset of intermediate difficulty in 10 different classes, named as "CIFAR10-DVS." The conversion of event-stream dataset was implemented by a repeated closed-loop smooth (RCLS) movement of frame-based images. Unlike the conversion of frame-based images by moving the camera, the image movement is more realistic in respect of its practical applications. The repeated closed-loop image movement generates rich local intensity changes in continuous time which are quantized by each pixel of the DVS camera to generate events. Furthermore, a performance benchmark in event-driven object classification is provided based on state-of-the-art classification algorithms. This work provides a large event-stream dataset and an initial benchmark for comparison, which may boost algorithm developments in even-driven pattern recognition and object classification.

  9. Brain Network Activation Analysis Utilizing Spatiotemporal Features for Event Related Potentials Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaki Stern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce an improved tool for automated classification of event-related potentials (ERPs using spatiotemporally parcellated events incorporated into a functional brain network activation (BNA analysis. The auditory oddball ERP paradigm was selected to demonstrate and evaluate the improved tool. Methods: The ERPs of each subject were decomposed into major dynamic spatiotemporal events. Then, a set of spatiotemporal events representing the group was generated by aligning and clustering the spatiotemporal events of all individual subjects. The temporal relationship between the common group events generated a network, which is the spatiotemporal reference BNA model. Scores were derived by comparing each subject’s spatiotemporal events to the reference BNA model and were then entered into a support vector machine classifier to classify subjects into relevant subgroups. The reliability of the BNA scores (test-retest repeatability using intraclass correlation and their utility as a classification tool were examined in the context of Target-Novel classification. Results: BNA intraclass correlation values of repeatability ranged between 0.51 and 0.82 for the known ERP components N100, P200 and P300. Classification accuracy was high when the trained data were validated on the same subjects for different visits (AUCs 0.93 and 0.95. The classification accuracy remained high for a test group recorded at a different clinical center with a different recording system (AUCs 0.81, 0.85 for 2 visits. Conclusion: The improved spatiotemporal BNA analysis demonstrates high classification accuracy. The BNA analysis method holds promise as a tool for diagnosis, follow-up and drug development associated with different neurological conditions.

  10. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  11. Terrorism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  12. Interactions Between Pre-Processing and Classification Methods for Event-Related-Potential Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, J.D.R.; Hill, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting event related potentials (ERPs) from single trials is critical to the operation of many stimulus-driven brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The low strength of the ERP signal compared to the noise (due to artifacts and BCI irrelevant brain processes) makes this a challenging signal

  13. Machine learning algorithms for meteorological event classification in the coastal area using in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Gengembre, Cyril; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The problem is considered of classification of local atmospheric meteorological events in the coastal area such as sea breezes, fogs and storms. The in-situ meteorological data as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and turbulence are used as predictors. Local atmospheric events of 2013-2014 were analysed manually to train classification algorithms in the coastal area of English Channel in Dunkirk (France). Then, ultrasonic anemometer data and LIDAR wind profiler data were used as predictors. A few algorithms were applied to determine meteorological events by local data such as a decision tree, the nearest neighbour classifier, a support vector machine. The comparison of classification algorithms was carried out, the most important predictors for each event type were determined. It was shown that in more than 80 percent of the cases machine learning algorithms detect the meteorological class correctly. We expect that this methodology could be applied also to classify events by climatological in-situ data or by modelling data. It allows estimating frequencies of each event in perspective of climate change.

  14. Filtering large-scale event collections using a combination of supervised and unsupervised learning for event trigger classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryary, Farrokh; Kaewphan, Suwisa; Hakala, Kai; Ginter, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical event extraction is one of the key tasks in biomedical text mining, supporting various applications such as database curation and hypothesis generation. Several systems, some of which have been applied at a large scale, have been introduced to solve this task. Past studies have shown that the identification of the phrases describing biological processes, also known as trigger detection, is a crucial part of event extraction, and notable overall performance gains can be obtained by solely focusing on this sub-task. In this paper we propose a novel approach for filtering falsely identified triggers from large-scale event databases, thus improving the quality of knowledge extraction. Our method relies on state-of-the-art word embeddings, event statistics gathered from the whole biomedical literature, and both supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques. We focus on EVEX, an event database covering the whole PubMed and PubMed Central Open Access literature containing more than 40 million extracted events. The top most frequent EVEX trigger words are hierarchically clustered, and the resulting cluster tree is pruned to identify words that can never act as triggers regardless of their context. For rarely occurring trigger words we introduce a supervised approach trained on the combination of trigger word classification produced by the unsupervised clustering method and manual annotation. The method is evaluated on the official test set of BioNLP Shared Task on Event Extraction. The evaluation shows that the method can be used to improve the performance of the state-of-the-art event extraction systems. This successful effort also translates into removing 1,338,075 of potentially incorrect events from EVEX, thus greatly improving the quality of the data. The method is not solely bound to the EVEX resource and can be thus used to improve the quality of any event extraction system or database. The data and source code for this work are available at

  15. Identification and classification of dynamic event tree scenarios via possibilistic clustering: application to a steam generator tube rupture event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D; Podofillini, L; Zio, E; Dang, V N

    2009-11-01

    This paper illustrates a method to identify and classify scenarios generated in a dynamic event tree (DET) analysis. Identification and classification are carried out by means of an evolutionary possibilistic fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm which takes into account not only the final system states but also the timing of the events and the process evolution. An application is considered with regards to the scenarios generated following a steam generator tube rupture in a nuclear power plant. The scenarios are generated by the accident dynamic simulator (ADS), coupled to a RELAP code that simulates the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the plant and to an operators' crew model, which simulates their cognitive and procedures-guided responses. A set of 60 scenarios has been generated by the ADS DET tool. The classification approach has grouped the 60 scenarios into 4 classes of dominant scenarios, one of which was not anticipated a priori but was "discovered" by the classifier. The proposed approach may be considered as a first effort towards the application of identification and classification approaches to scenarios post-processing for real-scale dynamic safety assessments.

  16. The Impact of Terrorism Across Industries: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Berrebi, Claude; Esteban F. Klor

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses scoring matching techniques and event study analysis to elucidate the impact of terrorism across different economic sectors. Using the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a case study, we differentiate between Israeli companies that belong to the defence, security or anti-terrorism related industries and other companies. The findings show that whereas terrorism has a significant negative impact on non defence-related companies, the overall effect of terrorism on defence and securi...

  17. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  18. EEG Channel Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for the Classification of Auditory Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMI rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present work, we propose a method for classifying P300 ERPs using a combination of Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA and a multiobjective hybrid real-binary Particle Swarm Optimization (MHPSO algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm searches for the set of EEG channels and classifier parameters that simultaneously maximize the classification accuracy and minimize the number of used channels. The performance of the method is assessed through offline analyses on datasets of auditory ERPs from sound discrimination experiments. The proposed method achieved a higher classification accuracy than that achieved by traditional methods while also using fewer channels. It was also found that the number of channels used for classification can be significantly reduced without greatly compromising the classification accuracy.

  19. Attitudes and Perceptions of Urban African Americans of a “Dirty Bomb” Radiological Terror Event: Results of a Qualitative Study and Implications for Effective Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R.; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a “dirty bomb” is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with “shelter in place” recommendations. Methods Thirty-seven 18–65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. Results The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the “whole truth” because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Conclusion Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place. PMID:25611688

  20. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Towards an Automated Classification of Transient Events in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Mahabal, A. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Turmon, M.; Graham, M. J.; Drake, A. J.; Sharma, N.; Chen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of a system for an automated, iterative, real-time classification of transient events discovered in synoptic sky surveys. The system under development incorporates a number of Machine Learning techniques, mostly using Bayesian approaches, due to the sparse nature, heterogeneity, and variable incompleteness of the available data. The classifications are improved iteratively as the new measurements are obtained. One novel featrue is the development of an automated follow-up recommendation engine, that suggest those measruements that would be the most advantageous in terms of resolving classification ambiguities and/or characterization of the astrophysically most interesting objects, given a set of available follow-up assets and their cost funcations. This illustrates the symbiotic relationship of astronomy and applied computer science through the emerging disciplne of AstroInformatics.

  2. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...

  3. Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-19

    threatened societies muse remain within the rule of law while going to the limit of what the law allows. 6. Conclusions. John Wolf provides a "Battle...with Eakadi Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Hamnmer and Sickle Cooperative Young Militants Iberian Liberation Moivement (MIL) Internationol Revolutionary...Studies, No. 67, p. 9. 36. Ibid., p. 12. 37. Wolf , John B., "Controlling Political Terrorism in a Free Society," Orbis, Journal published by the Foreign Policy Research Institute, Volume XIX, Winter 1976, #4. 25 . .

  4. Supervised machine learning on a network scale: application to seismic event classification and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynen, Andrew; Audet, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    A new method using a machine learning technique is applied to event classification and detection at seismic networks. This method is applicable to a variety of network sizes and settings. The algorithm makes use of a small catalogue of known observations across the entire network. Two attributes, the polarization and frequency content, are used as input to regression. These attributes are extracted at predicted arrival times for P and S waves using only an approximate velocity model, as attributes are calculated over large time spans. This method of waveform characterization is shown to be able to distinguish between blasts and earthquakes with 99 per cent accuracy using a network of 13 stations located in Southern California. The combination of machine learning with generalized waveform features is further applied to event detection in Oklahoma, United States. The event detection algorithm makes use of a pair of unique seismic phases to locate events, with a precision directly related to the sampling rate of the generalized waveform features. Over a week of data from 30 stations in Oklahoma, United States are used to automatically detect 25 times more events than the catalogue of the local geological survey, with a false detection rate of less than 2 per cent. This method provides a highly confident way of detecting and locating events. Furthermore, a large number of seismic events can be automatically detected with low false alarm, allowing for a larger automatic event catalogue with a high degree of trust.

  5. Terrorism and hazardous material trucking: promoting perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention among Canadian hazardous-material truck drivers. Results supported the impact of the intervention in increasing perceived efficacy for terrorism prevention. Implications for theory, research, and application are discussed.

  6. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brigode

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy

  7. Economics, Politics and Young Males. Root Causes of Terrorism on the Aggregate Level in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldsnes, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The research question posed in this thesis is: what are the root causes of terrorism on the aggregate level in Europe. There is little convergence on the root causes of terrorism in the field of terrorism research, and many findings are challenged on data and conceptual grounds. The analysis is done with two dependent variables each representing an operationalization of terrorism, a count of the number of killed in terrorism events for each country-year observation and a count of the numbe...

  8. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans; Dückers, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines' scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation.

  9. Circulation types classification for hourly precipitation events in Lublin (East Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof; Skiba, Dominika

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an objective classification of circulation types for East-Central Europe with application to hourly precipitation events in Lublin (East Poland) from May to September. The development of the classification utilized sub-daily sea-level pressure values (at the main standard synoptic hours, i.e. 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC). Sea-level pressure values and physical quantities (resultant flow direction and total shear vorticity) defined 27 circulation types: a) eight each of the directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic circulation types, and b) one each of the non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and undefined types. In the years 1961-2010, the highest mean precipitation amount in the study area was recorded for cyclonic non-directional type C, followed by cyclonic types with air flow from the western and northern sectors. Type C was also distinguished by the highest number of precipitation events with high intensity irrespective of their duration, i.e. short-term, medium-term, and long-term precipitation events. Moreover, in the class of cyclonic types, precipitation events were considerably longer than in anticyclonic and transitional types. On the other hand, for anticyclonic types, precipitation with high intensity was recorded much more rarely, particularly in the case of advection from the southern sector.

  10. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  11. Event classification with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierholzer, Martin C.

    2012-02-15

    The OPERA experiment searches for {nu}{sub {mu}} <-> {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations in appearance mode. It uses the emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) technique for a high spatial resolution combined with on-line components for event localisation and muon identification. The analysis of events in an ECC detector takes considerable time, especially in case of {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} candidate events. A ranking of events by a probability for being a {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} event can speed up the analysis of the OPERA experiment. An algorithm for such an event ranking based on a classification-type neural network is presented in this thesis. Almost all candidate events can be found within the first 30% of the analysed events if the described ranking is applied. This event ranking is currently applied for testing purposes by the OPERA collaboration, a decision on a full application for the whole analysis is pending. A similar neural network is used for discrimination between neutral and charged current events. This is used to observe neutrino oscillations in disappearance mode with the on-line components of the OPERA detector by measuring the energy dependence of the fraction of neutral current interactions. The confidence level of the observed oscillation effect is 87%. Assuming full mixing, the mass splitting has been determined to vertical stroke {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} vertical stroke =2.8{sub -1.7}{sup +1.4}.10{sup -3}eV{sup 2}.

  12. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Support Vector Machine Model for Automatic Detection and Classification of Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vesna; Barros, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The automated processing of multiple seismic signals to detect, localize and classify seismic events is a central tool in both natural hazards monitoring and nuclear treaty verification. However, false detections and missed detections caused by station noise and incorrect classification of arrivals are still an issue and the events are often unclassified or poorly classified. Thus, machine learning techniques can be used in automatic processing for classifying the huge database of seismic recordings and provide more confidence in the final output. Applied in the context of the International Monitoring System (IMS) - a global sensor network developed for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) - we propose a fully automatic method for seismic event detection and classification based on a supervised pattern recognition technique called the Support Vector Machine (SVM). According to Kortström et al., 2015, the advantages of using SVM are handleability of large number of features and effectiveness in high dimensional spaces. Our objective is to detect seismic events from one IMS seismic station located in an area of high seismicity and mining activity and classify them as earthquakes or quarry blasts. It is expected to create a flexible and easily adjustable SVM method that can be applied in different regions and datasets. Taken a step further, accurate results for seismic stations could lead to a modification of the model and its parameters to make it applicable to other waveform technologies used to monitor nuclear explosions such as infrasound and hydroacoustic waveforms. As an authorized user, we have direct access to all IMS data and bulletins through a secure signatory account. A set of significant seismic waveforms containing different types of events (e.g. earthquake, quarry blasts) and noise is being analysed to train the model and learn the typical pattern of the signal from these events. Moreover, comparing the performance of the support

  14. Evaluation of Llaima volcano activities for localization and classification of LP, VT and TR events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Firoozabadi, Ali; Seguel, Fabian; Soto, Ismael; Guevara, David; Huenupan, Fernando; Curilem, Millaray; Franco, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of seismic signals is one of the most important research topics on Volcanology. Volcanoes have daily activity; therefore, high speed evaluation of recorded signals is a challenge for improving the study of the natural phenomena occurring inside these natural formations. The aim of this paper is the evaluation (denoising, localization and classification) and analysis of Llaima volcano activities, one of the most actives volcanoes in South America. Different already proposed methods, such as, Butterworth, Spectral Subtraction (SS) and Wiener Filter (WF) are compared to the proposed Modified Spectral Subtraction (MSS) and Modified Wiener Filter (MWF) to find the best method for denoising the volcano signals. Then, event localization based on received signals of volcano is performed. In this step, Time Delay Estimation (TDE)-based method is used on data acquired from 3 mechanical sensors located in the volcano area. The proposed method is used to estimate the area for event location. The proposed denoising methods make the starting point for the event more evident to increase the localization accuracy for events where the starting point is difficult to find. In the last step, a method based on the novel DNN technique is proposed to classify the three main events occurring in the Llaima volcano (TR (Tremor), LP (Long Period) and VT (Volcano Tectonic)).

  15. Signal classification and event reconstruction for acoustic neutrino detection in sea water with KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kießling, Dominik

    2017-03-01

    The research infrastructure KM3NeT will comprise a multi cubic kilometer neutrino telescope that is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. Modules with optical and acoustic sensors are used in the detector. While the main purpose of the acoustic sensors is the position calibration of the detection units, they can be used as instruments for studies on acoustic neutrino detection, too. In this article, methods for signal classification and event reconstruction for acoustic neutrino detectors will be presented, which were developed using Monte Carlo simulations. For the signal classification the disk-like emission pattern of the acoustic neutrino signal is used. This approach improves the suppression of transient background by several orders of magnitude. Additionally, an event reconstruction is developed based on the signal classification. An overview of these algorithms will be presented and the efficiency of the classification will be discussed. The quality of the event reconstruction will also be presented.

  16. Signal classification and event reconstruction for acoustic neutrino detection in sea water with KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kießling Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research infrastructure KM3NeT will comprise a multi cubic kilometer neutrino telescope that is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. Modules with optical and acoustic sensors are used in the detector. While the main purpose of the acoustic sensors is the position calibration of the detection units, they can be used as instruments for studies on acoustic neutrino detection, too. In this article, methods for signal classification and event reconstruction for acoustic neutrino detectors will be presented, which were developed using Monte Carlo simulations. For the signal classification the disk–like emission pattern of the acoustic neutrino signal is used. This approach improves the suppression of transient background by several orders of magnitude. Additionally, an event reconstruction is developed based on the signal classification. An overview of these algorithms will be presented and the efficiency of the classification will be discussed. The quality of the event reconstruction will also be presented.

  17. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    density, illiteracy , new democracies, unfair balance of trade, and linguistic diversity. Two or more findings included a negative relationship for...data sets, books , journals, and legal documents [11]. Only events that meet the aforementioned inclusion criteria are recorded as terrorist attacks in...Criminology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 489–516, 2006. 11. Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, “Code- book : Inclusion criteria and variables

  18. Preparing for terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E

    1993-06-01

    Terrorists enjoy their exposure in the international press. Their acts and treats of violence are heralded in headlines and broadcast throughout the world. They purposely inflict damage in public places where there are large numbers of victims, with the potential for a great deal of destruction and debris. They intend to inflict economic loss, instill fear and disrupt everyday life, while at the same time believing their need to maim and kill is justified. Is it no wonder that the World Trade Center was a highly prized target? You must remember that terrorism involves the perpetrator's willful, calculated choice to use innocent victims as targets, and that the terrorist's acts are deliberate, systematic murders to inspire fear for political or criminal ends. As Brian Jenkins stated back in 1983, "terrorism is never a short-term event...you never really get over it...and its effects can't be buried or forgotten." Thus, our responsibility, as EMS providers, is to recognize the threat and refuse to be lulled into a sense of complacency. The United States is at risk, and our greatest threat may even come from our own ranks: political crusaders, activists, hate groups, drug merchants and gangs. The criminals, zealots, fanatics and extremists of the world will continue to believe their crusades and turf battles can be won through terrorist acts. It's up to us to respond effectively to the aftermath.

  19. Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): Classification of Suicidal Events in the FDA’s Pediatric Suicidal Risk Analysis of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, Maria A.; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Davies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the link between antidepressants and suicidal behavior and ideation (suicidality) in youth, adverse events from pediatric clinical trials were classified in order to identify suicidal events. The authors describe the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), a standardized suicidal rating system that provided data for the pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antide-pressants conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Method Adverse events (N=427) from 25 pediatric antidepressant clinical trials were systematically identified by pharmaceutical companies. Randomly assigned adverse events were evaluated by three of nine independent expert suicidologists using the Columbia classification algorithm. Reliability of the C-CASA ratings and agreement with pharmaceutical company classification were estimated. Results Twenty-six new, possibly suicidal events (behavior and ideation) that were not originally identified by pharmaceutical companies were identified in the C-CASA, and 12 events originally labeled as suicidal by pharmaceutical companies were eliminated, which resulted in a total of 38 discrepant ratings. For the specific label of “suicide attempt,” a relatively low level of agreement was observed between the C-CASA and pharmaceutical company ratings, with the C-CASA reporting a 50% reduction in ratings. Thus, although the C-CASA resulted in the identification of more suicidal events overall, fewer events were classified as suicide attempts. Additionally, the C-CASA ratings were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89). Conclusions Utilizing a methodical, anchored approach to categorizing suicidality provides an accurate and comprehensive identification of suicidal events. The FDA’s audit of the C-CASA demonstrated excellent transportability of this approach. The Columbia algorithm was used to classify suicidal adverse events in the recent FDA adult antidepressant safety analyses and

  20. Conversion of Continuous-Valued Deep Networks to Efficient Event-Driven Networks for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Rueckauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiking neural networks (SNNs can potentially offer an efficient way of doing inference because the neurons in the networks are sparsely activated and computations are event-driven. Previous work showed that simple continuous-valued deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs can be converted into accurate spiking equivalents. These networks did not include certain common operations such as max-pooling, softmax, batch-normalization and Inception-modules. This paper presents spiking equivalents of these operations therefore allowing conversion of nearly arbitrary CNN architectures. We show conversion of popular CNN architectures, including VGG-16 and Inception-v3, into SNNs that produce the best results reported to date on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and the challenging ImageNet dataset. SNNs can trade off classification error rate against the number of available operations whereas deep continuous-valued neural networks require a fixed number of operations to achieve their classification error rate. From the examples of LeNet for MNIST and BinaryNet for CIFAR-10, we show that with an increase in error rate of a few percentage points, the SNNs can achieve more than 2x reductions in operations compared to the original CNNs. This highlights the potential of SNNs in particular when deployed on power-efficient neuromorphic spiking neuron chips, for use in embedded applications.

  1. The New Terrorism: The Nature of the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kometer, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    ...), and Irish Republican Army (IRA) -- to the new terrorism, the militant Islamic movement. The study concludes that there is a "new terrorism" that is not merely terrorism but a global insurgency...

  2. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  3. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... Al-Shabaab, a fundamentalist group in Somalia immediately claimed responsibility. These events sparked widespread debate within scholarly circles as far as the counter-terrorism agenda in the Greater Horn of Africa is concerned. In recent years, terrorism has grown to become a vice of global magnitude.

  4. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  5. Unified framework for triaxial accelerometer-based fall event detection and classification using cumulants and hierarchical decision tree classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Satya Samyukta; Singh, Vishal; Manikandan, M Sabarimalai; Ramkumar, Barathram

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter, the authors present a unified framework for fall event detection and classification using the cumulants extracted from the acceleration (ACC) signals acquired using a single waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer. The main objective of this Letter is to find suitable representative cumulants and classifiers in effectively detecting and classifying different types of fall and non-fall events. It was discovered that the first level of the proposed hierarchical decision tree algorithm implements fall detection using fifth-order cumulants and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In the second level, the fall event classification algorithm uses the fifth-order cumulants and SVM. Finally, human activity classification is performed using the second-order cumulants and SVM. The detection and classification results are compared with those of the decision tree, naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and SVM classifiers with different types of time-domain features including the second-, third-, fourth- and fifth-order cumulants and the signal magnitude vector and signal magnitude area. The experimental results demonstrate that the second- and fifth-order cumulant features and SVM classifier can achieve optimal detection and classification rates of above 95%, as well as the lowest false alarm rate of 1.03%.

  6. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Classification of event-related potentials associated with response errors in actors and observers based on autoregressive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasios, C.E.; Ventouras, E.M.; Matsopoulos, G.K.; Karanasiou, I.; Asvestas, P.; Uzunoglu, N.K.; Schie, H.T. van; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2009-01-01

    Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) provide non-invasive measurements of the electrical activity on the scalp related to the processing of stimuli and preparation of responses by the brain. In this paper an ERP-signal classification method is proposed for discriminating between ERPs of correct and

  8. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  9. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SUICIDE TERRORISM by Zane K. Crawford June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Tristan Mabry Second Reader: Thomas Johnson THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT......the 20th century. This thesis focuses on one product of this alliance: the emergence of female suicide terrorism (FST) in the first (1994–1996) and

  10. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...

  11. Terrorism and financial supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, Anatoli van der

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  12. Terrorism and cabinet duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassebner, M.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; Mierau, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorism can strengthen or weaken electoral support for ruling governments. We show in a simple model of coalition formation that, regardless of the direction of a public opinion shock, the impact of terrorism on cabinet duration is ambiguous. However, in an analysis of a data set including 2,400

  13. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  14. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    following mental disorders motivate political terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy (anti-social personality disorder); narcissism; the Freudian...terrorism and terrorism in general involves the personality disorder identified either as a sociopathy or psychopathy. According to Pearce and Cooper...required of political terrorists and the absence by definition of the same characteristics in the sociopathy personality. Cooper does not ignore the

  15. Nightmares and sleep terrors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinary bladder distension, a noisy environment and central nervous system depressants. This article discusses the differences between nightmares and sleep terrors and provides a management approach for the family practitioner. Introduction. Nightmares and sleep terrors are clas- sified under the parasomnias accord-.

  16. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM) stage. Night terrors happen during deep non-REM sleep. A night terror is not technically a dream, but more like a sudden reaction of fear that happens during the transition from one sleep stage to another. Night ... stage of non-REM sleep to lighter REM sleep. Usually this transition ...

  17. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  18. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Victimologist Looks at Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    State terrorism is defined as terrorism undertaken by a government against people within its own national boundaries. This article reviews the 12-point anti-terrorism program of Amnesty International, lists the psychological needs of victims, and catalogs the various methods of torture used in state terrorism. (JDH)

  20. Wavelet based automated postural event detection and activity classification with single imu - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Thurmon E; Soangra, Rahul; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Xuefan

    2013-01-01

    and classification algorithm using denoised signals from single wireless IMU placed at sternum. The algorithm was further validated and verified with motion capture system in laboratory environment. Wavelet denoising highlighted postural events and transition durations that further provided clinical information on postural control and motor coordination. The presented method can be applied in real life ambulatory monitoring approaches for assessing condition of elderly.

  1. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its design and implementation balance maintaining economic...

  2. Countering terrorism engagement, development, deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The war on terrorism has not reduced the threat from terrorism. Terrorism as a tactic cannot be defeated. States policies cannot rely on force alone in an attempt to defeat the use of a tactic. States need to use more effective counterterrorism policy options than coercion and force to deter groups from using terrorism. Groups choose to use terrorism as a tactic as a means to bring attention to be engaged and their grievances addressed...

  3. Classification of single-trial auditory events using dry-wireless EEG during real and motion simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Daniel E; Durantin, Gautier; Terzibas, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Application of neuro-augmentation technology based on dry-wireless EEG may be considerably beneficial for aviation and space operations because of the inherent dangers involved. In this study we evaluate classification performance of perceptual events using a dry-wireless EEG system during motion platform based flight simulation and actual flight in an open cockpit biplane to determine if the system can be used in the presence of considerable environmental and physiological artifacts. A passive task involving 200 random auditory presentations of a chirp sound was used for evaluation. The advantage of this auditory task is that it does not interfere with the perceptual motor processes involved with piloting the plane. Classification was based on identifying the presentation of a chirp sound vs. silent periods. Evaluation of Independent component analysis (ICA) and Kalman filtering to enhance classification performance by extracting brain activity related to the auditory event from other non-task related brain activity and artifacts was assessed. The results of permutation testing revealed that single trial classification of presence or absence of an auditory event was significantly above chance for all conditions on a novel test set. The best performance could be achieved with both ICA and Kalman filtering relative to no processing: Platform Off (83.4% vs. 78.3%), Platform On (73.1% vs. 71.6%), Biplane Engine Off (81.1% vs. 77.4%), and Biplane Engine On (79.2% vs. 66.1%). This experiment demonstrates that dry-wireless EEG can be used in environments with considerable vibration, wind, acoustic noise, and physiological artifacts and achieve good single trial classification performance that is necessary for future successful application of neuro-augmentation technology based on brain-machine interfaces.

  4. Classification of Single-Trial Auditory Events Using Dry-Wireless EEG During Real and Motion Simulated Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCallan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of neuro-augmentation technology based on dry-wireless EEG may be considerably beneficial for aviation and space operations because of the inherent dangers involved. In this study we evaluate classification performance of perceptual events using a dry-wireless EEG system during motion platform based flight simulation and actual flight in an open cockpit biplane to determine if the system can be used in the presence of considerable environmental and physiological artifacts. A passive task involving 200 random auditory presentations of a chirp sound was used for evaluation. The advantage of this auditory task is that it does not interfere with the perceptual motor processes involved with piloting the plane. Classification was based on identifying the presentation of a chirp sound versus silent periods. Evaluation of Independent component analysis and Kalman filtering to enhance classification performance by extracting brain activity related to the auditory event from other non-task related brain activity and artifacts was assessed. The results of permutation testing revealed that single trial classification of presence or absence of an auditory event was significantly above chance for all conditions on a novel test set. The best performance could be achieved with both ICA and Kalman filtering relative to no processing: Platform Off (83.4% vs 78.3%, Platform On (73.1% vs 71.6%, Biplane Engine Off (81.1% vs 77.4%, and Biplane Engine On (79.2% vs 66.1%. This experiment demonstrates that dry-wireless EEG can be used in environments with considerable vibration, wind, acoustic noise, and physiological artifacts and achieve good single trial classification performance that is necessary for future successful application of neuro-augmentation technology based on brain-machine interfaces.

  5. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  6. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  7. Aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses for event-related potential classification in brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Qibin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    Two main issues for event-related potential (ERP) classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) application are curse-of-dimensionality and bias-variance tradeoff, which may deteriorate classification performance, especially with insufficient training samples resulted from limited calibration time. This study introduces an aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses (ASLDA) to overcome these problems. In the ASLDA, multiple sparse discriminant vectors are learned from differently l1-regularized least-squares regressions by exploiting the equivalence between LDA and least-squares regression, and are subsequently aggregated to form an ensemble classifier, which could not only implement automatic feature selection for dimensionality reduction to alleviate curse-of-dimensionality, but also decrease the variance to improve generalization capacity for new test samples. Extensive investigation and comparison are carried out among the ASLDA, the ordinary LDA and other competing ERP classification algorithms, based on different three ERP datasets. Experimental results indicate that the ASLDA yields better overall performance for single-trial ERP classification when insufficient training samples are available. This suggests the proposed ASLDA is promising for ERP classification in small sample size scenario to improve the practicability of BCI.

  8. Terror breeds terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  9. Haemovigilance in a general university hospital: need for a more comprehensive classification and a codification of transfusion-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, M A; Schneider, P; Vu, D-H; Tissot, J-D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the transfusion-related events recorded in a general university hospital. The method we used was retrospective analysis of the data collected between 1999 and 2003. The incidence of transfusion reactions (n = 394) was 4.19 per 1000 blood products distributed: 59% (n = 231) were febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions; 22% (n = 88) were caused by allergy; 5% (n = 21) were caused by bacterial infection; and 14% (n = 54) were classified as other reactions. Platelet concentrates gave rise to a significantly greater number of reactions than erythrocyte concentrates and fresh-frozen plasma. Transfusion errors and near-miss events were also observed and were analysed separately. A series of transfusion-related events, such as haemosiderosis, metabolic disturbances or volume overload, were not reported. Our experience prompts us to propose a more comprehensive classification and codification of transfusion-related events.

  10. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V

    2005-07-01

    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Adverse Event Classification in the Out of Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Lave, Judith R.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Guyette, Francis X.; Arnold, Robert M.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Krackhardt, David; Mosesso, Vincent N.; Roth, Ronald N.; Wadas, Richard J.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to test reliability of two approaches to classify adverse events (AEs) associated with Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transport. Methods The first approach for AE classification involved flight nurses and paramedics (RN/Medics) and mid-career emergency physicians (MC-EMPs) independently reviewing 50 randomly selected HEMS medical records. The second approach involved RN/Medics and MC-EMPs meeting as a group to openly discuss 20 additional medical records and reach consensus-based AE decision. We compared all AE decisions to a reference criterion based on the decision of three senior emergency physicians (Sr-EMPs). We designed a study to detect an improvement in agreement (reliability) from fair (kappa=0.2) to moderate (kappa=0.5). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV / NPV). Results For the independent reviews, the Sr-EMP group identified 26 AEs while individual clinician reviewers identified between 19 and 50 AEs. Agreement on the presence/absence of an AE between Sr-EMPs and three MC-EMPs ranged from K=0.20 to K=0.25. Agreement between Sr-EMPs and three RN/Medics ranged from K=0.11 to K=0.19. For the consensus/open-discussion approach, the Sr-EMPs identified 13 AEs, the MC-EMP group identified 18 AEs, and RN/Medic group identified 36 AEs. Agreement between Sr-EMPs and MC-EMP group was (K=0.30 95%CI −0.12, 0.72), whereas agreement between Sr-EMPs and RN/Medic group was (K=0.40 95%CI 0.01, 0.79). Agreement between all three groups was fair (K=0.33, 95%CI 0.06, 0.66). Percent agreement (58-68%) and NPV (63-76%) was moderately dissimilar between clinicians, while sensitivity (25-80%), specificity (43-97%), and PPV (48-83%) varied. Conclusions We identified a higher level of agreement/reliability in AE decisions utilizing a consensus-based approach for review rather than independent reviews. PMID:24878451

  12. A comparative assessment of adverse event classification in the out-of-hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Lave, Judith R; Weaver, Matthew D; Guyette, Francis X; Arnold, Robert M; Martin-Gill, Christian; Rittenberger, Jon C; Krackhardt, David; Mosesso, Vincent N; Roth, Ronald N; Wadas, Richard J; Yealy, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to test reliability of two approaches to classify adverse events (AEs) associated with helicopter EMS (HEMS) transport. The first approach for AE classification involved flight nurses and paramedics (RN/Medics) and mid-career emergency physicians (MC-EMPs) independently reviewing 50 randomly selected HEMS medical records. The second approach involved RN/Medics and MC-EMPs meeting as a group to openly discuss 20 additional medical records and reach consensus-based AE decision. We compared all AE decisions to a reference criterion based on the decision of three senior emergency physicians (Sr-EMPs). We designed a study to detect an improvement in agreement (reliability) from fair (kappa = 0.2) to moderate (kappa = 0.5). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV). For the independent reviews, the Sr-EMP group identified 26 AEs while individual clinician reviewers identified between 19 and 50 AEs. Agreement on the presence/absence of an AE between Sr-EMPs and three MC-EMPs ranged from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.25. Agreement between Sr-EMPs and three RN/Medics ranged from κ = 0.11 to κ = 0.19. For the consensus/open-discussion approach, the Sr-EMPs identified 13 AEs, the MC-EMP group identified 18 AEs, and RN/medic group identified 36 AEs. Agreement between Sr-EMPs and MC-EMP group was (κ = 0.30 95%CI -0.12, 0.72), whereas agreement between Sr-EMPs and RN/medic group was (κ = 0.40 95%CI 0.01, 0.79). Agreement between all three groups was fair (κ = 0.33, 95%CI 0.06, 0.66). Percent agreement (58-68%) and NPV (63-76%) was moderately dissimilar between clinicians, while sensitivity (25-80%), specificity (43-97%), and PPV (48-83%) varied. We identified a higher level of agreement/reliability in AE decisions utilizing a consensus-based approach for review rather than independent reviews.

  13. Terrorism: American Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    involving adventure or having entertainment value, and somehow affecting the lives of those being informed of them. (6:14) As Professor Walter Laquer ...No. 10 (October 1986), pp. 9-10. 15. Laquer , Walter. "The Futility of Terrorism." Current News (Special Edition), 31 October 1985, pp. 51-52. 16...VIOLENCE BECAUSE OF POLITICAL OR EMOTIONAL FEELINGS. IS THE NEWS MEDIA GIVING TERRORISM TOO MUCH COVERAGE? PROFESSOR LAQUER AND MR NETANYAHU BOTH AGREE

  14. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  15. INTERNATIONAL CRIMINALISATION OF TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Matija

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism in international law and highlights its relevant contemporary developments, paying particular attention to its criminalisation under international criminal law. A more practical dimension is presented using the example of regional (EU) and national (Slovenian) normative measures following the terrorist attacks of September 2001. Initially, focus is placed on the understanding of “international terrorism,” its definition and the consequences of...

  16. The age of terrorism: to the problem statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yevtyagina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article analyzes the problem of terrorism. Historical essay on the topic helps clarify the concept of the term «terrorism», as well as its causes. The existing classification of terrorism reveals the different types and ways of influencing people by terrorists to achieve their goals. The author suggests the age classification, namely, adult and adolescence terrorism. Discussed in detail adolescence terrorism. The possible reasons for solutions to the problems teenagers violently. On the example of the terrorist act in Moscow school number 263 attempts to analyze the causal relationships aggressive behavior among adolescents in relation to their peers and teachers. Author shows the factors influencing the formation of the propensity to aggression (the terrorist behavior: the crisis of spirituality and morality, reducing cultural awareness, conflict resolution based on adults imitation, striving for leadership, using aggression, the substitution of the present reality of the computer world, acceptance of immoral behavior for conventional norm, plenty of scenes of cruelty and violence in the media, national intolerance. Also in the article are recommendations to prevent teenage terrorism, emphasizes the need for joint activities of the school psychologist, teachers, children and their parents.

  17. Single-subject classification of schizophrenia using event-related potentials obtained during auditory and visual oddball paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Popescu, Florin C; Bates, John A; Goldberg, Terry E; Malhotra, Anil K

    2013-04-01

    In the search for the biomarkers of schizophrenia, event-related potential (ERP) deficits obtained by applying the classic oddball paradigm are among the most consistent findings. However, the single-subject classification rate based on these parameters remains to be determined. Here, we present a data-driven approach by applying machine learning classifiers to relevant oddball ERPs. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients and 24 matched healthy controls finished auditory and visual oddball tasks while high-density electrophysiological recordings were applied. The N1 component in response to standards and target as well as the P3 component following targets were submitted to different machine learning algorithms and the resulting ERP features were submitted to further correlation analyses. We obtained a classification accuracy of 72.4 % using only two ERP components. Latencies of parietal N1 components to visual standard stimuli at electrode positions Pz and P1 were sufficient for classification. Further analysis revealed a high correlation of these features in controls and an intermediate correlation in schizophrenia patients. These data exemplarily show how automated inference may be applied to classify a pathological state in single subjects without prior knowledge of their diagnoses and illustrate the potential of machine learning algorithms for the identification of potential biomarkers. Moreover, this approach assesses the discriminative accuracy of one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia research by means of single-subject classification.

  18. Effects of Race and Precipitating Event on Suicide versus Nonsuicide Death Classification in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L.; Flowers, Kelci C.

    2011-01-01

    Race group differences in suicide death classification in a sample of 109 Black and White university students were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to read three vignettes for which the vignette subjects' race (only) varied. The vignettes each described a circumstance (terminal illness, academic failure, or relationship difficulties)…

  19. Classification of Meteorological Influences Surrounding Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States using the MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allie Marquardt; Bosilovich, Mike; Ullrich, Paul; Hoeck, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events can have a large impact on society through flooding that can result in property destruction, crop losses, economic losses, the spread of water-borne diseases, and fatalities. Observations indicate there has been a statistically significant increase in extreme precipitation events over the past 15 years in the Northeastern United States and other localized regions of the country have become crippled with record flooding events, for example, the flooding that occurred in the Southeast United States associated with Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. Extreme precipitation events in the United States can be caused by various meteorological influences such as extratropical cyclones, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convective complexes, general air mass thunderstorms, upslope flow, fronts, and the North American Monsoon. Reanalyses, such as the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), have become a pivotal tool to study the meteorology surrounding extreme precipitation events. Using days classified as an extreme precipitation events based on a combination of observational gauge and radar data, two techniques for the classification of these events are used to gather additional information that can be used to determine how events have changed over time using atmospheric data from MERRA-2. The first is self organizing maps, which is an artificial neural network that uses unsupervised learning to cluster like patterns and the second is an automated detection technique that searches for characteristics in the atmosphere that define a meteorological phenomena. For example, the automated detection for tropical cycles searches for a defined area of suppressed sea level pressure, alongside thickness anomalies aloft, indicating the presence of a warm core. These techniques are employed for extreme precipitation events in preselected regions that were chosen based an analysis of the climatology of precipitation.

  20. Resolving anthropogenic aerosol pollution types - deconvolution and exploratory classification of pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijälä, Mikko; Heikkinen, Liine; Fröhlich, Roman; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesizing this raw data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analytical techniques. In the field of analytical aerosol chemistry, statistical, dimensionality reductive methods have become widespread in the last decade, yet comparable advanced chemometric techniques for data classification and identification remain marginal. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorization) with exploratory classification (clustering), and show that the results cannot only reproduce and corroborate earlier findings, but also complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification. We find that applying positive matrix factorization to extract spectral characteristics of the organic component of air pollution plumes, together with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, k-means+ + , for classification, reproduces classical organic aerosol speciation schemes. Applying appropriately chosen metrics for spectral dissimilarity along with optimized data weighting, the source-specific pollution characteristics can be statistically resolved even for spectrally very similar aerosol types, such as different combustion-related anthropogenic aerosol species and atmospheric aerosols with similar degree of oxidation. In addition to the typical oxidation level and source-driven aerosol classification, we were also able to classify and characterize outlier groups that would likely be disregarded in a more conventional analysis. Evaluating solution quality for the classification also provides means to assess the performance of mass spectral similarity metrics and optimize weighting for mass spectral variables. This facilitates algorithm-based evaluation of aerosol spectra, which may prove invaluable for future development of automatic methods for spectra identification

  1. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  2. Terrorism Risk Concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether differences of terrorism risk perception across all European countries reflect their underlying differences in terrorism risk, which we decompose into a long term and innovation component. We employ longitudinal country-level data on terrorism risk concern and our modeling approach is motivated by the Bayesian framework. We conclude that the observed risk perception variation is significantly explained by the long term terrorism countries face, while the cyclical part of te...

  3. Event review: Introduction to classification and description of knapped lithic remains, Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria E. Castañeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 28th to 29th of November 2015, Dibujantes de Arqueología held the third edition of the “Introduction to classification and description of knapped lithic materials” in Madrid, Spain. It was an intensive course of 18 hours. Dibujantes de Arqueología is a well-known Spanish business entity of professional archaeologists and specialised drawers in practice since 2003. They have also organised training courses for archaeologists since 2009.

  4. Diastolic dysfunction revisited: A new, feasible, and unambiguous echocardiographic classification predicts major cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Niklas Dyrby; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    Echocardiographic classification of DDF has been widely discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent prognostic value of established echocardiographic measures in a community-based population and create a new classification of DDF. Within the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, community-based study, 1851 participants were examined by echocardiography including Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) in 2001 to 2003 and followed with regard to MACE (median, 10.9 years). We found that persons with impaired myocardial relaxation as defined by low peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity e' by TDI had higher incidence of clinical and echocardiographic markers of cardiac dysfunction and increased risk of MACE. Among persons with impaired relaxation, only echocardiographic indices of increased filling pressures such as LAVi≥34 mL/m(2) (HR 1.97 (1.13-3.45, P=.017), E/e' ≥ 17 (HR 1.89 (1.34-2.65), P2 (HR 5.24 (1.91-14.42), P=.001) provided additional and independent prognostic information on MACE. Based on these findings, we created a new classification of DDF where all grades were significant predictors of MACE independently of age, sex, and cardiac clinical risk markers (Mild DDF: HR 1.99 (1.23-3.21), P=.005; Moderate DDF: HR 3.11 (1.81-5.34), PDDF: HR 4.20 (1.81-9.73), PDDF was linearly associated with increasing plasma proBNP concentrations. In the general population, the presence of echocardiographic markers of elevated filling pressures in persons with impaired relaxation increased the risk of MACE significantly. Based on this, we present a new, feasible, and unambiguous classification of DDF capable of accurate risk prediction in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  6. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  7. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  8. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  9. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  10. Extreme rainfall analysis based on precipitation events classification in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Fiori, Elisabetta; Molini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall statistical analysis is constituted by a consolidated family of techniques that allows to study the frequency and the statistical properties of the high-intensity meteorological events. This kind of techniques is well established and comprehends standards approaches like the GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) or TCEV (Two Components Extreme Value) probability distribution fit of the data recorded in a given raingauge on a given location. Regionalization techniques, that are aimed to spatialize the analysis on medium-large regions are also well established and operationally used. In this work a novel procedure is proposed in order to statistically characterize the rainfall extremes in a given region, basing on a "event-based" approach. Given a temporal sequence of continuous rain maps, an "event" is defined as an aggregate, continuous in time and space, of cells whose rainfall height value is above a certain threshold. Basing on this definition it is possible to classify, on a given region and for a given period, a population of events and characterize them with a number of statistics, such as their total volume, maximum spatial extension, duration, average intensity, etc. Thus, the population of events so obtained constitutes the input of a novel extreme values characteriztion technique: given a certain spatial scale, a mobile window analysis is performed and all the events that fall in the window are anlysed from an extreme value point of view. For each window, the extreme annual events are considered: maximum total volume, maximum spatial extension, maximum intensity, maximum duration are all considered for an extreme analysis and the corresponding probability distributions are fitted. The analysis allows in this way to statistically characterize the most intense events and, at the same time, to spatialize these rain characteristics exploring their variability in space. This methodology was employed on rainfall fields obtained by interpolation of

  11. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    GRBs ; Pelassa et al. 2010) and SFs (Ackermann et al. 2012c). The second class consists of events that do not have reconstructed tracks, but have enough...P7TRANSIENT Class Selection For the analysis of brief transient sources (e.g., GRBs ) a high purity is not required as the time selection itself limits...1000 s) transient events such as GRBs , P7CLEAN is recommended for analyses requiring low CR background contamination, such as the study of large

  12. Terrorism, war, and peace

    OpenAIRE

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...

  13. The psychodynamics of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, I; Nicholls, W

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose a dynamic and social explanation for the 'malignant aggression' of the terrorist. No specific terrorist character is to be looked for. Rather, terrorism can occur whenever political conditions provide social legitimation for the acting out of deeply repressed hatred. The origins of this hatred lie in parental abuse, leading to murderous rage in the child, which must be deflected onto safer targets than the terrifying parent, such as the parent's enemies, or the authorities of one's country. Political terrorism therefore involves the exploitation of mental illness, connived at in turn by the international public through the media.

  14. Classification of Tattoo Complications in a Hospital Material of 493 Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Sepehri, Mitra; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Tattooing is a global trend. Clinical knowledge of complications is based on case reports collected over a century. Larger cohorts reflecting complications associated with contemporary trends are lacking. The study was a retrospective review of a consecutive cohort of patients with tattoo complications diagnosed in the "Tattoo Clinic" of Bispebjerg University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2008 to 2015, based on patient history and systematic clinical examination. A total of 493 tattoo complications in 405 patients were studied. Overall, 184 (37%) presented allergic reactions with plaque elevation in 32.2%, excessive hyperkeratosis in 3.7%, and ulceration in 1.4%, predominantly observed in red tattoos and nuances of red; 66 (13%) presented papulo-nodular reactions, mainly observed in black tattoos (considered non-allergic) and due to pigment agglomeration; 53 (11%) had bacterial infections; 46 (9%) were psycho-social complications; 144 (30%) belonged to several specific diagnostic entities, including photosensitivity, pain syndrome, and lymphopathy. We found no cases of cutaneous or other malignancies. Sarcoidosis was primarily seen in black tattoos and was a common associated disease, found in 23 reactions (5%), compared to the background population. The study introduces a new concept of classification of tattoo complications based on simple tools such as patient history and objective findings supplemented with histology. The study reflects complications originating from presently used tattoo inks, often with organic pigments. The introduced classification has been submitted to the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a proposal to the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The human rights and the terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  16. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information... represents a national-level effort to minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its design and...

  17. Classification of Transient Events of Nuclear Reactor Using Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bečvář

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a part of on-line system for a residual life of a pressure vessel shell. In this system there appears a need for determining of a real history of a pressure vessel described as a sequence of so called transient events. Each event (there are 23 events now is given by its template. It is theoretically necessary to compare data measured in a real history with all possible sequences of transient events. This solution in intractable and that is why a more sophisticated solution had to be used. Because this task is very similar to task of an automatic speech recognition, models and algorithms used to solve speech recognition tasks can be efficiently used to solve our task. Of course there are some different circumstances caused by the fact that the transient events take much longer than words and their number is much smaller than the number of words in speech recognition system's vocabulary. But the inspiration from speech recognition was very useful and the known algorithms rapidly decreased the design time.

  18. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  19. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  20. Negative Mood State Enhances the Susceptibility to Unpleasant Events: Neural Correlates from a Music-Primed Emotion Classification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J.; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Method Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Results Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600–1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800–1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800–900 ms interval. Implications Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:24587070

  1. The Islamic State’s Tactics in Syria: Role of Social Media in Shifting a Peaceful Arab Spring into Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    THE ISLAMIC STATE’S TACTICS IN SYRIA: ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN SHIFTING A PEACEFUL ARAB SPRING INTO TERRORISM A thesis...Shifting a Peaceful Arab Spring into Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) HASAN S...their investigations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Islamic State, Arab Spring, Social Media, Terrorism , Syria 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  2. Bayesian Classification of Disaster Events on the Basis of Icon Messages of Observers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Fitrianie, S.

    2015-01-01

    During major disaster events, human operators in a crisis center will be overloaded with under-stress a flood of phone calls. As an increasing number of people in and around big cities do not master the native language, the need for automated systems that automatically process the context and

  3. Bayesian Classification of Disaster Events on the Basis of Icon Messages of Observers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.; Fitrianie, S.

    2015-01-01

    During major disaster events, human operators in a crisis center will be overloaded with a flood of phone calls. As an increasing number of people in and around big cities do not master the native language, the need for automated systems that automatically process the context and content of

  4. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  5. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  7. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Islam. 72min. Princeton: Films Media Group, 2007. DVD. (BP161.3 .E93 2007) 9 LONG WAR Books, Documents, and Internet Resources Aaron, David, ed...253pp. (PN4784 .T45N11 2007) Steuter, Erin, and Deborah Wills. At War with Metaphor: Media, Propaganda, and Racism in the War on Terror. Lanham

  9. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Perspective. Trans. Cecilia Gaul. New York, Seabury, 1969. Elliott, John D. "International Terrorism." Armed Forces Journal International, 114:38-39, September...the Game (Uruguay)." Economist, January 16, 1971, p. 19. Payne , Pierre Stephen Robert. Portrait of-e Revolutionary. London, Abelard-Schuman, 1961. Payne

  10. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out...or Mexico . Terrorist organizations attempting to mimic Beslan, Mumbai, and Nairobi cross border attack methodology may find a less welcoming host...

  11. Validation of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Impedance Sensor for Respiratory Event Classification during Polysomnography in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Anne G; Patwari, Pallavi P; Loghmanee, Darius A; Balog, Matthew J; Trosman, Irina; Sheldon, Stephen H

    2017-02-15

    Polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosis and characterization of severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Accuracy and reliability of the technology used are critical to the integrity of the study's interpretation. Strict criteria for obstructive sleep apnea in children are lacking and diagnosis often requires consideration of frequency of respiratory events in addition to other measures. Current American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendations for pediatric patients includes use of respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) belts, whereas polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) belts are currently only acceptable for use in adults. We hypothesized that PVDF belts would be equally effective as RIP belts for detection of respiratory effort and events in children. Children ages 2-17 y were recruited from a large pediatric tertiary referral center after obtaining consent for participation. Fifty subjects were recruited (average age, 7.8 y). Clinically relevant limits of agreement were predetermined to be a difference in total count of obstructive or central apneas or hypopneas of ± 5 events. Scoring of respiratory events was not significantly different by belt type based on Bland-Altman plots of total apnea-hypopnea index and obstructive apneas. Obstructive hypopneas scoring ranged beyond our clinical limit of agreement. Findings in obese subjects were consistent with the larger sample with the exception of an increase in outliers. Artifact amount was comparable (RIP 10.9% ± 22.5% and PVDF 10.5% ± 19.5%). Based on these findings, PVDF belts appear to be as effective as RIP belts in detection of respiratory effort and events in children. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159.

  12. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  13. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  14. Limits on neutrino oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam and event classification with the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferber, Torben

    2012-09-15

    OPERA, the oscillation project with emulsion-tracking apparatus, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It combines an almost pure, high-energy {nu}{sub {mu}} beam produced at the SPS accelerator at CERN, Switzerland, with the OPERA neutrino detector located at a distance of about 730 km in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. By using a lead/photo emulsion target, {nu}{sub {tau}} charged current (CC) interactions of {nu}{sub {tau}} from {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations can be observed on an event-by-event basis with very low background rates. Within this thesis, a {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance search is described that uses a flux normalization. independent measurement of the CC event fraction as a function of the hadronic energy as measured by the electronic detectors of OPERA. This allows to derive limits on {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations, complementary to the main {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance analysis. For maximal mixing, vertical stroke {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 23} vertical stroke >4.4 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} is excluded at 90% C.L. by the disappearance analysis. This thesis represents the first application of this method, including systematic uncertainties, in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment.

  15. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, Trevor J; Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Ungar, R Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe, and (135)Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  16. Classification and Prediction of Event-based Suspended Sediment Dynamics using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshaw, S. D.; Underwood, K.; Wemple, B. C.; Rizzo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment transport can be an immensely complex process, yet plays a vital role in the transport of substances and nutrients that can impact receiving waters. Advancements in the use of sensors for indirect measurement of suspended sediments have allowed access to high frequency sediment data. This has promoted the use of more advanced computational tools to identify patterns in sediment data to improve our understanding of physical processes occurring in the watershed. In this study, a network of weather stations and in-stream turbidity sensors were deployed to capture more than three years of sediment dynamics and meteorological data in the Mad River watershed in central Vermont. Monitoring sites were located along the main stem of the the Mad River and on five tributaries. Separate storm events were identified from the data at each site to study event sediment dynamics associated with erosion and deposition over space and time. Two types of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a self-organizing map (SOM) and a radial basis function (RBF), were used to cluster the storm event data based on hydrometeorological metrics and were subsequently compared to traditional classes of hysteresis patterns in suspended sediment concentration - discharge (SSC-Q) relationships. Hysteresis patterns were also directly used as inputs to both ANNs to identify distinct patterns and test the applicability of performing pattern recognition on hysteresis patterns. The results of this study will be used to gain insight into the dynamic physical processes (both spatial and temporal) occurring in the watershed based on patterns observed in SSQ-Q data.

  17. Analysis and classification of bedload transport events with variable process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisler, Andrea; Moser, Markus; Aigner, Johann; Rindler, Rolf; Tritthart, Michael; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge about the magnitude of bedload fluxes at given hydraulic conditions in natural streams is essential for improved process understanding, for the application, calibration and validation of bedload transport formulas, and for numerical sediment transport models. Nonetheless, extensive field measurements of bedload transport are challenging and therefore data from such efforts are rare. Bedload transport has been measured comprehensively at the downstream section of the Urslau torrent in Salzburg, Austria, since 2011. We used an integrative monitoring system that combines direct (mobile basket sampler, slot sampler) and indirect measuring devices (geophone plates). Continuous information about the intensity and distribution of bedload transport within the channel cross-section is available in high spatial and temporal resolution. Seven geophone plates at a stream width of 8 m are part of a measurement system that delivers data in 1-min intervals. These geophone data are calibrated using results of direct bedload measurements, providing an opportunity to calculate bedload rates and bedload yields in selected time periods. Continuous data on the bedload transport process over three years enabled assessing several bedload transport events. The investigation of bedload transport rate/discharge relationships reveals order-of-magnitude changes. For individual events, we observed shifts in the data, reflecting different bedload rates at comparable hydraulic conditions. This study reveals that variable sediment supply conditions affect the prevailing bedload transport rates at the Urslau stream. Calculating the bedload transport efficiency enables comparing bedload transport events that exhibit similar process characteristics. Finally, we provide a conceptual model of bedload transport process types as a function of bedload transport efficiency and dimensionless stream power.

  18. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  19. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miroslav Mareš

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods...

  20. Assessment on Event Classification of One Steam Generator Tube Rupture in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed the vulnerability of coping strategy to beyond design natural disaster such as beyond design earthquake and tsunami. In Korea, the government and industry performed comprehensive safety inspection on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design basis external events and fifty action items have been issued. In addition to post- Fukushima action items, the stress tests for all domestic nuclear power plants are on the way to enhance the safety of domestic nuclear power plants through finding the vulnerabilities in intentional stress conditions initiated by beyond design natural disaster. Recently, the stress tests for WOLSONG Unit 1 and KORI Unit 1 have been performed and their assessment results have been reviewed by Korean regulatory body. The assessment of the coping capability of KORI Unit 1 has been performed under simultaneous the extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink initiated by beyond design natural disaster. It is concluded that KORI Unit 1 has the capability, in the event of loss of safety functions by beyond design natural disaster, to sufficiently cool down the reactor core without fuel damage, to keep pressure boundaries of the reactor coolant system in transient condition and to control containment and temperature to maintain the integrity of the containment buildings. The several additional items for safety improvement has been drawn to enhance the coping capability for loss of safety functions under beyond design natural disaster in addition to post Fukushima action items.

  1. Terrorism, Tourism and Religious Travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, A.; Raj, R.; Griffin, K.; Clarke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Curiously, while tourism is cited as the world’s largest industry (UNWTO, 2016), it is simultaneously a fragile industry that is highly vulnerable to the impact of the ongoing threat of terrorism. Internationally, terrorism influences the tourist mind-set in a number of ways, in particular it creates fear for travellers and causes economic and social impacts to change the behaviour of people and dissuade them from visiting certain places in the world. Thus, the impact of terrorism has caused ...

  2. International terrorism and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gurská, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: International Terrorism and Human Rights Key words: international terrorism, antiterrorist measures, human rights First part of the thesis is centered on characteristics of international terrorism, concept of human rights and three aspects of their mutual relationship: the immediate impact of terrorist attacks on human rights of their direct victims and the society as a whole and aspects linked to the states' response consisting of human rights breaches of suspects during repressive ...

  3. Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-15

    websites with counter-information or disinformation. Alone, these actions bear the same relation to cyber-terrorism that theft, vandalism , or graffiti ...then terror tactics should be considered “the art and science of employing violence, terror and intimidation to inculcate fear in the pursuit of...critical functions and would be directly impacted if they were successfully attacked. Consider the impact on unit deployment if a successful cyber attack

  4. A review of the use of human factors classification frameworks that identify causal factors for adverse events in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Williamson, A M; Molesworth, B; Chung, A Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Various human factors classification frameworks have been used to identified causal factors for clinical adverse events. A systematic review was conducted to identify human factors classification frameworks that identified the causal factors (including human error) of adverse events in a hospital setting. Six electronic databases were searched, identifying 1997 articles and 38 of these met inclusion criteria. Most studies included causal contributing factors as well as error and error type, but the nature of coding varied considerably between studies. The ability of human factors classification frameworks to provide information on specific causal factors for an adverse event enables the focus of preventive attention on areas where improvements are most needed. This review highlighted some areas needing considerable improvement in order to meet this need, including better definition of terms, more emphasis on assessing reliability of coding and greater sophistication in analysis of results of the classification. Practitioner Summary: Human factors classification frameworks can be used to identify causal factors of clinical adverse events. However, this review suggests that existing frameworks are diverse, limited in their identification of the context of human error and have poor reliability when used by different individuals.

  5. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  6. Coping with terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a tool of low-intensity conflict used to undermine Western and moderate governments. There is evidence that the US faces a new threshold of terrorist threat both at home and abroad because the tools are available, media attention is global and often undisciplined, and the motives for terrorist attack span a wide spectrum. The US has no internal consensus of how to respond to acts of terrorism. The goal of the terrorists is to erode faith in the government and the democratic system. The author analyzes the threat and examines opportunities for an adequate response. Among his recommendations are to make infrastructure networks more robust and less vulnerable, the use of new technologies that enhance security, clear guidelines for intelligence gathering and analysis, specially trained response forces, and political moderation and cooperation.

  7. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  8. ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  9. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unable to write their names in Mandarin. The paper contended that this language barrier , coupled with poverty and “enthusiasm for religion,” made this...important responsibilities for counterterrorism policy, and provide a venue that can help overcome bureaucratic barriers and coordinate and guide...345 Minnie Chan, “Mainland’s Elite Forces Go through ’ Hell ’ to Prepare for War against Terror

  10. Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    These sorts of inferences are trivial for humans, but they can’t be performed by machines that lack the commonsense knowledge that makes them valid...inference abilities in conjunction with its commonsense geospatial knowledge enable it to conclude the fact that Rafik was not in Los Angeles at T, from...comprehensive knowledge base ontology and schema, formulated by and agreed upon by panels of internationally recognized terrorism experts; produced a

  11. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    learned skills and behaviors. Expense is a barrier to more extensive training for specifi c terrorism preparedness. Corporate Terorism Preparedness...organizations and individuals, having lectured on the topic both in the United States and in Europe . His publications include the entry on “War and Confl ict...than anticipated. Site Visits Corporation One is in agricultural and food processing. With operations in the U.S., Canada, Latin America, Europe

  12. State Instability and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    militias took on a government role of using terror as they took over the anti-insurgency role from the government.] Rebellion breaks out in Darfur ...victims groups include Fur, Zaghawa, Masaleit, and other non- Arab peoples of the Darfur region [genocide]. In Iran from 1981 to 1992, a...Century. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. Harff, Barbara. 2003. No lessons learned from the Holocaust : Assessing risks of

  13. Urban planning after terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Paizs, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism is a targeted way to hurt a population but also to destroy and annihilate a part of the civilization by attacking the built environment, especially iconic and symbolic buildings with its values of collective memory and cultural heritage, which is at the latest created by the iconic act of destruction. The resilient city with its integrated plans and programs but also technical, personal or physical security aims to reduce the probability and the dimension of terrorist attacks. Howev...

  14. Information-Age Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Arquilla, John; Ronfeldt, David; Zanini, Michele

    2000-01-01

    JOHN ARQUILLA is a professor of defense studies at the Naval Postgraduate School and a RAND consultant. DAVID RONFELDT is a senior social scientist at RAND. MICHELE ZANINI is a doctoral fellow at the RAND Graduate School. This article draws on the authors’ “Networks, Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism,” in Zalmay M. Khalilzad and John P. White, eds., Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1999). Today, an instan...

  15. Object-Based Land Use Classification of Agricultural Land by Coupling Multi-Temporal Spectral Characteristics and Phenological Events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Loew, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Crop maps based on classification of remotely sensed data are of increased attendance in agricultural management. This induces a more detailed knowledge about the reliability of such spatial information. However, classification of agricultural land use is often limited by high spectral similarities of the studied crop types. More, spatially and temporally varying agro-ecological conditions can introduce confusion in crop mapping. Classification errors in crop maps in turn may have influence on model outputs, like agricultural production monitoring. One major goal of the PhenoS project ("Phenological structuring to determine optimal acquisition dates for Sentinel-2 data for field crop classification"), is the detection of optimal phenological time windows for land cover classification purposes. Since many crop species are spectrally highly similar, accurate classification requires the right selection of satellite images for a certain classification task. In the course of one growing season, phenological phases exist where crops are separable with higher accuracies. For this purpose, coupling of multi-temporal spectral characteristics and phenological events is promising. The focus of this study is set on the separation of spectrally similar cereal crops like winter wheat, barley, and rye of two test sites in Germany called "Harz/Central German Lowland" and "Demmin". However, this study uses object based random forest (RF) classification to investigate the impact of image acquisition frequency and timing on crop classification uncertainty by permuting all possible combinations of available RapidEye time series recorded on the test sites between 2010 and 2014. The permutations were applied to different segmentation parameters. Then, classification uncertainty was assessed and analysed, based on the probabilistic soft-output from the RF algorithm at the per-field basis. From this soft output, entropy was calculated as a spatial measure of classification uncertainty

  16. Classification of event location using matched filters via on-floor accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Americo G.; Malladi, V. V. N. Sriram; Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have shown prolific advancements in smart infrastructures, allowing buildings of the modern world to interact with their occupants. One of the sought-after attributes of smart buildings is the ability to provide unobtrusive, indoor localization of occupants. The ability to locate occupants indoors can provide a broad range of benefits in areas such as security, emergency response, and resource management. Recent research has shown promising results in occupant building localization, although there is still significant room for improvement. This study presents a passive, small-scale localization system using accelerometers placed around the edges of a small area in an active building environment. The area is discretized into a grid of small squares, and vibration measurements are processed using a pattern matching approach that estimates the location of the source. Vibration measurements are produced with ball-drops, hammer-strikes, and footsteps as the sources of the floor excitation. The developed approach uses matched filters based on a reference data set, and the location is classified using a nearest-neighbor search. This approach detects the appropriate location of impact-like sources i.e. the ball-drops and hammer-strikes with a 100% accuracy. However, this accuracy reduces to 56% for footsteps, with the average localization results being within 0.6 m (α = 0.05) from the true source location. While requiring a reference data set can make this method difficult to implement on a large scale, it may be used to provide accurate localization abilities in areas where training data is readily obtainable. This exploratory work seeks to examine the feasibility of the matched filter and nearest neighbor search approach for footstep and event localization in a small, instrumented area within a multi-story building.

  17. The Terrorism Threat and Countering Terrorism from Jordanian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    compound "Islamic fiqh " has presented a terrorism definition during its summit in January 4, 2002 which including a group of scientists as" terrorism is...p p 164-165. 9 Islamic Fiqh Academy available from http://www.themwl.net/Bodies/Decisions/ default.aspx?d=1&did=70&l=AR; Internet; accessed

  18. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  19. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  20. Risks from Worldwide Terrorism: Mortality and Morbidity Patterns and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-01-25

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. The data involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), 91,346 cases of casualty (either injury or death) and 25,408 deaths. Analyses revealed a number of interesting patterns and apparently significant trends. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (ISR) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (AOR). ISR had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of AOR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in AOR, which have increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2% (10%) of harm-ranked events in OAR (ISR). Extreme values of victim/event rates were found to be well modeled by classic or generalized Pareto distributions, indicating that these rates have been as predictable as similarly extreme phenomena such as rainfall, sea levels, earthquakes, etc. This observation suggests that these extreme-value patterns may be used to improve strategies to prevent and manage risks associated with terror-related consequences.

  1. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  3. Trend of Terrorism in Republic of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Fatos HAZIRI; Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-01-01

    The effect of terrorism today has much more international impact because of the interconnectedness of markets, the mobility and the advanced technological capabilities of individuals and terrorist groups. The international community must act as a united front against all forms of terrorism and that there can be no justification for terrorism and the war against terrorism cannot be selective.

  4. Inter-observer agreement of canine and feline paroxysmal event semiology and classification by veterinary neurology specialists and non-specialists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in mobile technology mean vets are now commonly presented with videos of paroxysmal events by clients, but the consistency of the interpretation of these videos has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between vets (both...... neurology specialists and non-specialists) on the description and classification of videos depicting paroxysmal events, without knowing any results of diagnostic workup. An online questionnaire study was conducted, where participants watched 100 videos of dogs and cats exhibiting paroxysmal events.......g. electroencephalogram) able to differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms....

  5. Working with Children Who Have Experienced War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Paula Sunanon; Harris, Yvette R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the consequences of war, terrorism, and disaster on children's physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. Next, they discuss the "resiliency promoting" strategies that adults who work with children may employ prior to and after a catastrophic event. The article concludes with…

  6. From Classical Terrorism to ‘Global’ Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history and the development of terrorism as a research subject for social sciences. It gives an impression of how the subject’s theoretical remit has changed over the last decades — explicitly taking into account the characteristics of a modern and global world and their impact on current understandings of terrorism. Terrorism is a minor object for the social sciences; it was even long considered “illegitimate” and neglected by researchers. There are several explanations for this, which I think my long experience in research authorizes me to evoke here.

  7. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  8. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  9. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  10. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  11. The role of ethnocultural variables in response to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Katrina L; Chestnut, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    The threat of terrorism is having a profound impact on Americans. This study examined ethnocultural variables of ethnic background, gender, age, and educational background to better understand first reactions to, explanations for, and responses to what happened on September 11, 2001. Data were obtained from a sample of university students, church and civic group members, and people of the general community. Results suggest that ethnic background, gender, and age influence reactions to terrorism. Ethnic background and gender influenced causal explanations about the attacks. Strong gender differences were noted in how participants were affected by the attacks; strongest similarities were observed in reports of first reactions to news of the events, with most people experiencing shock and disbelief. Conclusions stress the importance of future mental health interventions and research giving strong consideration to ethnocultural variables when dealing with victims of terrorism.

  12. Single trial classification for the categories of perceived emotional facial expressions: an event-related fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sutao; Huang, Yuxia; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Chen, Gongxiang; Wang, Shuqing

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several studies have successfully applied multivariate pattern analysis methods to predict the categories of emotions. These studies are mainly focused on self-experienced emotions, such as the emotional states elicited by music or movie. In fact, most of our social interactions involve perception of emotional information from the expressions of other people, and it is an important basic skill for humans to recognize the emotional facial expressions of other people in a short time. In this study, we aimed to determine the discriminability of perceived emotional facial expressions. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, subjects were instructed to classify four categories of facial expressions (happy, disgust, angry and neutral) by pressing different buttons, and each facial expression stimulus lasted for 2s. All participants performed 5 fMRI runs. One multivariate pattern analysis method, support vector machine was trained to predict the categories of facial expressions. For feature selection, ninety masks defined from anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) atlas were firstly generated and each were treated as the input of the classifier; then, the most stable AAL areas were selected according to prediction accuracies, and comprised the final feature sets. Results showed that: for the 6 pair-wise classification conditions, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were all above chance prediction, among which, happy vs. neutral , angry vs. disgust achieved the lowest results. These results suggested that specific neural signatures of perceived emotional facial expressions may exist, and happy vs. neutral, angry vs. disgust might be more similar in information representation in the brain.

  13. The impact of repetitive and chronic exposure to terror attacks on Israeli mothers' and children's functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory-Bitton, Mally

    2013-01-01

    Studies point to the pathogenic impact of exposure to terror. however, most focus on specific traumatic events. the current study focused on the impact of continuous ongoing exposure to terror attacks. it examined the extent to which children's PtSD and behavior problems are a function of mothers' PtSD, child and mother exposure to terror events, and child and mother fear. a sample of 152 mother and children dyads, all living in communities on israel's southern border, were surveyed. results indicate that children's posttraumatic symptoms are significantly and positively predicted by their exposure to terror events, their fear, and their mothers' posttraumatic symptoms. in addition, children's current behavioral and social problems are positively predicted by mothers' posttraumatic symptoms. results are discussed in light of the importance of subjective interpretation. the findings suggest that further research should examine additional cognitive and social contextual factors.

  14. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  15. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallen, Jr, George W

    2007-01-01

    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  16. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  17. Book Examines Fractured Globalism, Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES As marginalized fundamentalist societies feel ever-more threatened by accelerating globalization, new educational approaches are needed to thwart individuals in those societies from resorting to terrorism. That is one of the...

  18. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  19. Globalization, Terrorism and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Sertif; Varlık, Ali Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The main discussion point of this article is to explore the cause-effect relation between the weakening of nation state and the intensification of global terrorism by the influence of globalization. The main thesis of the article is that the malign effects of globalization have considerably weakened nation states or dragged them into a situation in which the security and stability would no longer be sustained as desired. Global terrorism can stem from the adverse effects of globalization, imb...

  20. Living with terror, not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Waxman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of chronic terrorism on a targeted society by examining the case of Israeli society during the second Intifada. The Israeli case demonstrates both the extensive effects of repeated terrorist attacks and their limitations. The article argues that while Israelis were seriously affected by Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second Intifada, this did not result in major, lasting changes in Israeli behaviour. Despite being profoundly affected by terrorism, Israeli society was not demoralized by it, and in this respect Palestinian terrorism failed to achieve its aim. This is because the Israeli public grew accustomed to chronic terrorism and possessed a high level of social resilience.   

  1. Worry about terror among young adults living in ongoing security uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Mass-Friedman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable, with the exogenous variables being media viewing, differentiation of self, and trait anxiety, and the endogenous variables being somatic symptoms and perceptions of security-related stress. Participants were divided into two groups by age/academic level: 248 high school students and 191 university students. A pathway correlation model was used to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable. The central finding was that worry about terror was a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the extent of media viewing following terror events and the level of perception of security-related stress. That is, young people who said they worried a lot reported a high level of stress relating to the terror events they saw covered in the media. In addition, trait anxiety was found to have an effect on stress perception only via the level of worry about terror. This means that high levels of stress are not experienced by all highly trait-anxious people, but only by those who suffer from higher levels of worry about terror.

  2. Peakmatch - a New Program for Large-Scale Seismic Multiplet Analysis and Event Classification: An Application to Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M.; Smith, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Rodgers, S.

    2014-12-01

    The large amounts of data generated by volcano observatories, especially during volcanic crises, can present a challenge for rapid analysis of changing event behaviour. Statistical analysis of seismic events, e.g. spectral analysis and identification of waveform families (i.e. multiplet analysis) can be useful tools in characterising the seismicity and can provide another layer of information for volcano observatories. Additionally, multiplet analysis of existing data from key eruptions can reveal patterns of behaviour that are not evident from individual event metrics (e.g. locations, amplitudes, frequency content etc.). However, large scale multiplet analysis has previously been hindered by the computational limitations associated with cross-correlation of large data sets. Event classification remains crucial to volcano monitoring and to retrospective analysis of key eruption data, but such methods are often not straightforward to implement. We present a program, PEAKMATCH, which can be used for spectral and multiplet analysis of large data sets, and can be used for simple automatic classification of volcanic events. Our optimised cross-correlation approach can efficiently handle the cross-correlation of hundreds of thousands of events making large-scale multiplet studies a reality. Much of the crucial information for classifying an event lies in the frequency domain and by using spectral ratios and cluster analysis we are able to automatically classify events without an extensive training period. We apply our method to seismic data from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from the end of the last extrusion period in February 2010 until January 2014 to characterise the multiplet behaviour during an extended period of quiescence. We observe notable changes in multiplet behaviour surrounding the period of ash venting in March 2012.

  3. Living with terror, not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society

    OpenAIRE

    Dov Waxman

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of chronic terrorism on a targeted society by examining the case of Israeli society during the second Intifada. The Israeli case demonstrates both the extensive effects of repeated terrorist attacks and their limitations. The article argues that while Israelis were seriously affected by Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second Intifada, this did not result in major, lasting changes in Israeli behaviour. Despite being profoundly affected by terrorism, I...

  4. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    ... it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life...

  5. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  6. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary LaFree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD, an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS.[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies employed to improve the quality and comprehensiveness of the data, addressing also the strengths and weaknesses of Open Source data in general and the GTD in particular. The paper also provides descriptive statistics on the contents of the most recently available version of the GTD and offer observations about the future of event databases. 

  7. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  8. Modern terrorism as a product of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    KASUMOV RUSLAN TOFIKOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the affirmation of terrorism in a new form is associated with global processes. The author perceives this not only in technical equipment, organization and scale of modern terrorism. To a greater extent update of the terrorism is seen in its political aspiration expressed in the claim to statehood. The author argues this position based both on the essential principles of terrorism and post-modern trends of the world politics.

  9. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  10. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  11. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  12. Epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.

  13. On terrorism and legal response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjëll Likmeta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal Albanian doctrine encompasses different meanings in relation to terrorism. This paper aims to give a general overview on various definitions of terrorism, as one of the main threatening phenomenon of our society. The paper also treats the origin of the word ‘terrorism’, back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries. In this paper will be treated the main factors that have affected over the creation and development of terrorism, the content, format and main characteristics of terrorism, the main forms of occurrence of terrorist acts and Albanian legal mechanisms in the fight against terrorism, including the International agreements of which Albania is part of. Special attention will be paid to the moment when terrorist activities started in Albania and which are the most common forms of terror in Albania. The study of terrorism is multi-disciplinary, spanning a number of fields including political science, psychology, criminology, sociologist, history and many others. There are not few criminal norms provided in the Albanian Criminal Code that condemn terrorism. The Albanian Criminal Code expresses in separated articles the punishment of everyone who finances terrorism, hides funds and other assets that finance terrorism, even collects funds for terrorism financing, recruits persons for committing acts of terrorism or for terrorist financing, trains for committing terrorism acts, or makes public calls with terrorist purposes. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism.

  14. Pre-Processing Effect on the Accuracy of Event-Based Activity Segmentation and Classification through Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benish Fida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inertial sensors are increasingly being used to recognize and classify physical activities in a variety of applications. For monitoring and fitness applications, it is crucial to develop methods able to segment each activity cycle, e.g., a gait cycle, so that the successive classification step may be more accurate. To increase detection accuracy, pre-processing is often used, with a concurrent increase in computational cost. In this paper, the effect of pre-processing operations on the detection and classification of locomotion activities was investigated, to check whether the presence of pre-processing significantly contributes to an increase in accuracy. The pre-processing stages evaluated in this study were inclination correction and de-noising. Level walking, step ascending, descending and running were monitored by using a shank-mounted inertial sensor. Raw and filtered segments, obtained from a modified version of a rule-based gait detection algorithm optimized for sequential processing, were processed to extract time and frequency-based features for physical activity classification through a support vector machine classifier. The proposed method accurately detected >99% gait cycles from raw data and produced >98% accuracy on these segmented gait cycles. Pre-processing did not substantially increase classification accuracy, thus highlighting the possibility of reducing the amount of pre-processing for real-time applications.

  15. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  16. Chinese Cambodian Memory Work: Racial Terror and the Spaces of Haunting and Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Tea, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the terror and horror produced in the reification of ethnic classification and racial categorization of Chinese in Cambodia and its hauntings through memory works. This research relies on the memoirs of Luong Ung-Lai and Loung Ung and a performance piece by Jolie Chea. These cultural productions engages in the hauntings of memory and takes into consideration spaces of silence.

  17. Epidemiology of international terrorism involving fatal outcomes in developed countries (1994-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to describe the public health burden and epidemiology of international terrorism (i.e. involving foreign nationals) with fatal outcomes in developed countries. Data was abstracted from a United States Department of State database for 21 'established market economy' countries and 18 'former socialist economies of Europe' for 1994-2003. To put the findings in a wider context, comparisons were made with WHO data on all homicides for each country. A total of 32 international terrorist attacks causing fatalities were identified over the 10-year period. These resulted in 3299 deaths, giving a crude annual mortality rate of 0.3 per million population. The mortality burden attributable to international terrorism in these countries was 208 times less than that attributable to other homicide. Even for the country with the highest mortality burden from international terrorism (the United States), this ratio was 60. There was no statistically significant trend in the number of attacks over time, but the attack severity (in terms of deaths per attack) was higher in the latter part of the 10-year period. A number of limitations with this data set were identified. If a more rigorous definition of 'international terrorism' was used, then this would substantially reduce the total number of such attacks defined in this way. In conclusion, there is a need for better quality data and improved classification systems for describing international terrorism. Nevertheless, the available data indicates that the mortality burden from international terrorism in developed countries is small compared to that from other homicide.

  18. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  19. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. A Criminal Law Approach to Terrorism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Legislation About Terrorism and the Major Events], trans. Carlos H. Oliveira de Sousa, SAGRES Politica e Gestao Estrategica Integradas Organization...http://ultimosegundo.ig.com.br/ politica /2013-07-14/relator-promete-rigor-em-lei-de-terrorismo-e-nega- risco-para-movimentos-sociais.html. 11 III... Politica e Social” [Crimes Against National Security and Political and Social Order], conceiving national security as an array of measures aimed at

  1. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  2. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  3. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  4. Terror: Social Media and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    extremist groups operate with impunity. Facebook recruitment is more akin to the frog in a boiling pot of water than a spontaneous combustion of terror...tweeted, "I am a Tweeter by heart , I am in favor of freedom of speech but I also defend our right to live in tranquility and peace.ඊ The legislation of

  5. Terrorism, Intelligence, and the Law,

    Science.gov (United States)

    stress. Obviously the first line of defense is the law enforcement agencies, and they’re doing a good job. However, the problem of terrorism is so...critical that it cannot be left to the law enforcement agencies alone. Much technology is available, and new technology usually can be developed to deal

  6. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  7. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  8. Machine-based classification of ADHD and nonADHD participants using time/frequency features of event-related neuroelectric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztoprak, Hüseyin; Toycan, Mehmet; Alp, Yaşar Kemal; Arıkan, Orhan; Doğutepe, Elvin; Karakaş, Sirel

    2017-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent diagnosis among children who are referred to psychiatry departments. Although ADHD was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, its diagnosis is still confronted with many problems. A novel classification approach that discriminates ADHD and nonADHD groups over the time-frequency domain features of event-related potential (ERP) recordings that are taken during Stroop task is presented. Time-Frequency Hermite-Atomizer (TFHA) technique is used for the extraction of high resolution time-frequency domain features that are highly localized in time-frequency domain. Based on an extensive investigation, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was used to obtain the best discriminating features. When the best three features were used, the classification accuracy for the training dataset reached 98%, and the use of five features further improved the accuracy to 99.5%. The accuracy was 100% for the testing dataset. Based on extensive experiments, the delta band emerged as the most contributing frequency band and statistical parameters emerged as the most contributing feature group. The classification performance of this study suggests that TFHA can be employed as an auxiliary component of the diagnostic and prognostic procedures for ADHD. The features obtained in this study can potentially contribute to the neuroelectrical understanding and clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  10. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-01-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail.
The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content

  11. Effects of race and precipitating event on suicide versus non-suicide death classification in a college sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L.; Flowers, Kelci C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined race group differences in suicide death classification in a sample of 109 Black and White university students. Participants were randomly assigned to read three vignettes for which the vignette subjects’ race (only) varied. The vignettes each described a circumstance (terminal illness, academic failure, or relationship difficulties) that preceded the vignettes subject's ambiguously premature death. Participants were asked to describe “what happened”. Black participants were significantly less likely than White participants to attribute a vignette target's death to suicide and also less likely to report that suicide is acceptable. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:21309820

  12. Classification of Non-Time-Locked Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Events for Brain-Computer Interaction Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-08

    raw data include 7.1 s EEG data epochs, each centered on a 4.1s RSVP burst. The data was fIrSt bandpass-filtered in the range 2-100Hz...using this data . Classification for RSVP data is usually performed in a ’time-locked’ fashion, by analyzing the spectrum or amplitude in the EEG ... EEG data including high dimensional feature spaces, temporal and spatial data correlation, and excessive noise will affect the imple mentation

  13. The Contribution of the Vaccine Adverse Event Text Mining System to the Classification of Possible Guillain-Barré Syndrome Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, T.; Woo, E. J.; Ball, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that a general purpose text mining system, the Vaccine adverse event Text Mining (VaeTM) system, could be used to automatically classify reports of an-aphylaxis for post-marketing safety surveillance of vaccines. Objective To evaluate the ability of VaeTM to classify reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of possible Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). Methods We used VaeTM to extract the key diagnostic features from the text of reports in VAERS. Then, we applied the Brighton Collaboration (BC) case definition for GBS, and an information retrieval strategy (i.e. the vector space model) to quantify the specific information that is included in the key features extracted by VaeTM and compared it with the encoded information that is already stored in VAERS as Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms (PTs). We also evaluated the contribution of the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary (second level diagnosis and symptoms) diagnostic VaeTM-based features to the total VaeTM-based information. Results MedDRA captured more information and better supported the classification of reports for GBS than VaeTM (AUC: 0.904 vs. 0.777); the lower performance of VaeTM is likely due to the lack of extraction by VaeTM of specific laboratory results that are included in the BC criteria for GBS. On the other hand, the VaeTM-based classification exhibited greater specificity than the MedDRA-based approach (94.96% vs. 87.65%). Most of the VaeTM-based information was contained in the secondary diagnostic features. Conclusion For GBS, clinical signs and symptoms alone are not sufficient to match MedDRA coding for purposes of case classification, but are preferred if specificity is the priority. PMID:23650490

  14. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  15. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  16. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  17. Beyond the crime-terror nexus : socio-economic status, violent crimes and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljujic, Vanja; van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Weerman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The literature on terrorism suggests a strong link between criminal offending and terrorism – the crime-terror nexus. Building upon a strain theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to suggest that devalued socio-economic status (i.e. limited education and unemployment) and criminal

  18. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  19. Terror and Reprisal - An Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-19

    International Terrorism: Problems of Deterrence", Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 110-11 6 . 4Walter Laquer , Terrorism (Boston: Little, Brown...by Laquer , p.59. 9Some terrorists, notably kidnappers in Italy and brigands in Argentina, are more concerned with money than politics. Jay Mallin...Walzer, p.204. 19Walzer, p.205. 20 Laquer , p.22 6 . 21Laquer, p.4. 22Pyotr Kropotkin, "The Spirit of Revolt", first published in Le R~voltA (Geneva,1880

  20. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  1. Contemporary terrorism as a global threat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek, Mirosław; Żuber, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has been present in human history since ancient times, but it was not considered a serious threat for global security. The attacks on the World Trade Center have demonstrated that it is a threat of a global nature. It is an effective weapon used by the "weaker" against the stronger opponents. The subject of terrorism is very complex, difficult and elusive. There is a divergence among the scholars in understanding terrorism studies due to the lack of uniform criteria for the deter...

  2. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  3. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  4. Psychiatry and terrorism: the profession's role in disaster response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Siegel, Everett R; Heitt, Michael C; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    While America wages the "war" on terrorism and endeavors to protect the physical safety of its citizens, it is imperative to plan for the population's mental health needs in future terrorist/disaster scenarios. The importance of psychiatry's potential role in preparing the community for the psychological impact of terrorism is underscored against the historical backdrop of the field being "carved out" from the organization, delivery, and financing of health services in our society. A practical framework is offered for designing an organization's mental health disaster plan, including recommendations for strategic infrastructure and tactical response capabilities. Finally, the unique features of clinical practice with disaster victims are noted, including intra-clinician conflicts between professional/community interests and personal/family obligations during acute disaster events.

  5. Youth Exposed to Terrorism: the Moderating Role of Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shur, Lia; Gilady, Ayelet

    2016-05-01

    The present review examines the moderating role of ideology on the effects of war, armed conflict, and terrorism on youth. Ideology is an important factor given the central role played by religio-political ideology and nationalism in present-day conflicts. Ideologies or worldviews represent cognitive frameworks that imbue the traumatic situation with meaning and order. Analysis of the pool of studies identified three categories of ideologically based moderating factors, each representing an aspect of social construction of traumatic events, namely, religion, political ideology, and self-concept. The two closely related categories of religion and politico-religious beliefs showed both positive and negative effects on psychological and psychiatric outcomes among youth. The third category of different aspects of self-concept yielded consistently positive moderating effects. The mechanisms by which each category of ideology moderates effects of exposure to war, armed conflict, and terrorism are discussed, and research and clinical implications are presented.

  6. Probabilistic thinking and death anxiety: a terror management based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Schuler, Eric R; Page, Kyle S; Carver, Kellye S

    2014-01-01

    Terror Management Theory has been utilized to understand how death can change behavioral outcomes and social dynamics. One area that is not well researched is why individuals willingly engage in risky behavior that could accelerate their mortality. One method of distancing a potential life threatening outcome when engaging in risky behaviors is through stacking probability in favor of the event not occurring, termed probabilistic thinking. The present study examines the creation and psychometric properties of the Probabilistic Thinking scale in a sample of young, middle aged, and older adults (n = 472). The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability for each of the four subscales, excellent overall internal consistency, and good construct validity regarding relationships with measures of death anxiety. Reliable age and gender effects in probabilistic thinking were also observed. The relationship of probabilistic thinking as part of a cultural buffer against death anxiety is discussed, as well as its implications for Terror Management research.

  7. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.

  8. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Buçaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism phenomena in line with the principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in the context of cyber attacks events in attempt to establish a legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  9. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism pheromone in line with principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none-European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in context of cyber-attacks events in attempt to establish legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber-attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  10. The suffering is similar--is the treatment equal? An intervention with Arab Terror injured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Unger-Arnov, Yael; Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Tessler, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the last Intifada and during the Second Lebanon War, all citizens of Israel were exposed to waves of terrorism that claimed many people wounded and killed, unrelated to religious differences, age, gender, or nationality: Jews and Arabs suffered alike. The acts of terror exposed all inhabitants equally to injury, suffering, and the need to adjust. The professional literature attests that minority groups are at a higher risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms as a result of exposure to acts of terror. This article describes the treatment with terror injured, Jews and Arabs, in the frame of the project for terror victims at Rambam Medical Center, in cooperation with Operation Embrace. It also covers the project intervention with casualties of the shooting incident in the Arab town of Shefaram, with the cooperation of Shefaram Social Welfare department. The psycho-social work conducted with the injured, Jews and Arabs, emphasized their similarities, their common fate, and the fact that any of us could be injured in a terror act or a war. The suffering, the loss, and the hurt are common to us all. At the same time, the interventions referred to cultural differences and the diverse ways of coping with the aftermath of the events, based on values, faith, and outlook on life arising from cultural background.

  11. On the Explanation of Narratives Used in the Context of Terror and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Nahide

    2004-01-01

    After the events of September 11 th, the issue of terror, violonce and religion has once again come into intense discussion and debate. Especially after this event, “Islamic Terror and ’’Prophet Muhammad and Terror” has started to discuss again. In this context this question recurs again.”Was Prophet Muhammad “terrorist”? Some of authors claim that Prophet Muhammad was terrorist. In this conditions this subject needs to academic research. In order to understand Prophet Muhammad’s life truly a...

  12. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  13. Exploring Support for Terrorism Among Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cherney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine factors that influence support for terrorism, using the PEW 2010 Global Attitudes Survey. We assess aggregate results, drawing on items fielded to all Muslim respondents to identify broad factors that appear to indicate likely support for suicide terrorism. Results from a logistic regression model suggest that being female, having an educational degree, a commitment to certain Muslim beliefs and values, and being a member of the Shi’a minority might be probable indicators of support for terrorism. Some of the results were also counterintuitive. We consider the implications of our findings for understanding passive and active support for terrorism among Muslim communities.

  14. Nonlinear Methodologies for Identifying Seismic Event and Nuclear Explosion Using Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Naive Bayes Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjun Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrimination of seismic event and nuclear explosion is a complex and nonlinear system. The nonlinear methodologies including Random Forests (RF, Support Vector Machines (SVM, and Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC were applied to discriminant seismic events. Twenty earthquakes and twenty-seven explosions with nine ratios of the energies contained within predetermined “velocity windows” and calculated distance are used in discriminators. Based on the one out cross-validation, ROC curve, calculated accuracy of training and test samples, and discriminating performances of RF, SVM, and NBC were discussed and compared. The result of RF method clearly shows the best predictive power with a maximum area of 0.975 under the ROC among RF, SVM, and NBC. The discriminant accuracies of RF, SVM, and NBC for test samples are 92.86%, 85.71%, and 92.86%, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the presented RF model can not only identify seismic event automatically with high accuracy, but also can sort the discriminant indicators according to calculated values of weights.

  15. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  16. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  17. Country Reports on Terrorism 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    manuals , and maps. In April, during a search of another suspected terrorist hideout, Serbian police killed Ismail Prentic, the suspected leader of the...Grupo de Operaciones Policiales Especiales (GOPE), a 300-person unit of the Carabiñeros police force, served as the nation’s primary...drug trafficking and terrorism-related accounts on Colombian government orders. Aerial and manual eradication of illicit drugs in Colombia, key to

  18. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  19. Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A H; Matthews, B M; Oakey, M; Crutchfield, M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in whom a diagnosis of sleepwalking (six) or night terrors (six) was confirmed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychological characteristics as measured at the time of clinical assessment by means of the Eysenck personality questionnaire, the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire, and the Crown-Crisp experiential index. RESULTS--Both groups scored exceptionally highly on the hysteria scale of the Crown-Crisp experiential index and the night terrors group also scored highly on the anxiety scale. The patients with sleepwalking also scored highly on a measure of externally directed hostility. CONCLUSIONS--The physiological and psychological features identified in these patients, possibly reflecting different expressions of a constitutional cerebral characteristic, may be explored in terms of hysterical dissociation. The findings contribute to the debate concerning the nature of sleepwalking, in particular with and without the forensic aspects. PMID:2106985

  20. Critical evaluation of auditory event-related potential deficits in schizophrenia: evidence from large-scale single-subject pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Popescu, Florin C; Rentzsch, Johannes; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) deficits associated with auditory oddball and click-conditioning paradigms are among the most consistent findings in schizophrenia and are discussed as potential biomarkers. However, it is unclear to what extend these ERP deficits distinguish between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls on a single-subject level, which is of high importance for potential translation to clinical routine. Here, we investigated 144 schizophrenia patients and 144 matched controls with an auditory click-conditioning/oddball paradigm. P50 and N1 gating ratios as well as target-locked N1 and P3 components were submitted to conventional general linear models and to explorative machine learning algorithms. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant between-group differences for the oddball-locked N1 and P3 components but not for any gating measure. Machine learning-assisted analysis achieved 77.7% balanced classification accuracy using a combination of target-locked N1 and P3 amplitudes as classifiers. The superiority of machine learning over repeated-measures analysis for classifying schizophrenia patients was in the range of about 10% as quantified by receiver operating characteristics. For the first time, our study provides large-scale single-subject classification data on auditory click-conditioning and oddball paradigms in schizophrenia. Although our study exemplifies how automated inference may substantially improve classification accuracy, our data also show that the investigated ERP measures show comparably poor discriminatory properties in single subjects, thus illustrating the need to establish either new analytical approaches for these paradigms or other paradigms to investigate the disorder. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Classification of Rotor Induced Shearing Events in the Near Wake of a Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah; Viggiano, Bianca; Ali, Naseem; Cal, Raul Bayoan

    2017-11-01

    Flow perturbation induced by a turbine rotor imposes considerable turbulence and shearing effects in the near wake of a turbine, altering the efficiency of subsequent units within a wind farm array. Previous methods have characterized near wake vorticity of a turbine and recovery distance of various turbine array configurations. This study aims to build on previous analysis with respect to a turbine rotor within an array and develop a model to examine stress events and energy contribution in the near wake due to rotational effects. Hot wire anemometry was employed downstream of a turbine centrally located in the third row of a 3x3 array. Data considered points planar to the rotor and included simultaneous streamwise and wall-normal velocities as well as concurrent streamwise and transverse velocities. Conditional analysis of Reynolds stresses induced by the rotor agree with former near wake research, and examination of stresses in terms of streamwise and transverse velocity components depicts areas of significant rotational effects. Continued analysis includes spectral decomposition and conditional statistics to further characterize shearing events at various points considering the swept area of the rotor.

  2. Risks of Mortality and Morbidity from Worldwide Terrorism: 1968-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-02-10

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. Adjusted data analyzed involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), and 86,568 ''casualties'' (injuries) of which 25,408 were fatal. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (IS) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (OR). IS had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of OR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in OR that increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2.5% (or 10%) of harm-ranked events in OR (or IS). Extreme values of victim/event rates were approximated fairly well by generalized Pareto models (typically used to fit to data on forest fires, sea levels, earthquakes, etc.). These results were in turn used to forecast maximum OR- and IS-specific victims/event rates through 2080, illustrating empirically based methods that could be applied to improve strategies to assess, prevent and manage terror-related risks and consequences.

  3. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available September 11 th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole - and the medical community in particular - must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of

  4. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagby, Moti; Goldberg, Avishay; Becker, Steven; Schwartz, Dagan; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    September 11th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole – and the medical community in particular – must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of simulated casualties that

  5. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55

  6. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  7. A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN DIMENSION*. Abstract. Terrorism is a behavioural flu plaguing the entire world at an alarming rate. Legal prescriptions based on legal prognosis have been in the form of application of sanctions directed against terrorists. Additionally, a hostile attitude to ...

  8. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  9. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  10. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  11. Democracy and Terrorism: What Roles for Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Beverly; Hickey, Suzanne; Khoury, Issam

    2008-01-01

    In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, the study of terrorism has become prominent as a function of the social sciences. The purpose of this article is to examine how terrorism studies relate to university engagement in an effort to reduce violence and terrorist acts across the globe. Illustrations will be explicated from the University of St…

  12. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Courtney B.

    2004-01-01

    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  13. Violence-related Versus Terror-related Stabbings: Significant Differences in Injury Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-01-24

    To demonstrate the gap between injury epidemiology of terror-related stabbings (TRS) and non-terror-related intentional stabbings. Terror attacks with sharp instruments have multiplied recently, with many victims of these incidents presented to hospitals with penetrating injuries. Because most practical experience of surgeons with intentional stabbing injuries comes from treating victims of interpersonal violence, potential gaps in knowledge may exist if injuries from TRS significantly differ from interpersonal stabbings (IPS). A retrospective study of 1615 patients from intentional stabbing events recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the period of "Knife Intifada" (January 2013-March 2016). All stabbings were divided into TRS and IPS. The 2 categories were compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources, and clinical outcomes. TRS patients were older, comprised more females and were ethnically homogenous. Most IPS incidents happened on weekdays and at night hours, whereas TRS events peaked midweek during morning and afternoon hours. TRS patients had more injuries of head, face, and neck, and severe head and neck injuries. IPS patients had more abdomen injuries; however, respective injuries in the TRS group were more severe. Greater injury severity of the TRS patients reflected on their higher hospital resources utilization and greater in-hospital mortality. Victims of terror stabbings are profoundly different in their characteristics, sustain injuries of a different profile and greater severity, require more hospital resources, and have worse off clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need of the healthcare systems to adjust itself appropriately to deal successfully with future terror attacks.

  14. Chemical-biological terrorism and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W, Shannon; Julia A, McMillan

    2006-09-01

    Children remain potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. In recent years, children have even been specific targets of terrorist acts. Consequently, it is necessary to address the needs that children would face after a terrorist incident. A broad range of public health initiatives have occurred since September 11, 2001. Although the needs of children have been addressed in many of them, in many cases, these initiatives have been inadequate in ensuring the protection of children. In addition, public health and health care system preparedness for terrorism has been broadened to the so-called all-hazards approach, in which response plans for terrorism are blended with plans for a public health or health care system response to unintentional disasters (eg, natural events such as earthquakes or pandemic flu or manmade catastrophes such as a hazardous-materials spill). In response to new principles and programs that have appeared over the last 5 years, this policy statement provides an update of the 2000 policy statement. The roles of both the pediatrician and public health agencies continue to be emphasized; only a coordinated effort by pediatricians and public health can ensure that the needs of children, including emergency protocols in schools or child care centers, decontamination protocols, and mental health interventions, will be successful.

  15. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  16. Through the looking glass: The role of ethnicity and affiliation in responses to terrorism in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  17. Through the Looking Glass: The Role of Ethnicity and Affiliation in Responses to Terrorism in the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  18. Through the Looking Glass: The Role of Ethnicity and Affiliation in Responses to Terrorism in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images. PMID:28018258

  19. Dynamics of the world terror and the war in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of world terror and the war in Iraq were studied from different aspects. World terror displays a scaling growth while the rate equations of the civilian and the US-soldier casualties in Iraq both display zero-order chemical kinetics. The fractal dimensions of scattering diagrams were evaluated. Animal diagrams were obtained from scattering diagrams. A similarity/dissimilarity ratio was defined to relate any casualty event to a former one. This ratio implies that the dynamics of civilian casualties in Iraq is very complex. The changes of topological indices of animal diagrams were evaluated with respect to time and the area of the blank zones. The topological index changes linearly with time, and there exists a scaling relation between the topological index and the area of the blank zones in the case of world terror. The area of blank zones in the scattering diagram of US-soldiers decreases with the increase of topological index implying that the dynamics is confined to the scattering diagram. The area keeps almost constant for civilian casualties in Iraq with a jump after some time, and it implies that the dynamics has a growing tendency. There are two self-similarity patterns in the scattering diagram of world terror; one is peak-like and expanding, and the other is triangular and controls the growth. There is only a triangular controlling pattern for the scattering diagram of civilian casualties, and there is no significant self-similarity pattern for the scattering diagram of the US-soldier casualties in Iraq.

  20. 75 FR 2445 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 27 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Department... issues related to certain regulatory provisions in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS...-Terrorism Standards COI--Chemical(s) of Interest CVI--Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information DHS...

  1. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  2. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  3. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  4. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  5. Inter-observer agreement of canine and feline paroxysmal event semiology and classification by veterinary neurology specialists and non-specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie; Charalambous, Marios; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; De Risio, Luisa; Farquhar, Robyn; Hampel, Rachel; Hill, Myfanwy; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Preston, Stephanie M; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Taylor-Brown, Fran; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-02-18

    Advances in mobile technology mean vets are now commonly presented with videos of paroxysmal events by clients, but the consistency of the interpretation of these videos has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between vets (both neurology specialists and non-specialists) on the description and classification of videos depicting paroxysmal events, without knowing any results of diagnostic workup. An online questionnaire study was conducted, where participants watched 100 videos of dogs and cats exhibiting paroxysmal events and answered questions regarding: epileptic seizure presence (yes/no), seizure type, consciousness status, and the presence of motor, autonomic and neurobehavioural signs. Agreement statistics (percentage agreement and kappa) calculated for each variable, with prevalence indices calculated to aid their interpretation. Only a fair level of agreement (κ = 0.40) was found for epileptic seizure presence. Overall agreement of seizure type was moderate (κ = 0.44), with primary generalised seizures showing the highest level of agreement (κ = 0.60), and focal the lowest (κ =0.31). Fair agreement was found for consciousness status and the presence of autonomic signs (κ = 0.21-0.40), but poor agreement for neurobehavioral signs (κ = 0.16). Agreement for motor signs ranged from poor (κ = ≤ 0.20) to moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60). Differences between specialists and non-specialists were identified. The relatively low levels of agreement described here highlight the need for further discussions between neurology experts regarding classifying and describing epileptic seizures, and additional training of non-specialists to facilitate accurate diagnosis. There is a need for diagnostic tools (e.g. electroencephalogram) able to differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms.

  6. TERRORISM IMPACT ON INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu UZLAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a more and more discussed topic. All over the world common people and experts talk about victims, casualties and physical damage. What about economic effects? Not only in terms of costs, but also regarding how terrorist acts affect different branches of the economy. Before 2001, September 11th insurance industry did not think about taking into consideration terrorist risk and assess them accordingly. In financial terms, does this industry gain or lose? In the following work a few issues regarding these questions might be answered.

  7. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  8. CCM: A Text Classification Method by Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cluster based Classification Model (CCM) for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks, is presented. Comparative experiments of the proposed model against traditional classification models and the boosting algorithm are also discussed. Experimental results...... show that the CCM outperforms traditional classification models as well as the boosting algorithm for the task of suspicious email detection on terrorism domain email dataset and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups datasets. The overall finding is that applying a cluster based...

  9. Russia’s Contribution as a Partner in the War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Nr 35-F3), “On Coun- tering Terrorism,” signed by President Putin on March 6, 2006, after it was ratified by both chambers of the Russian...the event directly, or conducting a bloody and spectacular attack in Russia which would overshadow the games. For Moscow, this is the pri- mary

  10. Shooting the Messenger: Diplomats Crushed by Wave of New Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Diplomats Crushed by Wave of New Terrorism Sb. GRANTNUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Justin NI. Geineti, U.S. Department...bombers with armed assaulters in which none of Ihe attackers intend to survive. The Global Terrorism Database shows the numberofattacks against diplomatic...the Cold War and is potentially explained by tite ‘new terrorism ” tlteory attd Robert Pape’s theory on suicide terrorism . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Terrorism

  11. The Impact of Terrorism on Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Kinyanjui

    2014-01-01

    This paper assessed the relationship between terrorism and foreign direct investment in Kenya. Secondary data on the Terrorism attacks and FDI from 2010 to 2012 was used for the study. Multiple regression model was used to test of the relationship between the study variables. By applying the model, the study found that terrorism negatively affects FDI in Kenya. It was concluded that Terrorism activities negatively affect the FDI in Kenya. Terrorism activities decrease the foreign investor con...

  12. Motivational dynamics of suicide terrorism: organizational and individual perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Üstünel Yırcalı, Ayşe; Ustunel Yircali, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    There is no abundance in the quantity and quality of research realized in the area of suicide terrorism. Although suicide terrorism is as old a phenomenon as terrorism, the scope of research investigating the latter outweighs and usually encloses the former as a subtopic. The increasing trend in suicide terrorism and the high rate of casualties it inflicts on its target enemy raises significant questions such as what accounts for the rise in suicide terrorism, what kind of people and groups a...

  13. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  14. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on the causes and economic impact of terrorist activities; • reveals that appearance of evaluation categories in the field of terrorism resulted in a formation of a specific world market - a terrorism market; • considers problems related to the effectiveness of budgetary and extra-budgetary expenditure linked to threats of international terrorism in the countries of the integrated world; • highlights the economic losses incurred by Ukraine because of the terrorist activity in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in 2014; • defines theoretical aspects of anti-terrorist Ukrainian policy analysis in the context of international, especially European and Euro-Atlantic, anti-terrorism cooperation; The conducted analysis shows that one of the priority tasks of the state regarding to improving the efficiency of antiterrorist activity should be the construction of the system of prevention of terrorism as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, including by means of creating a system of regulatory actions of authorized authorities and other institutions of civil society in this area.

  16. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  17. The impact of terrorism on children: a two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Mor, Meirav; Amir, Lisa; Peleg, Kobi

    2003-01-01

    To review and analyze the cumulative two-year, Israeli experience with medical care for children victims of terrorism during the prehospital and hospital phases. Data were collected from the: (1) Magen David Adom National Emergency Medical System Registry (prehospital phase); (2) medical records from the authors' institutions (pediatric triage); and (3) Israel Trauma Registry (injury characteristics and utilization of in-hospital resources). Statistical analyses were performed as appropriate. During the recent wave of violence in Israel and the surrounding region, hundreds of children have been exposed to and injured by terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology and management of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effects on the healthcare system. This study focuses on four aspects of terrorism-related injuries: (1) tending to victims in the prehospital phase; (2) triage, with a description of a modified, pediatric triage algorithm; (3) characteristics of trauma-related injuries in children; and (4) utilization of in-hospital resources. During the study period, 41 mass-casualty events (MCEs) were managed by Magen David Adom. Each event involved on average, 32 regular and nine mobile intensive care unit ambulances with 93 medics, 19 paramedics, and four physicians. Evacuation time was 5-10 minutes in urban areas and 15-20 minutes in rural areas. In most cases, victims were evacuated to multiple facilities. To improve efficiency and speed, the Magen David Adom introduced the use of well-trained "first-responders" and volunteer, off-duty professionals, in addition to "scoop and run" on-the-scene management. Because of differences in physiology and response between children and adults, a pediatric triage algorithm was developed using four categories instead of the usual three. Analysis of the injuries sustained by the 160 children hospitalized after these events indicates that most were caused by blasts and penetration by

  18. Urban Fears and Global Terrors: Citizenship, Multicultures and Belongings after 7/7

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Urban Fears and Global Terrors After 7/7 explores the disruption around that day, taking people back to the events and the sense of loss, fear and mourning that followed. By framing a new landscape of urban fear Victor Seidler shows how new technologies helped to shape responses to a global terror that had been anticipated but was dreadful in its reality. By listening to the narratives people shaped for themselves Seidler shows the need for new forms of social theory that can come to terms wi...

  19. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  20. How Terrorism News Reports Increase Prejudice against Outgroups: A Terror Management Account

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim (Studies 1-3) and Muslim (Study 3) participants were exposed to news about either Islamic terrorist acts or to control news. When Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh was murdered in Amster...

  1. Trust and terrorism: citizen responses to anti-terrorism performance history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2010-09-01

    The "intuitive detection theorists" model of trust posits greater trust for correctly distinguishing danger from safety and an activist response under uncertainty about danger. An American sample evaluated U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) performance after two possible terrorism events in which DHS has the same activist or nonactivist response bias. Outcomes were two successes (bombing prevented or lack of threat accurately foretold), two failures (bombing or DHS action against high school prank leads to student deaths), or a mix. Hindsight empathy (a belief one would have made the same decision) differed across treatments but trust less so; contrary to a similar one-event experiment in Germany, an active but incorrect response did not raise trust relative to passive incorrect action. Political conservatives were much more trusting and empathetic than liberals, and all ideological groups (including moderates) exhibited little internal variation reflecting experimental conditions. Consistently accurate outcomes rated significantly higher in empathy than either inconsistent results or consistent inaccuracy (the lowest rated); trust exhibited no significant differences. Results in this study show actual (experimentally manipulated) performance being trumped by the interpretive screen of political ideology, but this seemed less the case in the earlier German study, despite its finding of a strong moderating effect of right-wing authoritarianism. Trust scholars need to attend more to effects of performance history (i.e., a sequence of events) and their limiting factors. More systematic testing of effects of ideology and performance history would enhance future research on trust. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-07-22

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  3. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Perry W; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-07-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism.

  4. Adverse drug events in German hospital routine data: A validation of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10 diagnostic codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Kuklik

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events (ADEs during hospital stays are a significant problem of healthcare systems. Established monitoring systems lack completeness or are cost intensive. Routinely assigned International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD codes could complement existing systems for ADE identification. To analyze the potential of using routine data for ADE detection, the validity of a set of ICD codes was determined focusing on hospital-acquired events.The study utilized routine data from four German hospitals covering the years 2014 and 2015. A set of ICD, 10th Revision, German Modification (ICD-10-GM diagnoses coded most frequently in the routine data and identified as codes indicating ADEs was analyzed. Data from psychiatric and psychotherapeutic departments were excluded. Retrospective chart review was performed to calculate positive predictive values (PPV and sensitivity.Of 807 reviewed ADE codes, 91.2% (95%-confidence interval: 89.0, 93.1 were identified as disease in the medical records and 65.1% (61.7, 68.3 were confirmed as ADE. For code groups being predominantly hospital-acquired, 78.5% (73.7, 82.9 were confirmed as ADE, ranging from 68.5% to 94.4% dependent on the ICD code. However, sensitivity of inpatient ADEs was relatively low. 49.7% (45.2, 54.2 of 495 identified hospital-acquired ADEs were coded as disease in the routine data, from which a subgroup of 12.1% (9.4, 15.3 was coded as drug-associated disease.ICD codes from routine data can provide an important contribution to the development and improvement of ADE monitoring systems. Documentation quality is crucial to further increase the PPV, and actions against under-reporting of ADEs in routine data need to be taken.

  5. A longitudinal study of changes in psychological responses to continuous terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Solomon, Zahava; Bleich, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    The impact of ongoing terror over time has received little attention. This study assesses longitudinally prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms' trajectories, namely resistance, resilience, late-onset and chronicity in the course of intensive and ongoing terror. Two surveys were performed at a two-year interval among 153 Jewish Israeli adults. Results show probable PTSD prevalence, number of traumatic stress related symptoms (TSRS), and rate of severe posttraumatic symptomatology (PTSS) to increase over time (from 18.2% to 31.2%). With this, many (66.7% of those with PTSD and 39.3% of those with PTSS at wave 1) recovered. Late-onset of severe PTSS (19.6% of the sample) was predicted by income reduction, a major lifetime traumatic event, sense of threat, dissociation, coping via disengagement and low mood. Chronicity was predicted by sense of threat, pessimism, dissociation and disengagement. Continuous exposure to terror has a strong negative impact on mental health. Secondly, even within a chronic situation of terror, a large proportion of individuals with elevated levels of posttraumatic symptomatology recover over time; third, prolonged exposure to terror may also exacerbate symptomatology, but not per-se trigger new PTSD cases.

  6. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  7. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  8. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan

    2011-01-01

    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle...

  9. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  10. Islamic Law and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jihād and terrorism are not the same. In the context of sharia that implementation of the jihād has parameters measured with a layer of ethics based on the commands Al Quran and the Hadith of Prophet and the explanation the Ulama. Muslims in Indonesia views that the essentially not much different from the views on jihād and terror in other Islamic countries, especially the Middle East. In the context of Islamic law, jihād has multi spectral studies, but none of these studies that equate the meaning of jihād with terrorism, or none of them agreed that acts of terror as has been demonstrated by radical groups that are part of the concept Islam.

  11. Bibliography on Future Trends in Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn; Hudson, Rex

    1998-01-01

    ...), particularly against the United States. Accordingly, many of the 295 monographs and journal articles surveyed in this bibliography discuss the potential threats of nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism and the countermeasures...

  12. Terrorism: Near Eastern Groups and State Sponsors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    .... Pressured by international sanctions and isolation, Sudan and Libya appear to have sharply reduced their support for international terrorist groups, and Sudan has told the United States it wants to work to achieve removal from the terrorism list.

  13. The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.

  14. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  15. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  16. Bibliography on Future Trends in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    counterterrorism; combating terrorism Library of Congress — Federal Research Division Future Trends in Terrorism 60 Pilat , Joseph F. "Chemical and Biological...diagnose anxiety , depression, bereavement, and organic brain syndromes to provide treatment, reassurance, and the relief of pain. Keyword(s): first...travel attitude, age, gender, education, income, and presence of children in a household. The study is based on a mail survey of 240 tourists from the

  17. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-01-01

    At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on...

  18. Combating Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    Methodology This research project was conducted utilizing library and Internet based research of subject matter experts from primary source terrorist analysts...modern day Islamic transnational terrorism as the Sicilians were to the American Italian Mafia or Cosa Nostra: which translates to: “our thing.” Like...14 September 2001, accessed 09October 2002); available from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-network.cfm; Internet . Beck, Ulrich. 2000. What is

  19. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  1. Sleep terrors antecedent is common in adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libânia Melo Nunes Fialho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraines and sleep terrors (STs are highly prevalent disorders with striking similarities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antecedent of STs by comparing adolescents suffering from migraines with healthy controls in a large consecutive series. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire and were instructed to keep a headache diary during a two-month period. The age range was 10 to 19 years. The diagnosis of STs was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. RESULTS: A total of 158 participants were evaluated. Of these participants, 50 suffered from episodic migraines (EMs, 57 had chronic migraines (CMs and 51 were control subjects (CG. Participants who had a history of STs had significantly more migraines than participants who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine is strongly associated with a history of STs in the adolescent population independent of demographics and pain intensity.

  2. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  3. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H

    2011-01-01

    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  4. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  5. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  6. Integrating international responses to complex emergencies, unconventional war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2005-01-01

    The world is experiencing unprecedented violence and threats of violence, taking the form of complex internal nation-state conflicts, unconventional or guerrilla warfare against established governments, and stateless threats of terrorism by potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear weapons. What happens locally has immediate ramifications internationally. Real and potential health consequences of these events have evoked global concerns and realization that capacities and capabilities to respond to such events require unparalleled integration, coordination, and cooperation of the international community. However, politics and the institutions singular governments form are inherently limited in their objectives and capability to effectively respond. Public health, broadly defined, must be recognized as a security and strategic requirement, one that serves to build a foundation for an international integrated response capacity.

  7. On the Determinants of Terrorism Risk Concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether differences in terrorism risk are mirrored on terrorism risk concern across European countries for the period 2003-2007. We find that the average propensity for terrorism risk concern is indeed affected by actual risk levels. Furthermore, country and individual heterogeneity contribute substantially to the variation of observed risk concern. According to our findings, males, singles and individuals with white collar jobs are less likely to mention terrorism as one of th...

  8. Recollection Bias and Its Underpinnings: Lessons from Terrorism Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W Kip; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2017-05-01

    Recollection bias is the phenomenon whereby people who observe a highly unexpected event hold current risk beliefs about a similar event that are no higher than their recollection of their prior beliefs. This article replicates and extends the authors' previous study of recollection bias in relation to individuals' perceptions of the risks of terrorism attacks. Over 60% of respondents in a national U.S. sample of over 900 adults believe that the current risk of a future terrorist attack by either an airplane or in a public setting is no higher than they recall having believed, respectively, before the 9/11 attack and before the Boston Marathon bombing. By contrast, a rational Bayesian model would update to a higher currently assessed risk of these previously uncontemplated events. Recollection bias is a persistent trait: individuals who exhibited this bias for the 9/11 attack exhibited it for the Boston Marathon bombing. Only one-fifth of respondents are free of any type of recollection bias. Recollection bias is negatively correlated with absolute levels of risk belief. Recollection bias in relation to highly unexpected terrorist events-the belief that perceived risks did not increase after the surprise occurrence-dampens support for a variety of anti-terrorism measures, controlling for the level of risk beliefs and demographic factors. Persistent recollection bias for both 9/11 and the Boston Marathon bombing is especially influential in diminishing support for protective policy measures, such as surveillance cameras in public places. Given that public attitudes influence policy, educating the public about risk is critical. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  10. Fear of future terrorism: Associated psychiatric burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, T; Udofia, O; Sheikh, T L; Yusuf, D A

    2017-02-04

    The mental health burden from fear of future terrorism has not been given much research attention compared to the immediate mental distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such neglected ongoing mental health morbidity associated with threats of terrorism had been described as pre-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). The study highlighted this phenomenon (PTSS) in Nigeria by examining the catastrophic burden of the fear of future terrorism and associated psychiatric burden among adult population in Kaduna city. Participants were students and staff of Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna Polytechnic, and students awaiting admission into Kaduna State University. They responded to the following instruments after obtaining their informed consents: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Terrorism Catastrophising Scale (TCS), and the depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) portion of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The TCS showed that 78.8% of the participants had from moderate to severe clinical distress on fear of terrorism. The TCS has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.721 and also had significant moderate correlation with depression (r=0.278; pterrorism was high and this was relatively related to depression and GAD. This highlighted the need for ongoing monitoring and called for their effective prevention from the identified underlying cognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  12. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs..., Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) for an additional 30 days. \\1\\ See 77 FR 74677. The 60... that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  13. 77 FR 74677 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism... Part 27. CFATS represents a national-level effort to minimize terrorism risk to such facilities. Its...

  14. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting AGENCY: Departmental... (``Treasury'') is issuing this proposed rule as part of its implementation of Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of...

  15. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  16. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  17. Terrorism-Related Loss of Citizenship - A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. TERRORISM -RELATED...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TERRORISM -RELATED LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP — A POLICY REVIEW 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...terrorist organization, or engaging in or supporting terrorism . Although several of our allies, including the U.K., Australia, and France, have

  18. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  19. 75 FR 1552 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 27 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Department... related to certain regulatory provisions in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) that... Used in This Document ASP--Alternative Security Program CFATS--Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism...

  20. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  1. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  2. Jordan Stands at the Front Line of Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    financial and material gain.  Psychic – This means magical beliefs, myths and superstitions induced by fanatical religious beliefs.  War – Terrorism is... Disorders and Terrorism (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), 3. Cited from James. M. Poland, Understanding Terrorism (New Jersey

  3. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  4. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  5. Xenolog classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Charlotte A; Stolzer, Maureen; Ropp, Patrick J; Barker, Daniel; Durand, Dannie

    2017-03-01

    Orthology analysis is a fundamental tool in comparative genomics. Sophisticated methods have been developed to distinguish between orthologs and paralogs and to classify paralogs into subtypes depending on the duplication mechanism and timing, relative to speciation. However, no comparable framework exists for xenologs: gene pairs whose history, since their divergence, includes a horizontal transfer. Further, the diversity of gene pairs that meet this broad definition calls for classification of xenologs with similar properties into subtypes. We present a xenolog classification that uses phylogenetic reconciliation to assign each pair of genes to a class based on the event responsible for their divergence and the historical association between genes and species. Our classes distinguish between genes related through transfer alone and genes related through duplication and transfer. Further, they separate closely-related genes in distantly-related species from distantly-related genes in closely-related species. We present formal rules that assign gene pairs to specific xenolog classes, given a reconciled gene tree with an arbitrary number of duplications and transfers. These xenology classification rules have been implemented in software and tested on a collection of ∼13 000 prokaryotic gene families. In addition, we present a case study demonstrating the connection between xenolog classification and gene function prediction. The xenolog classification rules have been implemented in N otung 2.9, a freely available phylogenetic reconciliation software package. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~durand/Notung . Gene trees are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1503 . durand@cmu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  7. Gas: the greatest terror of the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padley, A P

    2016-07-01

    The Great War began just over a century ago and this monumental event changed the world forever. 1915 saw the emergence of gas warfare-the first weapon of mass terror. It is relevant to anaesthetists to reflect on these gases for a number of reasons. Firstly and most importantly we should acknowledge and be aware of the suffering and sacrifice of those soldiers who were injured or killed so that we could enjoy the freedoms we have today. Secondly, it is interesting to consider the overlap between poison gases and anaesthetic gases and vapors, for example that phosgene can be formed by the interaction of chloroform and sunlight. Thirdly the shadow of gas warfare is very long and covers us still. The very agents used in the Great War are still causing death and injury through deployment in conflict areas such as Iraq and Syria. Industrial accidents, train derailments and dumped or buried gas shells are other sources of poison gas hazards. In this age of terrorism, anaesthetists, as front-line resuscitation specialists, may be directly involved in the management of gas casualties or become victims ourselves.

  8. Terrorism and Other Threats to Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-07-01

    In the Seminars on Planetary Emergencies, we have for more than a decade had a strong focus on terrorism, and, indeed, on megaterrorism. We realized early that there was much that could be achieved to mitigate the consequences of terrorists' acts, and so our original PMP, ably chaired by Kamal, was split into PMP-MTA (Mitigation of Terrorists Acts) and PMP-Motivation of Terrorism. Clearly, terrorism doesn't just happen, but is performed by people, either relatively spontaneously or in an organized fashion. I will not presume to report on the considerations and accomplishments of our colleagues, chaired by John Alderdice, who have studied terrorist motivations and worked hard to eliminate such motivations...

  9. TOURISM AND TERRORISM: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  10. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  11. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war.

  12. Oil terrorism-militancy link: Mediating role of moral disengagement in emergency and crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafimisebi, Oluwasoye Patrick; Thorne, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The controversial issues of terrorism and militancy have generated contemporary interests and different interpretations have emerged on how to combat and manage these dangerous events. This study widens understanding of moral disengagement mechanism application in the perpetuation of inhumanities within the context of oil terrorist and militant behaviors. The research findings and model are explicit on how people form moral evaluations of agents who are forced to make morally relevant decisions over times in context of crisis situations. Quite crucially, understanding the context of terrorism and militancy provides policymakers, emergency and crisis managers better analysis and response to such events. The research fundamental purpose was to investigate the mediating role of moral disengagement on delinquency of oil terrorism and militancy; and considered implications for emergency and crisis management practices. The study found that situational-induced crises such as oil terrorism and militancy were sufficient to account for an individual's misdeeds and unethical or inhumane decisions made under frustration and agitation may be perceived as less indicative of one's fundamental character. Findings suggest that more repugnant delinquencies could have been committed in the name of justice than in the name of injustice, avenues for future research. In context, the result of the moral disengagement scale shows that morality of delinquency (oil terrorism and militancy) is accomplished by cognitively redefining the morality of such acts. The main finding is that people in resistance movements are rational actors making rational choices. The authors argue that theorists, policymakers, and practitioners must give meaningful attention to understanding the multidimensional nature of emergency, crisis and disaster management for better strength of synthesis between theory and practice. The research is concluded by thorough examination of the implication and limitations for

  13. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  15. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    their focus and interventions to the Muslim community and their investment in security into counter terrorism.87 As the de facto body for public...conations, the ETF is nothing more than an advisory body . Furthermore, Prevent needs to completely disengage itself from any efforts to tackle extremism...ref:E54732C1AD61A8#.VIjxeMstDIU. 113 BBC, “Mother betrayed by her son’s terror sentence,” last modified, December 7, 2014, accessed December 10, 2014, http

  16. [Preparedness response to hazard and toxic incidents and food terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-06-01

    The nerve gas sarin has been responsible for tragic disasters in Matsumoto city, Nagano in 1994 and in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, which was a terrorist attack against non-military citizens. These chemical weapons exposures shocked the world, and have become sources of social concern. Thereafter there were several toxic substance-evoked incidents in Japan, specifically a poisoning due to curry containing arsenite at Wakayama city and foods and drinks containing other toxic chemicals. Following these tragic events, the Japanese government started to prepare a risk and medical management system for countering chemical and biological terrorism by developing a network of nationwide highly-sophisticated analytical instruments in police research institutes and emergency hospitals. Various ministries and National Research Institutes also provide information, guidelines and treatments for chemical and biological agents. In the event of an emergency such as a mass chemical exposure or mass food poisoning, information on "when, where, who, whom, what, how" should be reported rapidly and accurately to the first responding national organizations, such as police and fire departments, health care centers, and hospitals. Pharmaceutical scientists and pharmacists have been educated and trained on the handling of toxic chemical substances as well as drugs, and thus in the case of an event, they can become advisers for risk assessment and the analysis of drugs and chemicals. Japan has experienced food- and drink-poisonings as terrorism-like attacks. Poisonings caused by the herbicide paraquat and other pesticides including organophosphate insecticides, potassium cyanate and the above-mentioned arsenite-poisoned curry food have occurred. Because of easy access to internet-aided purchases of toxic substances and the import and export of foods, we must pay attention to possible massive exposures through foods and develop emergency management measures to counter them.

  17. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    96 See discussion of Daliberti v. Republic of Iraq in: Keith Sealing , "’State Sponsors of Terrorism’ Is a Question, Not an Answer: The Terrorism...34Foreign Terrorist Organizations." 101 See discussion of Flatow, Cicippio, and Anderson in: Sealing , ""State Sponsors of Terrorism" Is a Question, Not...Philip Roessler, "Can a Leopard Change Its Spots? Sudan’s Evolving Relationship with Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Horn of Africa (Washington D.C

  18. Terrorism in Brazil: critical analysis of the legal and institutional framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Faria Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a delict that requires multilateral cooperation, moreover because of its transnational dimension. Nevertheless, there is no universal legal definition for terrorism. Hence, states discuss the necessity of prevent and punish an undefined delict. This article analyses the legal and institutional Brazilian framework concerning terrorism. Brazil ratified the main global and regional acts about this subject and, recently, has passed laws in an attempt to curb the financing and reach a legal definition. This is the consequence of the pressure for the implementation of the UNSC resolutions and FATF recommendations and the promotion of international events such as the Olympic Games (2016. The adequacy of the legal framework to the international guidelines concerning the financing of the terrorism was a good decision but the definition adopted by the antiterrorism law (n. 13.260/2016 is flawed and reveals the Brazilian purpose of harmonizing the aspiration to assert itself as a global player and the traditional policy of neutrality and preference for the soft power.

  19. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income–terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators’ nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators’ nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls. PMID:28579636

  20. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A; Sandler, Todd

    2016-03-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income-terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators' nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators' nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls.

  1. 9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…

  2. Prevalence and Course of Symptom-Defined PTSD in Individuals Directly or Indirectly Exposed to Terror: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marianne Bang; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nissen, Alexander; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that direct exposure to terrorism can result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may also develop symptoms of PTSD. This study examined the prevalence and course of symptom-defined PTSD in employees who were present and not present at the site of a workplace terror attack. Survey data from ministerial employees were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the 2011 bombing in the government district of Oslo. A total of 3,520 employees were initially invited to the study. Response rates of eligible participants were 56% (N = 1,974) at T1, 55% (N = 1,780) at T2, and 54% (N = 1,578) at T3. PTSD was measured using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific (PCL-S). Symptom-defined PTSD was specified as meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), B, C, and D criteria. Our findings showed a low and declining prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD in employees indirectly exposed to a workplace terror attack (4%, 3%, and 2% at the three respective times). In employees present at the site of the explosion, PTSD was six- to eightfold more prevalent (24%, 17%, and 17%). Individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may develop long-lasting posttraumatic stress reactions fulfilling PTSD symptom criteria. Due to the large number of individuals that may be indirectly exposed to terrorism, even a low risk of PTSD may result in high numbers of individuals with substantial posttraumatic stress. Our findings have implications for the planning and implementation of health care services beyond those directly exposed after large-scale terror events.

  3. An overview of terrorism and its impact on biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John M

    2003-11-01

    Since the '9/11' and anthrax-contaminated-letter events of 2001, American society has given the term "bioterrorism" much attention. The author clarifies the definitions associated with bioterrorism and terrorism, provides an historical perspective regarding bioweapons, defines and characterizes the types of agents used as bioweapons, reviews pertinent bioterrorism legislation, and concludes by assessing the impact of these elements on biomedical research facilities.

  4. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera S. Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The psychological di...

  5. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS: THE KEY TO A MORE AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    second opportunity to stop the terror narrative occurs during the event itself (i.e., kidnapping , the taking of hostages, the placement of an...explosive device, or a hijacking). A prime example of this is the 2014 kidnapping of American photojournalist Luke Somers. Somers was taken hostage while... kidnapping of non-combatant foreigners such as journalists and members of non-governmental organizations providing aid. The Islamic State has perfected the

  6. Nuclear terrorism: triage and medical management of radiation and combined-injury casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Daniel F; Goans, Ronald E

    2006-06-01

    This article addresses the medical effects of nuclear explosions and other forms of radiation exposure, assessment of radiation dose, triage of victims, definitive treatment of radiation and combined-injury casualties, and planning for emergency services after a terrorist attack involving a nuclear device. It reviews historical events of mass radiation-induced casualties and fatalities at Hiroshima, Chernobyl, and Goiania, and discusses various scenarios for nuclear terrorism.

  7. Japan’s security policy and the war on terror : steady incrementalism or radical leap?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2002-01-01

    The study of globalisation carries important conceptual insights into the contemporary security agenda following the events of 9/11. This working paper argues that globalisation can be defined in a variety of ways, ranging from liberalisation to Westernisation, and can also be extended into concepts of supra-territorialisation. In combination, these definitions help to explain the generation of 9/11 style-conflict by providing the political-economic motivation for hyper-terrorism, by facilita...

  8. The Effect of Economic and Cultural Globalization on Anti-U.S. Transnational Terrorism 19712000*

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Lizardo

    2015-01-01

    The events of 9/11 have rekindled interest in the social sciences concerning the global factors responsible for transnational terrorism. Two opposing frameworks currently dominate the scene: proponents of a destructive globalization approach argue that processes related to the transnationalization of capital produce native resistance in the more economically disadvantaged areas of the globe that is manifested as transnational terrorist attacks, especially against the U.S., civilizing globaliz...

  9. Concern and death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave: The moderating role of direct vs. indirect exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Shani; Zaken, Adi; David, Udi Y; Bergman, Yoav S

    2017-05-25

    The current study examined whether emotional concern over one's security situation is connected with death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave, and whether type of exposure (media exposure vs. contact with witnesses) moderates this connection. A total of 345 individuals, aged 18-70, were sampled during an ongoing wave of terror in Israel and filled out scales measuring death anxiety, concern over security situation, and type of exposure. Results indicated that increased concern was connected with enhanced death anxiety. Moreover, this connection was more pronounced among individuals exposed to the events through the media, in comparison with individuals who had first-hand contact with witnesses.

  10. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  11. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  12. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  13. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okolie-Osemene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  14. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  15. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...

  16. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  17. Psychiatric and Societal Impacts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieger, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    ... is one consequence of terrorism. Even emotional and behavioral changes that do not reach the level of a diagnosable disorder may contribute significantly to the overall health burden resulting from terrorist attacks. Psychiatric disorders will occur in a relatively small percentage of the exposed population. The course of illness for those in whom suc...

  18. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  19. A Geographic Approach for Teaching about Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Geography is in a unique position to address the topic of terrorism both inside and outside the classroom and has much to offer in terms of crafting effective measures to counter some of the most pressing threats to international security. As little consideration has been given to teaching about this important subject matter at the university…

  20. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  1. Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775

  2. The sleepwalking/night terrors syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are inconvenienced or threatened. The constitutional basis of the disorder is beyond doubt, although the actual expression may be related to stressful life-events resulting from an individual's personality, relationships and circumstances. Treatment may include the provision of a secure environment, counselling, and the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. PMID:8977941

  3. Children's response to terrorism: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Gurwitch, Robin H; Nagumalli, Sridevi; Brandt, Edward N; Robertson, Madeline J; Aceska, Alexandra; Saste, Vishal S

    2003-06-01

    The advent of major terrorist assaults has ushered in a sense of insecurity and vulnerability heretofore unknown in the US. There is information about the impact of disasters and trauma on children, but relatively little data on the effects of terrorism. The events of September 11, 2001 have underscored the need to examine this issue. This report summarizes recent studies that address the impact of terrorist incidents on children, and examines issues related to mental health services for children in the post-attack environment. Work related to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the 1998 bombing of the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, and the September 11 attacks are reviewed. This article indicates significant challenges in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of children potentially in need of attention.

  4. Visualizing uncertainty for geographical information in the global terrorism database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Josh; Chang, Remco; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty. Traditional uncertainty visualization techniques, such as those that change primitive attributes or employ animation, can create large amounts of clutter or actively distract when visualizing geospatially uncertain events within large datasets. To effectively identify geo-spatial trends within the Global Terrorism Database of the START Center, we have developed a novel usage of squarified treemaps that maintains the strengths of traditional map-viewing but incorporates some measure of data verity.

  5. Using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling for regulatory benefit-cost analysis: application to the Western hemisphere travel initiative in the land environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; LaTourrette, Tom

    2008-04-01

    distribution of risks it is intended to manage. But, continued research to develop additional tools and data is necessary to support application of these approaches. These include refinement of models and simulations, engagement of subject matter experts, implementation of program evaluation, and estimating the costs of casualties from terrorism events.

  6. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Palombini, Luciana; Pelayo, Rafael; Chervin, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders. Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that

  7. Automated Classification of Power Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    the classification code of the n th event. Boolean EVC [n] The ‘Event file created?’ Boolean is set to 1 if the event has had an event file created...indicate the type of event. int EVC [MAX_EVENTS]; // Boolean to indicate whether an event has had an .evt file created int local_det=0...i; // CLEAN THE EVENT TEXT DATA. for (i=0;i<MAX_EVENTS;i++) { Class[i]="Empty." Class_ID[i]=0; EVC [i]=FALSE; event_class_status[i

  8. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  9. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Freedman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews. Then there are virtual networks, such as the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI, that try to create synergies between a wide array of researchers and topics.

  10. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  11. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Erik H.

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists...

  12. Terrorism and Stock Market Linkages: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Imtiaz; Suleman, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the impact of prolonged terrorist activities on stock prices of different sectors listed in Karachi Stock Exchange by using newly developed terrorism impact factor index with lingering effect (TIFL) and monthly time series data from 2002(Jan) to 2011(Dec). Johansen and Jeuselius cointegration revealed long run relationship between terrorism and stock price. Normalized cointegration vectors are used to test the effect of terrorism on stock price. Results demonstrated si...

  13. Symbolic Violence as Subtle Virulence: The Philosophy of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Beever, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard’s semiotic analysis of violence leads us to understand the form of violence as three-fold: aggressive, historical, and semiotically virulent. Violence of the third form is the violence endemic to terrorism. If violence has been typically understood as of the first two types, terrorism should be understood as the virulence of simulacra. The conflation of these types of violence explains the failure of militaristic responses to terrorism. This paper will explore Baudrillard’s ...

  14. Switzerland and efforts to combat the financing of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    de Watteville, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Combating international terrorism has long been one of Switzerland's main concerns. Furthermore Switzerland has worked closely with other nations in combating terrorism and will continue to do so in future, both in the context of international treaties and on the basis of the law on mutual assistance in criminal matters. International co-operation to combat the financing of terrorism is taking place at several levels. The instruments for combating money laundering are also important for comba...

  15. Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection 5a...meet high standards for re- search quality and objectivity. Terrorism Risk Modeling for Intelligence Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Henry H...across differ- ent urban areas, to assess terrorism risks within a metropolitan area, and to target intelligence analysis and collection efforts. The

  16. Deconstruction of Jihad Radicalism in Islamic Law: A Conceptual Proposal to Combat Isis Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkum Sumitro, SH, MH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic State of Iran and Syria (ISIS has become a global movement that penetrates into Indonesia. This movement leads back to the trauma of Indonesian nation to a series of destructive events of terrorism in the country. The meaning of jihad in Islam is hijacked by ISIS activists into violence and war against western infidels in their perspective. They do not care if their target is civilian or military. Meanwhile, the actual concept of jihad in Islam is essential jihad, namely jihad by striving earnestly to improve the quality of individual and community. A wrong interpretation of jihad can not only be solved by force because enforcement effort through violence leaves an endless conflict between terrorists and law enforcer. One conceptual proposal in combating terrorism in Indonesia is by deconstructing the perspective of the physical jihad into essential jihad.

  17. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R; Hobfoll, S E

    2007-03-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors' current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust.

  18. Investigating the Aftermath of Terror: Fundamental Outcomes, Methodological Choices, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2016-06-01

    Acts of terrorism are becoming increasingly common throughout the world. These events represent a significant public health concern given the associated health consequences. Although it is clear that terrorist attacks have mental and physical health sequelae, the exact nature and prevalence of these consequences are unclear. Epidemiological research can play an important role in better understanding the mental and physical impact of terrorist attacks. In this editorial, we highlight recent epidemiological research on these terrorism-related health outcomes. We also provide suggestions for how future studies can build on the existing literature and describe ways in which epidemiological methods can be harnessed to extend the current literature. Lastly, we offer recommendations on how to best prepare communities for the aftermath of terrorist attacks, highlighting secondary intervention and prevention strategies. Overall, multilevel strategies are needed to adequately cope with the growing rise of terrorist acts, and these strategies will have to be reassessed as the nature of terrorist attacks changes.

  19. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  20. Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Giuseppe; Solini, Anna; Bonora, Enzo; Orsi, Emanuela; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Fondelli, Cecilia; Gruden, Gabriella; Cavalot, Franco; Lamacchia, Olga; Trevisan, Roberto; Vedovato, Monica; Penno, Giuseppe

    2014-03-13

    The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF's KDOQI) staging system for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is based primarily on estimated GFR (eGFR). This study aimed at assessing whether reclassification of subjects with type 2 diabetes using two recent classifications based on both eGFR and albuminuria, the Alberta Kidney Disease Network (AKDN) and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), provides a better definition of burden from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) than the NKF's KDOQI classification. This is a cross-sectional analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 15,773) from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Italian Multicenter Study, consecutively visiting 19 Diabetes Clinics throughout Italy in years 2007-2008. Exclusion criteria were dialysis or renal transplantation. CKD was defined based on eGFR, as calculated from serum creatinine by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Though prevalence of complications increased with increasing CKD severity with all three classifications, it differed significantly between NKF's KDOQI stages and AKDN or KDIGO risk categories. The AKDN and KDIGO systems resulted in appropriate reclassification of uncomplicated patients in the lowest risk categories and a more graded independent association with CVD and DR than the NKF's KDOQI classification. However, CVD, but not DR prevalence was higher in the lowest risk categories of the new classifications than in the lowest stages of the NKF's KDOQI, due to the inclusion of subjects with reduced eGFR without albuminuria. CVD prevalence differed also among eGFR and albuminuria categories grouped into AKDN and KDIGO

  1. Pathways to sympathies for violent protest and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Topciu, Raluca A; Jones, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Radicalisation is proposed to explain why some individuals begin to support and take part in violent extremism. However, there is little empirical population research to inform prevention, and insufficient attention to the role of psychiatric vulnerabilities. To test the impact of depressive symptoms, adverse life events and political engagement on sympathies for violent protest and terrorism (SVPT). A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women from two English cities. Weighted, multivariable, logistic regression yielded population estimates of association (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals) against a binary outcome of SVPT derived from a three-group solution following cluster analysis. Depressive symptoms were associated with a higher risk of SVPT (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.59-4.23, P<0.001), but mediated little of the overall effects of life events and political engagement, which were associated with a lower risk of SVPT (death of a close friend: OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.74; donating money to a charity: OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Independent of SVPT associations with depressive symptoms, some expressions of social connectedness (measured as life events and political engagement) are associated with a lower risk of SVPT. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  3. MONEY LAUNDERING AS ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan economic dimensionof terrorism through analysis of terrorist organizations needs for funding, modules of financing terrorism and links to money laundering. Financial resourcesare one of the most important conditions for maintaining infrastructure of terrorist organizations and carrying out terrorist activities. Assets acquired through legal and illegal channels members of the terrorist organization carry out through financial system by using techniques ofmoney laundering in order to conceal the trace of money needed for organizing terrorist attacks. Due to the global nature of the problem of money laundering and terrorist financing, preventive mechanisms include cooperation of financial intelligence agencies and international organizations as well as strengthening of national institutions that are dealing with this problem. Numerous recently adopted guidelines, conventions and recommendations (within the EU, OUN, FATF draw attention for detection terrorist activities in the preparatory phase, such as travel of terrorists, financing logistical support for their activities and weapons (explosives supply required for carrying out terrorist attacks.

  4. Has successful terror gone to ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Arnold

    2015-04-01

    This article considers all 87 attacks worldwide against air and rail transport systems that killed at least two passengers over the 30-year period of 1982-2011. The data offer strong and statistically significant evidence that successful acts of terror have "gone to ground" in recent years: attacks against aviation were concentrated early in the three decades studied whereas those against rail were concentrated later. Recent data are used to make estimates of absolute and comparative risk for frequent flyers and subway/rail commuters. Point estimates in the "status quo" case imply that mortality risk from successful acts of terror was very low on both modes of transportation and that, whereas risk per trip is higher for air travelers than subway/rail commuters, the rail commuters experience greater risk per year than the frequent flyers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department of...

  6. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2017-10-26

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  7. The Impacts of Terrorism and Capitalist Incorporation on Indigenous Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asafa Jalata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the connections between terrorism, colonial state formation, and the development of the capitalist world system, or globalization, exploring the consequences of colonial terrorism on indigenous American peoples. First, the piece introduces the central argument and conceptualizes and theorizes terrorism. Second, it examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to specific colonial policies and practices. Third, it explains the ideological justifications that Euro-American colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity and dispossessing the homelands of indigenous Americans, as well as in amassing wealth/capital by ignoring moral, ethical, and philosophical issues and human rights.

  8. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide....... Digging just a little deeper, the divergence, which is best explained using the language of criminology, stems from the political nature of the war on terror. Terrorism is a policy offence utilised by states in pursuit of broader governance objectives....

  9. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  10. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  11. Terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiets metoder er ikke nok. Pædagogikken må i brug. Hvilken pædagogik? Diskontinuitetens pædagogik! Det er navnet på den type af pædagogik, der kan skabe modstandskraft mod radikalisering. Men har vi...

  12. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Galito, Maria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  13. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  14. Countering Small Boat Terrorism in Territorial Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Tyre , up to the Litani River. However, despite the superiority of the IDF and the high casualties on both sides, the operation did not destroy the...Figure 11. RADAR HORIZON RANGE 59 Alan Bole, Bill Dineley and Alan Wall, Radar and ARPA, Burlington...Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2009. Bole, Alan , Dineley, Bill

  15. A Network Design Approach to Countering Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    newspaper Charlie Hebdo on January 7, 2015. Two days later, an ISIS follower attacked a market in Porte de Vincennes, France. On January 15, 2015, Belgian...Parliament, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the stock market , and a military base, to avenge Muslims killed abroad and end Canada’s...Three cups of tea : One man’s mission to fight terrorism and build nations—one school at a time. New York, NY: Viking. Oliver, K. (2014, June 25

  16. Body and Terror: Women’s Bodies as Victims and Perpetrators of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sultana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bodies are vulnerable because they are intrinsically linked to death. Bodies are social and they are embedded with meaning. They cannot be extracted from their specific contexts. The nation is also often equated with body politic. As a result individual bodies become the site of security/ insecurity depending on the social location of bodies. Within this discourse, this article tries to locate the bodies of women. It will look at the bodies of women as victims of terror as well as perpetrators of terror. It will try to understand if in these differentiated roles, women are able to break away from stereotypes or are still caught in heteronormative narratives. Keywords: Body, Suicide Bombers, Victims, Ethnic Conflict, Terrorism.

  17. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  18. Om medier og terror i 'Mad City'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    Populærkulturens spillefilm er meget mere end blot underholdning. I denne bog demonstrerer 10 yngre forskere, hvordan en række udvalgte spillefilm kan tjene som ramme om en analyse og diskussion af væsentlige spørgsmål relateret til terror og terrorbekæmpelse: Hvad er præventiv krig, og hvilke...... medierne og terroristerne - se Mad City! Filmmediet fungerer som en form for eksperimentarium i forhold til komplicerede moralske og politiske spørgsmål. Derfor kan film anvendes som en pædagogisk løftestang i forståelsen og diskussionen af mulige løsninger på udfordringerne for nutidens samfund. Terror og...... film åbner for en anderledes og sjovere måde at lære på - og dermed for en mere varieret og inspirerende undervisning i fx gymnasiet. Ved at tage udgangspunkt i, hvad vi allerede ved fra timerne foran lærredet eller skærmen, men måske ikke har begreber for, letter bogen forståelsen af, hvad terror er...

  19. Addressing the Needs of Preschool Children in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism: Clinical Pictures and Moderating Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Daniel; Wolmer, Leo; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel

    2017-07-01

    This paper surveys the existent theoretical and research literature regarding the needs of preschool children in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding (a) the consequences of such events for young children and (b) the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association to learn how to enhance their resilience. Consequences include a variety of emotional, behavioral, and biological outcomes. Implications for refugee children are discussed. Main moderating variables were mother's sensitivity and mother's PTSD symptoms. Exposure to disasters and terrorism may have severe effects on the mental health and development among preschool children. Future research should explore the implications of different levels of exposure and the effects of moderating psychosocial and biological variables, including the parent-child triad, on the event-consequence relationship.

  20. "Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror", de Lee Jarvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo de Toledo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available


    Resenha do livro "Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror", de Lee Jarvis

  1. Terror cognoscitivo y terror metafísico en la obra de Jorge Luis Borges

    OpenAIRE

    Castany Prado, Bernat

    2011-01-01

    Los cuentos de Jorge Luis Borges pertenecen, de algún modo, al género de la literatura de terror. No en un sentido estricto, claro está, pero tampoco en un sentido meramente metafórico. Ciertamente, los cuentos que integran Ficciones o El Aleph aterrorizan a todo el mundo, pues muchos no los leen por miedo de no entenderlos y el resto, al leerlos, se ven embargados por ese terror metafísico que provoca la violentación de nuestros modos de entender la realidad. Borges es, pues, un terrorista, ...

  2. Inter-observer agreement of canine and feline paroxysmal event semiology and classification by veterinary neurology specialists and non-specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Packer, Rowena Ma; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie; Charalambous, Marios; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; De Risio, Luisa; Farquhar, Robyn; Hampel, Rachel; Hill, Myfanwy; Mandigers, Paul Jj; Pakozdy, Akos; Preston, Stephanie M; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Taylor-Brown, Fran; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in mobile technology mean vets are now commonly presented with videos of paroxysmal events by clients, but the consistency of the interpretation of these videos has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between vets (both

  3. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a

  4. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Yuval

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002, however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate. In total, 501 people (60.5% agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS, percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, traumatic stress (TS resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2% were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2% had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9% met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4% were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5% who felt depressed, 50 (10.4% felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47% felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7% felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity

  5. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Avi; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Solomon, Zahava

    2006-08-27

    Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002), however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate). In total, 501 people (60.5%) agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS), percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic stress (TS) resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. In total, 56 participants (11.2%) were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2%) had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean +/- SD of 5.0 +/- 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9%) met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4%) were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5%) who felt depressed, 50 (10.4%) felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47%) felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7%) felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity. This study revealed less depression

  6. Nigeria and the threats of terrorism: myth or reality | Ogundiya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-09-11

    Terrorism is a socio-political disorder that has grown to the detriment of the international security system and global economy. Acts of Terrorism have increased over the years since September 11, 2001 terrorist attack directed at the United States of America. Since then, some nations including Nigeria have been suspected ...

  7. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  8. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Cyber-terrorism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism has entered a new wave in that the latest battleground to emerge is cyberspace. Cyber-terrorism reflects a current concern in the way terrorists will seek to strike the innocent and wreak havoc. Since explosives are no longer the only...

  9. The Role Of Education In Combating Terrorism | Oni | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-07

    The world is witnessing series of repeated political, religious conflict and terrorism, particularly worrisome is the acts of terrorism, which is now prevalent across the world. The phenomenon of 9/11/2001 on U.S and the recent attack on June 7, 2005 in London and some other parts of the world revealed the devastation, pains ...

  10. Researching terrorism in South Africa: More questions than answers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa confronts a tangible terror threat in the form of some terrorists targeting the country itself, whilst others find it useful as an operational base to strike at targets elsewhere. Far from attempting to provide a comprehensive study of this phenomenon, this article aims to point out the pitfalls of researching terrorism in ...

  11. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  12. Pirates of Africa's Somali coast: On terrorism's brink? | Swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will examine and evaluate the potential threat of maritime terrorism in Africa, in particular the threat posed at present off the Somali coast. Africa's porous borders have provided an ideal conduit for the export of terrorism on land, and now its unguarded coastlines are a potential new thoroughfare for maritime ...

  13. State culture and terrorism in Nigeria: an alternative approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since September 11th, 2001 world attention has again been riveted on terrorism as a sudden menace. The memory of the 1998 horrific bombings in Kenya lasted as long as the public outrage followed by the March 11th, 2004 attacks in Madrid. Terrorism is not confined to any specific geopolitical space, and cannot always ...

  14. The Politics of International Terrorism in the Security Complexes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-13

    Jun 13, 2006 ... The article attempts to analyse the phenomenon of international terrorism in the. Greater Horn Security Complexes, with the emphasis on the role of Uganda's. Movementocratic government. The article is premised on the thesis that 'Interna- tional Terrorism', apart from its local, national, regional and global ...

  15. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  16. El cine de terror español

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Llorente, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    La autora comienza haciendo un estudio del cine de terror desde sus inicios, sus subgéneros, mecanimos utilizados para provocar el miedo en el espectador para finalmente centrarse en el cine de terror español a través de cinco películas representativas del género.

  17. Threat Perceptions in Europe: Domestic Terrorism and International Crime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This paper focuses on two areas of security concern for the European Union: terrorism and international crime. I present a model of game-theoretic interaction between a European state and a domestic dissident group, who, on occasion, may resort to acts of terrorism. Here,

  18. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  19. Nightmares and sleep terrors | Scribante | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleep terrors may be provoked by a number of factors, such as: fever, sleep deprivation, urinary bladder distension, a noisy environment and central nervous system depressants. This article discusses the differences between nightmares and sleep terrors and provides a management approach for the family practitioner.

  20. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    No 20843 vol. 30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and...30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and Political

  1. The Impact of Terrorism on School Safety Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses why history and "thinking outside of the box" should encourage schools to acknowledge that they are potentially vulnerable targets of terrorism. Presents new safety and security issues raised by the threat of terrorism, including anthrax scares, cell phone use, and field trips. Describes "heightened security"…

  2. [Psychological impacts of terrorism on victims and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Dominique; Ferreri, Maurice

    2007-06-01

    Terrorism is a major public health concern. The impact of violence against the civilian population is reinforced by the media reporting. Thus, terrorism has a psychological impact not only on its direct victims but also on the population as a whole. More research is needed on how to manage these consequences.

  3. 239 Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    according to International Terrorism and Security Research (ITRS 2010). The first perspective is that of the ... binding, criminal law definition currently exists, terrorism can therefore be defined as those violent acts which .... should be organized into a single directorate headed by a director- general who will be responsible ...

  4. Religion: A Precursor of Terrorism in the Nigerian State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrorism is a serious problem that has threatened the security of various countries the world over for a long time, more especially the nations of the West. It should however be noted that the tentacles of terrorism has recently spread to Africa in general, in the past three decades and Nigeria in particular, in the past decade.

  5. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  6. Diplomatic assurances - a permissible tool in the struggle against terrorism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2011-01-01

    With the noble intentions of combating terrorism, numerous initiatives in the form of counter-terrorism measures have appeared on the global scene. States wanting to expel persons considered to be a threat to national security have aimed to establish so-called diplomatic assurances as a guarantee...

  7. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficient biological weapon. There is a need for proper differentiation between natural and intentional events although in the first stages the medical response should be similar; however, the course of incident management would take different paths later on. Biological agents’ investigation of dangerous pathogens, from natural unusual outbreaks or bioterrorist attacks/other intentional use, imply the collaboration of different institutions with responsibilities in public health but also in national security and defense. The National Security and the Defense System institutions think mainly in security terms while national health care system institutions think principally` in medical care/prevention terms. These two ways of acting have to be combined in order to deal properly with hazardous biological agents.

  8. Correlation of Concepts "Extremism" and "Terrorism" in Countering the Financing of Terrorism and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisagatova, Diana B.; Kemelbekov, Saken T.; Smagulova, Diana A.; Kozhamberdiyeva, Aigul S.

    2016-01-01

    The main threats to world order are terrorist and extremist activities. On the world stage, countries unite into a coalition with the aim to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism. At the local level, the terrorist threat is fought by the security services. In order to prevent global human victims, which may arise as a result of…

  9. Literature Review on Anti-Terrorism and Selected Bibliography on Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    34The Dowger and the Hitman," Police Magazine, November 1978. Blakely , S. "Capitol Security Strengthened After Terrorist Bomb Explodes," Congressional...Greensberg, M & Norton, A. ( Eds.) Studies in Nuclear Terrorism. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1979. Gross, F. Violence in Politics. The Hague: Mouton , 1972. Guirard, J

  10. On Terrorism: An Analysis of Terrorism as a Form of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Robespierre to Arafat. (New York: Vanguard Press, Inc., 1976) p. 33. 298Ibid. Manson and his group sought to cause a race war by killing whites and...Strategy, p. 68. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984. Parry, Albert. Terrorism: From Robespierre to Arafat. New York: Vanguard Press, Inc., 1976. Paskins

  11. Rachid Boudjedra's Representations of Terrorism: Le vainqueur de coupe and La Vie à l'endroit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne D. Rogers

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary fiction either idealizes or demonizes the terrorist as a cultural figure of collective values. In his two contemporary novels, Le vainqueur de coupe and La vie à l'endroit , Rachid Boudjedra, an Algerian novelist, renders two very distinct narratives although both center around terrorist activity and a major sporting event. The first novel is a sympathetic portrait of a young Algerian who gives up his studies to become part of L'Organization. Sentenced to life imprisonment, the young man becomes an international hero. Le vainqueur de coupe offers an explanation for understanding terrorism. In the second novel, La Vie à I'endroit , written sixteen years later, Boudjedra describes the horrors of living under a reign of terrorism for a man similar to himself and his lover, an European doctor. The striking discrepancy in the posture taken towards terrorism in the two novels reveals the need for a closer look at the social complexities and human ethics involved in today's violence and the romanticization of the terrorist as a literary hero. While the first novel makes a compassionate plea for humanizing the terrorist, the second novel witnesses the deadly aftermath of political self-righteousness rooted in past victimization.

  12. Revisiting Downs' Issue-Attention Cycle: International Terrorism and U.S. Public Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Karen K. Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamenting the lack of public awareness of international events and U.S. foreign policy is not a particularly novel exercise; yet, explaining the process by which issues enter and exit the public realm remains a challenging endeavor. Despite contributions from researchers working in international relations and mass communication, explaining public inattentiveness continues to vex scholars. However, in his article, "Up and Down with Ecology: The 'Issue-Attention Cycle,'" Anthony Downs provides a parsimonious and tractable model of public opinion that can be applied to foreign policy issues.1 While Downs concerns himself exclusively with domestic issues, particularly environmental issues, his model has thepotential to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the public and policymakers over critical issues such as international terrorism. With minor modifications, the model has the potential to explain public support for failed foreign policies as well. Downs' model, when applied to international terrorism, explains why policymakers seek simple solutions, why the public supports such solutions, and why the media fail to provide meaningful coverage of intractable issues such as international terrorism. Before discussing Downs' model, the basic tenets and shortcomings of some of the more prevalent theories of the relationship between public opinion and foreign policy are discussed below.

  13. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  14. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  15. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  16. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  17. 75 FR 20893 - National Day of Service and Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There... Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, we pause to remember victims of terrorism at home and... terrorism and their families, though bound at first by anguish and loss, are united by extraordinary acts of...

  18. Journals Supporting Terrorism Research: Identification and Investigation into Their Impact on the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Daryl R.; Irving, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of two preeminent terrorism journals ("Terrorism and Political Violence" and "Studies in Conflict and Terrorism") was used to identify 37 additional social science journals of significant importance to terrorism research. Citation data extracted from the "Web of Science" database was used to…

  19. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified Anti-Terrorism...

  20. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on the...

  1. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. CINE DE TERROR Y BIOLOGÍA

    OpenAIRE

    John Richard Jiménez Peñuela

    2014-01-01

    En esta presentación, se abordan los resultados del “Proyecto Transversal Ciencia Gráfica”, relacionados con la proyección de cine de terror, a educandos de ciclo III. Además de las proyecciones, el proyecto desarrollo la habilidad gráfica de los estudiantes en relación con la biología y el arte, a partir de lecciones sobre dibujo biológico, y la fabricación de juguetes con motivos biológicos por parte de los estudiantes. De esta manera, se emprenden acciones conjuntas desde arte y biología p...

  3. Regarding Terror: On Art and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Nowak

    2008-01-01

    ‘Regarding Terror: The RAF Exhibition’, held in Berlin in 2005, presented art works and documents dealing with the Red Army Faction (or Baader-Meinhof Group), a left-wing terrorist association active in Germany from the late 1960s until well after the controversial deaths of key members of the group in 1977. For some, the initial plans for the exhibition threatened to turn the RAF into heroes at the expense of any acknowledgement of the RAF’s victims. As a result, the government withdrew its ...

  4. Media Discourse on Jihadist Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Reinke de Buitrago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the manner in which European print media discuss jihadist terrorism in Europe. It presents key results from a qualitative analysis of media discourse following three selected attacks in seven European countries in 2010: the attack on the cartoonist Westergaard, the Yemen cargo plane plot, and the Stockholm suicide attack. The article finds that attack type is a factor shaping media discourse across different media in Europe. Considering that terrorists also aim to impact discourse for their own agenda, the article presents implications for policy reactions on the basis of attack type, and not as desired by terrorists.''

  5. THE NARRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM DISCOURSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Rosdiawan

    2014-01-01

    While polemics is still shadowing the internationally accepted definition, the word “Terrorism” becomes more controversial when it is paralleled with “Islam”. The Islamic Terrorism discourse is more likely to be an elusive concept if not a Fata Morgana. Its very existence appears as a real entity but its form can hardly be described. It would be always be problematic to posterize such a terrible notion as “terrorism” and put it side by side with a noble concept as in “Islam”. The fact, howeve...

  6. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cind Du Bois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  7. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  8. Legal Challenges of Combating Terrorism: International Humanitarian Law Implications of ‘Signature Strikes’ by Drones.

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism has become the main international security challenge of the 21st century. From a historical perspective, terrorism has always been a serious concern for governments and nation states. The modern threat posed by terrorism has a much wider scope because of its international character. The much bigger threat posed by modern terrorism can also be explained by technological innovations and the reliance of terror networks on social networks both to propagate their message and as a recruit...

  9. New trends in terrorism : the use of social media, cyber-terrorism, the role of open-source intelligence and the cases of rightwing extremism and lone wolf terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Καραδήμα, Σοφία

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism has existed almost as long as humanity, and has appeared in various forms, creating new and evolving trends, making the definition of terrorism even more difficult to define. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the new trends in terrorism after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, as well as attempting to find the factors that facilitate the emergence and/or recurrence of trends in terrorism, by examining the related Literature, creating case studies and providing supp...

  10. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2013-06-01

    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  11. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade.

  12. Universal preventive interventions for children in the context of disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana

    2014-04-01

    This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S; Shannon, M

    2005-12-01

    In today's world the increased potential of terrorist attacks places unique burdens and consequences on health care workers. Hospitals and hospital personnel must now be prepared to react immediately to such events. They must also implement, in advance, policies to protect their own health care personnel while providing care to victims. In this review, we discuss the four major forms of mass casualty terrorism (biological, chemical, nuclear, and thermomechanical) including clinical signs and symptoms for each, the impact on health care personnel, and special considerations for children. We will then outline key principles of hospital preparation with regard to paediatrics in anticipation of such emergencies.

  14. Technical approaches to on-person bomb detection for counter-terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Steve

    2004-09-01

    Western democracies can reasonably expect an increase in homicide bombings as a major terrorist weapon of choice causing fear and economic damage far in excess of the actual loss of life and property caused by the explosives. The terrorists will strike at public venues (transportation, shopping, sporting events, schools, and governmental facilities) greatly multiplying the complexity and cost of effective defense. The author argues for accelerated research in multiple electromagnetic and passive technologies and fielding single and multi-sensor fixed, mobile and manportable systems to attempt to stay one step ahead of the growing reality of global terrorism.

  15. The Impact of Terrorism on Well-being: Evidence from the Boston Marathon Bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew E.; Doyle, Orla; Stancanelli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature concludes that terrorism impacts the economy, yet less is known about its impact on utility. This paper estimates the impact of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing on well-being, by exploiting representative U.S. daily data. Using both a regression discontinuity and an event study design, whereby the 2012 Boston marathon serves as a counterfactual, we find a sharp reduction in well-being, equivalent to a two percentage point rise in annual unemployment. The effect is stronge...

  16. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  17. Terror attacks increase the risk of vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N = 1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS ≥ 16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  18. 75 FR 43233 - Designation of ANWAR AL-AULAQI Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 and the Global Terrorism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR Part 594 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism,'' and the Global Terrorism Sanctions... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including the...

  19. A psychosocial risk assessment and management framework to enhance response to CBRN terrorism threats and attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Corneil, Wayne; Craig, Lorraine; Boutette, Paul; Tyshenko, Michael; Karyakina, Nataliya; Clarke, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Evidence in the disaster mental health literature indicates that psychosocial consequences of terrorism are a critical component of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) events, both at the clinical level and the normal behavioral and emotional levels. Planning for such psychosocial aspects should be an integral part of emergency preparedness. As Canada and other countries build the capacity to prevent, mitigate, and manage CBRN threats and events, it is important to recognize the range of social, psychological, emotional, spiritual, behavioral, and cognitive factors that may affect victims and their families, communities, children, the elderly, responders, decision makers, and others at all phases of terrorism, from threat to post-impact recovery. A structured process to assist CBRN emergency planners, decision makers, and responders in identifying psychosocial risks, vulnerable populations, resources, and interventions at various phases of a CBRN event to limit negative psychosocial impacts and promote resilience and adaptive responses is the essence of our psychosocial risk assessment and management (P-RAM) framework. This article presents the evidence base and conceptual underpinnings of the framework, the principles underlying its design, its key elements, and its use in the development of decision tools for responders, planners, decision makers, and the general public to better assess and manage psychosocial aspects of CBRN threats or attacks.

  20. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W

    2017-07-19

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  1. Sentidos y sensualidad pervertida... erotismo y terror en la Regenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz Canseco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Si hay una novela que corrobore el indisociable vínculo, para muchos, entre erotismo y terror, esta ha de ser La Regenta, de Leopoldo Alas, Clarín. Aquí, haremos el seguimien- to de algunos de los episodios eróticos, con sus respectivos terroríficos corolarios, que inundan la obra. Veremos, de este modo, a través de qué elementos y personajes se ma- nifiestan ambos elementos, erotismo y terror; las escenas más representativas, y los tipos de sexualidad que el autor ha querido retratar en la novela.

  2. Sentidos y sensualidad pervertida... erotismo y terror en la Regenta

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Ortiz Canseco

    2005-01-01

    Si hay una novela que corrobore el indisociable vínculo, para muchos, entre erotismo y terror, esta ha de ser La Regenta, de Leopoldo Alas, Clarín. Aquí, haremos el seguimien- to de algunos de los episodios eróticos, con sus respectivos terroríficos corolarios, que inundan la obra. Veremos, de este modo, a través de qué elementos y personajes se ma- nifiestan ambos elementos, erotismo y terror; las escenas más representativas, y los tipos de sexualidad que el autor ha querido retratar en la n...

  3. CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF TERRORISM IN RUSSIA: HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Зюфяр Шакирович Гатауллин

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the historical aspects of the prosecution of terrorism cases. An increasing number of terrorist acts committed resonance, their low level of detection. The excitation and subsequent investigation of the criminal case, and the maintenance of public prosecution in the court identified as the main form of prosecution of terrorism cases. Expressed concern about the procedural provisions of the prosecutor in the prosecution deprived of authority to initiate criminal proceedings. Made suggestions to improve the effectiveness of the criminal prosecution of terrorism cases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-70

  4. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hare, Marianne M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions. PMID:28753940

  5. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  7. Terrorism as war by other means: national security and state support for terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekmekci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach in the discipline of International Relations is to treat terrorist organizations as "non-state" actors of international relations. However, this approach is problematic due to the fact that most terrorist organizations are backed or exploited by some states. In this article, I take issue with the non-stateness of terrorist organizations and seek to answer the question of why so many states, at times, support terrorist organizations. I argue that in the face of rising threats to national security in an age of devastating wars, modern nation states tend to provide support to foreign terrorist organizations that work against their present and imminent enemies. I elaborate on my argument studying three cases of state support for terrorism: Iranian support for Hamas, Syrian support for the PKK, and American support for the MEK. The analyses suggest that, for many states, terror is nothing but war by other means.

  8. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Howie

    2014-01-01

    Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terr...

  9. The Economics of Terrorism: Economics Methods of Analysis in the Study of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    allocate capital and labour between terrorist activity (carrying out attacks) and non-terrorist activity (fundraising, recruitment). Then, the...Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia , Pakistan, Saudi Arabia. Cooperating countries can try to internalize or adjust these external costs by bargaining...more readily absorb economic shocks produced by acts of terrorism, whereas small countries dependent on a few large industries are at a greater risk of

  10. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  11. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  12. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  13. Positive predictive values of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes for dermatologic events and hypersensitivity leading to hospitalization or emergency room visit among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Danish and Swedish national patient registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelborg K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kasper Adelborg,1 Lotte Brix Christensen,1 Troels Munch,1 Johnny Kahlert,1 Ylva Trolle Lagerros,2,3 Grethe S Tell,4 Ellen M Apalset,4,5 Fei Xue,6 Vera Ehrenstein1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark; 2Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Medicine, Clinic of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, 5Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 6Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Background: Clinical epidemiology research studies, including pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance studies, use routinely collected health data, such as diagnoses recorded in national health and administrative registries, to assess clinical effectiveness and safety of treatments. We estimated positive predictive values (PPVs of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10 codes for primary diagnoses of dermatologic events and hypersensitivity recorded at hospitalization or emergency room visit in the national patient registries of Denmark and Sweden among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO. Methods: This validation study included women with PMO identified from the Danish and Swedish national patient registries (2005–2014. Medical charts of the potential cases served as the gold standard for the diagnosis confirmation and were reviewed and adjudicated by physicians. Results: We obtained and reviewed 189 of 221 sampled medical records (86%. The overall PPV was 92.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.1%–96.3% for dermatologic events, while the PPVs for bullous events and erythematous dermatologic events were 52.5% (95% CI, 37.5%–67.1% and 12.5% (95% CI, 2.2%–47.1%, respectively. The PPV was 59.0% (95% CI, 48.3%–69.0% for hypersensitivity; however

  14. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utøya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  16. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  17. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    regional Tourism. Industry in the Face of War. Alfred Anangwe*. Abstract. This paper discusses both positive and negative implications of fighting interna- tional terrorism and how it impacts on trust between East African countries, ...

  18. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  19. Book Review: International terrorism. Current research and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: International terrorism. Current research and future directions. Book Author: Alan D. Buckley & Daniel D. Olson (Eds.) Wayne Avery Publishing Group, 1980. 113pp., Illustrations ...

  20. Context Mediation Demonstration of Counter-Terrorism Intelligence Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Madnick, Stuart E.; Moulton, Allen; Siegel, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate the applicability and value of the context mediation approach in facilitating the effective and correct use of counter-terrorism intelligence information coming from diverse heterogeneous sources.