Sample records for terrorism electronic resource

  1. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    Shroder, J. F.


    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  2. Terrorism

    Rossnagel, A.


    The NPT should prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as a contribution to the worldpeace. This aim is also threatened today by the nuclear actions of states and subnational groups. Such actions have occured in the past and are expected in the future. States and specific terrorist groups are able to acquire specific nuclear material by theft and to assault nuclear plants and transport. The main constraint, the deficit of motivation, could be dropped in the future for many reasons. Therefore nuclear terrorism is a 'real threat to civilization' and its probability is increasing. (orig.) [de

  3. Combating Terrorism: Linking Threats to Strategies and Resources


    ...) gathers intelligence and assesses the threat posed by domestic sources of terrorism. According to the U.S. intelligence community, conventional explosives and firearms continue to be the weapons of choice for terrorists. The intelligence community (both foreign and domestic agencies) reports an increased possibility that terrorists may use CBRN agents in the next decade.

  4. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.


    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  5. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Masse, Anna L.


    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  6. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Mark Ellingsen


    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  7. Florida public transportation anti-terrorism resource guide


    The Center for Urban Transportation (CUTR) at the University of South Florida (USF) assembled this guide to provide public transit agencies in Florida with information on current resources available to assist them with improving system security and g...

  8. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  9. A Game Theoretical Model for Location of Terror Response Facilities under Capacitated Resources

    Lingpeng Meng


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of capacity constraints on the locations of terror response facilities. We assume that the state has limited resources, and multiple facilities may be involved in the response until the demand is satisfied consequently. We formulate a leader-follower game model between the state and the terrorist and prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium. An integer linear programming is proposed to obtain the equilibrium results when the facility number is fixed. The problem is demonstrated by a case study of the 19 districts of Shanghai, China.

  10. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  11. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O


    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  12. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.


    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  13. Environmental terrorism

    Zirschky, J.


    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  14. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  15. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  16. Annotated Bibliography of Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Disaster since 1945: By Continents/Countries for Grades K-8

    Gangi, Jane M.


    This article presents an annotated bibliography of children's literature resources on war, terrorism, and disaster since 1945. This annotated bibliography focuses on grades K-8 from different continents/countries, including (1) Africa; (2) Asia; (3) The Caribbean; (4) Central and South America; (5) Europe; and (6) The Middle East.

  17. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  18. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration


    О Ю Заславская


    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  20. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.


    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  2. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory


    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  3. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L


    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  4. Terrorism preparedness: Web-based resource management and the TOPOFF 3 exercise.

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J


    The bombings of London on July 7, 2005 highlight the need for continued vigilance and readiness to respond to terrorist attacks. Trauma centers need to be at the core of preparedness activities. The State of Connecticut has taken a lead in preparedness and was selected as a site for the US Department of Homeland Security's Top Officials Three Exercise (TOPOFF 3), the largest and most extensive antiterrorism drill ever conducted. All 32 acute care hospitals in Connecticut took part in the drill. The simulated attacks were designed to test all aspects of emergency preparedness including the ability of hospitals to treat large numbers of victims and effectively monitor and implement mechanisms for surge capacity. In Connecticut, TOPOFF 3 tested the Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application that was designed to be the primary communication and resource management tool during a terrorist event or public health emergency. This paper describes: 1) the impetus for the State of Connecticut Department of Public Health's Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application; 2) the strategies used to ensure its readiness and appropriate utilization during a public health emergency; and 3) its use for communication and resource management by the Department of Public Health and the acute care hospitals during TOPOFF 3. The Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application was successfully implemented and used during TOPOFF 3 to assess surge capacity and other resources. Careful development and implementation of the Web application, or any communication system, as well as training and regular practice are required to ensure effective use during a public health emergency.

  5. Defining Terrorism.

    Hoffman, Bruce


    Notes the lack of a concise meaning for the word terrorism. Develops a working definition which states that terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the attainment of political objectives. (JDH)

  6. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    Anderson, Elsa K


    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  7. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  8. Cyber-Terrorism: Modem Mayhem

    White, Kenneth


    .... The arrival of the information age has created a new menace cyber terrorism. This threat recognizes no boundaries, requires minimal resources to mount an attack, and leaves no human footprint at ground zero...

  9. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  10. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  11. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach


    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  12. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Paul Poisat


    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  13. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  14. Nuclear terrorism


    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  15. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  16. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.


    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  17. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío


    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  18. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    Ursano, Robert J


    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  19. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Doğan Atılgan


    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  20. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.


    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  1. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  2. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  3. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  4. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.


    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  5. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  6. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D


    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  7. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Charles Anderton; John Carter


    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, while basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.

  8. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.


    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  9. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Ирина Карловна Войтович


    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  10. Nuclear terrorism

    Watson, C.


    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  11. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon


    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  12. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven


    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  13. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana


    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  14. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Sanna Torma


    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  15. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey


    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  16. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  17. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)


    Olena Yu. Balalaieva


    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  19. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  20. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  1. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Hulseberg, Anna


    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  2. Terrorism and Investigation Strategies

    Muhammad Mustofa


    This paper discussed that, for successful implementation of the strategies in investigating terrorism, besides requiring professional skilled investigators, there are some additional requirements that need to be fulfilled. Effective and long term prevention of terrorism should be directed towards producing good social welfare and to minimize every condition that may be conducive to the emergence of terrorism, such as discrimination and marginalization.

  3. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Mitchell, Thomas H.


    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  4. Terrorism as Communication.

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…


    Anatoliy V. Loban


    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  6. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Srobana Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  7. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    O'Hara, Timothy


    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  8. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa


    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  9. Introduction to Teaching About Terrorism.

    Totten, Sam


    Provides an historical and conceptual framework for understanding contemporary terrorism. Includes quotations from government officials, syndicated columnists, and scholars regarding terrorism and its effects on society. (JDH)

  10. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D


    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian


    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  12. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  13. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas


    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  14. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George


    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  15. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    Luiijf, H.A.M.


    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  16. Female terrorism : a review

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.


    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  17. Latin America: Terrorism Issues

    Sullivan, Mark P


    .... In its annual report on worldwide terrorism, the State Department highlights threats in Colombia, Peru, and the tri-border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The State Department also has designated four terrorist groups (three in Colombia and one in Peru) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Cuba has been listed as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1982.

  18. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Krans, Anatoli van der


    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  19. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  20. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    J Gordon Millichap


    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  1. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Leistedt, Samuel J


    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Terrorism as Media Event


    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  3. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  4. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Giti Zahedzadeh


    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  5. The Role of Intelligence Analysis in the War on Terrorism

    Ormond, Valerie


    The United States government must provide the intelligence community's analytical force with the necessary resources and capabilities in order to use intelligence analysis as an effective weapon in the War on Terrorism...

  6. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    ... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...

  7. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    ... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...

  8. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism



    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  9. Night Terrors in Children

    Feferman, Irv


    Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.

  10. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    St Sauver, J.E.


    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  11. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. Socioconomic nature of terrorism

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov


    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and methodological foundations of investigation of the  socioeconomic nature of terrorism are considered. Hypothesis of research is the existence of methodological criteria of territory classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical works of national and foreign authors, normative documents of state and international level the genesis of approaches to the understanding of the essence of modern terrorism, its contents, the subject-object relations and manifestation forms is received. As the result, according to the authors’ definition “terrorism” is understood as an ideology connected with deliberate violence or threats against the civilian population or property to influence on the government or the interstate organizations. In the work, the factors of development and spreading of terrorism in the Russian Federation’s regions are allocated and quantitatively proved. Weight parameters of the specified factors are determined. The methodological differentiation of the specified factors on factors of terrorism external (attacks from the outside and an internal form (distribution and realization of radical ideas within the region in the territory is the distinctive feature of the conducted research. During the research, the cluster analysis of a region is carried out to distribute of Russia’s regions according to the typological characteristic of the region of internal and external terrorism. The obtained data are verified in accordance with empirical data, the hypothesis of the existence of methodological criteria of the region classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism is proved.

  14. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    Webel, Baird


    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  15. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K


    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  16. Against CBRN terrorism

    Inoue, Tadao


    Although CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) terrorism has seldom happened in recent terrorist attacks, a large number of victims would appear leading to disastrous situation if it arises. This paper discussed what CBRN terrorism is, why terrorists are interested in these weapons, and how to deal with these cases, with reference to the lessons learnt from the Tokyo subway sarin event, which occurred in Japan. It also outlined the features of CBRN terrorism and protective measures against it. CBRN terrorism is the terror activity using unusual weapons and agents such as chemicals, biological agents, radioactive substances, and nuclear weapons. As the reasons why terrorists are interested in CBRN weapons, there are such factors that raw materials are easy to obtain, manufacturing is not difficult, weapons are easy to transport, and indiscriminate and mass slaughter is possible when used. From the lessons from the Tokyo subway sarin event, the Tokyo Fire Department has been engaging in the following items: (1) strengthening knowledge and skills, (2) introduction of detection equipment, (3) construction and strengthening of decontamination system, (4) collaboration among firefighting - police - SDF - medical institutions, and (5) enhancing and strengthening organizational structure. Although protective measures vary depending on the type of chemical agent, biological agent, etc., it is important to prepare in daily life for detoxification, decontamination, evacuation, etc. (A.O.)

  17. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  18. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Robert Nalbandov


    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  19. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Sinkwan Cheng


    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  20. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Anatoli van der Krans


    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  1. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  2. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  3. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne


    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  4. Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    Cizmek, A.


    Radiological and nuclear terrorism is widely considered as a major if not ultimate terrorist threat for modern societies. Highly industrialized countries could be extremely sensitive to terrorist aggressions of this kind. Nuclear terrorism is often associated with nuclear proliferation. Strictly speaking, nuclear proliferation deals with the spread of nuclear weapons into states which doesn't posses them. But proliferation can also be understood as the spread of radioactive material or even nuclear explosives into the hands of non-state organizations, such as sub national terrorist or criminal organizations as well as any kind of extreme groups for sabotage, blackmail or any other destabilization or destruction purposes. New driving factors for nuclear terrorism which 'help' terrorists are: the consequence of the break down of the Soviet Union and 'easy' radioactive smuggling and black market. What is 'New terrorism'? In analyzing the treat, one has to start by posing several crucial questions such as 'do such groups or individuals have the skill to complete their aim'? 'Who are these groups and individuals', 'how they can be categorized', 'what is their motivation'? If analysis of the 'new terrorism' is one side of the coin, the other is just as daunting. Who, what, when, where and how would be targeted by 'new terrorism'? Although there are existing different reasons (religious and political/social), mainly the target is civilian population. In many instances the aim is to exert either political or economic pressure on authorities or both. Police, ambulance - first call response teams - local, regional and national authorities have a hard task still ahead of them. The upside is that industrialized nations have acknowledged the need to reassess where we are and what the risk is. The bottom line has to be 'who is likely to want to resort to such methods and what the likelihood of them succeeding would be. (author)

  5. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. Terror and Wellbeing

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...... because they challenge and intensify the contract that supersaturates today's society.In the welfare society one can observe the existence of a diffuse but widespread social contract, which has become the single most cohesive element in the social fabric. According the terms of this contract, we agree...

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. Probabilistic risk analysis and terrorism risk.

    Ezell, Barry Charles; Bennett, Steven P; von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Sokolowski, John; Collins, Andrew J


    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), considerable efforts have been made to estimate the risks of terrorism and the cost effectiveness of security policies to reduce these risks. DHS, industry, and the academic risk analysis communities have all invested heavily in the development of tools and approaches that can assist decisionmakers in effectively allocating limited resources across the vast array of potential investments that could mitigate risks from terrorism and other threats to the homeland. Decisionmakers demand models, analyses, and decision support that are useful for this task and based on the state of the art. Since terrorism risk analysis is new, no single method is likely to meet this challenge. In this article we explore a number of existing and potential approaches for terrorism risk analysis, focusing particularly on recent discussions regarding the applicability of probabilistic and decision analytic approaches to bioterrorism risks and the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment methodology used by the DHS and criticized by the National Academies and others.

  9. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output


    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  10. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy


    ethnicity, religion, class, gender , language, accent, dress, political ideology or any combination of these factors may serve to delineate the sub...against another. Lack of parity in resourcing compounds the issue of a community that is securitize in nature. Complex adaptive systems theory... Parity in emphasis would not only garnish a greater level of community trust for all forms of terrorism, but it would deemphasize the need of the current

  11. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.


    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  12. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism


    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out... sport facilities, malls, movie theaters, and more. Grossman argues that American society has put forth enormous effort preparing and preventing harm to

  13. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Leistedt, S J


    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender, education and terrorism

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana


    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  15. Terrorism in Canada.

    Kollek, Daniel


    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  16. Terrorism and disarmament


    In addressing the General Assembly at the opening of its debate on international terrorism (1 to 5 October 2001), the Secretary-General warned that a single attack involving a nuclear or biological weapon could kill millions. While the world was unable to prevent the II September attacks, there is much we can do to help prevent future terrorist acts carried out with weapons of mass destruction, he emphasized, calling for redoubled efforts to implement key treaties relating to those arms, closer cooperation among international organizations dealing with them, and tighter national legislation covering the exports of goods and technologies used in their production. Many representatives from all countries and all regions echoed the Secretary-General's sentiment during the debate. The general conclusion was that all countries could be affected in some form or another by such a fearful proposition, and all countries must work together to prevent it. To gain a greater understanding of the increased threat of international terrorism today, the Department for Disarmament Affairs sponsored a panel of high-level experts to discuss terrorism and its relationship to disarmament. Two leading experts from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, Professor Wilkinson and Dr. Gunaratna, put the attacks on the United States in an historical perspective, present some of the repercussions of the unprecedented scope of the attacks and give their views on how international institutions and agreements can assist in combating future acts of this kind. Mr Vladimir P Salov of the Russian Federation addresses the suppression of financing of terrorism and how Russia works towards that end. The IAEA has been trying for almost 50 years to safeguard nuclear materials from diversions to nuclear-weapon users and, in recent years, working more intensively on physical protection of nuclear material. Dr Nilsson's presentation

  17. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph


    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  18. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    Hodge, Gail


    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  19. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Sternberg, R J


    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  20. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  1. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    Al Barody, M.M.


    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  2. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.


    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  3. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  4. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    Kume, Tamikazu


    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)




    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  6. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Igor A.


    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of


    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  8. Terrorism, war, and peace



    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  9. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism


    Farhana Ali describes terrorism against an occupier as an attempt to achieve freedom from tyranny.66 Recruiters encourage women to resist for a...fringe phenomenon and insurgents are all around you.’”71 O’Rourke also acknowledges the freedom and relaxed inspection women are afforded.72 Bloom and...lives as Moscow controlled the land and people. Suspicious of Islam and of religion in general, the Soviets forbade its practice, fearing expansion.110

  10. Chinas Response to Terrorism


    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  11. Psychology of Terrorism


    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  12. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.


    Terrorism, Outraged World Seeks an Answer." U. News and World Report, September 18, 1972, p. 16. Arendt , Hannah . Crisis of the Republic. N. Y., Harcourt...Brace Jovanovich, 1972. Arendt , Hannah , On Violence. N. Y. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1970. Arendt , Hannah . On Revolutions. N. Y., Viking Press, 1965... Arendt , Hannah . "Reflections on Violence." Journal of International Affairs, 23:1, 1969. "Are the Skies Really Friendly?" Proposed Theories of Relief for

  13. Terrorism in Peru.

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L


    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  14. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  15. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Downey, Kay


    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  16. Managing terror: differences between Jews and Arabs in Israel.

    Somer, Eli; Maguen, Shira; Or-Chen, Keren; Litz, Brett T


    Using telephone surveys, we examined exposure to terror, coping, and mental health response in randomly selected Jewish-Israelis (n = 100) and Arab-Israelis (n = 100) living in five Israeli cities affected by terrorism. Jewish-Israelis and Arab-Israelis were randomly selected for study participation and completed telephone surveys in May 2002, following an extended string of terror attacks and hostilities. Although terrorism is designed to target Jewish-Israelis, the rates of exposure were similar in the two groups. Arab-Israelis reported using a wider array of coping strategies, yet also endorsed more frequent PTSD and more severe depression symptoms than Jewish-Israelis. We examined a variety of demographic, ethnic, and religious predictors of different coping styles and found varying results. For example, acceptance coping was best predicted by Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, greater religiosity, and lower education. Predictors of mental health response to terror were also examined, with Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, adaptation coping and collaborative coping best predicting PTSD and depression symptoms. Arab-Israelis may not have the same access to overarching sources of patriotic support that are readily available to their Jewish compatriots, and civilian and economic inequity experienced by the Arab minority may add to a sense of diminished resources. Our findings justify outreach efforts to overlooked minorities at risk for posttraumatic distress. Women seem to be at particular risk for the development of mental health symptoms following terrorism, which should also be noted for outreach purposes.

  17. A Taxonomy of Terror - About the Effect of Different Kinds of Terror on Risk Perceptions

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein


    Terrorism is an increasing problem; still, research systematically investigating the impact of varying kinds of terrorism is scarce. The present investigation uses hypothetical scenarios to look at effects of diverging sorts of terrorism on risk perceptions in a student- and a tourist sample. Two characteristics of terrorism were varied systematically: frequency (whether terrorism hits a destination where terrorism is frequent or infrequent) and degree of organization (whether terrorism is co...

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  19. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean


    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  20. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    Pemberton, A.


    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  1. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    Sato, Satoshi


    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  2. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu


    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  3. Terrorism in South Africa.

    MacFarlane, Campbell


    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  4. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    Harbruecker, D.


    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  5. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  6. Modern terrorism: concept and approach analysis



    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  7. Training for Terror: A Case Study of Al-Qaida

    Krechovsky, Melanie


    ... studied from structural, human resources, symbolic, and political perspectives. An overview of Middle Eastern terrorism, a synopsis of the Al-Qaida organization, a review of the contents of the training manual, and an Al-Qaida policy review are also delineated...

  8. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.


    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  9. Racionalidad del terror

    Sauquillo, Julián


    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  10. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  11. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Aarnio Matti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  12. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Sunil Tyagi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  13. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Schouten, Ronald


    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  14. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Steve Cooke


    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  15. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Emily Diez


    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  16. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L


    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  17. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Pınar Al


    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  18. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    Jenkins, B.M.


    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  19. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    Tallen, Jr, George W


    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  20. The Newsworthiness of International Terrorism.

    Weimann, Gabriel; Brosius, Hans-Bernd


    Investigates the newsworthiness of international terrorism. Relates the concept of deviance as a predictor of newsworthiness to the specific attributes of terrorist events and their impact on media selection (coverage or no coverage) and prominence of coverage. (SR)

  1. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C


    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.


    Anton M. Avramchuk


    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  3. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Chux Gervase Iwu


    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  4. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H


    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL:, provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong


    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.


    Х А Гербеков


    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  7. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    Allison, G.


    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  8. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  9. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...


    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  10. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula


    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  11. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo


    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  12. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.


    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  13. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Joseph Pugliese


    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  14. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism


    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  15. Bringing the State Back into Terrorism Studies

    Blakeley, Ruth


    Orthodox terrorism studies tend to focus on the activities of illiberal nonstate actors against the liberal democratic states in the North. It thus excludes state terrorism, which is one of a number of repressive tools that great powers from the North have used extensively in the global South in\\ud the service of foreign policy objectives. I establish the reasons for the absence of state terrorism from orthodox accounts of terrorism and argue that critical–normative approaches could help to o...

  16. Understanding Terrorism from an Economic perspective

    Haldar, Tanushree


    Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the contemporary society. Nation States are reliant on their counter-terrorism laws for checking terrorism and deterring terrorists. To understand the effectiveness of these counter terrorism laws, it is important to first understand the behaviour of terrorists, so as to comprehend what actions can dissuade terrorist’s behaviour and decision to propagate violence. This paper will first look at behaviour of terrorist in decision making from an economi...

  17. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    Gregg, Heather S.


    The article of record may be found at: thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  18. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    Prayudi, Prayudi


    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...


    Galina P. Lavrentieva


    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  20. Nuclear terrorism: Facts and fiction

    Kamp, K.H.


    The study tries to assess the risk of nuclear terrorism in the light of recent developments in the area of nuclear weapons proliferation, and to develop suggestions of how to cope with existing challenges. First of all the term of ''nuclear terrorism'' is defined and differentiated from other forms of nuclear crimes. In a second step the attempt is made to compile the findings and assessments of the past on the problem of nuclear terrorism. Since, as a rule, a threat potential is composed of 'intentions' and 'capabilities', a third part is dedicated to terrorist intentions and studies the degree of probability of terrorists considering nuclear weapons an appropriate means for their aims. In connection with 'capabilities' it is scrutinized whether terrorist groups will be able at all to procure, design or initiate nuclear warheads. This leads to the question as to which consequences result from nuclear safety shortcomings - in particular in Russia - with a view to nuclear terrorism. Based on the preceding considerations, several proposals for coping with the danger of nuclear terrorism are made. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov


    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  2. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.


    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  3. Rapid assessment of agents of biological terrorism: defining the differential diagnosis of inhalational anthrax using electronic communication in a practice-based research network.

    Temte, Jonathan L; Anderson, Anna Lisa


    Early detection of bioterrorism requires assessment of diagnoses assigned to cases of rare diseases with which clinicians have little experience. In this study, we evaluated the process of defining the differential diagnosis for inhalational anthrax using electronic communication within a practice-based research network (PBRN) and compared the results with those obtained from a nationwide random sample of family physicians with a mailed instrument. We distributed survey instruments by e-mail to 55 physician members of the Wisconsin Research Network (WReN), a regional PBRN. The instruments consisted of 3 case vignettes randomly drawn from a set describing 11 patients with inhalational anthrax, 2 with influenza A, and 1 with Legionella pneumonia. Physicians provided their most likely nonanthrax diagnosis, along with their responses to 4 yes-or-no management questions for each case. Physicians who had not responded at 1 week received a second e-mail with the survey instrument. The comparison group consisted of the nationwide sample of physicians who completed mailed survey instruments. Primary outcome measures were response rate, median response time, and frequencies of diagnostic categories assigned to cases of inhalational anthrax. The PBRN response rate compared favorably with that of the national sample (47.3% vs 37.0%; P = not significant). The median response time for the PBRN was significantly shorter than that for the national sample (2 vs 28 days; P < .001). No significant differences were found between the PBRN and the Midwest subset of the national sample in the frequencies of major diagnostic categories or in case management. Electronic means of creating differential diagnoses for rare infectious diseases of national significance is feasible within PBRNs. Information is much more rapidly acquired and is consistent with that obtained by conventional methods.

  4. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C


    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  5. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary


    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.


    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)


    Asadi NEJMAH


    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  8. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    A. V. Loban


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  9. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    Gallagher, Jerry P


    ... between private security and the KCPD. To empower this resource as a terrorism prevention force multiplier the development of a web based virtual knowledge sharing initiative was explored in this study as a solution to provide "one stop...

  10. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  11. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Heather S. Gregg


    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  12. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Younas, Javed


    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  13. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd


    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  14. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Friege, Henning


    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  15. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N


    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  16. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Antonio Incampo


    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  17. A dynamical model of terrorism

    Firdaus Udwadia


    Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.

  18. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Jonida Drogu


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  19. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Chao-Chen Lin


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  20. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Krutova Anzhelika S.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and


    Maria D. Tukalo


    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.


    Anton M. Avramchuk


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  3. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi


    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  4. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis


    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code


    Anton M. Avramchuk


    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  6. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh


    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  7. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin


    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Terrorism, racism, speciesism, and sustainable use of the planet

    John Cairns Jr.


    Full Text Available The 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the US Pentagon in Washington, DC have seized our attention and undermined our sense of security. These terrorist actions showed a contempt for other persons and their beliefs and practices. They are extreme demonstrations of a feeling of superiority which ignores the inherent worth of life by killing or wounding some and depriving others of resources that improve their quality of life. In this respect, terrorism is similar to racism and speciesism in that all are expressions of feelings of superiority over other life forms and that all are incompatible with sustainable use of the planet. It is proposed that both terrorism and racism have their genesis in speciesism. Sustainability requires a mutualistic relationship between humans and the millions of other species that collectively constitute the planet's ecological life support system. It further requires enhancement and protection of natural capital, as well as the enhancement and protection of the technological and economic life support systems that depend upon natural capital. Both terrorism and racism endanger the fair and equitable allocation of resources and the quality of human life of present and future generations. This is probably both the cause and effect of resource allocations. However, to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must acknowledge the inherent worth of other life forms. There is no guarantee that abolishing terrorism, racism, and speciesism will enable human society to acheive sustainable use of the planet; however, it is difficult to envision achieving sustainability if they persist.

  9. Electronic Government in the Age of Terrorism.

    Halchin, L. Elaine


    Provides examples of how federal agencies have responded to the possibility that terrorists could use information on their Web sites to plan further attacks, following the September 11 attacks. Discusses implications of the removal and alteration of government information and offers suggestions for developing a government-wide Web site policy.…

  10. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella


    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  11. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John


    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  12. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui


    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and... notice is also soliciting comments concerning the Information Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti...

  14. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs


    Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Laitin, David. Hegemony and Culture : Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba . Chicago...such improvements might take. Definitions Terrorism: Definitions of terrorism differ among nations and organizations, because the social and cultural

  15. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    Bieber, Florian


    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  16. Dismantling Terrorism: Developing Actionable Solutions for Today's Plague of Violence

    Scott, Frances K


    .... The bibliography is divided into the following sections: causes and origins of terrorism, geographical distribution of terrorist groups, terrorist financing, terrorist groups and networks, the psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, remedies...

  17. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Goodfellow, L M


    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (, the Australasian Digital Theses Program ( and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  18. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.


    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  19. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Burgoon, Brian


    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  20. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    Aksoy, Ece


    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  1. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Arnold Berleant


    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.


    Asadi NEJMAH


    The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the ext...

  3. The Impact of 'Narco-terrorism' on HRM

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio; Muñiz, Carlos

    This paper presents a mixed-method study that explores the configuration of human resource management (HRM) systems in “narco-terrorism” environments. The quantitative analysis focuses on 204 news stories. In addition, 25 interviews were conducted with managers and HR professionals at 20 firms...... in Mexico to explore the direct and indirect impacts of narco-terrorism on firms. Our analysis of firms’ responses in terms of HRM systems indicate that trust of formal and informal institutions seems to shape HRM system in the focal firms. More specifically, a combination of strict employee control......, an emphasis on soft-skills training and development, and a flexible work schedule seems to facilitate the building of trust in narco-terrorism contexts. It seems that the role of firms as social institutions integrate strategies, which seems to aim at avoid and manipulate the institutional constraints. Our...

  4. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  5. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J


    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  6. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    Ulrich, Philip Christian


    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  7. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security


    nesses (e.g., Ford, Coca - Cola , American Airlines, " Destruction of Pan American Flight 103 over American Express, Holiday Inn, Citibank,, involving links between many clandestine, undeclared war. governments. Cases in which a consortium of gov- State sponsorship refers to the...Syria has setup centers constitutes concrete and convincing evidence of in Syria itself, in Lebanon’s Beka’a Valley (which is sponsorship of terrorism.𔄁

  8. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism


    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  9. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    Suter, Keith


    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come.

  10. Terrorism: some philosophical and ethical dilemmas

    Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep


    Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...

  11. Against acts of nuclear terrorism

    Heller, W.


    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  12. Technical considerations in nuclear terrorism

    Velardo, G.


    Nuclear terrorism is an evil application of nuclear energy, in the same way that chemical and biological terrorism could be considered as the evil side of chemistry and biology. This paper presents two effects of nuclear terrorism. First, dirty bombs or radioactive bombs or radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), and second, crude atom bombs or improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The paper analyses as well the probabilities of an attack, its biological effects and nuclear risk. Experiments carried out so far indicate that the lethal effects produced by RDDs are likely the same that the effects produced by the chemical explosive used in the bomb. These type of bombs are rather bounded to generate panic and have implicit a high cost of decontamination. It will be described the measures to be adopted. INDs will be also considered. Uranium INDs by gun-method are more feasible to be made. They can be disassembled and their components transported to the target place. Plutonium INDs by the implosion-method are complex and required high precision technology. Their disassembly is very difficult

  13. The Cost of Biological Terrorism.



    Most Americans are or will be facing a threat more real than crimes or terrorism-it is the threat of cancer. Indeed, one-fourth of all Americans alive today will ultimately die from cancer. Yet the level of funding for cancer research in 1998 and beyond remains in doubt. The Senate Appropriations Committee has proposed a higher funding figure than the House and the difference will be resolved in negotiations this September. President Clinton has recommended a meager 2.5% increase in spending on cancer. This sum is simply not enough. Although Americans may fool themselves into thinking the government has been at war against cancer, the current funding ceiling for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget demonstrates that this so-called offensive is little more than a skirmish. Careful scrutiny of this budget reveals that every time a citizen pays ten dollars in taxes, only one penny goes to cancer research. What the government is spending in cancer research would not buy or maintain two stealth bombers-hardly evidence of a major military strike. For those of us fighting the deadly scourge of cancer, the 1,550 Americans killed each day by this disease are painful and enduring casualties. Imagine five fully loaded jumbo jets crashing with no survivors on the same day. These headlines would generate fast and effective calls for funding for improved safety regulations, and yet cancer takes this number of lives daily-and in one year more lives than all the U.S. combat fatalities in this century. And yet there is a virtual silence as Congress meets to determine the level of monies to direct to cancer research efforts which might halt this carnage. In the past, medical research stopped the horrors of pain associated with amputations and operations conducted without anesthesia, and research stopped the epidemic of polio and the massive deaths from typhoid fever. Soon research will stop the deaths from AIDS. Will cancer be prevented or cured within your lifetime? It

  14. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Chao-Chen Lin


    This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on te...

  16. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Dare Samuel Adeleke


    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  17. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca


    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  18. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  19. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed


    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  20. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Strimel, Courtney B.


    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  1. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    Bondebjerg, Ib


    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  2. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Thomas, Paul


    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  3. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina


    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  4. Dirty hands : Government torture and terrorism

    Daxecker, U.


    Existing research suggests that the use of harsh repression can exacerbate the incidence and duration of terrorism. Micro- and macro-level analyses have shown that coercive government responses to terrorism can radicalize sympathizers, increase recruitment, and undermine community support for

  5. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  6. The potentialities of terrorism

    Cohen, B.L.


    The potential hazard of terrorists obtaining plutonium and building a nuclear device is examined within the perspective of other terrorist activities. Various sources are quoted on the possibility of a terrorist group having the resources, including skilled personnel, to build a bomb. The potential damage engendered by such a device is hypothesized to be less than that of many other terrorist actions which could be easily accomplished. Other activities, poison or nerve gas, gasoline dropped on a football stadium, destruction of a large dam, poisoning food or water supply and armed action against a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas, are cited as examples of terrorist incidents more devastating than building a crude plutonium bomb. Resistance to blackmail strategies is seen as the only reliable way to thwart their activities in the long run. Although plutonium must be guarded carefully, it is demonstrated as being far from the only or most devastating means of blackmail. It is concluded that the threat of terrorist activities is being used by anti-nuclear groups to support emotionally based dislike of nuclear power. (J.T.A.)

  7. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.


    zakiyah zakiyah


    Full Text Available This paper examines the chronicle of terrorism in Indonesia and the relationship between terrorism and Islamic militancy in this nation. This research focused on bombing cases from 2001 to 2012 Data was gathered through documentary research including primary and secondary resources. This research shows that after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, there were bomb attacks on various targets and militant extremists were able to return to Indonesia after long period of exile abroad. They started again their activities including disseminating their radical ideology, building networks and recruiting new members in Indonesia, as well as preparing for militant actions. The perpetrators of these terror attacks were mostly associated with the Islamic radical groups like Jemaah Islamiah and Majlis Mujahidin Indonesia. These two militant groups had a close relationship with Darul Islam, an organization founded during the colonial era that aimed to establish an Islamic state and to apply Syariah as a state law. In addition, both groups became a political window for al-Qaeda in Indonesia. 

  9. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Mareš Miroslav


    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  10. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Lukas Schoenenberger


    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.


    Piotr Gawliczek


    Full Text Available The intensity of the attacks, the level of violence, the scale of destruction in the maritime areas forces creation of certain security conditions. Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure. Building competence of terrorist organization and maritime piracy requires the involvement of many interrelated resources and their proper coordination. It seems that, as in a business model, in these criminal organizations there are similar resources, skills and competences that determine the advantage and strategic value of the organization. However, the weight of each factor is different. The same assumption can be related to piracy and the activities of the terrorist organization at sea. The results of the study suggest that the main sources of success of analyzed criminal organizations generate harm for national security. In the case of piracy, they result from the following spheres: human capital, attributable to the skills capital; structural capital, belonging to innovation capital; relational capital, depending on customers' capital. As for terrorist activities, they stem from the spheres of: human capital, belonging to social capital; structural capital, attributable to the process capital; relational capital and determined by capital of standing out. In summary, this article is intended to show a terrorist organization and maritime piracy through the prism of resources theory, skills and competences of strategic management. As one of the first, it places many questions, formulate some theses in the area of competences of organizations. Answering the questions, verification of posed theses, requires also in-depth research that will be published in subsequent works.

  12. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  13. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    Moglewer, S.


    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  14. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle


    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  15. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  16. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    Spaaij, R.


    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  17. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final... Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 (``Extension Act'') and the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  18. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.


    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  19. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Winarto Winarto


    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  20. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    John J. Klein


    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  1. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V


    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  2. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    Beres, L.R.


    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  3. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan


    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  4. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary


    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  5. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo


    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  6. Terrorism and the adolescent: a review.

    Abo, Alyssa; Zalsman, Gil


    In recent years suicide bombings have became a part of life in Israel. Adolescents seem to be more vulnerable to the issues of life and death since they have to choose psychologically whether to live or die ("the fourth organizer"). The reaction to terrorism in this age group is unique. After September 11th, a great interest on the subject has arisen in the United States and some new data has been gathered. One of the important messages is that terrorism does not simply equal trauma. The aim of this article is to review current literature on emotional reaction, impact, and therapeutic strategies to terrorism in the adolescent population.

  7. American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat


    Goodnough, and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, Goodnough and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, 2009/10/22/us...July 8, 2009); Tony Allen-Mills, “FBI ‘Lured Dimwits’ into Terror Plot,” The Sunday Times, London, May 24, 2009,

  8. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Kahan, Jerome H


    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that.

  9. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu


    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    Maerli, M.


    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  11. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala


    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  12. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur


    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  13. Differentiating the threat of radiological/nuclear terrorism: Motivations and constraints

    Post, J M [Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)


    Full text: Reviewing the spectrum of terrorist groups in terms of motivation, incentives and constraints, for nearly all groups, nuclear terrorism could be highly counter-productive. The constraints are particularly severe for large-scale mass casualty terrorism for groups that are concerned with their constituents--social revolutionary and nationalist separatist terrorists--although discriminate low level attacks are possible. Right-wing extremists, including individuals who are members of the right-wing virtual community of hatred, represent a distinct danger for low level discriminate attacks against their targets. Religious fundamentalist terrorist groups represent a particular threat, because they are not trying to influence the West but to expel Western modernizing influences. Moreover, they believe that their acts of violence are given sacred significance. The severe constraints against catastrophic terrorism for most groups argues for continuing to protect against the greatest danger - conventional terrorism - and to devote significantly increased resources to monitoring more closely the groups at greatest risk for nuclear terrorism. (author)

  14. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Wilson Nick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  15. The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism

    Scott Cary


    Full Text Available This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.

  16. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Nakamura, Katsumi


    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  17. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Antony Pemberton


    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  18. Fighting Terrorism With Strategy: Revisiting Competing Visions

    Schluckebier, Thomas


    ... the threat of international terrorism requires America to make a grand strategic choice, This paper examines those choices by presenting four post-Cold War strategy options neo-isolationism, selective...

  19. Combatting Terrorism: A New National Strategy

    Hoover, Bruce


    .... Conducted by organized, highly trained, and technologically sophisticated paramilitary units, terrorism is in fact a form of warfare waged against the United States and its allies. But current U.S...

  20. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Archick, Kristin


    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  1. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Archick, Kristin


    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  2. On Teaching About Terrorism: A Conceptual Approach.

    Kleg, Milton


    Recommends the use of conceptual mapping, case studies, and springboards to discussion and inquiry as viable approaches to the study of terrorism in secondary classrooms. Provides numerous examples of conceptual maps. (JDH)

  3. Islamic Law and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan


    Full Text Available Jihād and terrorism are not the same. In the context of sharia that implementation of the jihād has parameters measured with a layer of ethics based on the commands Al Quran and the Hadith of Prophet and the explanation the Ulama. Muslims in Indonesia views that the essentially not much different from the views on jihād and terror in other Islamic countries, especially the Middle East. In the context of Islamic law, jihād has multi spectral studies, but none of these studies that equate the meaning of jihād with terrorism, or none of them agreed that acts of terror as has been demonstrated by radical groups that are part of the concept Islam.

  4. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan


    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  5. Why is terrorism a man's business?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria


    Terrorism, whether it is group-related or performed as lone actor terrorism, is a predominantly male phenomenon. Generally and throughout history, young males have been the main protagonists of criminal and political violence.This article aims to contribute, from different perspecives, to the question of what makes young men violent. These include neurobiological aspects, such as sex differences in the brain that predispose males to physical aggression and violence; gender role aspects, with regard to aggression and violence being basic components for demonstrating and reconstructing masculinity; demographic aspects of male youth bulges as potential breeding grounds for terrorism; aspects of group dynamics and identity fusion in the process of radicalization; and psychosocial characteristics of lone actor terrorists, which differ from group-related terrorists.It is concluded that in addition to ideological, political, economic, regional, demographic, or psychosocial causes, experiences of threatened masculinity may be an underlying factor and driving force for terrorism.

  6. State of terror: women at risk

    The Karen Women’s Organisation


    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  7. State of terror: women at risk

    The Karen Women’s Organisation


    Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  8. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    Perl, Raphael


    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  9. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    Perl, Raphael


    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  10. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan


    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  11. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Čičovački Predrag


    The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others) who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable mora...

  12. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    Gentry, Caron Eileen


    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  13. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  14. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    Kellen, K.


    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  15. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam


    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    Beres, L.R.


    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  17. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.


    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  18. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Velmurugan Chandran


    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  19. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus


    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H


    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.


    H. M. Kravtsov


    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  3. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik


    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.


    А. М. Гавриленко


    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  5. Modeling a Strategy for the War on Terrorism

    Henderson, Darral


    .... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...

  6. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    Smith, Jerry D


    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...


    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...



    philosophically consider the moral implication of suicide terrorism with particular .... define terrorism is political rather than theoretical. Brian Berkey (2010) is of ..... elements of relativism to the concept of morality because an. Islamic cleric who ...

  9. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  10. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  11. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    Goldberg, S.


    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  12. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    Gehr, W.


    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  13. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    Hibbs, R.


    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  14. The 'war on terror"and international law

    Duffy, Helen


    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  15. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  16. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program


    ... 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Office of Justice... promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program... international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is effective April 11, 2011. Comment...

  17. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  18. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  19. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  20. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Umoh, Emmanuel


    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  1. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  2. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.


    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…


    Julia Sarankina


    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  4. Understanding and Teaching the Semantics of Terrorism: An Alternative Perspective.

    Long, Kenneth J.


    Critiques conventional definitions of terrorism. Advocates sensitizing students to the semantics of terrorism and teaching skepticism of leaders who manipulate such concepts. Recommends using historical case studies to clarify issues, inform students about state and state-sponsored terrorism, and challenge students' preconceptions. Includes a…

  5. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca


    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  6. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.


    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  7. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Snježana Pivac


    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  8. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Čičovački Predrag


    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  9. Reframing domestic violence as torture or terrorism

    Marcus Isabel


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the phenomenon of domestic violence and the distinctive features for which is it may be recognized as a specific form of torture and/or terrorism at home. The author provides an overview of the scientific debate among feminist authors on this conception which has given rise to an innovative approach to understanding the concept of domestic violence. Underscoring the substantive similarity of domestic violence with the acts of torture and/or terrorism, the author urges for state action arguing that domestic violence as a form of gender-based violence should be approached by applying the same logic and strategies which are employed in response to traditional torture and terrorism.

  10. Terrorism reports: The tip of the iceberg.

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Taragin, Mark; Bar-On, Zvia; Cohen, Osnat; Ostfeld, Ishay


    Medical impact of terror is a public health issue as the threat is growing all over the world. Our objective was to compare the number of injured and incidents in the three different databases and reports [Global Terrorism Database (GTD), Israeli Security Agency (ISA) and National Insurance Institute (NII)] in Israel. Retrospective study. Analyses of three different databases (GTD, ISA and NII) and basic comparison. The victims reimbursed for medical expenses are the largest population. The number of injured as described by GTD and ISA database are less important. The 2010-2013 years are marked by more incidents recognized in Israel vs GTD assessment (except in 2014). The number of victims being reimbursed for medical and mental health services is radically different from the GTD and the ISA reports. Public Health specialists should be advised of this phenomenon to deliver their right approach (including mental health) to growing threat and develop new definition of victim of terror.

  11. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    Cardozo, P.


    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  12. Terrorism and Other Threats to Civilization

    Garwin, Richard L.


    In the Seminars on Planetary Emergencies, we have for more than a decade had a strong focus on terrorism, and, indeed, on megaterrorism. We realized early that there was much that could be achieved to mitigate the consequences of terrorists' acts, and so our original PMP, ably chaired by Kamal, was split into PMP-MTA (Mitigation of Terrorists Acts) and PMP-Motivation of Terrorism. Clearly, terrorism doesn't just happen, but is performed by people, either relatively spontaneously or in an organized fashion. I will not presume to report on the considerations and accomplishments of our colleagues, chaired by John Alderdice, who have studied terrorist motivations and worked hard to eliminate such motivations...


    Cristina Elena ALBU


    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  14. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  15. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak


    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  16. Terrorism: a public health threat with a trauma system response.

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J; Gross, Ronald I


    The threat of mass casualties and widespread infectious disease caused by terrorism is now a challenge for our government and public health system. Funds have been granted to the states by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Health Resources and Services Administration to establish bioterrorism preparedness and response capabilities. Hartford Hospital has been designated as a Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness by the Commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Public Health. The Center of Excellence has implemented strategies to prepare for a possible bioterrorist attack. A unique model that combines epidemiology and traumatology is being used to guide the preparedness activities. Although the focus of the grant from the Connecticut Department of Public Health is bioterrorism, the application of the model can apply to preparation for all terrorist events. Implementation of strategies indicates that bioterrorism preparedness is well underway. Similar initiatives should be achievable by other trauma systems throughout the country. A Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness in Connecticut is successfully modifying a trauma system to meet the challenge of a new public health threat, terrorism.

  17. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge


    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  18. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  19. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Johnston, Pamela


    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  20. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff


    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  1. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A


    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  2. IAEA outlines measures to enhance protection against nuclear terrorism


    Mr. ElBaradei, head of the IAEA presented a report today to the Agency's Board of Governors, outlining plans for substantially expanding and strengthening IAEA programmes relevant to improving nuclear security. The report addresses the IAEA's response to the following threats from acts of nuclear terrorism by a subnational group: acquisition of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard; acquisition of other radioactive materials to cause a radiological hazard; and violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard. The report puts a price tag on its proposed programme upgrades at $30-50 million per year, representing an initial 10-15% increase in the IAEA's overall resources. Additionally, Mr. ElBaradei said the IAEA's budget is currently underfeed by about $40 million due to a budgetary policy over many years of 'zero real growth', and called on Member States to provide the resources required to cope with the newly emerging threat. 'In addition to the resources required for urgent international assistance,' Mr. ElBaradei said, 'the necessary global upgrades to meet the full range of possible threats would be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars and would have to be carried out by individual States and through bilateral and multilateral assistance'. The IAEA would play a coordinating role in delivering this assistance.If States provide adequate funding, Mr. ElBaradei predicts that the enhanced and additional activities proposed in his report should lead over time to a powerful national and international security framework for nuclear facilities and material. The Summary of Report on 'Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism' presented to the IAEA Board of Governors on 30.11.2001 is attached

  3. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Shamai, Michal


    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  4. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G


    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  5. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  6. Confronting the risks of terrorism: making the right decisions

    John Garrick, B.; Hall, James E.; Kilger, Max; McDonald, John C.; O'Toole, Tara; Probst, Peter S.; Rindskopf Parker, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Robert; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Van Arsdale, Lee A.; Zebroski, Edwin L.


    This report offers a methodology for assessing, quantitatively, the risks of terrorism. The purpose of the methodology is to support effective decision making to combat terrorism. The emphasis is on terrorist attacks that could have catastrophic consequences. The perspective taken is that in order to make the right decisions about combating terrorism, their needs to be a systematic means of assessing the likelihood of such attacks. A process of implementation of the decisions resulting from risk assessment is essential. That process includes (1) an understanding of the nature of the threat, (2) an information system linked directly to 'intelligence' on terrorism, and (3) organizational structures that can take timely, coordinated, and effective actions. There must also be sound evidence that the methodology can be successfully applied. A description of the nature of terrorism, a terrorism risk assessment methodology, information requirements to fight terrorism, and recommendations for successful implementation is what this report is about

  7. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A.


    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income–terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators’ nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators’ nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls. PMID:28579636

  8. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Matthew D. Phillips


    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  9. The Dilution of Terrorism - Internship report at the International Center for Terrorism Studies

    Bærentzen, Marc Theis


    The focus of this report will be how theory and methodology is a necessary mean for an academic understanding of terrorism, using different theories and examples to substantiate my argument. Terrorism has become a diluted concept that is used in a variety of ways to define violence against civilians. But is this enough to claim that we are dealing with a terrorist threat? In academic work these kind of reflections are important to the drawn conclusion. The problematic issue of an absent metho...

  10. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Vanier, Peter


    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism - nuclear terrorism - has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks - or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port - suddenly becomes possible.

  11. On complex adaptive systems and terrorism

    Ahmed, E.; Elgazzar, A.S.; Hegazi, A.S.


    Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ubiquitous in nature. They are basic in social sciences. An overview of CAS is given with emphasize on the occurrence of bad side effects to seemingly 'wise' decisions. Hence application to terrorism is given. Some conclusions on how to deal with this phenomena are proposed

  12. IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism


    IAEA Plans of activities include, General Conference in September 2001 which reviewed activities relevant to preventing nuclear terrorism and proposed master plan. The Board of Governors approved new Nuclear Security Plan for the next four years. Three activity areas are; - needs assessment, analysis and coordination, prevention and detection and response.

  13. Cyber terrorism prevention and counteraction workshop review

    Pastukhov, O.M.


    A NATO Advanced Training Course (ATC ) on Cyber Terrorism Prevention and Counteraction workshop, held in Kiev on September 27-29, 2010, allowed the participants to share their experiences with experts from Ukraine, a Partnership for Peace country. The participants exchanged their ideas on the ways

  14. The human rights and the terrorism

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood


    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  15. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    Jørndrup, Hanne


    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  16. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    James Okolie-Osemene


    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  17. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Jana Maftei


    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  18. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Miller, Gregory D.


    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  19. Delineating Concept Meanings: The Case of Terrorism.

    Kleg, Milton; Mahlios, Marc


    Presents a teacher-initiated model for reaching class consensus on the meaning of confusing or interchangeable concepts in social studies classrooms. Illustrates the model by delineating terrorism. Shows procedural steps that involve students in self and small group interviews where definitions are clarified until consensus is reached. Suggests…

  20. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa


    security. The relation, if any, to terrorism is explored. The data comes from the World Bank database. Gender Equality. How a country treats women and the...55 Gender Equality...method to evaluate poverty is based upon income inequality . This ap- proach is based upon the belief that poverty is relative, individuals only feel

  1. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev


    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  2. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava


    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  3. Updates in the War against Terrorism.

    Strickland, Lee S.


    Provides an update of new court cases related to Part IV of the series on Information and the War Against Terrorism. Discusses civil liberties versus security involving the legality of mandatory commercial use of biometrics as identification; and communication of privileged information between a person and his or her attorney. (LRW)

  4. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah


    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  5. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul


    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  6. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred


    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.


    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  8. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  9. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  10. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Mirali Seyednaghavi


    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  11. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  12. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  13. Review and expectations of terror attack emergency rescue

    De-wen WANG


    Full Text Available Ten years of anti-terror struggle since the 9/11 event has indicated adequately that terrorism is a global problem and international danger. Likewise, anti-terror emergency rescue is also an important task which will influence the safety and benefit of every country all over the world. This paper reviews the main progress and result of international anti-terror struggle in the last ten years, and also introduces the new characteristic of the international anti-terror activity. Besides that, this paper also brings forward the further consideration about the anti-terror emergency medical rescue and the researches remaining to be carried out. The latter includes: (1 to further perfect the high-efficient medical rescue command organization; (2 to further perfect the emergency medical rescue prearranged scheme; (3 to further perfect the construction of rescue system and rescue base after various types of terror attack; (4 to further promote the anti-terror consciousness in the public, and pay more attention to the prevention and investigation of the psychological disaster; (5 to further carry out the basic investigation on emergency medical rescue after various terror attack injuries (for example the types and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology and prevention and treatment of stress-psychological effect induced by terror attack, new high-efficient medical rescue measure and equipments, and so on.

  14. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany


    Germany GF Guardie di Finanza INPOL Electronic Police Information System (Germany) JTTF Joint Terrorism Task Force Kripo Kriminalpolizei LMI...In the case of the Carabinieri and Guardie di Finanza , there may be missions and operations in which their direction comes from the Interior...Minister and Defense Minister respectively. This makes sense in tactical terms as the Guardie di Finanza includes border and customs police and the

  15. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John


    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  16. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  17. Epidemiology of terror-related versus non-terror-related traumatic injury in children.

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Waisman, Yehezkel; Dannon, Yehuda L; Peleg, Kobi


    In the past 2 years hundreds of children in Israel have been injured in terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effect on the health care system. The objective of this study was to review the accumulated Israeli experience with medical care to young victims of terrorism and to use the knowledge obtained to contribute to the preparedness of medical personnel for future events. Data on all patients who were younger than 18 years and were hospitalized from October 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry. The parameters evaluated were patient age and sex, diagnosis, type, mechanism and severity of injury, interhospital transfer, stay in intensive care unit, duration of hospitalization, and need for rehabilitation. Findings were compared with the general pediatric population hospitalized for non-terror-related trauma within the same time period. During the study period, 138 children were hospitalized for a terror-related injury and 8363 for a non-terror-related injury. The study group was significantly older (mean age: 12.3 years [standard deviation: 5.1] v 6.9 years [standard deviation: 5.3]) and sustained proportionately more penetrating injuries (54% [n = 74] vs 9% [n = 725]). Differences were also noted in the proportion of internal injuries to the torso (11% in the patients with terror-related trauma vs 4% in those with non-terror-related injuries), open wounds to the head (13% vs 6%), and critical injuries (Injury Severity Score of 25+; 25% vs 3%). The study group showed greater use of intensive care unit facilities (33% vs 8% in the comparison group), longer median hospitalization time (5 days vs 2 days), and greater need for rehabilitative care (17% vs 1%). Terror-related injuries are more severe than non-terror-related injuries and increase the demand for acute care in children.

  18. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...


    ... Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or Protected Critical... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR...

  19. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  20. Legislating for Terrorism: The Philippines’ Human Security Act 2007

    Pauline E. Eadie


    Full Text Available In February 2007 the Philippine Senate passed the Human Security Act (HSA otherwise known as Republic Act No. 9372: An Act to Secure the State and Protect our People From Terrorism. Philippine Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. was heavily involved in the final drafting of the HSA. He gave it its final name shortly before the Senate Chamber passed it into law. Previously the Act had been known by various titles including ‘An Act to Deter and Punish Acts of Terrorism and for Other Purposes’ (Senate Bill No. 2137 and ‘An Act to Define and Punish the Crime of Terrorism, the Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism, and the Crime of Proposal to Commit Terrorism, and for Other Purposes (Senate Bill No. 2187. Thus the Human Security Act exists as an instrument of counter terrorism as opposed to human security policy.

  1. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Ashlie Perry


    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  2. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Tinka Veldhuis


    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  3. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    Benjamin Freedman


    Full Text Available Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews. Then there are virtual networks, such as the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI, that try to create synergies between a wide array of researchers and topics.

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  5. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong


    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. On the origin of domestic and international terrorism

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Liebert, Helge; Schulze, Günther G.


    We analyze the determinants of the origin of domestic and international terrorism in a large panel data set of 159 countries spanning from 1970 to 2007. We show that terror increases with GDP per capita, a higher POLITY score measuring a more open and competitive political system and experiences of domestic conflict, anarchy and regime transitions. Our evidence thus contradicts the notion that terrorism is rooted in economic deprivation or that strongly autocratic regimes breed more terrorist...

  7. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem


    37 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich, (Washington D.C.: Woodrow...52 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich (Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center...Hitler?” in Mass Hate: the Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (New York , London: Plennium Press), p.165 55 Albert Bandura p.45 56 Ibid. 32 As

  8. Lone-actor Terrorism and Impulsivity.

    Meloy, J Reid; Pollard, Jeffrey W


    In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Both indirect and direct assessment guidelines are proposed, with an emphasis upon self-report, psychological testing, collateral data gathering, and historical records. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.


    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  10. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    Peyankov, I.


    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  11. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Shaw, Jon A


    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  12. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.


    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  13. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.


    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  14. Reconceptualizing the Global War on Terror


    when the label war is assigned, the population logically applies, either consciously or subconsciously , the fundamental assumptions of warfare in a...the Nation.” 26 42 Pace, National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 7. 43 Robert Gates, “A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the...Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age.” 48 Clark A. Murdock et al., Beyond Goldwater-Nichols: Defense Reform for a New Strategic

  15. Terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    Holm, Claus


    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiets metoder er ikke nok. Pædagogikken må i brug. Hvilken pædagogik? Diskontinuitetens pædagogik! Det er navnet på den type af pædagogik, der kan skabe modstandskraft mod radikalisering. Men har vi...

  16. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.


    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  17. Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in Terrorism


    Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in

  18. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism.

    Gross, Michael L; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R


    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  19. Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies


    Equipment includes 45 armoured personnel carriers (APC) one Lockheed Jetstar, two Mi-8s, two Mi-17s, and roughly 40,000 small arms. These include automatic...President George Bush is acting against terrorism. We will act the same way.”127 Sensing his ability to play the underdog , Arafat claimed early...tinians as the weak and downtrodden underdog . Thus, the image of the powerful IDF being used against poorly armed Palestinians is a powerful

  20. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    Spagat, M; Johnson, N. F; Restrepo, J. A; Becerra, O; Bohórquez, J. C; Restrepo, E. M; Zarama, R


    we report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence in three high profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardles of their underlying idealogies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent...

  1. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  2. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Vad, Erich


    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  3. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Yoo, Ho Sik


    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  4. Future Roles of Air and Space Power in Combatting Terrorism

    McAlpine, Mark


    .... The political, economic, and informational instruments of power play primary roles in addressing and eliminating the root causes behind terrorism attacks, but the military instrument will prevent...

  5. Responding to nuclear terrorism. Chapter 3. Combating radiological terrorism - A multi-faceted challenge

    Wolf, A.; Yaar, I.


    In the twentieth century, radioactive sources have become extensively used in everyday life. These sources, in the hand of terror organizations, can become a threat to the security of civilized nations, causing severe disruption to normal life. On of the main challenges of the civilized world is to keep ahead of the terrorist organizations and take appropriate preventive measures in order to prevent and reduce to minimum the impact of their actions. In order to succeed, a joint and comprehensive effort has to be undertaken to address the scientific, technological, organizational, sociological, psychological and educational aspects of the radiological terrorism threat. In this paper, some of the main activities required for preventing radiological terror events, and the way in which a modular response plan can be prepared are discussed

  6. Body and Terror: Women’s Bodies as Victims and Perpetrators of Terror

    Parvin Sultana


    Full Text Available Bodies are vulnerable because they are intrinsically linked to death. Bodies are social and they are embedded with meaning. They cannot be extracted from their specific contexts. The nation is also often equated with body politic. As a result individual bodies become the site of security/ insecurity depending on the social location of bodies. Within this discourse, this article tries to locate the bodies of women. It will look at the bodies of women as victims of terror as well as perpetrators of terror. It will try to understand if in these differentiated roles, women are able to break away from stereotypes or are still caught in heteronormative narratives. Keywords: Body, Suicide Bombers, Victims, Ethnic Conflict, Terrorism.

  7. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    Furukawa, K.


    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  8. The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism

    Alex P. Schmid


    Full Text Available Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004 is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law. The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. The latest outcome is the revised definition reprinted below. It is the result of three rounds of consultations among academics and other professionals. A description how it was arrived at can be found on pp. 39 - 98 of Alex P. Schmid (Ed.. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. The same volume also contains 260 other definitions compiled by Joseph J. Easson and Alex P. Schmid on pp. 99 -200.

  9. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  10. Integration of Social Sciences in Terrorism Modelling: Issues, Problems and Recommendations

    Resnyansky, L


    ...; terrorists behaviour; the structure of terrorist organisations and networks; terrorism threat; and influence strategies and actions directed towards terrorism threat anticipation and minimisation.

  11. Combatting Domestic Terrorism: A Strategic Approach for the Twenty-First Century

    Sienrukos, John


    .... In order to reach sound, strategic recommendations for combating terrorism, the author will begin with some background on terrorism, review the various definitions as defined by the Department...

  12. Terror: Social Media and Extremism


    lists the 39 principles of jihad. One of the principles is, " performing electronic jihad.ř The principle describes cybercrime and cyber vandalism...attack on the Boston Marathon . A lesser-known case study of self-radicalization from YouTube is Roshanara Choudhry, a British woman who stabbed a Member...done in social media to counter the extremists. A recreation of USIA with a modern spin for the technology of today could vastly improve the US

  13. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ


    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  14. Electromagnetic terrorism – threats in buildings

    Marek Kuchta


    Full Text Available The paper presents the impact of electromagnetic pulses (high power and high frequency pulses — weapon E on technical infrastructure of buildings [1]. The use of modern technologies in intelligent building management i.e. human resources, control and automation systems, efficient buildings space management, requires using a large number of integrated electronic systems. From technical point of view, the intelligent building is a building in which all subsystems (e.g. technical security, air conditioning, ventilation, lighting, power, electricity, etc., interact with each other and create human-friendly environment. The use of specialized electronic systems, processors, microcontrollers in these subsystems may be a trigger of the use of weapons E as an alternative of terrorist attack— disabling automatic building management systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: electromagnetic weapons, distortion, sensitivity, susceptibility

  15. The Association of Exposure, Risk, and Resiliency Factors With PTSD Among Jews and Arabs Exposed to Repeated Acts of Terrorism in Israel

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Varley, Joseph D.; Galea, Sandro


    Israel has faced ongoing terrorism since the beginning of the Al Aqsa Intifada in September 2000. The authors examined risk and resiliency factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 1,117 Jews and 394 Arab adult citizens of Israel during August and September 2004 through telephone interviews. Probable PTSD was found among 6.6% of Jews and 18.0% of Arabs. Predictors of probable PTSD in a multivariate model for Jews were refusal to report income, being traditionally religious, economic and psychosocial resource loss, greater traumatic growth, and lower social support. For Arabs, predictors were low education and economic resource loss among those exposed to terrorism. Findings for only those directly exposed to terrorism were similar to those for the overall national sample. PMID:18302179

  16. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott


    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  17. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  18. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.


    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  19. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  20. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    Peters, Michael A.


    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  1. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    Aksenova, Marina


    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide...

  2. The Study of Terrorism: An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Classroom.

    Kumamoto, Bob


    Asserts that terrorism, in its domestic and international forms, is a subject worthy of attention in social studies. Provides a list of causes of terrorism, a list of reasons why the United States is often a terrorist target, and three application lesson ideas. (CFR)

  3. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Schneider, M.


    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  4. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Schneider, M


    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  5. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Daniel Andrișan


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  6. El cine de terror español

    Gómez Llorente, Tatiana


    La autora comienza haciendo un estudio del cine de terror desde sus inicios, sus subgéneros, mecanimos utilizados para provocar el miedo en el espectador para finalmente centrarse en el cine de terror español a través de cinco películas representativas del género.

  7. Terrorism: Supplement to the Second Edition. A Selected Bibliography.

    Boston, Guy D.

    The annotated bibliography describes 85 materials related to terrorism which were collected by the National Criminal Reference Service. Although no consensus exists on the definition of terrorism, the term is interpreted in this document to include both illegal and destructive acts against society and governments and violent means undertaken to…

  8. Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses.

    United States Inst. of Peace, Washington, DC.

    Dealing with terrorism has become the centerpiece of United States foreign policy today. Yet terrorism--its definition, causes, and methods of dealing with it--has rarely been dealt with in high school courses. The United States Institute of Peace has developed this 3-lesson plan (for 45-minute class periods) teaching guide, aimed at grades 11 and…

  9. A proposed universal medical and public health definition of terrorism.

    Arnold, Jeffrey L; Ortenwall, Per; Birnbaum, Marvin L; Sundnes, Knut Ole; Aggrawal, Anil; Anantharaman, V; Al Musleh, Abdul Wahab; Asai, Yasufumi; Burkle, Frederick M; Chung, Jae Myung; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Debacker, Michel; Della Corte, Francesco; Delooz, Herman; Dickinson, Garth; Hodgetts, Timothy; Holliman, C James; MacFarlane, Campbell; Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Stok, Edita; Tsai, Ming-Che


    The lack of a universally applicable definition of terrorism has confounded the understanding of terrorism since the term was first coined in 18th Century France. Although a myriad of definitions of terrorism have been advanced over the years, virtually all of these definitions have been crisis-centered, frequently reflecting the political perspectives of those who seek to define it. In this article, we deconstruct these previously used definitions of terrorism in order to reconstruct a definition of terrorism that is consequence-centered, medically relevant, and universally harmonized. A universal medical and public health definition of terrorism will facilitate clinical and scientific research, education, and communication about terrorism-related events or disasters. We propose the following universal medical and public definition of terrorism: The intentional use of violence--real or threatened--against one or more non-combatants and/or those services essential for or protective of their health, resulting in adverse health effects in those immediately affected and their community, ranging from a loss of well-being or security to injury, illness, or death.

  10. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.


    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  11. 239 Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...


    In recent times, terrorism has become one of the most dangerous threats to .... groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience”. (ITSR ... terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon ..... Books. Imobighe, T.A. (2006b). “Combating Terrorism in Africa: An Integrated.

  12. Freedom of expression and the Ethiopian anti-terrorism proclamation

    Freedom of expression and the Ethiopian anti-terrorism proclamation: a comparative analysis. ... Though surveillance and interception undermine democracy, a mere suspicion of terrorism gives the National Intelligence and Security Service a power to conduct surveillance or intercept any type of communications.

  13. The Role Of Education In Combating Terrorism | Oni | Journal of ...


    The world is witnessing series of repeated political, religious conflict and terrorism, particularly worrisome is the acts of terrorism, which is now prevalent across the world. The phenomenon of 9/11/2001 on U.S and the recent attack on June 7, 2005 in London and some other parts of the world revealed the devastation, pains ...

  14. On Terrorism: An Analysis of Terrorism as a Form of Warfare


    unwitting political terrorists subconsciously reacting to their political and social environment. Given this, it is necessary to subject the...overt political rationale, there are some who would argue that it was, at least subconsciously , a product of sincere political motivations. For example...Isolate 3) Expansion Guerrilla War Physically Isolate 4) Victorious Conventional Physically Destroy 5) Consolidation Terrorism Reprogram Populace 6

  15. Correlation of Concepts "Extremism" and "Terrorism" in Countering the Financing of Terrorism and Extremism

    Baisagatova, Diana B.; Kemelbekov, Saken T.; Smagulova, Diana A.; Kozhamberdiyeva, Aigul S.


    The main threats to world order are terrorist and extremist activities. On the world stage, countries unite into a coalition with the aim to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism. At the local level, the terrorist threat is fought by the security services. In order to prevent global human victims, which may arise as a result of…

  16. “Counterterrorism Bookshelf” – 23 Books on Terrorism & Counter-terrorism Related Subjects

    Joshua Sinai


    Full Text Available This column consists of two parts: capsule reviews of ten books recently published on terrorism and counterterrorism-related topics, and - continuing the series begun in the previous column of highlighting books by significant publishers (listed in alphabetical order - capsule reviews of 13 important books published by CRC Press. 

  17. The Economics of Terrorism: Economics Methods of Analysis in the Study of Terrorism and Counterterrorism


    addition to outlining definitions, data sources, choice theory , game theory , and the economic consequences of terrorism, this study identifies how...stratégiques. Les auteurs sont le Maj Alain Rollin, le Maj Meaghan Setter et Mme Rachel Lea Heide, Ph.D., sous la direction du Lcol William Yee...18 7 Choice Theory and its Applications 7.1

  18. Medical mitigation model: quantifying the benefits of the public health response to a chemical terrorism attack.

    Good, Kevin; Winkel, David; VonNiederhausern, Michael; Hawkins, Brian; Cox, Jessica; Gooding, Rachel; Whitmire, Mark


    The Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) are programs that estimate the risk of chemical terrorism attacks to help inform and improve the US defense posture against such events. One aspect of these programs is the development and advancement of a Medical Mitigation Model-a mathematical model that simulates the medical response to a chemical terrorism attack and estimates the resulting number of saved or benefited victims. At the foundation of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model is the concept of stock-and-flow modeling; "stocks" are states that individuals progress through during the event, while "flows" permit and govern movement from one stock to another. Using this approach, the model is able to simulate and track individual victims as they progress from exposure to an end state. Some of the considerations in the model include chemical used, type of attack, route and severity of exposure, response-related delays, detailed treatment regimens with efficacy defined as a function of time, medical system capacity, the influx of worried well individuals, and medical countermeasure availability. As will be demonstrated, the output of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of the existing public health response system and develop and examine potential improvement strategies. Such a modeling and analysis capability can be used to inform first-responder actions/training, guide policy decisions, justify resource allocation, and direct knowledge-gap studies.

  19. Nuclear terrorism risk analysis using game theory. Case study of sea transportation of MOX fuel

    Nakatani, Eri; Tanaka, Satoru; Choi, Jor-Shan


    While considerable attention and resources have been directed towards improving nuclear security in Japan in response to the threat of nuclear terrorism, the transport of nuclear material raises concern by the public as indicated in the recent return of MOX fuel from Europe. This concern cannot be adequately addressed by the government through communications with the public because of the confidential nature of such transport. Also, it remains a challenge for adequately assessing the nuclear terrorism risk because many key parameters associated with such assessment cannot be derived from statistical data and reflect actors' intentions unlike assessment on natural disasters. This study proposes an assessment methodology which introduces game theory to deduce the correlations between those key parameters and can be used to analyze the nuclear terrorism risk, both quantitatively and qualitatively for the civilian use of nuclear power. Risk will be calculated by Monte Carlo methods based on probability distributions set for actors' utilities. A case-study of transporting the MOX fuel by sea is also included. (author)

  20. Protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. Is Jamaica prepared to deal with this potential threat?

    Powell, E.D.


    Full text: Jamaica, a developing Caribbean country, is presently experiencing an economic recession. This has lead to the government having considerable difficulty in acquiring much needed financing, even financing that is necessary to protect the county's resources and facilities from terrorist and sabotage. Essential national facilities include our international airports, embassies and High Commission, hospitals, utility plants - electricity, water and telecommunications, oil-refineries, government ministries, parliamentary houses and educational facilities. These facilities are vulnerable to terrorist attacks and sabotages. Terrorist acts and acts of sabotage can come from internal as well as external sources, they can be commandeered from the air, land or sea. They can be politically, socio-economically or otherwise motivated. As a third world developing nation, Jamaica does not have the capability or the resources necessary to secure all its assets, the government must prioritize on such resource allocation. With its high level of debt servicing, dealing with recurrent and capital expenditure and addressing other social issues, some important issues will be placed on the back burner, dealing with terrorism and sabotage will fall in the category. One contributing factor is the fact that to date the incidents of terrorism and sabotage have been few to non-existent. This has encouraged the government to become somewhat complacent, subscribing to the belief that acts of terrorism and sabotage will never happen. This practice can be detrimental to the country, as one cannot underestimate the threat of terrorism and sabotage. With the steady increase in drug related incidents and with the deportation agreement the government has with some first world countries such as the USA and England, this threat is very realistic. Drug 'Lords'/'Dons' are known to promote terrorism and sabotage as revenge mechanism against governments for unfavorable decision handed down by the

  1. Variance, Violence, and Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model of Terrorism

    John A. Sautter


    Full Text Available Much of the debate surrounding contemporary studies of terrorism focuses upon transnational terrorism. However, historical and contemporary evidence suggests that domestic terrorism is a more prevalent and pressing concern. A formal microeconomic model of terrorism is utilized here to understand acts of political violence in a domestic context within the domain of democratic governance.This article builds a very basic microeconomic model of terrorist decision making to hypothesize how a democratic government might influence the sorts of strategies that terrorists use. Mathematical models have been used to explain terrorist behavior in the past. However, the bulk of inquires in this area have only focused on the relationship between terrorists and the government, or amongst terrorists themselves. Central to the interpretation of the terrorist conflict presented here is the idea that voters (or citizens are also one of the important determinants of how a government will respond to acts of terrorism.

  2. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny


    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  3. IAEA to hold special session on nuclear terrorism


    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA this week for an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. The Special Session, which will bring together experts on nuclear terrorism from around the world, will deal with the following issues: The Psychology of terrorism; Intelligence, police and border protection; Guarding nuclear reactors and material from terrorists and thieves; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Intentional dispersal of radioactive material - Sabotage of fixed installations or transport systems; The Legal Framework: Treaties and Conventions, Laws; Regulations and Codes of Practice; IAEA Nuclear Security and Safety Programmes

  4. Consumer reports [electronic resource


    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  5. British torture in the 'war on terror'.

    Blakeley, Ruth; Raphael, Sam


    Despite long-standing allegations of UK involvement in prisoner abuse during counterterrorism operations as part of the US-led 'war on terror', a consistent narrative emanating from British government officials is that Britain neither uses, condones nor facilitates torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment. We argue that such denials are untenable. We have established beyond reasonable doubt that Britain has been deeply involved in post-9/11 prisoner abuse, and we can now provide the most detailed account to date of the depth of this involvement. We argue that it is possible to identify a peculiarly British approach to torture in the 'war on terror', which is particularly well-suited to sustaining a narrative of denial. To explain the nature of UK involvement, we argue that it can be best understood within the context of how law and sovereign power have come to operate during the 'war on terror'. We turn here to the work of Judith Butler, and explore the role of Britain as a 'petty sovereign', operating under the state of exception established by the US executive. UK authorities have not themselves suspended the rule of law so overtly; indeed, they have repeatedly insisted on their commitment to it. Nevertheless, they have been able to construct a rhetorical, legal and policy 'scaffold' that has enabled them to demonstrate at least procedural adherence to human rights norms while, at the same time, allowing UK officials to acquiesce in the arbitrary exercise of sovereignty over individuals who are denied any access to appropriate representation or redress in compliance with the rule of law.

  6. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J


    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA ( provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  7. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    Pilat, Joseph F.


    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  8. Terror Operations: Case Studies in Terrorism (U.S. Army TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1.01)


    terrorism topics. Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. Proponent Statement. Headquarters, U.S. Army...Economic and political disruptions can have profound global consequences. Sources of instability within the region include hegemony , terrorism

  9. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Quartermaine, Angela


    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  10. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim


    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  11. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    Dige, Morten


    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  12. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    Kingshott, B.F.


    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  13. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G


    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention



    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  15. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Cind Du Bois


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  16. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская


    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  17. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова


    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  18. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona


    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  19. Journals Supporting Terrorism Research: Identification and Investigation into Their Impact on the Social Sciences

    Bullis, Daryl R.; Irving, Richard D.


    A citation analysis of two preeminent terrorism journals ("Terrorism and Political Violence" and "Studies in Conflict and Terrorism") was used to identify 37 additional social science journals of significant importance to terrorism research. Citation data extracted from the "Web of Science" database was used to…

  20. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on the...

  1. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.


    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified Anti-Terrorism...

  2. Political Terrorism: A Mini-Course for High School Social Studies.

    Ellington, Lucien

    By participating in the 2-week mini-course, high school students will learn that (1) there is a difference between political terror and other criminal activity; (2) governments as well as nongovernmental groups engage in political terrorism; (3) political terrorism has been present throughout history; (4) political terrorism is a world wide…

  3. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    Oehmichen, Anna


    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  4. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat


    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  5. Intelligence and the prevention of nuclear terrorism

    Despres, J.


    The paper first defines intelligence and nuclear terrorism and analyzes the nature of the problem from both a specifically US and a more generally Western viewpoint. As used here, intelligence refers broadly to the collection and reporting of information, the production of assessments, and the presentation of judgments by intelligence specialists who work for public and national security authorities. Intelligence encompasses the entire range of investigative and reporting activities at all levels of government - from local police units to allied military commands - that could contribute to the discovery and disarming of nuclear terrorists. Nuclear terrorism, in contrast, refers only to credible threats or acts of extreme violence by forces outside the direct control of any state through false threats or actual use of a nuclear bomb. This definition excludes other highly menacing or damaging activities involving nuclear materials, facilities, weapons, or phobias such as poisoning the air or water supplies with radioactive substances; stealing nuclear materials, sabotaging nuclear powerplants, occupying a facility or seizing a vehicle with nuclear weapons, or inflaming public fears in the event of a nuclear accident. These events can be extremely frightening, as in the case of public reactions throughout Europe to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. However, their potential destructiveness and exploitability by terrorists do not match the threat of nuclear explosion

  6. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    Tetley, M. G.


    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  7. New trends in terrorism : the use of social media, cyber-terrorism, the role of open-source intelligence and the cases of rightwing extremism and lone wolf terrorism

    Καραδήμα, Σοφία


    Terrorism has existed almost as long as humanity, and has appeared in various forms, creating new and evolving trends, making the definition of terrorism even more difficult to define. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the new trends in terrorism after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, as well as attempting to find the factors that facilitate the emergence and/or recurrence of trends in terrorism, by examining the related Literature, creating case studies and providing supp...

  8. Legal Challenges of Combating Terrorism: International Humanitarian Law Implications of ‘Signature Strikes’ by Drones.

    Ndi, George


    Terrorism has become the main international security challenge of the 21st century. From a historical perspective, terrorism has always been a serious concern for governments and nation states. The modern threat posed by terrorism has a much wider scope because of its international character. The much bigger threat posed by modern terrorism can also be explained by technological innovations and the reliance of terror networks on social networks both to propagate their message and as a recruit...

  9. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Eitan eHeldenberg


    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  10. Improbable Success: Risk Communication and the Terrorism Hazard


    never aspired to be anything more than a bureaucratic construct partnered with the media. It has taken years to fully understand the unintended...terrorism plan. VAP /(3273BD3F76A7A5DEDA E36942A54D7D90)~National+Counter-Terrorism+Plan+- +Alert+System...Australian Government National Security. (2009a). National Counter-Terrorism Alert System Fact Sheet. VAP

  11. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Beatrice de Graaf


    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  12. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W


    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  13. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Nicholas J. Beutell


    Full Text Available This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  14. A Criminal Law Approach to Terrorism in Brazil


    2 Veja Magazine, “Exclusivo: Documentos da CIA, FBI e PF Mostram Como Age a Rede do Terror Islamico no Brasil” [Exclusive: Documents from CIA, FBI...exclusivo-documentos-da-cia-fbi-e-pf-mostram-como-age-a- rede - do-terror-islamico-no-brasil. 3 Ibid. 4 Brazilian Federal Government,” Legislacao/Lei 7170/83...60 Ibid. 61 Veja Magazine, “Exclusivo: Documentos da CIA, FBI e PF Mostram como Age a Rede do Terror Islamico no Brasil.” April

  15. The problems of informational terrorism in African countries

    Voznyuk Eugenia Vasylivna


    Full Text Available The features of informational terrorism in African countries, especially in SADC countries, are analyzed as well as the ways to combat information terrorism in this region. The major issues related to information terrorism are highlighted, which include data exfiltration, social engineering, insider threats, database breaches as well as poor identity and access management. The essence of Computer Security (Cyber Security is revealed and its main tasks are characterized: accessibility, integrity, including authenticity and confidentiality. The main threats for cyberspace are distinguished.

  16. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra


    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  17. Intelligence and Its Role in Protecting Against Terrorism

    Don Githens


    Full Text Available The art and science of gathering critical operational intelligence has been defined in many ways and is beyond our needs for this writing. Throughout the course of history, many wars have been fought depending heavily on various forms of intelligence. During our most recent actions in the War on Terror, intelligence analysis has played a critical role in both offensive and defensive operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. With such varying fact-finding techniques available and utilized in the defense of our country, it has become an arduous task to collect, decipher, package, prioritize, disseminate, and act upon everything that comes down the pipe.Intelligence is even more important in homeland defense and security. Our society is suspicious of intrusions on personal liberties. Mandated identity cards, restricted vehicle access and random searches of airline passengers are generally not well received. That makes it especially important to prevent terrorist attacks by interdicting the terrorists and their resources before they can reach their targets. The primary means of accomplishing this is through a combination of intelligence and law enforcement work.

  18. Electronics


    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  19. The effects of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija

    Stevanović Obrad M.


    Full Text Available The very first ideas about secession of Kosovo and Metohija of the Republic of Serbia and the use of violence in achieving them appeared immediately after the First Balkan War (1912. The key pillars of this, secessionist motivated violence in Kosovo during and after the wars of liberation of Serbia (1912 and 1918. And between the two world wars, were kachach, during and after World War II that were ballistic groups of Albanian extremists. Violence based on their tradition, with unforeseeable serious consequences for vital interests of the Republic of Serbia, escalated in the last decade of the twentieth century, violence Albanian extremist group called the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLÁ, supported by influential members of the international community. In many papers, the analysis of the specific objectives, the holders-active entities, resources, facilities attack - passive subjects and consequences, as constituent elements of that violence, confirmed his terrorist character of the KLÁ as a terrorist profile of its key holder. In this regard, the work is the result of research in which the author, as a consequence of the analysis of the constituent elements of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija, the end of the last century and the beginning of this century, identified scientifically described and classified the effects, or levels of achievement of objectives internal and holders Foreign support­ers. In addition to the indisputable proven effects in achieving the goals of the operational and intermediate levels, the work is proven and partial achievement of strategic-political (ethno-separatistic internal target holders of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija, defined as secession-the secession of Kosovo and Metohija from the Republic of Serbia. The deployment of international military, security and civilian forces in Kosovo and Metohija, with the tempo­rary transfer of jurisdiction of state authorities of the FRY and Serbia to the

  20. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Luke Howie


    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  1. Terror in time: extending culturomics to address basic terror management mechanisms.

    Dechesne, Mark; Bandt-Law, Bryn


    Building on Google's efforts to scan millions of books, this article introduces methodology using a database of annual word frequencies of the 40,000 most frequently occurring words in the American literature between 1800 and 2009. The current paper uses this methodology to replicate and identify terror management processes in historical context. Variation in frequencies of word usage of constructs relevant to terror management theory (e.g. death, worldview, self-esteem, relationships) are investigated over a time period of 209 years. Study 1 corroborated previous TMT findings and demonstrated that word use of constructs related to death and of constructs related to patriotism and romantic relationships significantly co-vary over time. Study 2 showed that the use of the word "death" most strongly co-varies over time with the use of medical constructs, but also co-varies with the use of constructs related to violence, relationships, religion, positive sentiment, and negative sentiment. Study 3 found that a change in the use of death related words is associated with an increase in the use of fear related words, but not in anxiety related words. Results indicate that the described methodology generates valuable insights regarding terror management theory and provide new perspectives for theoretical advances.

  2. An Examination of How the Availability of State-backed Terrorism Insurance Programs and Commercial Terrorism Insurance Affects the Operational Decisions of Multinational Companies.

    GREY, William / WJG


    This dissertation explores the extent to which the operational decisions of multinational companies (MNCs) are affected by the availability of State-backed terrorism insurance programs and commercial terrorism insurance. The initial hypothesis made is that MNCs will be reluctant to invest in zones or countries with high terrorism or political risks, especially when insurance for these risks may be limited or unavailable. This investigation finds that the availability of State-backed terrorism...

  3. The Development of a United Nations Counter-Terrorism Policy: A pragmatic approach to the problem of a definition of Terrorism

    Turney-Harris, Latasha


    The primary object of this thesis is to propose a pragmatic solution to the legitimacy problems associated with the absence of a definition of Terrorism within United Nations Counter Terrorism Policy. It contends that the attempts to draft such a definition within the Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism have now come to a political standstill and are unlikely to result in a strong legal definition of terrorism. Any outcome is likely to be a political compromise in nature. This thesis therefore ...

  4. Twenty-five years of violence: the epidemiology of terrorism in South America.

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Zane, Richard; Giräldez, Ediza


    Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades. While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8%. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9% (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1%), and Argentina with 267 (8.9%). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3%), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8%. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1% (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2% (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95% CI 13.45 to 19.40; p < 0.0001]. The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of2,883 incidents (88.2%). Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.

  5. Preventing radiological terrorism - opportunities and challenges

    Barlow, Maegon E.


    The Office of Radiological Security (ORS), within the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, enhances global security by preventing high activity radioactive materials from use in acts of terrorism. This is a challenging task considering that high activity radiological materials are ubiquitous, constantly moving and mostly found in operational civil facilities. The implementation of the ORS mission is based on a three pillar strategy - protect, remove and reduce. ORS works both domestically and internationally with government authorities, law enforcement, and businesses to protect radioactive sources used for vital medical, research, and commercial purposes, remove and dispose of disused radioactive sources, and reduce the global reliance on radioactive sources through the promotion of viable non-isotopic alternative technologies. ORS has active engagement in all 50 States and in over 80 countries. This presentation will provide an overview of ORS protect, remove, and reduce strategy, as well as security challenges and opportunities

  6. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana


    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  7. Nuclear terrorism: after the Washington summit

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin


    In this note, the author comments the issues addressed by the 2016 Nuclear Safety Summit (NSS) of Washington, and the content of its final statement. He notices that the scope of addressed topics has evolved since the first summits (issues related to highly enriched uranium and to plutonium), that not only technological but also political and diplomatic issues are taken into account, and that GNOs are always more involved. The author briefly comments some aspects of the content of the final statement: threat of nuclear terrorism, improvement of nuclear safety since 2010, recall of the three main pillars of the non proliferation Treaty (non proliferation, disarmament, specific uses of nuclear energy), implementation of nuclear safety under at the own responsibility and duty of countries possessing nuclear materials. Finally, the author discusses how the NSS process will go on, and evokes remaining questions regarding the existence of an actual international constraining regime, and financial and functional issues


    Ridwan Rosdiawan


    Full Text Available While polemics is still shadowing the internationally accepted definition, the word “Terrorism” becomes more controversial when it is paralleled with “Islam”. The Islamic Terrorism discourse is more likely to be an elusive concept if not a Fata Morgana. Its very existence appears as a real entity but its form can hardly be described. It would be always be problematic to posterize such a terrible notion as “terrorism” and put it side by side with a noble concept as in “Islam”. The fact, however, shows that the two-word has been widely discussed in global arena. “Islamic Terrorism” has become a trending topic in global politics and academic discourses in the first decade of the millennium.


    John Richard Jiménez Peñuela


    Full Text Available En esta presentación, se abordan los resultados del “Proyecto Transversal Ciencia Gráfica”, relacionados con la proyección de cine de terror, a educandos de ciclo III. Además de las proyecciones, el proyecto desarrollo la habilidad gráfica de los estudiantes en relación con la biología y el arte, a partir de lecciones sobre dibujo biológico, y la fabricación de juguetes con motivos biológicos por parte de los estudiantes. De esta manera, se emprenden acciones conjuntas desde arte y biología para la comprensión de los temas vistos en el área de ciencias naturales, aplicando los conocimientos de ambos campos en la comprensión estética de la relación humano-naturaleza.

  10. Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

    Davis, Lois M; Mariano, Louis T; Pace, Jennifer E; Cotton, Sarah K; Steinberg, Paul


    Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism...

  11. The Role of Targeted Killing in the Campaign Against Terror

    Cullen, Peter M


    .... Some commentators view it as an indispensable tool in the fight against terrorism and argue for its expanded use, while others question its legality and claim that it is immoral and ultimately ineffective...

  12. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing


    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  13. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela


    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  14. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Leonard A Cole


    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  15. Resurrecting NSC-68 for the Global War on Terror

    Cabrey, Richard M


    Although the threat to today's U.S. national interests is a form of terrorism being waged by Radical Islam, there are distinct similarities to the threat of communism that was posed after World War II...

  16. Mitigating Key Intelligence Gaps In Colombian War On Terrorism

    Goebel, Jefferey


    Successfully transitioning from a war on drugs to a war on terrorism in Colombia is a national security concern for the United States and poses significant operational readiness challenges for USSOUTHCOM...

  17. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism


    Dec 13, 2016 ... A 25‑year‑old air force personnel (lance corporal) presented to our accident and emergency ... Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of. Terrorism ..... Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2011. p.

  18. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Dr. Cristian Barna


    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  19. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Hoette, Trisha Marie


    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  20. Islam, Terrorism, and the Strategy of Enlightened Moderation

    Malik, Irfan A


    The study focuses on analyzing the ongoing acts of violence and radicalism by individuals associated with Islam, in the light of teachings and principles of this great religion of peace, which denounces terrorism...