WorldWideScience

Sample records for terror attacks influence

  1. Review and expectations of terror attack emergency rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wen WANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of anti-terror struggle since the 9/11 event has indicated adequately that terrorism is a global problem and international danger. Likewise, anti-terror emergency rescue is also an important task which will influence the safety and benefit of every country all over the world. This paper reviews the main progress and result of international anti-terror struggle in the last ten years, and also introduces the new characteristic of the international anti-terror activity. Besides that, this paper also brings forward the further consideration about the anti-terror emergency medical rescue and the researches remaining to be carried out. The latter includes: (1 to further perfect the high-efficient medical rescue command organization; (2 to further perfect the emergency medical rescue prearranged scheme; (3 to further perfect the construction of rescue system and rescue base after various types of terror attack; (4 to further promote the anti-terror consciousness in the public, and pay more attention to the prevention and investigation of the psychological disaster; (5 to further carry out the basic investigation on emergency medical rescue after various terror attack injuries (for example the types and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology and prevention and treatment of stress-psychological effect induced by terror attack, new high-efficient medical rescue measure and equipments, and so on.

  2. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  3. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  4. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  5. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  6. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment

  7. User Experiences With Editorial Control in Online Comments Sections After the 2011 Terror Attacks in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control of online comments sections in online newspapers, in light of the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyse data from a quantitative survey (N=3470) among users of four newspaper...... their minds freely have become worse after the terror attacks....

  8. Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775

  9. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrorism, memory and dealing with a trauma. Spontaneous memorialization of the 2016 Brussels attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Milosevic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the interest of memory scholars in political violence and more specifically in terrorism is not novel, after the terrorist attacks in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016) there appears to be a certain urgency to reflect upon these nascent memories in collective, European immaginarium. This article traces the development of a “bottom-up” memorialization process in the immediate aftermath of terrorist attacks in Brussels (March - July 2016) questioning how these acts of terrorisms will settl...

  11. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  12. Cyber Attacks During the War on Terrorism: A Predictive Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vatis, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Just as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 defied what many thought possible, cyber attacks could escalate in response to United States and allied retaliatory measures against the terrorists...

  13. Statistical Property and Model for the Inter-Event Time of Terrorism Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Fang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The inter-event time of terrorism attack events is investigated by empirical data and model analysis. Empirical evidence shows that it follows a scale-free property. In order to understand the dynamic mechanism of such a statistical feature, an opinion dynamic model with a memory effect is proposed on a two-dimensional lattice network. The model mainly highlights the role of individual social conformity and self-affirmation psychology. An attack event occurs when the order parameter indicating the strength of public opposition opinion is smaller than a critical value. Ultimately, the model can reproduce the same statistical property as the empirical data and gives a good understanding for the possible dynamic mechanism of terrorism attacks.

  14. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Revisiting the Contagion Hypothesis: Terrorism, News Coverage, and Copycat Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte L. Nacos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Contagion refers here to a form of copycat crime, whereby violence-prone individuals and groups imitate forms of (political violence attractive to them, based on examples usually popularized by mass media. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, for instance, Palestinian terrorists staged a number of spectacular hijackings of commercial airliners, exploited the often prolonged hostage situations to win massive news coverage for their political grievances, and appeared to inspire other groups to follow their example. Although terrorism scholars, government officials, and journalists have pondered the question of mass-mediated contagion for decades, they have arrived at different conclusions. Because of significant advances in communication and information technology, and changes in the global media landscape during the last decade or so, this article reconsiders arguments surrounding contagion theories and contends that various types of media are indeed important carriers of the virus of hate and political violence. 

  16. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  17. Medical mitigation model: quantifying the benefits of the public health response to a chemical terrorism attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kevin; Winkel, David; VonNiederhausern, Michael; Hawkins, Brian; Cox, Jessica; Gooding, Rachel; Whitmire, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) are programs that estimate the risk of chemical terrorism attacks to help inform and improve the US defense posture against such events. One aspect of these programs is the development and advancement of a Medical Mitigation Model-a mathematical model that simulates the medical response to a chemical terrorism attack and estimates the resulting number of saved or benefited victims. At the foundation of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model is the concept of stock-and-flow modeling; "stocks" are states that individuals progress through during the event, while "flows" permit and govern movement from one stock to another. Using this approach, the model is able to simulate and track individual victims as they progress from exposure to an end state. Some of the considerations in the model include chemical used, type of attack, route and severity of exposure, response-related delays, detailed treatment regimens with efficacy defined as a function of time, medical system capacity, the influx of worried well individuals, and medical countermeasure availability. As will be demonstrated, the output of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of the existing public health response system and develop and examine potential improvement strategies. Such a modeling and analysis capability can be used to inform first-responder actions/training, guide policy decisions, justify resource allocation, and direct knowledge-gap studies.

  18. Radioactive release from VVER-1000 reactors after a terror attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: One of the terror scenarios for nuclear power plants is a severe damage of the reactor containment caused by a plane crash or a missile. Due to the loss of electric power the cooling of the core is not maintained leading to a core melt accident. Normally in the course of severe accidents an intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. The goal of this work is the investigation of the behavior of the radioactive release from a VVER-1000-type reactor during a severe accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The results are compared with the release in a severe accident via a very small leakage due to the untightness of the containment. This work supplements a series of studies investigating the behavior of a VVER-1000-type reactor during severe accidents under different accident management strategies. The focus in this study is on the 'station blackout'-sequence (or TMLB' in the WASH-1400 nomenclature). The calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. Up to the melt-through of the cavity bottom the thermal-hydraulics phenomena are almost identical to the TMLB'-case with an intact containment from the beginning. The phenomena occur slightly delayed due to the large containment leak. When the core-concrete-interaction begins the resulting gases leave the containment through the large leak and do not cause a pressure increase. The containment pressure remains at ambient pressure. Due to the different behavior and to the different release times of the nuclides the deviations to the scenario with an intact containment show a great variety. From this comparison it can be shown that the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 6000. (author)

  19. Forgiveness, coping, and terrorism: do tendency to forgive and coping strategies associate with the level of posttraumatic symptoms of injured victims of terror attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael; Gil, Sharon; Gilbar, Ora

    2014-07-01

    The study examined the tendency to forgive (self, others, and situations) and coping strategies (problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance) among terror attack victims as associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. The sample included 108 terror victims who had been injured in terror attacks (mean age 46.23, standard deviation = 11.61; 58.3% male). Participants agreed to undergo assessments of their PTSD symptoms, coping strategies, and tendency to forgive. A nested structural equation model design showed that tendency to forgive is positively associated with problem-focused coping and negatively associated with avoidance coping. Additionally, tendency to forgive and problem-focused coping are associated with decreased PTSD symptom severity, whereas emotion-focused coping is associated with elevated PTSD symptom severity. Tendency to forgive and coping strategies are significantly associated with each other and with severity of PTSD symptoms among individuals injured in terror attacks. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hotels as a target for terrorism: a study of the Helsinki area hotels’ preparedness for an attack

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalevskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is an issue that is not to be taken lightly in the world of today. The year 2015 has sadly been marked with an unsettlingly high number of acts of terror across the globe that claimed a multitude of civilian lives. The hospitality industry and hotels in particular are especially vulnerable to a potential terrorist attack, and this fact attracted the author’s attention to the issue of the prevention of such attacks and the measures (if any) that the Helsinki hotels are ...

  1. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utøya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relevance of terrorism for Italian students not directly exposed to it: The affective impact of the 2015 Paris and the 2016 Brussels attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Burro, Roberto; Brondino, Margherita; Pasini, Margherita

    2018-04-01

    Notwithstanding the dramatically increasing frequency of acts of terrorism in Europe and the extent of their media coverage, there is lack of knowledge on people's affective reactions and associated emotion regulation strategies. We explored the affective impact on two cohorts of Italian students (n = 193) possibly exposed vicariously through the mass media to the 2015 Paris or the 2016 Brussels terrorist attacks, respectively. We accessed data from three online questionnaires: one on emotion regulation administered before each attack; one on daily affect administered just before and after each attack; and one on causes of weekly affect and life satisfaction administered at the end of the week in which each attack occurred. The attacks were perceived as relevant for influencing negative affect for 22% of the students. For them, suppression-less frequently used than reappraisal-was associated with an improvement of affect after each attack but negatively related to life satisfaction concerning the week in which the attacks occurred. Our data showed that the recent terrorist attacks occurring in Europe had an affective impact on people at some distance who were vicariously exposed and point to the protective role of emotion regulation as a key resource for individuals' well-being. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Intelligence and Security Standards on Industrial Facilities Protection in Case of Terrorism and Military Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipetic, D.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial facilities, which use toxic chemicals in their production processes, are tempting targets for military and terrorist strategists. They know that these facilities when attacked could produce effects not realizable with conventional weapons. The resulting legal, policy and political consequences would be minimal as compared to that of disseminating toxic chemicals or chemical agents as weapons on enemy territory. At this time there is no clear definition of the legality or illegality of these types of actions used against specific industrial targets for the purpose of mass destruction or disruption. Without clearly defined international regulations covering these actions, we must depend solely on national defense systems. Not only are these regulation not defined, there are no implementation tools, which would be available if the various treaties (CWC/BWC) etc., were able to incorporate needed legislative action. Consequently we must depend on and put into practice defense security standards for industrial facilities for protection against both possible terrorist and military attacks. Emergency responses to incidents involving violent criminals and terrorists are extremely dangerous. Incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, firearms, and hazardous materials have resulted in the injury and death of many firefighters, police officers and medical personnel. We wish to intend display place and role of intelligence and counter intelligence system to prevention potential target and military attack. Security needs to be incorporated into the public safety culture and it must become the routine for how we operate. The recognition and identification process is an important skill that needs continual refinement. The use of transportation or facility paperwork assists in recognizing what potential hazards. A key factor in the successful command and management of a hazmat incident or terrorism event is the ability of public safety agencies to function as a

  4. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  5. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials; Eskalation des Terrors? Ueber das Anschlagsrisiko mit chemischen, biologischen, radiologischen und nuklearen Waffen oder Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-07-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  6. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  7. Terrorism in the Basque press (1990, 2000, 2008 and 2009. Analysis of newspaper editorials about ETA’s fatal attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-María Caminos-Marcet, Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the editorials published by the Basque press in 1990, 2000, 2008 and 2009, when ETA carried out fatal attacks. The objective is to examine the treatment given by the different Basque newspapers to terrorism in their most important opinion texts, which reflect their ideology. The initial hypothesis is that the editorial line used by the Basque press to address ETA’s attacks has changed remarkably during the analysed years, going from the virtual absence of editorials to the use of editorials as active instruments in the fight against violence. By 2009, the Basque press had finally defined its strategy to combat ETA’s terrorism, and this was perfectly reflected in their editorials.

  8. Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1990-01-01

    The NPT should prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as a contribution to the worldpeace. This aim is also threatened today by the nuclear actions of states and subnational groups. Such actions have occured in the past and are expected in the future. States and specific terrorist groups are able to acquire specific nuclear material by theft and to assault nuclear plants and transport. The main constraint, the deficit of motivation, could be dropped in the future for many reasons. Therefore nuclear terrorism is a 'real threat to civilization' and its probability is increasing. (orig.) [de

  9. The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Walter; Hoover, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income–terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators’ nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators’ nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls. PMID:28579636

  10. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Janne Botha Pedersen

    Full Text Available Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a role clarity during the rescue operations and; b achieved mastering for future disaster operations.In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859, police officers (n = 252 and firefighters (n = 102 returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks.The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05 were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001 and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001.Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  11. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  12. Explaining the unexplainable: designing a national strategy on classroom communication concerning the 22 July terror attack in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Langballe, Ase; Raundalen, Magne

    2014-01-01

    In the context of crisis and disasters, school-aged children are a vulnerable group with fewer coping resources than adults. The school is a key arena for preventive interventions; teachers can be given a key role in large-scale school-based interventions following a man-made or natural disaster. This paper describes a practical example of designing a school-based population-level intervention. The preventive measures were delivered as a national communication strategy between teachers and pupils aged 6-19 concerning the terror attack on 22 July 2011 in Norway. The strategy is based on principles from international research. The presentation contributes to the discussion of defining the teacher's role in school-based crisis interventions and dealing with high-intensity media coverage of war, terror, and catastrophes. THE PRESENTATION PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HOW TEACHERS CAN TAKE AN ACTIVE ROLE IN HELPING PUPILS TO DEAL WITH SUCH EVENTS THROUGH TWO APPROACHES: the therapeutic approach, to restore calm and feelings of safety; and the educational approach, to foster reflection and deeper understanding.

  13. Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2003-01-01

    Persistent computer security vulnerabilities may expose U.S. critical infrastructure and government computer systems to possible cyber attack by terrorists, possibly affecting the economy or other areas of national security...

  14. 239 Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In recent times, terrorism has become one of the most dangerous threats to .... groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience”. (ITSR ... terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon ..... Books. Imobighe, T.A. (2006b). “Combating Terrorism in Africa: An Integrated.

  15. Terrorismo e os atentados de 11 de setembro Terrorism and the attacks of September 11th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly da Silva Wellausen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O fenômeno da fragmentação mundial produziu uma nova ordem nas relações de poder, estabelecendo uma nova tensão entre os de "cima" contra os de "baixo", verticalizando o antigo eixo geopolítico leste/oeste da Guerra Fria. Os elementos formadores das identidades oprimidas aspiram à afirmação de um modo de ser, constituindo o caráter ontológico da personalidade coletiva. Percorrer as razões teóricas que alimentam o pensamento e a ação terrorista, suas estratégias e táticas discursivas, é o objetivo desse trabalho. Uma ontologia da violência brota do interior dos conceitos foucaultianos - microfísica, biopoder, sujeito, liberdade, jogos de verdade, cinismo -, destruindo tudo com seu poder avassalador. Na nova ordem mundial, o terrorismo enquanto ação pontual é o contraponto ao poder dominante, como presença ameaçadora e difusa, agindo pela surpresa, disseminando medo e destruição por onde passa.The phenomenon of the world fragmentation produced a new order in the relations of power, establishing a new tension between ones of "top" against the ones of "low", creating a vertical line in the old geopolitics axis east/west of the Cold War. The elements that generate the oppressed identities aim at an affirmation to a way of being, constituting the ontological character of the collective personality. The objective of this work is to consider the theoretical reasons that feed the thought and the terrorist action, its strategies and discursive tactics. An ontology of the violence emerges from the interior of the foucaulians concepts - microphysics, biopower, subject, freedom, games of truth, cynicism. In the new world-wide order, the terrorism while punctual action - threatening and diffuse presence, acting by surprise, disseminating fear and destruction - is the opposition to the dominant power, that can also be terrorism of State.

  16. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  17. Twitter in the cross fire--the use of social media in the Westgate Mall terror attack in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  18. Twitter in the cross fire--the use of social media in the Westgate Mall terror attack in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Simon

    Full Text Available On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for

  19. Twitter in the Cross Fire—The Use of Social Media in the Westgate Mall Terror Attack in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  20. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  1. Proximity to terror and post-traumatic stress: a follow-up survey of governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marianne B; Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeted towards the Norwegian Ministries, and to explore the importance of proximity to the bomb explosion as a predictor of PTSD. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a survey 10 months after the Oslo bombing on 22 July 2011. A total of 3520 employees were invited to the study. Net samples comprised 1927 employees in 14 of the 17 Norwegian Ministries. The employees reported where they were at the time of the explosion. PTSD was assessed with the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL). A total of 207 of the 1881 (11%) ministerial employees who completed the survey were present at work when the bomb exploded. Of these, a quarter (24%, 95% CI 18.4 to 30.0) had symptom levels equivalent to PTSD, while the prevalence was approximately 4% among those not present at work. In the latter group the prevalence was similar irrespective of whether their location was in Oslo, other places in Norway or abroad. Leadership responsibility was associated with lower risk for PTSD. The risk of PTSD is mainly associated with being present at work at the time of a terror attack. For those not present at work, the risk of PTSD is low and independent of proximity to the terror scene. The findings may have implications for planning and priority of healthcare services after a work place terror attack.

  2. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  3. Socioconomic nature of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and methodological foundations of investigation of the  socioeconomic nature of terrorism are considered. Hypothesis of research is the existence of methodological criteria of territory classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical works of national and foreign authors, normative documents of state and international level the genesis of approaches to the understanding of the essence of modern terrorism, its contents, the subject-object relations and manifestation forms is received. As the result, according to the authors’ definition “terrorism” is understood as an ideology connected with deliberate violence or threats against the civilian population or property to influence on the government or the interstate organizations. In the work, the factors of development and spreading of terrorism in the Russian Federation’s regions are allocated and quantitatively proved. Weight parameters of the specified factors are determined. The methodological differentiation of the specified factors on factors of terrorism external (attacks from the outside and an internal form (distribution and realization of radical ideas within the region in the territory is the distinctive feature of the conducted research. During the research, the cluster analysis of a region is carried out to distribute of Russia’s regions according to the typological characteristic of the region of internal and external terrorism. The obtained data are verified in accordance with empirical data, the hypothesis of the existence of methodological criteria of the region classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism is proved.

  4. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  5. Strategic Change and the Joint Terrorism Task Force: Ideas and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Angelo, Anthony P

    2007-01-01

    ... and the multidisciplinary Joint Terrorism Task Forces. The terrorist attacks served as a catalyst for evaluating cultural, psychological and organizational processes, policies and procedures that influenced the FBI and impacted the JTTF program...

  6. The role of revenge, denial, and terrorism distress in restoring just world beliefs: the impact of the 2008 Mumbai attacks on British and Indian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Neil; Kamble, Shanmukh V

    2012-01-01

    Just world beliefs for students (N = 413) from India and the United Kingdom were measured. The participants then read a scenario about the 2008 terrorist attacks on Mumbai. The participants were then assessed for terrorism distress and offered multiple strategies (revenge and denial) to restore their just world beliefs. The findings indicate that students resident in India along with those who hold strong just world beliefs felt more distress, held a greater desire for revenge, and demonstrated more denial than the British students and those who had weak beliefs in a just world. These results indicate the important role just world beliefs play in responding to the threat created by mass casualty terrorist attacks. The implications for just world theory are also discussed.

  7. Associations between work environment and psychological distress after a workplace terror attack: the importance of role expectations, predictability and leader support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing terrorism is associated with high levels of psychological distress among survivors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether work environmental factors such as role clarity and predictability, role conflicts, and leader support may protect against elevated levels of psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. Data from approximately 1800 ministerial employees were collected ten months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack which targeted the Norwegian ministries. The results show that after a traumatic event, lower role conflicts, higher role clarity, higher predictability, and higher leader support were independently associated with lower psychological distress. These findings suggest that the workplace environment may be a facilitator of employees' mental health after stressful events.

  8. Psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack: beyond traumatic experiences and emergency medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacquleen; Jaswal, Surinder

    2014-06-01

    The field of "Public Health in Disasters and Complex Emergencies" is replete with either epidemiological studies or studies in the area of hospital preparedness and emergency care. The field is dominated by hospital-based or emergency phase-related literature, with very little attention on long-term health and mental health consequences. The social science, or the public mental health perspective, too, is largely missing. It is in this context that the case report of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack survivors is presented to bring forth the multi-dimensional and dynamic long-term impacts, and their consequences for psychological well-being, two years after the incident. Based on literature, the report formulates a theoretical framework through which the lived experiences of the survivors is analyzed and understood from a social science perspective. This report is an outcome of the ongoing work with the survivors over a period of two years. A mixed methodology was used. It quantitatively captures the experience of 231 families following the attack, and also uses a self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ), SRQ20, to understand the psychological distress. In-depth qualitative case studies constructed from the process records and in-depth interviews focus on lived experiences of the survivors and explain the patterns emerging from the quantitative analysis. This report outlines the basic profile of the survivors, the immediate consequences of the attack, the support received, psychological consequences, and the key factors contributing to psychological distress. Through analysis of the key factors and the processes emerging from the lived experiences that explain the progression of vulnerability to psychological distress, this report puts forth a psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack.

  9. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Urban planning after terrorism:The case of Oslo with focus on the impacts of the terrorist attack on the consideration of security, memorialisation and conservation in urban planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paizs, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism is a targeted way to hurt a population but also to destroy and annihilate a part of the civilization by attacking the built environment, especially iconic and symbolic buildings with its values of collective memory and cultural heritage, which is at the latest created by the iconic act of destruction. The resilient city with its integrated plans and programs but also technical, personal or physical security aims to reduce the probability and the dimension of terrorist attacks. Howev...

  11. THE PERCEIVED RISK OF TRAVELLING, WITH EMPHASIS ON TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanou, Areti

    2009-01-01

    Risk is an important factor when considering international tourism (Lepp and Gibson, 2003; Sonmez and Graefe, 1998b; 1998a; Sonmez, 1998), especially nowadays as a result of the increased magnitude and frequency of terrorism attacks when travelling. Such events have negatively affected individuals’ perceived risk in international travel, making terrorism risk a key element of the international travel scene. Perceived risk can influence a positive image, intention to travel to a particular des...

  12. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  13. Can News Draw Blood The Impact of Media Coverage on the Number and Severity of Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    groups devote to carrying out attacks, p are the costs of a single attack, and E measures the effectiveness of terrorist attacks, e.g. the average...8i) h A. h · A ( b) (r r ) A 2(a+b)JP , w ere IS t e expressiOn = a+ jP u3 + s- u1 . s A2 + 4bEw > 0, all three eigenvalues will be elements of the...May 2016 164 Jahn, Vera ; Steinhardt, Max Friedrich : Innovation and Immigration - Insights from a Placement Policy, February 2016 163 Beckmann

  14. Research participation after terrorism: an open cohort study of survivors and parents after the 2011 Utøya attack in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene, Lise Eilin; Dyb, Grete

    2016-02-01

    Reliable estimates of treatment needs after terrorism are essential to develop an effective public health response. More knowledge is required on research participation among survivors of terrorism to interpret the results properly and advance disaster research methodology. This article reports factors associated with participation in an open cohort study of survivors of the Utøya youth camp attack and their parents. Overall, 490 survivors were invited to two semi-structured interviews that were performed 4-5 and 14-15 months after the attack. The parents of 482 survivors aged 13-32 years were eligible for a complementary study. The study had an open cohort design in which all of the eligible survivors were invited to both waves. Pearson's Chi squared tests (categorical variables) and independent t tests (continuous variables) were used to compare survivors by participation. Altogether, 355 (72.4 %) survivors participated: 255 in both waves, 70 in wave 1 only, and 30 in wave 2 only. Compared with the two-wave participants, wave-1-only participants were more often non-Norwegian and reported higher exposure, whereas wave-2-only participants reported more posttraumatic stress, anxiety/depression, and somatic symptoms. In total, 331 (68.7 %) survivors had ≥1 participating parents, including 311 (64.5 %) with maternal and 243 (50.4 %) with paternal participation. Parental non-participation was associated with non-Norwegian origin, somatic symptoms and less social support. Additionally, paternal non-participation was associated with having divorced parents, and maternal non-participation was associated with higher age, not living with parents, posttraumatic stress and anxiety/depression symptoms. Survivors with initial non-participation had more symptoms than did the other participants. Thus, an open cohort design in post-terrorism studies might improve the participation among survivors with higher morbidity. Because the factors associated with maternal and

  15. Alloys influence in ferritic steels with hydrogen attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, L; Rey Saravia, D; Lombardich, J; Saggio, M; Juan, A; Blanco, J

    2003-01-01

    Materials exposed to a corrosive environment and high temperatures, are associated with a decrease of their mechanical properties and embitterment.At room temperatures atomic hydrogen diffuses easily through metals structure, it accumulates in lattice defects forming molecular hydrogen and generating cracking due to internal stresses.Under high temperatures the phenomenon is more complex.The steels in these conditions present different structures of precipitates, that the change under creep conditions period.In this work it is determined the influence of Cr and V alloys, the changes of ferritic steel resistance in a corrosive environment and high temperatures.1.25 Cr 1 Mo 0.25 V and 2.25Cr 1 Mo under different loads and temperatures previously attacked by hydrogen environment.The hydrogen is induced by the electrolytic technique, optimizing the choice of temperatures, current density, electrolyte, etc. In order to control an adequate cathode charge, a follow up procedure is carried out by electronic barrier microscopy.After the attack, the material is settled at room temperatures for certain period of time, to allow the hydrogen to leave and evaluate the residual damage.Creep by torsion assays, under constant load and temperature is used as an experimental technique.With the outcome data curves are drawn in order to study the secondary creep rate, with the applied load and temperature, determining the value of stress exponent n and the activation energy Q.Comparing to equal assays to the same ferritic steels but non attacked by hydrogen, these values allows the prediction of microstructure changes present during these tests

  16. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  17. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  18. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  19. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  20. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A

    2007-09-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  1. The Psychology of Ongoing Threat: Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2007-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic "bull's eye" disaster models, which assume the…

  2. Not so close but still extremely loud: recollection of the World Trade Center terror attack and previous hurricanes moderates the association between exposure to hurricane Sandy and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Sharon; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether recollections of the World Trade Center (WTC) terror attack and previous hurricanes moderated the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1000 participants from affected areas completed self-report questionnaires a month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast of the United States. Participants reported their exposure to Hurricane Sandy, their PTSD symptoms, and recollections of the WTC terror attack and previous hurricanes elicited due to Hurricane Sandy. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy was related to PTSD symptoms among those with high level of recollections of the WTC terror attack and past hurricanes, but not among those with low level of recollections. The aftermath of exposure to Hurricane Sandy is related not only to exposure, but also to its interaction with recollections of past traumas. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for practitioners and health policy makers in evaluating and interpreting the impact of past memories on future natural disasters. This may help in intervention plans of social and psychological services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  4. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  5. Cyber-Terrorism: Modem Mayhem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    .... The arrival of the information age has created a new menace cyber terrorism. This threat recognizes no boundaries, requires minimal resources to mount an attack, and leaves no human footprint at ground zero...

  6. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  7. The dislocations of terror: Assessments of risk during the Second Intifada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilerman, Seymour; Stecklov, Guy

    2013-05-01

    The goal of terrorism is to create havoc and disrupt the normal functioning of society. To understand the impact of terrorism on a country it is useful to consider two types of country experiences with these shocks to the social order-the instance of a very small number of attacks against high profile targets and the case of chronic terror with a great number of attacks, generally against targets that are part of routine daily activities. The present study explores the Israeli experience with chronic terror. Using expenditure information from coffee shops and restaurants we examine how individuals assess their vulnerability to an attack and adjust their behavior. Specifically, we explore whether distance from the site of an attack, and similarity of a contemplated undertaking to the target of a recent attack, influence decision making in a context of chronic terror. We find strong support for a situational similarity effect but only weak evidence for a proximity effect. We examine the implications of these findings for the organization of economic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  9. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    hours after the events on September 11, 2001, and on semi-structured personal interviews with 37 journalists who covered the events for ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN, MSNBC and FOX News. In accordance with legal and moral philosopher Alf Ross, each of the norms was expressed as a directive in the interviews...

  10. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    after the events on September 11, 2001, and on semi-structured personal interviews with 37 journalists who covered the events for ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN, MSNBC and FOX News. In accordance with legal and moral philosopher Alf Ross, each of the norms was expressed as a directive in the interviews and also...

  11. Cyber Attack on Critical Infrastructure and Its Influence on International Security

    OpenAIRE

    出口 雅史

    2017-01-01

     Since the internet appeared, with increasing cyber threats, the vulnerability of critical infrastructure has become a vital issue for international security. Although cyber attack was not lethal in the past, new type of cyber assaults such as stuxnet are able to damage not only computer system digitally, but also critical infrastructure physically. This article will investigate how the recent cyber attacks have threatened critical infrastructure and their influence on international security....

  12. Terrorism and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the General Assembly at the opening of its debate on international terrorism (1 to 5 October 2001), the Secretary-General warned that a single attack involving a nuclear or biological weapon could kill millions. While the world was unable to prevent the II September attacks, there is much we can do to help prevent future terrorist acts carried out with weapons of mass destruction, he emphasized, calling for redoubled efforts to implement key treaties relating to those arms, closer cooperation among international organizations dealing with them, and tighter national legislation covering the exports of goods and technologies used in their production. Many representatives from all countries and all regions echoed the Secretary-General's sentiment during the debate. The general conclusion was that all countries could be affected in some form or another by such a fearful proposition, and all countries must work together to prevent it. To gain a greater understanding of the increased threat of international terrorism today, the Department for Disarmament Affairs sponsored a panel of high-level experts to discuss terrorism and its relationship to disarmament. Two leading experts from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, Professor Wilkinson and Dr. Gunaratna, put the attacks on the United States in an historical perspective, present some of the repercussions of the unprecedented scope of the attacks and give their views on how international institutions and agreements can assist in combating future acts of this kind. Mr Vladimir P Salov of the Russian Federation addresses the suppression of financing of terrorism and how Russia works towards that end. The IAEA has been trying for almost 50 years to safeguard nuclear materials from diversions to nuclear-weapon users and, in recent years, working more intensively on physical protection of nuclear material. Dr Nilsson's presentation

  13. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  14. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Terrorism: some philosophical and ethical dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...

  16. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...... because they challenge and intensify the contract that supersaturates today's society.In the welfare society one can observe the existence of a diffuse but widespread social contract, which has become the single most cohesive element in the social fabric. According the terms of this contract, we agree...

  17. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  18. Future Roles of Air and Space Power in Combatting Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAlpine, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... The political, economic, and informational instruments of power play primary roles in addressing and eliminating the root causes behind terrorism attacks, but the military instrument will prevent...

  19. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  20. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  1. Moments of Goodness: An Analysis of Ethical and Educational Dimensions of the Terror Attack on Utøya, Norway (July 22, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is based on some moral experiences taking place during a terrorist attack on the Norwegian Labor Party's youth camp on the island of Utøya (outside of Oslo) July 22, 2011, where 69 young people were killed and several seriously injured. After the attack many of the survivors told stories of how strangers spontaneous had helped and…

  2. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  3. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  4. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the ext...

  5. Against CBRN terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Although CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) terrorism has seldom happened in recent terrorist attacks, a large number of victims would appear leading to disastrous situation if it arises. This paper discussed what CBRN terrorism is, why terrorists are interested in these weapons, and how to deal with these cases, with reference to the lessons learnt from the Tokyo subway sarin event, which occurred in Japan. It also outlined the features of CBRN terrorism and protective measures against it. CBRN terrorism is the terror activity using unusual weapons and agents such as chemicals, biological agents, radioactive substances, and nuclear weapons. As the reasons why terrorists are interested in CBRN weapons, there are such factors that raw materials are easy to obtain, manufacturing is not difficult, weapons are easy to transport, and indiscriminate and mass slaughter is possible when used. From the lessons from the Tokyo subway sarin event, the Tokyo Fire Department has been engaging in the following items: (1) strengthening knowledge and skills, (2) introduction of detection equipment, (3) construction and strengthening of decontamination system, (4) collaboration among firefighting - police - SDF - medical institutions, and (5) enhancing and strengthening organizational structure. Although protective measures vary depending on the type of chemical agent, biological agent, etc., it is important to prepare in daily life for detoxification, decontamination, evacuation, etc. (A.O.)

  6. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  7. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  8. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  9. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  10. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  11. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  12. Influence of recycled fine aggregates on the resistance of mortars to magnesium sulfate attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Tae

    2009-01-01

    The influence of recycled fine aggregates, which had been reclaimed from field-demolished concretes, on the resistance of mortar specimens to magnesium sulfate attack was investigated. Mortar specimens were prepared with recycled fine aggregates at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of natural fine aggregate by mass). The mortar specimens were exposed to 4.24% magnesium sulfate solution for about 1 year at ambient temperature, and regularly monitored for visual appearance, compressive strength loss and expansion. Additionally, in order to identify products of magnesium sulfate attack, mortar samples incorporating 0%, 25% and 100% replacement levels of the recycled fine aggregates were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Experimental results confirmed that the use of recycled fine aggregates up to a maximum 50% replacement level is effective under severe magnesium sulfate environment, irrespective of type of recycled fine aggregates. However, the worse performance was observed in mortar specimens incorporating 100% replacement level. It was found that the water absorption of recycled fine aggregates affected deterioration of mortar specimens, especially at a higher replacement level. XRD results indicated that the main cause of deterioration of the mortar specimens was primarily due to the formation of gypsum and thaumasite by magnesium sulfate attack. In addition, it appeared that the conversion of C-S-H into M-S-H by the attack probably influenced mechanical deterioration of mortar specimens with recycled fine aggregates.

  13. A networks analysis of terrorism in Africa: implications for Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kigen Morumbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the challenges that the international community faces in responding to the terrorists and the need to change tactics to respond more effectively to an increasingly nebulous enemy. Terrorism can take different forms and is perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. This research looks into the network structure of terrorism and terrorist groups. In the contemporary setting, terrorist organizations operate transnationally hence the use of the term ‘terrorism without borders’. An enabling factor of terrorism today is the network structure that it has adopted which gives it the ability to both project its reach and prevent easy infiltration. The network structure has also brought about renewed interests in Africa, where global terror networks such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State compete for influence. Boko Haram in West Africa is an affiliate of the Islamic State and this provides possible linkages with the Islamic State in Libya. Boko Haram refers to itself as the Islamic State’s Western Province. Al-Shabaab has dominated headlines by carrying out deadly attacks in East Africa. The al-Qaeda affiliate has however faced resistance from a section of its members who seek ties with the Islamic State. This resulted in the formation of Jabha East Africa, a group that aligns itself to the Islamic State. The Sinai Peninsula has also witnessed an upsurge of terror attacks perpetrated by the Sinai Province, which views itself as a province of the Islamic State. This surmounts to a complex network structure of terrorist networks in Africa and the growing threat to militant Islam. The special attention is paid to analysis of terrorist challenges in Kenia.

  14. When the reaper becomes a salesman: The influence of terror management on product preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Tom van Bommel; Cormac O’Dwyer; Tim W. M. Zuidgeest; Fenna H. Poletiek

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates how consumer choice is affected by Terror Management Theory’s proposition of Mortality Salience increasing one’s cultural worldview defense and self-esteem striving. The study builds empirically upon prior theorizing by Arndt, Solomon, Kasser and Sheldon (2004). During an experiment, we manipulated Mortality Salience and measured product preferences for conspicuousness and familiarity. Participants primed with death were more likely to choose conspicuous ...

  15. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  16. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2008-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  17. Defining Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Notes the lack of a concise meaning for the word terrorism. Develops a working definition which states that terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the attainment of political objectives. (JDH)

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Emergency Management after a Major Terror Attack : the New Challenges for First Responders and Civil Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhäusler, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    International terrorism remains a significant threat to the peace of the world. Weapons using various materials and delivery systems have been directed against cities and infrastructure, and other materials are postulated to be usable within the near future. Some of these materials are unusual or exotic, while some are modifications of materials used daily for other purposes: biological, chemical, radiological, nuclear and explosive. These materials pose a safety challenge for first responders, slowing the response and potentially killing scarce trained personnel. This book provides information about how leading agencies across the NATO membership are preparing to confront and respond to terrorists deploying Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), Weapons of Mass Killing (WMK) and Weapons of Mass Disruption (WMDi). Based on contributions by experts from NATO member states, Israel and the Russian Federation, this book offers information on fourth generation warfare as a new challenge to first responders. It also pr...

  19. Differentiating the threat of radiological/nuclear terrorism: Motivations and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, J M [Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Full text: Reviewing the spectrum of terrorist groups in terms of motivation, incentives and constraints, for nearly all groups, nuclear terrorism could be highly counter-productive. The constraints are particularly severe for large-scale mass casualty terrorism for groups that are concerned with their constituents--social revolutionary and nationalist separatist terrorists--although discriminate low level attacks are possible. Right-wing extremists, including individuals who are members of the right-wing virtual community of hatred, represent a distinct danger for low level discriminate attacks against their targets. Religious fundamentalist terrorist groups represent a particular threat, because they are not trying to influence the West but to expel Western modernizing influences. Moreover, they believe that their acts of violence are given sacred significance. The severe constraints against catastrophic terrorism for most groups argues for continuing to protect against the greatest danger - conventional terrorism - and to devote significantly increased resources to monitoring more closely the groups at greatest risk for nuclear terrorism. (author)

  20. Terrorism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  1. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  2. Confronting the risks of terrorism: making the right decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Garrick, B.; Hall, James E.; Kilger, Max; McDonald, John C.; O'Toole, Tara; Probst, Peter S.; Rindskopf Parker, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Robert; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Van Arsdale, Lee A.; Zebroski, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This report offers a methodology for assessing, quantitatively, the risks of terrorism. The purpose of the methodology is to support effective decision making to combat terrorism. The emphasis is on terrorist attacks that could have catastrophic consequences. The perspective taken is that in order to make the right decisions about combating terrorism, their needs to be a systematic means of assessing the likelihood of such attacks. A process of implementation of the decisions resulting from risk assessment is essential. That process includes (1) an understanding of the nature of the threat, (2) an information system linked directly to 'intelligence' on terrorism, and (3) organizational structures that can take timely, coordinated, and effective actions. There must also be sound evidence that the methodology can be successfully applied. A description of the nature of terrorism, a terrorism risk assessment methodology, information requirements to fight terrorism, and recommendations for successful implementation is what this report is about

  3. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  4. Quality of life, needs and the mode of coping of the health personnel at Naradhiwasrajanagarindra Hospital in terrorism influence area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomyangkoon, Prakarn; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pornputkul, Virul; Putthavarang, Thanuch

    2012-03-01

    The present study was to identify the quality of life (QOL), the needs of help and the mode of coping among the health personnel of Naradhiwasrajana garindra Hospital in a terrorism situation, the first research in Thailand. The chaos of separatist insurgency in the southern part of Thailand has been re-emerged since 2004. The present study was seeking for ways the health personnel coped with the situation while their quality of life and needs that were affected how they had handled the events were explored. General questionnaire, quality of life rand 36 SF-36 questionnaires, help seeking questionnaire and Mode of coping with the terrorism questionnaire were sent to all health personnel in the hospital in November 2007. 392 (65.3%) complete questionnaire were received from 600 distributed papers. They were female 328 (83.7%) and male 64 (16.3%), at the age of 21-59 years old (the mean age of 39.05 SD +/- 9.82), with three different religions, Buddhist 269 (68.6%), Muslim 122 (31.1%) and Christian 1 (0.30%). Thirty nine responses (9.9%) had been directly exposed to a terrorist attack, while 353 responses (90.1%) had a family member or friends who had been exposed. The results revealed that the overall mean scores of QOL were 73.1 +/- SD 15.5. Mean scores of male were significantly lower than female in general health, social functioning and role-emotional subscales. QOL mean scores of those with no terrorism exposure were significantly higher than those with terrorism exposure in role-physical, social functioning and mental health subscales. The most need of help for the personnel was safety of life and belongings (30.6%) followed by the need of money (23.0%). To cope with the terrorist attack, people (81.7%) would always resort to religious beliefs (72.0%) talk it out with coworkers, friends about their feelings, and (68.7%) inquire about the safety of their families and friends after the incident. Certainly, terrorism affected QOL and the most need of people in

  5. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  6. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  7. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  8. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  9. Integration of Social Sciences in Terrorism Modelling: Issues, Problems and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resnyansky, L

    2007-01-01

    ...; terrorists behaviour; the structure of terrorist organisations and networks; terrorism threat; and influence strategies and actions directed towards terrorism threat anticipation and minimisation.

  10. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  11. The Influence of Porosity on Corrosion Attack of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Z.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2017-10-01

    Porous metals also known as metal foams is a metallic body having spaces orpores through which liquid or air may pass. Porous metals get an attention from researchers nowadays due to their unique combination of properties includes excellent mechanical and electrical, high energy absorption, good thermal and sound insulation and water and gas permeability. Porous metals have been applied in numerous applications such as in automotive, aerospace and also in biomedical applications. This research reveals the influence of corrosion attack in porous austenitic stainless steel 316L. The cyclic polarization potential analysis was performed on the porous austenitic stainless steel 316L in 3.5% NaCl solution. The morphology and the element presence on the samples before and after corrosion attack was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) respectively to determine the corrosion mechanism structure. The cyclic polarization potential analysis showed the result of (E corr ) for porous austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the range of -0.40v to -0.60v and breakdown potential (E b ) is -0.3v to -0.4v in NaCl solution.

  12. New trends in terrorism : the use of social media, cyber-terrorism, the role of open-source intelligence and the cases of rightwing extremism and lone wolf terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Καραδήμα, Σοφία

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism has existed almost as long as humanity, and has appeared in various forms, creating new and evolving trends, making the definition of terrorism even more difficult to define. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the new trends in terrorism after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, as well as attempting to find the factors that facilitate the emergence and/or recurrence of trends in terrorism, by examining the related Literature, creating case studies and providing supp...

  13. Investigating the Influence of Special On–Off Attacks on Challenge-Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are becoming more complicated with the recent development of adversarial techniques. To boost the detection accuracy of a separate intrusion detector, the collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN has thus been developed by allowing intrusion detection system (IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. Insider attacks are a great threat for such types of collaborative networks, where an attacker has the authorized access within the network. In literature, a challenge-based trust mechanism is effective at identifying malicious nodes by sending challenges. However, such mechanisms are heavily dependent on two assumptions, which would cause CIDNs to be vulnerable to advanced insider attacks in practice. In this work, we investigate the influence of advanced on–off attacks on challenge-based CIDNs, which can respond truthfully to one IDS node but behave maliciously to another IDS node. To evaluate the attack performance, we have conducted two experiments under a simulated and a real CIDN environment. The obtained results demonstrate that our designed attack is able to compromise the robustness of challenge-based CIDNs in practice; that is, some malicious nodes can behave untruthfully without a timely detection.

  14. The political-legal nexus in EU counter-terrorism: an assessment of the two-track influences between the EU and the UN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    In the construction of the European Union’s counter-terrorism legal system, United Nations instruments and principles enter in the EU law sphere and pave the way for further developments both due to its legal force and to its role as agents of socialisation of security norms. At the same time......, as this article demonstrates, the principles of EU constitutionalism, fundamental pillars in the EU’s legal system, have been the sources of judicial decisions that ultimately impacted on the standards of fundamental rights protection in the UN framework. This article investigates the mutual influences between...... of counter-terrorism and EU´s characteristics as an external security actor, the findings of the research conducted here can be seen as counter-intuitive, enabling new discussions on the EU’s security actorness....

  15. Social Influence and Cognitive-Motivational Effects on Terrorism Preparedness: A Hurdle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Philip W.; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The identification of factors which influence peoples' preparation for health safety risks posed by natural and man-made disasters is a central concern in health education. Prior studies have generally approached this issue from either a cognitive or a social influence perspective, and have failed to recognise the increased importance…

  16. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third

  17. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  18. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  19. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  20. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  1. The Role Of Education In Combating Terrorism | Oni | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-07

    The world is witnessing series of repeated political, religious conflict and terrorism, particularly worrisome is the acts of terrorism, which is now prevalent across the world. The phenomenon of 9/11/2001 on U.S and the recent attack on June 7, 2005 in London and some other parts of the world revealed the devastation, pains ...

  2. Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lois M; Mariano, Louis T; Pace, Jennifer E; Cotton, Sarah K; Steinberg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism...

  3. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  4. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V

    2005-07-01

    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  5. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  6. Environmental terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  7. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  8. Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJie Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS, Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS, and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS. Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of

  9. Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WenJie; Hu, Gang; Zhu, PeiDong; Liu, Qiang; Hang, Zhi; Liu, Xin

    2018-05-24

    Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I ) as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS), Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS), and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS). Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of the smart grid

  10. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H

    2011-01-01

    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  11. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  12. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  13. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  14. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  15. TOURISM AND TERRORISM: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  16. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  17. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  18. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  19. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  20. Simple probabilistic method for relative risk evaluation of nuclear terrorism events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songbai; Wu Jun

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the event-tree and probability analysis methods, a probabilistic method of nuclear terrorism risk was built, and the risk of terrorism events was analyzed. With the statistical data for and hypothetical data for relative events, the relative probabilities of the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were obtained, as well as the relative risks of these four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were calculated by using this probabilistic method. The illustrated case show that the descending sequence of damages from the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events for single event is as following: nuclear explosive and improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and 'dirty bomb'. Under the hypothetical condition, the descending sequence of possibilities for the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events is as following: 'dirty bomb', nuclear facility attacked, improvised nuclear explosive and nuclear explosive, but the descending sequence of risks is as following: 'dirty bomb', improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and nuclear explosive . (authors)

  1. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  2. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  3. Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents' attacking position in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.

  4. The human rights and the terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  5. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  6. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  7. Terrorism and Investigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mustofa

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed that, for successful implementation of the strategies in investigating terrorism, besides requiring professional skilled investigators, there are some additional requirements that need to be fulfilled. Effective and long term prevention of terrorism should be directed towards producing good social welfare and to minimize every condition that may be conducive to the emergence of terrorism, such as discrimination and marginalization.

  8. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  9. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  10. Technical considerations in nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velardo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is an evil application of nuclear energy, in the same way that chemical and biological terrorism could be considered as the evil side of chemistry and biology. This paper presents two effects of nuclear terrorism. First, dirty bombs or radioactive bombs or radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), and second, crude atom bombs or improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The paper analyses as well the probabilities of an attack, its biological effects and nuclear risk. Experiments carried out so far indicate that the lethal effects produced by RDDs are likely the same that the effects produced by the chemical explosive used in the bomb. These type of bombs are rather bounded to generate panic and have implicit a high cost of decontamination. It will be described the measures to be adopted. INDs will be also considered. Uranium INDs by gun-method are more feasible to be made. They can be disassembled and their components transported to the target place. Plutonium INDs by the implosion-method are complex and required high precision technology. Their disassembly is very difficult

  11. The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.

  12. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  13. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  14. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  15. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  16. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  17. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  18. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  19. Influence of climate factors on emergency visits for childhood asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Fukuda, Taiki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Shou; Watanuki, Satoshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    Asthma attack shows strong seasonality. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the contribution of climate variables and other seasonal factors on the incidence of emergency visits for childhood asthma in Tokyo, Japan. The number of children who visited emergency rooms at Jikei university hospitals in Tokyo during 1998-2002 (5559 visits) was retrieved retrospectively from files from the Department of Pediatrics, and compared with 45 climate parameters from the Meteorological Agency using multiple regression models with a stepwise backward elimination approach. The number of visits (3.7 +/- 3.1) per night increased significantly when climate conditions showed a rapid decrease from higher barometric pressure, from higher air temperature and from higher humidity, as well as lower wind speed. The best-fit model demonstrated that a 22% variation in the number of visits was explained by a linear relationship with 12 climate variables, which increased to 36% after adjusting for calendar month and day of the week. Moreover, when the number of asthma visits was cut off at nine per night, the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94) in the multiple logistic regression model using the same variables. These results suggest that these models might quantify contributions of specific climate conditions and other seasonal factors on the number of emergency visits per night for childhood asthma attack in Tokyo, Japan.

  20. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  1. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will

  2. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  3. The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 researchers have sought to better understand the macroeconomic consequences of terrorism. Despite a...The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups A Monograph by MAJ Joshua Glonek...SUBTITLE The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  4. A dynamical model of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Udwadia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.

  5. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society

  6. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  7. Global Media and Public Affairs Communications in a New Era of Defense: The War Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tasista, Michele

    2002-01-01

    The Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and subsequent conflict in Afghanistan culminated a 30-year escalation of terrorism and efforts to counter it, an undeclared war that has unfolded principally on the information battlefield...

  8. U.S., Russia and the Global War on Terror: "Shoulder to Shoulder" into Battle?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beene, Eric A; Kubiak, Jeffrey J; Colton, Kyle J

    2005-01-01

    .... Following the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001, many assumed the resultant War on Terrorism would finally unite the two nations against a common enemy, aligning interests as never...

  9. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  10. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  11. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.

    2006-01-01

    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  12. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  13. The Impact of Terrorism on the Tourism Sector of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Survila

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Practically every day there are terrorist attacks executed somewhere. For this reason, the need to reveal the impact of terrorism on tourism sector of Lithuania and how well it is ready for this challenge occurs. The analysis of scientific literature and secondary data was used as well as two surveys (qualitative and quantitative were carried out. Since the possibility of a terrorist attack in Lithuania is trivial, the research focuses on the Lithuanian outbound tourism sector. The survey of interaction between terrorism and tourism and impact of terrorism to tourism in different countries is provided. It is worth emphasising that tourists become the victims of not only preplanned but also of individual terrorist attacks. Events of recent several years have caused the emergence of the terrorist tourism, when people with radical attitudes travel to, e.g., Syria. Despite the various attacks and subsequent dips in tourism the world of travel and hospitality has entered a new era of growth and transformation. The purpose of the research was to identify how Lithuanian tourists and experts perceive dangers and whether this affect their choice of trips and what measures can reduce the impact of terrorist attacks on tourism. Both the Lithuanian tourists and experts understand that the threat from terrorism has been growing, nevertheless the comparison with other surveys can lead to the statement that there is a specific tourist market in Lithuania which is characteristic of courage, inflexibility in terms of price and poor perception of possible threats.

  14. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Introduction to Teaching About Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historical and conceptual framework for understanding contemporary terrorism. Includes quotations from government officials, syndicated columnists, and scholars regarding terrorism and its effects on society. (JDH)

  16. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  17. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farnham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research. This paper explores a possible ‘copycat effect’ in cases of suicide terrorism, which entails a perpetrator being inspired by a preceding attack to carry out a similar attack not long after the original. In the wake of mounting risks of lone wolf terrorist attacks today and due to the general difficulties faced in preventing such attacks, in this paper we explore a potential area of future prevention in media reporting, security and anti-terrorism policies today. Using the START Global Terrorism Database (GTD, this paper investigates terrorist suicide-attack clusters and analyses the relationship between attacks found within the same cluster. Using a mixed-method approach, our analyses did not uncover clear evidence supporting a copycat effect among the studied attacks. These and other findings have numerous policy and future research implications.

  18. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Veldhuis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  19. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  20. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak

    2014-01-01

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  1. On the Concept and Definition of Terrorism Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Guikema, Seth

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we provide some reflections on how to define and understand the concept of terrorism risk in a professional risk assessment context. As a basis for this discussion we introduce a set of criteria that we believe should apply to any conceptualization of terrorism risk. These criteria are based on both criteria used in other areas of risk analysis and our experience with terrorism risk analysis. That is, these criteria offer our perspective. We show that several of the suggested perspectives and definitions have weaknesses in relation to these criteria. A main problem identified is the idea that terrorism risk can be conceptualized as a function of probability and consequence, not as a function of the interactions between adaptive individuals and organizations. We argue that perspectives based solely on probability and consequence should be used cautiously or not at all because they fail to reflect the essential features of the concept of terrorism risk, the threats and attacks, their consequences, and the uncertainties, all in the context of adaptation by the adversaries. These three elements should in our view constitute the main pillars of the terrorism risk concept. From this concept we can develop methods for assessing the risk by identifying a set of threats, attacks, and consequence measures associated with the possible outcome scenarios together with a description of the uncertainties and interactions between the adversaries. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Epidemiology of terror-related versus non-terror-related traumatic injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Waisman, Yehezkel; Dannon, Yehuda L; Peleg, Kobi

    2003-10-01

    In the past 2 years hundreds of children in Israel have been injured in terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effect on the health care system. The objective of this study was to review the accumulated Israeli experience with medical care to young victims of terrorism and to use the knowledge obtained to contribute to the preparedness of medical personnel for future events. Data on all patients who were younger than 18 years and were hospitalized from October 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry. The parameters evaluated were patient age and sex, diagnosis, type, mechanism and severity of injury, interhospital transfer, stay in intensive care unit, duration of hospitalization, and need for rehabilitation. Findings were compared with the general pediatric population hospitalized for non-terror-related trauma within the same time period. During the study period, 138 children were hospitalized for a terror-related injury and 8363 for a non-terror-related injury. The study group was significantly older (mean age: 12.3 years [standard deviation: 5.1] v 6.9 years [standard deviation: 5.3]) and sustained proportionately more penetrating injuries (54% [n = 74] vs 9% [n = 725]). Differences were also noted in the proportion of internal injuries to the torso (11% in the patients with terror-related trauma vs 4% in those with non-terror-related injuries), open wounds to the head (13% vs 6%), and critical injuries (Injury Severity Score of 25+; 25% vs 3%). The study group showed greater use of intensive care unit facilities (33% vs 8% in the comparison group), longer median hospitalization time (5 days vs 2 days), and greater need for rehabilitative care (17% vs 1%). Terror-related injuries are more severe than non-terror-related injuries and increase the demand for acute care in children.

  3. Efficacy for Dealing With Terrorism Precautionary Behavior: Laying the Groundwork for Communication Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Philip W; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    In order to formulate effective communication and intervention strategies to respond to the widespread lack of preparedness for public health crises resulting from natural and human-made disasters, researchers have developed models describing the interrelationships between factors associated with emergency preparedness decisions. Empirical research has generally assumed that two key elements of most health behavior theories-self-efficacy and response efficacy-additively influence the decision to prepare, despite compelling theoretical rationale for an interactive relationship. The few studies that have investigated interactions in preparedness outcomes have not tested the Social Cognitive Theory prediction that non-zero levels of both efficacy types are required before individuals will engage in any preparedness behavior. Based on the responses of 3,101 participants in the National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness, this study tested additive, interactive, and conditional main effect hypotheses about the influence of self-efficacy and response efficacy for dealing with terrorism on preparedness due to terrorism six years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. A significant self-efficacy × response efficacy interaction effect on preparedness was found, in addition to a significant response efficacy effect when perceived self-efficacy was zero, contrary to the expectation from Social Cognitive Theory. These results offer insights into the cognitive processes underlying individuals' decisions to prepare for disasters such as terrorist attacks, and highlight the importance of considering more complex theory-based cognitive interaction models in designing effective communication strategies to facilitate individual emergency preparedness.

  4. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  5. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  6. Latin America: Terrorism Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    .... In its annual report on worldwide terrorism, the State Department highlights threats in Colombia, Peru, and the tri-border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The State Department also has designated four terrorist groups (three in Colombia and one in Peru) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Cuba has been listed as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1982.

  7. Terrorism and financial supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, Anatoli van der

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  8. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  9. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  10. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  11. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  12. Probabilistic risk analysis and terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles; Bennett, Steven P; von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Sokolowski, John; Collins, Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), considerable efforts have been made to estimate the risks of terrorism and the cost effectiveness of security policies to reduce these risks. DHS, industry, and the academic risk analysis communities have all invested heavily in the development of tools and approaches that can assist decisionmakers in effectively allocating limited resources across the vast array of potential investments that could mitigate risks from terrorism and other threats to the homeland. Decisionmakers demand models, analyses, and decision support that are useful for this task and based on the state of the art. Since terrorism risk analysis is new, no single method is likely to meet this challenge. In this article we explore a number of existing and potential approaches for terrorism risk analysis, focusing particularly on recent discussions regarding the applicability of probabilistic and decision analytic approaches to bioterrorism risks and the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment methodology used by the DHS and criticized by the National Academies and others.

  13. School Mental Health's Response to Terrorism and Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Sander, Mark A.; Lever, Nancy A.; Rosner, Leah E.; Pruitt, David B.; Lowie, Jennifer Axelrod; Hill, Susan; Lombardo, Sylvie; Christodulu, Kristin V.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the response of school mental health to terrorism and disaster, reviewing literature on child and adult reactions to trauma, discussing the development of crisis response teams, and presenting strategies for schools to respond to crises and disaster. One elementary school's experiences in response to the September 11th attacks are…

  14. Urbs oblivionalis. Urban Spaces and Terrorism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pirazzoli

    2016-03-01

    Urbs oblivionalis. Urban Spaces and Terrorism in Italy was the research focusing the planning reaction after terroristic attacks occurred in this country between 1961 and 1993. In this text the two authors underline the essential points of their research, still open and sadly actual.

  15. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  16. The influence of alkali-free and alkaline shotcrete accelerators within cement systems Influence of the temperature on the sulfate attack mechanisms and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paglia, C.; Wombacher, F.; Boehni, H.

    2003-01-01

    The resistance to sulfate attack of mixtures accelerated with alkali-free and alkaline accelerators was found to be mainly influenced by the Al 3+ and SO 4 2- added via the admixtures. Microstructural observations showed decalcification and disintegration of the CSH gel, which acted as an additional Ca 2+ supplier as compared to the CH for ettringite formation. The CSH decalcification was mainly observed with a homogeneous distribution of the alkali-free admixture. The disintegration of the CSH gel increased the porosity and allowed more sulfate solution to penetrate into the specimens. This process promoted the swelling of the specimens and directly contributed to the expansion, explaining the lack of a direct relationship between the ettringite formation and the expansion. Moreover, the CSH gel disintegration, typical for MgSO 4 attack, also occurred with Na 2 SO 4 solutions and depending on the aluminate-sulfate distribution and the extent of the CSH gel disintegration, different damage types were detected. At higher temperatures (65 deg. C) the damage was mainly controlled by the growth, the rearrangement and the thermal stability of ettringite

  17. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  18. Investigating the influence of special on-off attacks on challenge-based collaborative intrusion detection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam For

    2018-01-01

    to exchange data with each other. Insider attacks are a great threat for such types of collaborative networks, where an attacker has the authorized access within the network. In literature, a challenge-based trust mechanism is effective at identifying malicious nodes by sending challenges. However...

  19. Epidemiology of international terrorism involving fatal outcomes in developed countries (1994-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to describe the public health burden and epidemiology of international terrorism (i.e. involving foreign nationals) with fatal outcomes in developed countries. Data was abstracted from a United States Department of State database for 21 'established market economy' countries and 18 'former socialist economies of Europe' for 1994-2003. To put the findings in a wider context, comparisons were made with WHO data on all homicides for each country. A total of 32 international terrorist attacks causing fatalities were identified over the 10-year period. These resulted in 3299 deaths, giving a crude annual mortality rate of 0.3 per million population. The mortality burden attributable to international terrorism in these countries was 208 times less than that attributable to other homicide. Even for the country with the highest mortality burden from international terrorism (the United States), this ratio was 60. There was no statistically significant trend in the number of attacks over time, but the attack severity (in terms of deaths per attack) was higher in the latter part of the 10-year period. A number of limitations with this data set were identified. If a more rigorous definition of 'international terrorism' was used, then this would substantially reduce the total number of such attacks defined in this way. In conclusion, there is a need for better quality data and improved classification systems for describing international terrorism. Nevertheless, the available data indicates that the mortality burden from international terrorism in developed countries is small compared to that from other homicide.

  20. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  1. Lone-actor Terrorism and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2017-11-01

    In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Both indirect and direct assessment guidelines are proposed, with an emphasis upon self-report, psychological testing, collateral data gathering, and historical records. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  3. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  4. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...

  5. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...

  6. Night Terrors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Feferman, Irv

    1988-01-01

    Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.

  7. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Sauver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  8. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  9. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  10. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  11. Variance, Violence, and Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Sautter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the debate surrounding contemporary studies of terrorism focuses upon transnational terrorism. However, historical and contemporary evidence suggests that domestic terrorism is a more prevalent and pressing concern. A formal microeconomic model of terrorism is utilized here to understand acts of political violence in a domestic context within the domain of democratic governance.This article builds a very basic microeconomic model of terrorist decision making to hypothesize how a democratic government might influence the sorts of strategies that terrorists use. Mathematical models have been used to explain terrorist behavior in the past. However, the bulk of inquires in this area have only focused on the relationship between terrorists and the government, or amongst terrorists themselves. Central to the interpretation of the terrorist conflict presented here is the idea that voters (or citizens are also one of the important determinants of how a government will respond to acts of terrorism.

  12. Managing terror: differences between Jews and Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Maguen, Shira; Or-Chen, Keren; Litz, Brett T

    2009-04-01

    Using telephone surveys, we examined exposure to terror, coping, and mental health response in randomly selected Jewish-Israelis (n = 100) and Arab-Israelis (n = 100) living in five Israeli cities affected by terrorism. Jewish-Israelis and Arab-Israelis were randomly selected for study participation and completed telephone surveys in May 2002, following an extended string of terror attacks and hostilities. Although terrorism is designed to target Jewish-Israelis, the rates of exposure were similar in the two groups. Arab-Israelis reported using a wider array of coping strategies, yet also endorsed more frequent PTSD and more severe depression symptoms than Jewish-Israelis. We examined a variety of demographic, ethnic, and religious predictors of different coping styles and found varying results. For example, acceptance coping was best predicted by Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, greater religiosity, and lower education. Predictors of mental health response to terror were also examined, with Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, adaptation coping and collaborative coping best predicting PTSD and depression symptoms. Arab-Israelis may not have the same access to overarching sources of patriotic support that are readily available to their Jewish compatriots, and civilian and economic inequity experienced by the Arab minority may add to a sense of diminished resources. Our findings justify outreach efforts to overlooked minorities at risk for posttraumatic distress. Women seem to be at particular risk for the development of mental health symptoms following terrorism, which should also be noted for outreach purposes.

  13. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  14. Influence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Sulfate Attack upon Ordinary Portland Cement and Slag-Blended Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta-ur-Rehman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles on the sulfate attack resistance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC and slag-blended mortars were investigated. OPC and slag-blended mortars (OPC:Slag = 50:50 were made with water to binder ratio of 0.4 and a binder to sand ratio of 1:3. TiO2 was added as an admixture as 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of the binder weight. Mortar specimens were exposed to an accelerated sulfate attack environment. Expansion, changes in mass and surface microhardness were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC tests were conducted. The formation of ettringite and gypsum crystals after the sulfate attack were detected. Both these products had caused crystallization pressure in the microstructure of mortars and deteriorated the mortars. Our results show that the addition of nano-TiO2 accelerated expansion, variation in mass, loss of surface microhardness and widened cracks in OPC and slag-blended mortars. Nano-TiO2 containing slag-blended mortars were more resistant to sulfate attack than nano-TiO2 containing OPC mortars. Because nano-TiO2 reduced the size of coarse pores, so it increased crystallization pressure due to the formation of ettringite and gypsum thus led to more damage under sulfate attack.

  15. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  16. The Need for Situational Awareness in a CBRNE Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Nelms

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and eight years before the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein for his alleged concealment of chemical and biological weapons caches, Japan's Tokyo subway was struck by one of the most vicious terror attacks in modern history.  The 1995 Sarin terrorist attack represents an important case study for post-9/11 emergency managers because it highlights the key issues first responders and public health officials face when confronted with a CBRNE ('C'hemical, 'B'iological, 'R'adiological, 'N'uclear, 'E'xplosive mass-casualty attack.

  17. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  18. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  19. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  20. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  1. Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear terrorism is widely considered as a major if not ultimate terrorist threat for modern societies. Highly industrialized countries could be extremely sensitive to terrorist aggressions of this kind. Nuclear terrorism is often associated with nuclear proliferation. Strictly speaking, nuclear proliferation deals with the spread of nuclear weapons into states which doesn't posses them. But proliferation can also be understood as the spread of radioactive material or even nuclear explosives into the hands of non-state organizations, such as sub national terrorist or criminal organizations as well as any kind of extreme groups for sabotage, blackmail or any other destabilization or destruction purposes. New driving factors for nuclear terrorism which 'help' terrorists are: the consequence of the break down of the Soviet Union and 'easy' radioactive smuggling and black market. What is 'New terrorism'? In analyzing the treat, one has to start by posing several crucial questions such as 'do such groups or individuals have the skill to complete their aim'? 'Who are these groups and individuals', 'how they can be categorized', 'what is their motivation'? If analysis of the 'new terrorism' is one side of the coin, the other is just as daunting. Who, what, when, where and how would be targeted by 'new terrorism'? Although there are existing different reasons (religious and political/social), mainly the target is civilian population. In many instances the aim is to exert either political or economic pressure on authorities or both. Police, ambulance - first call response teams - local, regional and national authorities have a hard task still ahead of them. The upside is that industrialized nations have acknowledged the need to reassess where we are and what the risk is. The bottom line has to be 'who is likely to want to resort to such methods and what the likelihood of them succeeding would be. (author)

  2. MEANS OF CHEMICAL RECONNAISSANCE AND CONTROL IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CBRN TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan VIČAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism (CBRN terrorism is a special form of terrorism known for its extraordinary efficiency as superterrorism or ultra-terrorism. Detection and identification of the presence of hazardous chemical toxic substances is very difficult and can be achieved only by using advanced detection and monitoring instruments and devices that are currently only in the equipment of units of the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic and some units of the chemical troops of the Czech Army. Instigators of chemical terrorism count on the surprise factor, as well as on the difficulty and great delay in detecting the presence of hazardous chemical toxic substances. Therefore, for early warning of the population and minimization of consequences of a terrorist attack with the use of hazardous chemicals, the ability of early detection and subsequent identification is very important.

  3. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application.

  4. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  5. Remembering the present: Dealing with the memories of terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milošević

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the interest of memory scholars in political violence and more specifically in terrorism is not novel, there appears to be a certain urgency to reflect upon memories of terrorist violence in collective, European immaginarium. By questioning how to deal with these memories and how the process of remembrance of the victims of terrorism will pave its way into a European memory culture, this article analyses spontaneous memorialization of the victims of terrorist attacks in Brussels (2016.

  6. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  7. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  8. International terrorism, a new challenge to modern Western society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochleitner, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The attacks of 9/11 against the WTC and the Pentagon have made western society aware of the threat potential, which international terrorism presents to the open and democratic societies of the West. The new international terrorism is substantially different from the traditional form terrorism, which our societies has experienced in the past. The arms of traditional terrorism were bombs and guns and the victims were mostly clearly defined targets and its political and ideological motives were known. The terrorists assumed responsibility and there was an interest and scope for political negotiation. Terrorist groups had a vertical structure with a hierarchy. The new international terrorism is organized in a horizontal way and its structure is amorphous. Terrorist groups act in an autonomous way and linked by a rather loose network. International terrorism makes full use of modern communication systems and seek to equip themselves with the best armament available including WMDs, provided they can get hold of them. Their target are no longer individuals, but the modern western society. They aim at a maximum number of victims in order to get maximum media attention and to destabilize the targeted society. The motives of terrorist groups are religious or ideological. A terrorist attack represents for those terrorists a religious, nearly sacral act, including self sacrifice. Today, the main challenge for the open, democratic and modern society represents the network of Islamic Fundamentalists. Islamic terrorism has been active mainly in Islamic countries with the aim to overthrow westernized forms of government, mainly in Egypt and Algeria. In the early 1990's, the network of Islamic terror groups has been built up and the al-Qaida was formed. AI-Qaida is a network of Islamic terror groups and a platform for co-operation and support of Islamic cells. It provides training, arms, finances, etc.. AI-Qaida supported the Taliban regime, which provided it with a

  9. The Effects of Terrorism on Tourism: (Interrelations, Motives & Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romagnoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at explaining the relationship between terrorism and tourism, and the consequences that the former has on the latter. Untangling this relationship may be a useful tool to understand terrorist goals and motives. The pivotal question to be answered is which effects terrorism has on the tourism industry. In the modern era, terrorism has become an integrated risk, a maybe-to-include package of travelling for tourists. The operating environment for the tourism sector evolved in a huge way after the attacks to the Twin Towers in September of 2001. Terrorism and tourism data have become more and more important since that dramatic episode; both of them are twofold and interconnected with regard to their basic features, namely crossing national borders involving national and international protagonists and both using travel and communication technologies. Terrorists do not act randomly, but they have precise purposes. The article will explain the multiform and multifold ways through which an attack may occur and be better understood. Terrorism crowds the media; it physically hits and psychologically vexes minds. Tourists are an appealing target for terrorists because they are seen as a country’s symbolic ambassadors, while tourism destinations are perfect and visible spots to deploy a terrorist attack. Terrorists are capable of using tourists as the means to get the media’s attention and bombard the world with their message. Risk perception, attitude and preferences are one of the main determinants for a tourist in the destination choice momentum. A potential tourist who negatively conceives a destination as risky may choose to cancel his/her holiday or not even consider it because of security and safety motives.

  10. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  11. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  12. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out... sport facilities, malls, movie theaters, and more. Grossman argues that American society has put forth enormous effort preparing and preventing harm to

  13. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  15. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  16. An attempt to evaluate the risks associated with radiological terror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Dantas, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the risk of a terrorist attack has been made frequently by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attempt by the probability of its success and a quantity which represents the consequences of a successful attack. In the case of a radiological attack the consequences will vary in case the action will be active or passive. Thirteen radionuclides were examined for their potential uses in credible threats or terrorist attacks based on their availability from laboratories and hospitals. Taking into account the dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, those radionuclides with higher dose effectiveness for ingestion are the following: 210 Po; 226 Ra and 241 Am. Other radionuclides which can be used in threats and terror attacks, like 137 Cs for example have also been examined. The risks associated with the selected radionuclides have been tentatively ranked as high, medium, or low. The probability used to evaluate risks depends on the motivation of the terrorist and the capacity, which implies availability or the actual possibility of obtaining a particular radionuclide. On the other hand, whenever a list of radionuclides to be used in a malevolent action is available to a terrorist, the choice of the most adequate will depend also on the action to be undertaken. This work ranks risks associated with radiological terror based on physical, chemical, radio-toxicological and other relevant data on radionuclides, which were either already used in terror attacks, or were pointed out as adequate to be used in such malevolent actions. (author)

  17. The characteristics of radiological cloud caused by 'dirty bomb' attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingbo; Wang Bairong

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of the radiological cloud after the RDD explosion, including the initial cloud size, material's distribution and the rate of particle or aerosol sedimentation. For there are limited papers in involved this topic publicly, only empirical formulas are given. However, it would be helpful when evaluating the consequences of the RDD terrorism attacks. (authors)

  18. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnham, N.T.; Liem, M.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.

  19. Cyber security in nuclear industry – Analytic study from the terror incident in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Woo, Tae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terrorism in NPPs of South Korea shows the study motivations. • Analyses of the cyber terrorism in NPPs are investigated. • Designed solutions for the cyber terrorism in NPPs are discussed. • South Korean case is considered as the cyber terrorism in NPPs. - Abstract: The cyber terrorism for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated for the analytic study following the South Korean case on December 2014. There are several possible cyber terror attacks in which the twelve cases are studied for the nuclear terror cases including the computer hacking and data stealing. The defense-in-depth concept is compared for cyber terrorism, which was imported from the physical terror analysis. The conventional three conditions of the physical protection system (PPS) are modified as prevention, detection, and response. The six cases are introduced for the solutions of the facility against the possible cyber terrorism in NPPs. The computer hacking methods and related solutions are analyzed for the applications in the nuclear industry. The nuclear security in the NPPs could be an extremely serious condition and the remedies are very important in the safe plant operations. In addition, the quantitative modeling study is performed.

  20. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  1. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Barody, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  2. The Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism: Political and Legal Point of Outcome in Responding to CBRNE-Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 2001 starting new era in the global terrorism, pursuant to the UN Security Council Resolutions 1368, 1373, and 1377 (2001), new security threats were identified and needs to fight against international terrorism were stressed. In the Czech Republic, a complex approach and broad institutional co-operation including inputs of scientific research (including authors involvement) to analyse endangered critical infrastructures and respective countermeasures had led to strengthening national measures in implementing respective international agreements dealing with WMD non-proliferation under deepening the co-operation within EU and NATO. The concrete complex programme of harmonised effort of all state organs in combating international terrorism resulted in the Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism (2002). This (yearly updated) binding political document (issued by the Czech Government) identifies threats to all sectors of society and contains agreed harmonised active measures to be undertaken by involved organisations and institutions in all aspects of prevention, repression, protection, rescue and recovery for cases of terrorist attacks. The contents and respective measures are presented and discussed in detail with special emphasis on the aspects of CBRNE terrorism and role of Integrated Rescue System.(author)

  3. Report on the trainings for terrorism. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kimio; Saito, Toru; Hukumoto, Masahiro

    2001-12-01

    A series of attacks on America by terrorism on September 11, 2001 gave us a terrible shock. Two types of training against the act of terrorism had been held in Tokai Works of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to grasp the present situation of JNC Tokai Works and improve the countermeasure against the terrorism. The first training was for the incendiarism and the second one was for the injury. Consequently the revealed points to be improved were the followings. (1) Keeping a sense of crisis. The countermeasure against terrorism should be instructed and trained to realize the sense of crisis, that is, uncertainty of the time and the kind of terrorism. (2) Organization of the structure against the terrorism. The structure for the contingency should to organized to strengthen the guard structure by forming the pursuit team, the guard team and so on constituted by JNC's staff members. (3) Preparation of equipments against the terrorism. The coloring ball, club, two-pronged weapon, shield, knifeproof vest and so on should be provided the guards of to strengthen the countermeasure before the police's arrival. (4) Preparation and announcement of manuals. The manuals against terrorism for the ordinary stuff members should be prepared and used in the training to make the ordinary stuff's countermeasure more effective. (author)

  4. Influence of irrigation on the attack from some insects to sugarcane in the central zone of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Hernández Medina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was studied, in several experiments with different irrigation levels, by graveness and by aspersion,the incidence of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab., Elasmopalpus lignosellus . Zeller. and Saccharosydne saccharivora. Westwood. on sugarcane. Damage caused by borer increased in varieties Ja60-5, B72-74, C1051-73 and C266-70 with application irrigation by graveness and in the variety C 87-51 with irrigation by aspersion with machine of central pivot. Affectations of antillean grasshopper had similar answer to irrigation. However irrigation by furrows caused significant decrease in attack of ratoons smaller borer to the three evaluated varieties.

  5. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources.

  6. The age of terrorism: to the problem statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yevtyagina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article analyzes the problem of terrorism. Historical essay on the topic helps clarify the concept of the term «terrorism», as well as its causes. The existing classification of terrorism reveals the different types and ways of influencing people by terrorists to achieve their goals. The author suggests the age classification, namely, adult and adolescence terrorism. Discussed in detail adolescence terrorism. The possible reasons for solutions to the problems teenagers violently. On the example of the terrorist act in Moscow school number 263 attempts to analyze the causal relationships aggressive behavior among adolescents in relation to their peers and teachers. Author shows the factors influencing the formation of the propensity to aggression (the terrorist behavior: the crisis of spirituality and morality, reducing cultural awareness, conflict resolution based on adults imitation, striving for leadership, using aggression, the substitution of the present reality of the computer world, acceptance of immoral behavior for conventional norm, plenty of scenes of cruelty and violence in the media, national intolerance. Also in the article are recommendations to prevent teenage terrorism, emphasizes the need for joint activities of the school psychologist, teachers, children and their parents.

  7. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  8. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  9. The impact of communication materials on public responses to a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2013-03-01

    It is a common assumption that, in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) attack, a well-prepared and informed public is more likely to follow official recommendations regarding the appropriate safety measures to take. We present findings from a UK study investigating the ability of crisis communication to influence perceptions of risk and behavioral intentions in the general public in response to CBRN terrorism. We conducted a focus group study involving a scenario presented in mock news broadcasts to explore levels of public knowledge, information needs, and intended behavioral reactions to an attack involving an overt radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb. We used the findings from these focus groups to design messages for the public that could be presented in a short leaflet. We then tested the effects of the leaflet on reactions to the same scenario in 8 further focus groups. The impact of the new messages on levels of knowledge, information needs, and intended compliance with official recommendations was assessed. The provision of information increased the perceived credibility of official messages and increased reported levels of intended compliance with advice to return to normal/stop sheltering, attend a facility for assessment and treatment, and return to a previously contaminated area after decontamination of the environment has taken place. Should a real attack with an RDD occur, having pretested messages available to address common concerns and information needs should facilitate the public health response to the attack.

  10. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Farhana Ali describes terrorism against an occupier as an attempt to achieve freedom from tyranny.66 Recruiters encourage women to resist for a...fringe phenomenon and insurgents are all around you.’”71 O’Rourke also acknowledges the freedom and relaxed inspection women are afforded.72 Bloom and...lives as Moscow controlled the land and people. Suspicious of Islam and of religion in general, the Soviets forbade its practice, fearing expansion.110

  11. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  12. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  13. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Terrorism, Outraged World Seeks an Answer." U. News and World Report, September 18, 1972, p. 16. Arendt , Hannah . Crisis of the Republic. N. Y., Harcourt...Brace Jovanovich, 1972. Arendt , Hannah , On Violence. N. Y. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1970. Arendt , Hannah . On Revolutions. N. Y., Viking Press, 1965... Arendt , Hannah . "Reflections on Violence." Journal of International Affairs, 23:1, 1969. "Are the Skies Really Friendly?" Proposed Theories of Relief for

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATING THE ANTROPOMETRIC, MOTOR AND SPECIFIC MOTOR DIMENSIONS ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE ATTACK IN SPORT KARATE FIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research involved 48 participants - top male karate competitors, juniors from karate clubs from Republic of Macedonia. The subject of this research are the defining elements of karate attack in sports karate fighting, and the basic aim is to establish the influence of anthropometric, motor and specific motor dimensions on the karate elements that use in sport karate fighting. In the research were used 36 variables: 4 antropomotorical variables, 4 variables for estimate on the explosive strength, 4 variables for estimate on the segmentary speed (movement frequency, 12 variables of the specific karate elements used in the sport karate fighting and 12 variables for estimate on the specifically karate abilities in 3 motor space: 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate coordination, 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate precision and 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate balance, which are predictive system of variables. The criterion set of variables of this research are represented by 4 karate elements which define the attack in sports karate fighting. From the received results was determined existing of groups in the different spaces of the treated variables and influence of the predictive system of variables on the criterion set of variables

  15. TERROR 2000: The Future Face of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-24

    defused a crude bomb planted near the local office of Ameri- can Airlines. In the other, two men attacked a Malaysian security guard stationed on the...Security system will be reformed. Those reforms will include means testing and taxation of benefits. 4. Rural land is being colonized by suburbs and...its present liabilities in the U.S. to become a major source of energy. .64 2018 57.43 US 4. Electric cars, augmented by solar panels, become available

  16. A Taxonomy of Terror - About the Effect of Different Kinds of Terror on Risk Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism is an increasing problem; still, research systematically investigating the impact of varying kinds of terrorism is scarce. The present investigation uses hypothetical scenarios to look at effects of diverging sorts of terrorism on risk perceptions in a student- and a tourist sample. Two characteristics of terrorism were varied systematically: frequency (whether terrorism hits a destination where terrorism is frequent or infrequent) and degree of organization (whether terrorism is co...

  17. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that.

  18. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  19. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism pheromone in line with principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none-European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in context of cyber-attacks events in attempt to establish legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber-attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  20. The Need for Regulation of Cyber Terrorism Phenomena in Line With Principles of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Buçaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes and highlights imminent need to regulate cyber terrorism phenomena in line with the principle of international law. In so doing, this paper intends to ascertain legal basis to regulate cyber terrorism at international level. It explains the normative conduct by drawing on adjustments of certain member states of European Union as well as from none European member states. Particular attention will be given as to how Kosovo has addressed cyber terrorism within its legal framework of criminal acts. The paper also addresses practical consequences of cyber terrorism in the context of cyber attacks events in attempt to establish a legal basis for its prevention and punishment of cyber criminals wherever it happens. The author articulates its arguments by examining the presumed threats as a result of cyber terrorism activities, as well as based on well-known cyber terrorist behaviors and constant literature that insinuate that cyber attacks are imminent threats. Lastly, as there is neither a particular treaty nor State practices, the author considers of utmost importance to spell out different views and statistics alluding that the need to regulate cyber terrorism in line with principle of international criminal law is a necessity.

  1. Investigating the Aftermath of Terror: Fundamental Outcomes, Methodological Choices, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2016-06-01

    Acts of terrorism are becoming increasingly common throughout the world. These events represent a significant public health concern given the associated health consequences. Although it is clear that terrorist attacks have mental and physical health sequelae, the exact nature and prevalence of these consequences are unclear. Epidemiological research can play an important role in better understanding the mental and physical impact of terrorist attacks. In this editorial, we highlight recent epidemiological research on these terrorism-related health outcomes. We also provide suggestions for how future studies can build on the existing literature and describe ways in which epidemiological methods can be harnessed to extend the current literature. Lastly, we offer recommendations on how to best prepare communities for the aftermath of terrorist attacks, highlighting secondary intervention and prevention strategies. Overall, multilevel strategies are needed to adequately cope with the growing rise of terrorist acts, and these strategies will have to be reassessed as the nature of terrorist attacks changes.

  2. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  3. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  4. Remembering the present: Dealing with the memories of terrorism in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milosevic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the interest of memory scholars in regards to political violence and more specifically, terrorism, is not novel, immediately following the terrorist attacks in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016) there appears to be a certain urgency to reflect upon these nascent memories in collective, European immaginarium. This article traces the development of a “bottom-up” memorialization process in the immediate aftermath of terrorist attacks in Brussels (March - July 2016), questioni...

  5. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  6. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2013-06-01

    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  7. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  8. The War Against Terror and Transatlantic Information Sharing: Spillovers of Privacy or Spillovers of Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tzanou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The EU-US Passenger Name Record (PNR agreement has been among the most controversial instruments in the fight against terrorism that the EU negotiated with the US after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The agreement has been heavily criticised for its implications regarding fundamental rights, in particular the rights to privacy and data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has put forward plans to develop its own PNR programme. The present article aims to examine the new dynamics concerning privacy that arise from the transatlantic fight against terrorism. It argues that, while attempts for the development of a transatlantic privacy protection framework have been made, ‘spillovers’ of security, taking the form of internalisation of external counter-terrorism measures, are prevalent in the era of the war against terror.

  9. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  10. Terrorism-related fear and avoidance behavior in a multiethnic urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies.

  11. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  12. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  13. Modern terrorism: concept and approach analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  14. Transnational terrorism in East Africa: a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the recent rise in Kenyan violence

    OpenAIRE

    Muhwezi, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes recent trends of transnational terrorism in East Africa. It assesses the background of domestic and international terrorist attacks in the region from 1998 to 2012. The study then quantitatively analyzes regional trends, using data drawn from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) showing dramatic increases in levels of terrorist violence from terrorist organizations like Al-Shabaab. Based on Al-Shabaab’s propaganda, ...

  15. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  16. Terrorism and mental health in the rural Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Suzanne R; Ablah, Elizabeth; Hawley, Gary C; Cook, David J; Orr, Shirley A; Molgaard, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the amount of terrorism preparedness training has increased substantially. However, gaps continue to exist in training for the mental health casualties that result from such events. Responders must be aware of the mental health effects of terrorism and how to prepare for and buffer these effects. However, the degree to which responders possess or value this knowledge has not been studied. Multi-disciplinary terrorism preparedness training for healthcare professionals was conducted in Kansas in 2003. In order to assess knowledge and attitudes related to mental health preparedness training, post-test surveys were provided to 314 respondents 10 months after completion of the training. Respondents returned 197 completed surveys for an analysis response rate of 63%. In general, the results indicated that respondents have knowledge of and value the importance of mental health preparedness issues. The respondents who reported greater knowledge or value of mental health preparedness also indicated significantly higher ability levels in nationally recognized bioterrorism competencies (p mental health components to be incorporated into terrorism preparedness training. Further studies to determine the most effective mental health preparedness training content and instruction modalities are needed.

  17. Disrupting Islamophobia: Teaching the Social Construction of Terrorism in the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueeney, Krista

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical media literacy technique for teaching about the social construction of terrorism. In a post-9/11 context where the human rights of Arabs and Muslims in the United States and overseas are threatened by drone attacks, profiling, detentions, and hate crimes, educators must not shy away from this issue. I use visual…

  18. Nexus of Crime and Terrorism: The Case of the Abu Sayyaf Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    which may mean not using the bus or going out to eat or shopping at malls.128 Terror attacks, especially against innocent civilians, undermine the...recognized by government officials in their speeches, dinner receptions and awards ceremonies.”537 Underlining the contribution of Muslim leaders who

  19. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  20. Information and the War against Terrorism, Part V: The Business Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in business information protection since the September 11th terrorist attacks focuses on three planning goals: continuing to serve the customer in times of threat; implementing new communication paradigms; and establishing a comprehensive knowledge redundancy program. Considers threats other than terrorism, risk management…

  1. Epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.

  2. THE CHRONICLE OF TERRORISM AND ISLAMIC MILITANCY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zakiyah zakiyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the chronicle of terrorism in Indonesia and the relationship between terrorism and Islamic militancy in this nation. This research focused on bombing cases from 2001 to 2012 Data was gathered through documentary research including primary and secondary resources. This research shows that after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, there were bomb attacks on various targets and militant extremists were able to return to Indonesia after long period of exile abroad. They started again their activities including disseminating their radical ideology, building networks and recruiting new members in Indonesia, as well as preparing for militant actions. The perpetrators of these terror attacks were mostly associated with the Islamic radical groups like Jemaah Islamiah and Majlis Mujahidin Indonesia. These two militant groups had a close relationship with Darul Islam, an organization founded during the colonial era that aimed to establish an Islamic state and to apply Syariah as a state law. In addition, both groups became a political window for al-Qaeda in Indonesia. 

  3. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available September 11 th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole - and the medical community in particular - must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of

  4. Coping with the threat of terrorism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Papa, Anthony; Litz, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism creates a ripple of fear and uncertainty. Although most individuals are resilient and recover over time, a minority remains functionally and psychologically impaired. In this paper, we examine research on coping strategies employed in the aftermath of terrorist events, theories and empirical findings related to appraisal processes that influence individuals' primary attributions of risk, and normative processes that shape secondary appraisals, which predict specific coping behaviors. We also describe individual diatheses and factors promoting resilience that may influence coping and functioning in the face of terrorism. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research.

  5. 2013 Dade W. Moeller lecture: medical countermeasures against radiological terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2014-08-01

    Soon after the 9-11 attacks, politicians and scientists began to question our ability to cope with a large-scale radiological terrorism incident. The outline of what was needed was fairly obvious: the ability to prevent such an attack, methods to cope with the medical consequences, the ability to clean up afterward, and the tools to figure out who perpetrated the attack and bring them to justice. The medical response needed three components: the technology to determine rapidly the radiation doses received by a large number of people, methods for alleviating acute hematological radiation injuries, and therapies for mitigation and treatment of chronic radiation injuries. Research done to date has shown that a realistic medical response plan is scientifically possible, but the regulatory and financial barriers to achieving this may currently be insurmountable.

  6. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  8. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  9. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  10. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  11. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  12. Terrorism, Tourism and Worker Unions: The disciplinary boundaries of fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When the world seems poised on the brink of a never ending cycle of terrorism, the present paper polemically explores some of its historical roots. The first anarcho-terrorists in 19th century, fought to improve the working conditions of people. Some of them used violent tools, hosting civilians as targets. Others, convinced by the futility of their efforts to change the order, opted for organizing workers in factories. It is widely accepted that tourism came from the social, political, technological developments in the nineteenth century. We compare terrorist attacks with workers’ strikes, because they come from the same developments. We explore the thesis that tourism is terrorism by other means.

  13. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  14. Regular drinking may strengthen the beneficial influence of social support on depression: findings from a representative Israeli sample during a period of war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Rapaport, Carmit; Zalta, Alyson K; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p=Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p=effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. When Suicide Kills: An Empirical Analysis of the Lethality of Suicide Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Pinar Alakoc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Why are some suicide terrorist attacks deadlier than others? Suicide bombers, unlike stationary bombs, are self-guided human weapons; they can deliver and detonate explosives at a specific time and place with precision. Coding and analyzing new data on over four hundred suicide terrorist incidents from all around the world between 1998 and 2015, this paper argues that the number of fatalities resulting from suicide attacks is a function of strategic choices made by the perpetrators, such as where to attack and whom to target. Results of this analysis show that suicide attacks that seize targets of opportunity are the most lethal. Specifically, suicide attacks that target civilians in enclosed and easily accessible places, and that are undertaken by multiple perpetrators result in the highest numbers of fatalities. Understanding these strategic tactical attributes of suicide terrorism is fundamental to devising effective counterterrorism strategies that aim at hardening soft targets and minimizing the lethal impact of these attacks.

  16. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  17. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    simultaneous July 17, 2009 bombings of the J.W. Marriot and Ritz - Carlton hotels in Jakarta. The bombings were the first successful anti-Western terrorist attack...simultaneous bombings of the J.W. Marriot and Ritz - Carlton hotels in Jakarta killed nine and injured more than 50, including 6 Americans. The bombings

  18. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  19. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallen, Jr, George W

    2007-01-01

    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  20. The Newsworthiness of International Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Gabriel; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the newsworthiness of international terrorism. Relates the concept of deviance as a predictor of newsworthiness to the specific attributes of terrorist events and their impact on media selection (coverage or no coverage) and prominence of coverage. (SR)

  1. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  2. The global initiative against the nuclear terrorism; La iniciativa global contra el terrorismo nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lossada Torres-Quevedo, A.

    2008-07-01

    The magnitude of the terrorist attacks of September 11 and subsequent attacks in Madrid, London, Bali and Iraq have been cause for condemnation and have forced the international community to make a concerted effort to prevent this kind of attack. Moreover, the risk that Al Qaeda could get hold of weapons of mass destruction has led to the inclusion of non-proliferation as a key element of the strategies to combat terrorism and to the launch of several initiative to prevent the possibility of these types of weapons or their precursors from falling into the hands of terrorist groups and to adequately manage the consequences. (Author)

  3. Regular drinking may strengthen the beneficial influence of social support on depression: Findings from a representative Israeli sample during a period of war and terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Rapaport, Carmit; Zalta, Alyson K.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. Methods In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Results Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p=<.01); this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time (p=<.01). Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p=<.01) and this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time as well (p=<.01). Stratified analyses in both models revealed that the effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. Conclusions These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings. PMID:24838033

  4. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cind Du Bois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  6. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this Research paper, ICCT – The Hague Research Fellow Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting ‘influence warfare’, a battle to convince

  7. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  8. A bimodal verification cryptosystem as a framework against spoofing attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Toli, Christina-Angeliki; Preneel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth of immigration crisis and the recent terrorism cases revealed the increase of fraud occurrences, cloning and identity theft with numerous social, economic and political consequences. The trustworthiness of biometrics during verification processes has been compromised by spoofing attackers sprang up to exploit the security gaps. Additionally, the cryptography’s role in the area is highly important as it may promote fair assessment procedures and foster public trust by se...

  9. Countermeasure for terrorism-new field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Changqing

    2003-01-01

    The workers on radiation protection have been confronted with a new task-countering terrorism. The description and level of various threats threats, the potential consequences and occurrence probability of different nuclear and radiation attack events, and the responses to these threats (crisis and consequence) are introduced at two levels. At the level of crisis management, some approaches to mitigation, the works done by International Atomic Energy Agency and the tendency in United States are also presented. At the level of consequence management, the essential practices submitted by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements of America are listed. Finally the domest ic progress in this area is introduced too. (authors)

  10. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  11. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  12. The Cost of Biological Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey

    1997-01-01

    , we have not yet won such hard-fought victories on the more prevalent forms of cancers such as breast, prostate, and lung. Whether it is by cure or prevention, cancers must also be controlled and it can only be accomplished through research. On December 23, 1971, President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act that was to provide, ".a total commitment of Congress and the president. to provide the funds. for the conquest of cancer." Somewhere this contract with America got lost. We are now faced with more losses. The new upheaval in American medicine threatens clinical research in cancer investigation to test new therapies and to support the training of new research soldiers to join the battle. The bottom-line approach of insurance and managed care policies no longer cares about these essential components; they say it is no longer their responsibility. This loss of financial support, combined with the tepid endorsement of funding of research from the government, occurs just when there is an explosion of new discoveries and opportunities becoming available to attack cancer. It is time to dramatically increase our efforts and no time to retreat. If we really want to defend against the terrorism of cancer, we need to attack it with a real war effort. If we can go to Mars, we can go to war on cancer, but only if Americans can speak louder than their elected government leaders. They need to hear our opinion, now.

  13. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  14. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  15. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  16. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  17. Bringing the State Back into Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeley, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Orthodox terrorism studies tend to focus on the activities of illiberal nonstate actors against the liberal democratic states in the North. It thus excludes state terrorism, which is one of a number of repressive tools that great powers from the North have used extensively in the global South in\\ud the service of foreign policy objectives. I establish the reasons for the absence of state terrorism from orthodox accounts of terrorism and argue that critical–normative approaches could help to o...

  18. Understanding Terrorism from an Economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the contemporary society. Nation States are reliant on their counter-terrorism laws for checking terrorism and deterring terrorists. To understand the effectiveness of these counter terrorism laws, it is important to first understand the behaviour of terrorists, so as to comprehend what actions can dissuade terrorist’s behaviour and decision to propagate violence. This paper will first look at behaviour of terrorist in decision making from an economi...

  19. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  20. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  1. Nuclear terrorism: Facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The study tries to assess the risk of nuclear terrorism in the light of recent developments in the area of nuclear weapons proliferation, and to develop suggestions of how to cope with existing challenges. First of all the term of ''nuclear terrorism'' is defined and differentiated from other forms of nuclear crimes. In a second step the attempt is made to compile the findings and assessments of the past on the problem of nuclear terrorism. Since, as a rule, a threat potential is composed of 'intentions' and 'capabilities', a third part is dedicated to terrorist intentions and studies the degree of probability of terrorists considering nuclear weapons an appropriate means for their aims. In connection with 'capabilities' it is scrutinized whether terrorist groups will be able at all to procure, design or initiate nuclear warheads. This leads to the question as to which consequences result from nuclear safety shortcomings - in particular in Russia - with a view to nuclear terrorism. Based on the preceding considerations, several proposals for coping with the danger of nuclear terrorism are made. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  3. FINANCING TERRORISM: FROM OFFSHORE COMPANIES TO THE CHARITY PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently living to its edges, menaced at each corner by environmental changes, terrorist attacks, civil wars or biological weapons let loose. With the emerging of the Islamic State and other terrorist cells the entire world under the peaceful globalization sphere questions its security. The paper aims to focus on detailing the most modern ways of financing terrorism, including through tax haven offshore companies, and the charity paradox. Charity institutions, several banks and even Non-Profit Organizations go hand in hand with a full range of felonies, from money laundering to narcotic traffic, humans trafficking, organized crime, arms dealing and terrorist attacks. The paper aims to offer pertinent solutions to tax havens and light legislation in order to prevent terrorist groups and cells from becoming an extensively rich and potent menace to global and state security.

  4. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  5. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  6. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  7. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  8. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  10. The Manipulation of Social, Cultural and Religious Values in Socially Mediated Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of how the Islamic State/Da’esh and Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia manipulate conflicting social, cultural and religious values as part of their socially mediated terrorism. It focusses on three case studies: (1 the attacks in Paris, France on 13 November 2015; (2 the destruction of cultural heritage sites in Iraq and Syria; and (3 the struggle between nationalist values and extreme Islamic values in Indonesia. The case studies were chosen as a basis for identifying global commonalities as well as regional differences in socially mediated terrorism. They are located in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The integrated analysis of these case studies identifies significant trends and suggests actions that could lessen the impact of strategies deployed by extremist groups such as Da’esh, al-Qaeda and Hizb ut-Tahrir. We discuss the broader implications for understanding various aspects of socially mediated terrorism.

  11. Making sense of loss: Situating the Mumbai attacks of 26/11 in the context of altruistic suicide homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanni Chaudhuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A peculiar irony characterizes the perception of global terrorism—in the strong penchant to flavor it with ethno or religious centric biases or in the disavowal of any auxiliary circumstance leading up to the sporadic incidence of violence. This paper analyzes the Mumbai attacks of November 26th, 2009 from the context of altruistic suicide/homicide. The waging of war against anonymous targets in Mumbai was by all means impersonal. It could be connected to an aftermath of several factors: Kashmir, homegrown terrorism, backlash of sectarian groups or yet another manifestation of already hostile Indo-Pak relationships. The spectacle of terror that was life telecast by national and global media led to a sequel of reactions including a follow-up of Indo-Pak mutual accusations, evoking of national sentiments and analytical ruptures in south Asian intelligentsia in making sense of the loss. This paper situates the Mumbai attacks of 26/11 in the theoretical discourse on sociology of terrorism by (i providing a scholastic definition of terrorism and its corresponding attributes that distinguishes terrorism from other sporadic acts of violence, (ii reflects on the context of terrorism with reference to altruism as in the classical Durkhiemian tradition and (iii analytically moves beyond the classical paradigm to redefine the terror trails of 26/11 within the emerging definitions of altruistic-suicide-homicide.

  12. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  13. The Influence of Corrosion Attack on Grey Cast Iron Brittle‑Fracture Behaviour and Its Impact on the Material Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Švarc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with brittle‑fracture behaviour of grey cast iron attacked by corrosion and its impact on the life cycle of a spare part made of grey cast iron. In a corrosion chamber, outdoor climatic conditions (temperature and relative air humidity were simulated in which degradation processes, induced by material corrosion, degrading mechanical properties of a material and possibly leading to irreversible damage of a machine component, occur in the material of maintenance vehicles that are out of operation for the period of one year. The corrosion degradation of grey cast iron, which the spare parts constituting functional parts of an engine are made of grey cast iron, is described with regard to brittle‑fracture behaviour of the material. For the description of corrosion impact on grey cast iron, an instrumented impact test was employed. A corrosion degradation effect on grey cast iron was identified based on measured values of total energy, macro plastic deformation limit, initiation force of unstable crack propagation and force exerted on unstable crack arrest. In the first part of the experiment, a corrosion test of the material concerned was simulated in a condensation chamber; in the second part of the experiment, research results are provided for the measured quantities describing the material brittle‑fracture behaviour; this part is supplemented with a table of results and figures showing the changes in the values of the measured quantities in relation to test temperatures. In the discussion part, the influence of corrosion on the values of unstable crack initiation and arrest forces is interpreted. In the conclusion, an overview of the most significant research findings concerning the impact of corrosion on the life cycle of grey cast iron material is provided.

  14. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  15. Combating nuclear terrorism in India: preventive nuclear forensic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, N.K.; Lad, J.S.; Deshmukh, A.V.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is constant threat to India by many terrorist organization and neighboring country. These organizations are directly or indirectly aided with nuclear material by terrorism supporting country. Such organization has a significant potential source for acquiring nuclear and other radioactive material. Possibility of leakage is widely feared because of the deteriorating law and order condition, great spur of nuclear proliferation after the cold war and disintegration of USSR. Terrorist could gain access to Nuclear and radioactive material and smuggle to India through porous borders. Preventive forensic approach in screening and searching nuclear and radioactive material will play cardinal role to prevent nuclear disaster happening in India. Future plans could be extracted from terrorists through their narco-tests, brain fingerprinting and a data base on this could be prepared, which could later be used to help prevent any attacks. In present paper authors strongly recommend setting up Preventive Forensic Units in India so that any internal or external nuclear attack could be aborted. (author)

  16. Terrorism, racism, speciesism, and sustainable use of the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the US Pentagon in Washington, DC have seized our attention and undermined our sense of security. These terrorist actions showed a contempt for other persons and their beliefs and practices. They are extreme demonstrations of a feeling of superiority which ignores the inherent worth of life by killing or wounding some and depriving others of resources that improve their quality of life. In this respect, terrorism is similar to racism and speciesism in that all are expressions of feelings of superiority over other life forms and that all are incompatible with sustainable use of the planet. It is proposed that both terrorism and racism have their genesis in speciesism. Sustainability requires a mutualistic relationship between humans and the millions of other species that collectively constitute the planet's ecological life support system. It further requires enhancement and protection of natural capital, as well as the enhancement and protection of the technological and economic life support systems that depend upon natural capital. Both terrorism and racism endanger the fair and equitable allocation of resources and the quality of human life of present and future generations. This is probably both the cause and effect of resource allocations. However, to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must acknowledge the inherent worth of other life forms. There is no guarantee that abolishing terrorism, racism, and speciesism will enable human society to acheive sustainable use of the planet; however, it is difficult to envision achieving sustainability if they persist.

  17. In front of a new challenge: nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation sources utilising either radioactive materials or radiation generators have been widely used throughout the world in medicine, research, industry and education for decades. There are both, legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safe use of ionising radiation sources, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brought a new dimension to the actions against terrorism. There are not enough legal instruments to control this phenomenon. Potential threat: acquisition of a nuclear weapon, acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard, violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard, acquisition of other radioactive materials to construct a dirty bomb to cause a radiological hazard. 'The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material', IAEA, 1980 obliges Parties to apply established levels of physical protection to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes in international transport. It also requires Parties to criminalize under their respective laws various acts such as theft, illegal acquisition, possession and use, and to establish jurisdiction over those offences to enable the prosecution or extradition of alleged offenders. This is the only international legal instrument in the area of physical protection. Conclusion: At present the threat is not only of a nuclear accident but of a nuclear terrorism attack which could affect any country in the world and the lack of effective legal instruments to respond to that situation. It shows the need for the international community to work together in order to reinforce coordinated and integrated nuclear security and safeguards measures. States shall create appropriated regulatory infrastructures to ensure that the radioactive sources are appropriately regulated and adequately secured at all times. Stronger and

  18. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  19. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 20 to 90 deg. 3: Influence of control deflection on predicted model D spin modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, J. N.; Barnhart, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of control deflections on the rotational flow aerodynamics and on predicted spin modes is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested for various control settings at both zero and ten degree sideslip angles. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 30 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omegab/2V range of 0 to 0.5.

  20. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  1. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Anderton; John Carter

    2004-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, while basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.

  2. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  3. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  4. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  5. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  6. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  7. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The constant threat of terrorism: stress levels and coping strategies amongst university students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha Ejaz; Masood, Komal; Dean, Sohni Vicky; Shakir, Tanzila; Kardar, Ahmed Abdul Hafeez; Barlass, Usman; Imam, Syed Haider; Mohmand, Mohammad Ghawar Khan; Ibrahim, Hussain; Khan, Imad Saeed; Akram, Usman; Hasnain, Farid

    2011-04-01

    To assess the levels of stress in the face of terrorism and the adopted coping strategies, amongst the student population of universities in Karachi. A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on undergraduate students from four universities of Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 291 students. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to assess associations between stress levels and different variables at a level of significance of 0.05%. A total of 65.8% of the students had mild stress levels, 91.5% of university students were exposed to terrorism through television, while only 26.5% students reported personal exposure to terrorism. 67.4% students were forbidden by their parents to go out (p = 0.002). Most of those who had self exposure to an attack were the ones whose parents forbade them from going out (p = 0.00). Most commonly used coping strategy was increased faith in religion. Irritability was the most common stress symptom. A majority of students studying in universities of Karachi had mild stress levels due to the constant threat of terrorism whereas a minority had severe stress levels. Possible reasons for resilience and only mild stress levels could be the history of Karachi's internal conflicts and its prolonged duration of being exposed to terrorism. These students who are positive for stress need to be targeted for counseling either through the media or through their universities. More extensive research is needed in this area.

  9. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  10. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  11. The deradicalisation of education: terror, youth and the assault on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, S. A.; Sukarieh, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high profile anti-radicalisation agenda in schools and other educational institutions throughout Europe has risen in response to terrorist attacks on European countries in the first decades of the twenty-first century. this article looks critically at anti-radicalisation in education, arguing that it needs to be placed in the broader context of ongoing neoliberal educational reform and questioned not just in terms of its dubious efficacy in addressing terrorism, or the civil rights harm it ...

  12. The deradicalisation of education: terror, youth and the assault on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarieh, M.; Tannock, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    A high profile anti-radicalisation agenda in schools and other educational institutions throughout Europe has risen in response to terrorist attacks on European countries in the first decades of the twenty-first century. This article looks critically at anti-radicalisation in education, arguing that it needs to be placed in the broader context of ongoing neoliberal educational reform and questioned not just in terms of its dubious efficacy in addressing terrorism, or the civil rights harm it ...

  13. Terrorism and resilience: adolescents' and teachers' responses to September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, Illene C; Noppe, Lloyd D; Bartell, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of terrorism on adolescents, who may be resolving developmental issues regarding their vulnerability to death. Approximately 4 months after the September 11th attacks, a survey was given to 973 Upper Midwest adolescents and teachers. Quantitative analyses indicated that adolescents (especially girls) were frightened and upset but also used many coping strategies. Qualitative analyses suggested that adolescents were angry as well as tired of hearing about the events. Teachers discussed the attack's historical significance, student safety, and a desire to resume "normalcy." Adolescence resilience was seen by the making of a coherent narrative of September 11th and by focusing on their daily living.

  14. Prospects for nuclear terrorism: psychological motivations and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In considering the implications of psychological understandings to the specific case of nuclear terrorism, it is emphasized that distorted decision making does not equate to totally irrational decision making. In certain circumstances, however, the distorted individual and group decision-making psychology could influence the group toward a high-risk option such as nuclear terrorism. For terrorists operating within their own national boundaries, a terrorist act producing mass casualties would generally be counterproductive. For groups acting across national boundaries, however, this constraint does not apply to nearly the same degree. Although the opprobrium of the West will be a constraint for some, it will not be equally so for all terrorist groups. The degree of disincentive will relate in particular to the major audience of influence. Also, there are the terrorist losers who are being shunted aside and losing the recognition they seek. Such a group could justify a terrorist spectacular in order to regain influence on the basis of a what have we got to lose rationale. In thinking about the possibility of nuclear terrorism, it is important to distinguish between the actual detonation of a device and the use of a device for extortion and influence. The constraints against the latter are significantly reduced in contrast to acts producing mass casualties. The constraints are even more reduced in the case of the plausible nuclear hoax, an option that can be expected to become more frequent

  15. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  16. A national survey of terrorism preparedness training among pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelly D; Bush, Anneke C; Lynch, Julia A

    2006-09-01

    Domestic terrorism is a real threat focusing on a need to engage in effective emergency preparedness planning and training. Front-line physicians are an important component of any emergency preparedness plan. Potential victims of an attack include children who have unique physiologic and psychological vulnerabilities in disasters. Front-line providers need to have adequate training to effectively participate in local planning initiatives and to recognize and treat casualties including children. The goal of the survey was to assess the current state of terrorism preparedness training, including child victims, by emergency medicine, family practice, and pediatric residency programs in the United States and to assess methods of training and barriers to establishing effective training. A survey was e-mailed to a comprehensive list of all US pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine residency programs 3 times between September 2003 and January 2004. The survey measured the perceived risk of terrorist attack, level of training by type of attack, level of training regarding children, method of training, and barriers to training. Overall, 21% of programs responded (46 of 182 pediatric, 75 of 400 family practice, and 29 of 125 emergency medicine programs). Across all of the event types, emergency medicine programs were more likely to report adequate/comprehensive training. However, terrorism preparedness funding, these data suggest that we are failing to provide adequate training to front-line providers who may care for children in a catastrophic domestic terrorist event.

  17. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and... notice is also soliciting comments concerning the Information Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti...

  18. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  19. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  20. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  1. Framework for Analyzing the Future Threat of WMD Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines theories of practical and strategic constraints that collectively explain why so few terrorist groups in history have crossed (or attempted to cross the WMD threshold. From this analysis, it becomes clear that a terrorist group's deliberations about WMD can be influenced (positively or negatively by a variety of factors. Our projections of the future WMD terrorism threat must therefore account for changes in the kinds of practical and strategic constraints that could lead to an increased willingness and/or capability of a group to pursue these kinds of weapons. Further, there are ways in which governments can influence a terrorist group's decision-making and thus have a direct impact on the future evolution of the WMD terrorism threat.

  2. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Laitin, David. Hegemony and Culture : Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba . Chicago...such improvements might take. Definitions Terrorism: Definitions of terrorism differ among nations and organizations, because the social and cultural

  3. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  4. Dismantling Terrorism: Developing Actionable Solutions for Today's Plague of Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2007-01-01

    .... The bibliography is divided into the following sections: causes and origins of terrorism, geographical distribution of terrorist groups, terrorist financing, terrorist groups and networks, the psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, remedies...

  5. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  6. Talking about terrorism: Q and A with Jessica Stern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism remains a potent threat. We have known for some time that terrorist groups have been seeking weapons of mass destruction. There are various ways that terrorists could use nuclear and other radioactive materials: they could acquire a nuclear weapon from a nuclear State; they could acquire the necessary fissile material and produce a weapon on their own, creating an improvised nuclear device; they could attack a nuclear power plant; or they could create a radiation dispersal device, a so-called dirty bomb. The first possibility would be the most devastating, but it is also probably the least likely. Stealing a bomb would be difficult because of the generally high security of facilities where nuclear weapons are stored. And a State that gave nuclear weapons to terrorists would have to seriously consider the probability that the source of the bomb could be identified, so retaliation against the State would be likely. In this regard, the revelation that terrorist groups were carrying out reconnaissance missions at Russian nuclear-weapon storage sites in 2001 was troubling; but the terrorists' efforts quickly became known to security personnel. The second possibility-the risk that terrorists will acquire nuclear-weapons usable materials-must be taken extremely seriously, especially in light of revelations about meetings between Pakistani nuclear scientists and al Qaeda, and about a clandestine effort to export nuclear technology run by the Khan network. Terrorists' dispersal of radioactive materials - either by attacking a nuclear plant or disseminating those materials with a home-made device-is the most likely scenario. Still, it is important to keep the threat in perspective. Dirty bombs are far more frightening than lethal. The article provides responses of Jessica Stern on questions about how big a threat nuclear terrorism is, how to minimize the risks of nuclear terrorism, the behaviour of states to combat the roots and reach of nuclear terrorism

  7. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  8. Setting the agenda of a counter-terrorism strategic policy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ferone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a functional model to fight terrorism from macro perspective through a “Strategic Policy Model” (SPM. The focus on legal order within the practices of Sociology of Law and Criminology is pivotal in order to reframe terrorism within a viable SPM. In “The Counterterrorism Handbook”, written by Bolz, Dudonis, and Schulz (2005, terrorism, at its very basic level, is defined as “an action that the urban guerrilla must execute with the greatest cold bloodedness, calmness and decision”. They further go on to provide a more scholarly definition: “the calculated use of violence to attain goals which are political, religious or ideological in nature. Terrorism involves a criminal act that is often symbolic in nature and intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims”.

  9. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  10. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  11. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  12. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  13. Country Reports on Terrorism 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    and sponsor the development of local language websites. The centers also conduct training in basic civics, entrepreneurship , and English. USAID... franchises ‖ that AQ has conducted its recent attacks. AQ remains committed to attacking the United States and focuses its planning on targets that would

  14. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  15. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    nesses (e.g., Ford, Coca - Cola , American Airlines, " Destruction of Pan American Flight 103 over American Express, Holiday Inn, Citibank, ChaseDesruin...network, involving links between many clandestine, undeclared war. governments. Cases in which a consortium of gov- State sponsorship refers to the...Syria has setup centers constitutes concrete and convincing evidence of in Syria itself, in Lebanon’s Beka’a Valley (which is sponsorship of terrorism.𔄁

  16. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come.

  17. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  18. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  19. Psychology of Safety and Resistance to Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Potapov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article main parameters of any emergency situation that influence the psychological stress intensity are described. The most frequent consequences of emergency situations are discussed. The characteristic of psychological and psychosomatic reactions of the rescuers and secret service agents is provided. Professional and personal training of emergency service workers involved in work with victims of terrorist attacks and emergency situations is described. Attention is drawn to the the problem of interaction between emergency service workers and victims.

  20. Against acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  1. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  2. Trading Justice for Security? UN Anti-Terrorism, Due Process Rights, and the Role of the Judiciary: Lessons for policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this policy paper is to highlight the role\\ud of the judiciary in reconciling counter-terrorism strategies\\ud with human rights standards. Indeed, judicial assent\\ud to the excesses of policy-makers risks deepening the\\ud human rights crisis caused by the fight against apocalyptic\\ud terrorism. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001\\ud terrorist attacks against the United States, the political\\ud climate has been dominated by security concerns. The\\ud United States has invo...

  3. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  4. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on te...

  5. Influence of certain tactical attacking patterns on the result achieved by the teams participants of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare tactical manifestations of soccer teams, different competitive success, defined on the basis of the achieved results in one match at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The teams were divided into 3 groups based on the match results, the tactical analysis included a total of 60 matches of 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The first sub-sample of the subjects (winning was consisted of the teams that won in the final result, the second sub-sample (draw were the teams that ended in tied score (no winner, while the third subs ample (defeat consisted of the teams which were defeated in the course of regular 90-minute game. Based on the previously processed data, which were taken from the official website of the International Federation of Association Soccer (www.fi fa.com, the observed parameters refer to the game efficiency, tactical attacking resource - passing the ball and the ball passing structure. Based on the analysis of the successful attacks frequency, it was revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the number of successful attacks between the teams that had achieved different results (p = 0.003, in favor of the winning teams. Additionally, the successfulness of attacks, observed through their accuracy, indicates the differences in their distribution (p = 0.000 between the aforesaid groups. The results also indicate that the total run distance, on the level of one team is not associated with the final result. However, ball possession (P = 0.001, overall number of passes (p = 0.015 and overall number of correct passes (P = 0.013 were figured as important factors in achieving better results, while the analysis of the efficacy percentage and the structure of the game that applied passing, i.e., pass length is little or not associated with the final result. The results of this study can help identify those tactical attacking resources in soccer, which contribute to achieving

  6. Social networking-based simulations for nuclear security: Strategy assessment following nuclear cyber terror on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Kwak, Sang Man

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terror modeling is made by the social networking algorithm. • This is applicable by the social networking service (SNS). • Security of nuclear industry could be controlled by the network theory. • Newly developed complex algorithm can be introduced. • Simplified graphics show the operator easily. - Abstract: Nuclear energy has been studied for the secure power productions, which is based on the simulation study following the incident of nuclear cyber terror attack on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The social networking is used for the terror incident modeling and its prevention strategies. The nuclear industry could be investigated in the aspect of minimizing the dangerous situations caused by possible terror attacks which are considered by the society oriented connectivity among the related people or groups. The social networking circle by system dynamics diagram (SNCSD) is constructed, where the configuration of a model social networking example by system dynamics (SD) is applied. From A to H regions, the values are obtained by the random numbers incorporated with the designed algorithms. The results show the comparative values of terror possibilities which are based on the proposed social networking algorithm. It is possible to prepare for potential terrorism in the nuclear industry

  7. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. United Nations 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  8. Conducting Field Research on Terrorism: a Brief Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dolnik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the practical aspects of field research on terrorism. Firstly, it  outlines some issues involved in the process of attaining a human research ethics/institutional review board clearance in order to be able to even begin the field research. It suggests some ways in which researchers can positively influence this review process in their favor. Secondly, the article focuses on the real and perceived dangers of field research, identifying practical steps and preparatory activities that can help researchers manage and reduce the risks involved. The article also covers the formalities and dilemmas involved in gaining access to the field. It then provides some insights into the topic of operating in conflict zones, followed by a section covering the ways of gaining access to sources, effective communication skills and influence techniques and addresses key issues involved in interviewing sources in the field. The final section focuses on identifying biases and interfering factors which researchers need to take into account when interpreting the data acquired through interviews. This article is a modest attempt to fill a gap in the literature on terrorism research by outlining some of the key issues involved in the process of doing field research. It incorporates insights from diverse disciplines as well as the author’s personal experiences of conducting field research on terrorism in places like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Colombia, Mindanao, Uganda, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and India.

  9. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Influence of airplane components for model D. [Langley spin tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of airplane components, as well as wing location and tail length, on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6 scale general aviation airplane model. The airplane was tested in a built-up fashion (i.e., body, body-wing, body-wing-vertical, etc.) in the presence of two wing locations and two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  10. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: Influence of horizontal tail location for Model D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, B.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of horizontal tail location on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested using various horizontal tail positions, with both a high and a low-wing location and for each of two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  11. CORE COMPETENCES OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the attacks, the level of violence, the scale of destruction in the maritime areas forces creation of certain security conditions. Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure. Building competence of terrorist organization and maritime piracy requires the involvement of many interrelated resources and their proper coordination. It seems that, as in a business model, in these criminal organizations there are similar resources, skills and competences that determine the advantage and strategic value of the organization. However, the weight of each factor is different. The same assumption can be related to piracy and the activities of the terrorist organization at sea. The results of the study suggest that the main sources of success of analyzed criminal organizations generate harm for national security. In the case of piracy, they result from the following spheres: human capital, attributable to the skills capital; structural capital, belonging to innovation capital; relational capital, depending on customers' capital. As for terrorist activities, they stem from the spheres of: human capital, belonging to social capital; structural capital, attributable to the process capital; relational capital and determined by capital of standing out. In summary, this article is intended to show a terrorist organization and maritime piracy through the prism of resources theory, skills and competences of strategic management. As one of the first, it places many questions, formulate some theses in the area of competences of organizations. Answering the questions, verification of posed theses, requires also in-depth research that will be published in subsequent works.

  12. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Courtney B.

    2004-01-01

    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  13. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  14. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  15. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  16. Dirty hands : Government torture and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests that the use of harsh repression can exacerbate the incidence and duration of terrorism. Micro- and macro-level analyses have shown that coercive government responses to terrorism can radicalize sympathizers, increase recruitment, and undermine community support for

  17. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  18. Terrorism: a public health threat with a trauma system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J; Gross, Ronald I

    2003-12-01

    The threat of mass casualties and widespread infectious disease caused by terrorism is now a challenge for our government and public health system. Funds have been granted to the states by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Health Resources and Services Administration to establish bioterrorism preparedness and response capabilities. Hartford Hospital has been designated as a Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness by the Commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Public Health. The Center of Excellence has implemented strategies to prepare for a possible bioterrorist attack. A unique model that combines epidemiology and traumatology is being used to guide the preparedness activities. Although the focus of the grant from the Connecticut Department of Public Health is bioterrorism, the application of the model can apply to preparation for all terrorist events. Implementation of strategies indicates that bioterrorism preparedness is well underway. Similar initiatives should be achievable by other trauma systems throughout the country. A Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness in Connecticut is successfully modifying a trauma system to meet the challenge of a new public health threat, terrorism.

  19. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  20. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwande, FO

    2014-01-01

    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  1. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  2. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  3. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  4. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  5. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  6. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  7. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglewer, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  8. The Spectacle of Terrorism: Exploring the Notions of ‘Blind Acting Out’ and ‘Phatic Communication’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mwenda Kailemia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the parallels between ‘staged’ incidences of terrorism and ‘spectacular public disorder’ as a supplementary reading of terrorism. I claim that, while the spectacular in both is not 'par se'- or even an exhaustive- account of how terrorism functions, there is an aspect of what the French philosopher Alain Badiou has referred to as 'Passage a l’acte' (‘blind acting out’- coined apropos of the 2006 Paris riots- which should exercise our attention. The methodology of 'passage a l’acte' is to draw maximum attention to an issue by letting the extended post-attack coverage ‘do the talking’. The article also shows how ‘phatic communication’, a term coined by Malinowski, is an important component of 'passage a l’acte'

  9. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  10. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  11. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final... Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 (``Extension Act'') and the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  12. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  13. Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Wanda P

    2004-04-01

    To summarize the literature about the clinical presentation and treatment interventions of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. The literature on children's responses to terrorist activities was reviewed. Over the past 10 years, more research has emerged on the subject of terrorism in children. Many of the effects of terrorism-induced trauma are similar to the effects of natural and man-made trauma. Children's responses include acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, regressive behaviors, separation problems, sleep difficulties, and behavioral problems. However, several aspects of terrorist attacks result in unique stressors and reactions and pose specific challenges for treatment. The unpredictable, indefinite threat of terrorist events, the profound effect on adults and communities, and the effect of extensive terrorist-related media coverage exacerbates underlying anxieties and contributes to a continuous state of stress and anxiety. Intervention strategies include early community-based interventions, screening of children at risk, triage and referral, and trauma-loss-focused treatment programs. Advances have been made in the research of childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma. Further research is needed to identify children at risk and to determine the long-term impact on children's development. Although the preliminary results of interventions developed to help children are promising, outcome data have not been examined, and further research is needed to evaluate their effectiveness.

  14. Guarding EU-wide Counter-terrorism Policing: The Struggle for Sound Parliamentary Scrutiny of Europol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hillebrand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC (2001, Madrid (2004 and London (2005, the European Union (EU has stepped up its efforts to develop new instruments and reinforce existing ones to fight terrorism jointly. One of the key aspects of the EU-wide fight against terrorism and serious crime is the facilitation and enforcement of information and intelligence exchange among law enforcement authorities and, to a limited extent, security and intelligence services. This article examines how far the EU’s commitment to democracy, accountability and transparency is actually fulfilled with respect to its efforts at fighting terrorism by drawing on the example of the activities of the European Police Office (Europol. Taking the European Parliament (EP and National Parliaments (NPs, but also inter-parliamentary forums, into account, the article analyses how, and to what extent, mechanisms of democratic accountability and, in particular, parliamentary scrutiny are in place to hold EU-wide counter-terrorism actors, such as Europol, to account. This is a particularly timely question given that Europol’s parliamentary scrutiny procedures are currently subject to considerable changes due to the change in its legal mandate as of 1 January 2010 and the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.

  15. Design of multifunction anti-terrorism robotic system based on police dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo; Liu, Suju; Xu, Jun; Li, Dongjie

    2007-11-01

    Aimed at some typical constraints of police dogs and robots used in the areas of reconnaissance and counterterrorism currently, the multifunction anti-terrorism robotic system based on police dog has been introduced. The system is made up of two parts: portable commanding device and police dog robotic system. The portable commanding device consists of power supply module, microprocessor module, LCD display module, wireless data receiving and dispatching module and commanding module, which implements the remote control to the police dogs and takes real time monitor to the video and images. The police dog robotic system consists of microprocessor module, micro video module, wireless data transmission module, power supply module and offence weapon module, which real time collects and transmits video and image data of the counter-terrorism sites, and gives military attack based on commands. The system combines police dogs' biological intelligence with micro robot. Not only does it avoid the complexity of general anti-terrorism robots' mechanical structure and the control algorithm, but it also widens the working scope of police dog, which meets the requirements of anti-terrorism in the new era.

  16. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  17. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  18. Terrorism in Newsweek: Unveiling the Connection between Language, Ideology, and Powe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Trisno Adi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the discourse on terrorism in the Newsweek magazine and exposes how the notion of ideology and power contributes to the hegemonic representations of Muslims and Islam in the post 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre (WTC. Two Newsweek articles appeared on the 24th September 2001 were selected. The study employed Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA; this is a five-stage analytical methodology that perceives language within a three-dimensional framework: text, discourse, and society. The representation of discourse on terrorism, as found in the analysis, supports a conception that media coverage is not merely the representation of facts but also that of ideas which has gone through various considerations incorporating the three key notions of text, discourse and society altogether. The elements within the textual level and discourse level were ideologically used to represent terrorism with regard to its actor, process, and goal, constituting a commonsense as to how it should be perceived. The study concluded that the representation of discourse on terrorism in Newsweek during the post 9/11 period was perceived from what Chomsky considers as the propagandistic approach

  19. The Origin of the United Nations "Global Counter-Terrorism System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Messmer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  20. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  1. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  2. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures; La menace du terrorisme nucleaire: de l'analyse aux mesures de precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-12-15

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  3. Inflamed by the flames? The impact of terrorism and war on immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Russ, Eric; Luborsky, Judith; Gerhart, James I; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2014-06-01

    The physiological impact on citizens of prolonged exposure to violence and conflict is a crucial, yet underexplored, issue within the political science and biology literature. We examined the effect of high levels of exposure to rocket and terrorist attacks on biological markers of immunity and inflammation in a sample of 92 Israelis. A stratified random sample of individuals was drawn from a pool of subjects in Israel who had previously been interviewed regarding their stress exposure and psychological distress during a period of active rocket and terrorist attacks. These individuals were reinterviewed and blood samples were collected to assess antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly related to CRP, β = .33, p = .034, with body mass index, depression, and exposure to terrorism included in the model. Depression scores were not significantly associated with CRP or CMV antibody levels. In contrast to the established convention that psychological distress is the sole outcome of terrorism exposure, these findings reveal that individuals exposed to terrorism experience higher levels of both PTSD/depression, and inflammation. This study has important ramifications for how policy makers and medical health professionals should formulate public health policies and medically treat individuals living in conflict zones. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Children's Coping in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, James R

    2014-01-01

    Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children's disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children's preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma.

  5. A positive psychology to cope with radicalisation and terrorism? A case study of the speech by Barack Obama at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moyano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, coping with radicalisation and jihadist terrorism has been at the forefront of the domestic and foreign policy agendas in Western societies. During this time, the influence that political leaders can exert in their interaction with institutions, citizens, and terrorist organizations has been demonstrated. We present a case study of the speech by Barak Obama on June 4, 2009 at the University of Cairo (“A New Beginning”. Its content and internal structure is analysed using the classification of virtues and strengths defined by Peterson and Seligman (2004 as a theoretical and conceptual reference within the framework of positive psychology. This speech marked a turning point in the relationship between the USA and the Arab-Muslim world and could be considered to be a genuine exercise in positive communication. Its implications are yet to be determined, because it continues to exert an influence on the Obama administration’s domestic and foreign policy. In a globalized and networking world in which risks and adversities require innovative responses, more than ever we suggest that social communication capable of promoting virtues and strengths associated with optimism, hope, confidence, strength, or vitality is needed more than ever.

  6. The 2013 Dade W. Moeller Lecture: Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the 9–11 attacks, politicians and scientists began to question our ability to cope with a large-scale radiological terrorism incident. The outline of what was needed was fairly obvious: the ability to prevent such an attack; methods to cope with the medical consequences; the ability to clean up afterwards; and the tools to figure out who perpetrated the attack and bring them to justice. The medical response needed three components: the technology to rapidly determine the radiation doses received by a large number of people, methods for alleviating acute hematological radiation injuries, and therapies for mitigation and treatment of chronic radiation injuries. Research done to date has shown that a realistic medical response plan is scientifically possible, but the regulatory and financial barriers to achieving this may currently be insurmountable. PMID:24978287

  7. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  8. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  9. An Estimation of a Nonlinear Dynamic Process Using Latent Class Extended Mixed Models: Affect Profiles After Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Raccanello, Daniela; Pasini, Margherita; Brondino, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect. After selecting students whose negative affect was influenced by the two attacks (33%), we analysed the data with the LCMM package of R. We identified two affect profiles, characterized by different trends over time: The first profile comprised students with lower positive affect and higher negative affect compared to the second profile. Concerning personality traits, conscientious-ness was lower for the first profile compared to the second profile, and vice versa for neuroticism. Findings are discussed for both their theoretical and applied relevance.

  10. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  11. Protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. Is Jamaica prepared to deal with this potential threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Jamaica, a developing Caribbean country, is presently experiencing an economic recession. This has lead to the government having considerable difficulty in acquiring much needed financing, even financing that is necessary to protect the county's resources and facilities from terrorist and sabotage. Essential national facilities include our international airports, embassies and High Commission, hospitals, utility plants - electricity, water and telecommunications, oil-refineries, government ministries, parliamentary houses and educational facilities. These facilities are vulnerable to terrorist attacks and sabotages. Terrorist acts and acts of sabotage can come from internal as well as external sources, they can be commandeered from the air, land or sea. They can be politically, socio-economically or otherwise motivated. As a third world developing nation, Jamaica does not have the capability or the resources necessary to secure all its assets, the government must prioritize on such resource allocation. With its high level of debt servicing, dealing with recurrent and capital expenditure and addressing other social issues, some important issues will be placed on the back burner, dealing with terrorism and sabotage will fall in the category. One contributing factor is the fact that to date the incidents of terrorism and sabotage have been few to non-existent. This has encouraged the government to become somewhat complacent, subscribing to the belief that acts of terrorism and sabotage will never happen. This practice can be detrimental to the country, as one cannot underestimate the threat of terrorism and sabotage. With the steady increase in drug related incidents and with the deportation agreement the government has with some first world countries such as the USA and England, this threat is very realistic. Drug 'Lords'/'Dons' are known to promote terrorism and sabotage as revenge mechanism against governments for unfavorable decision handed down by the

  12. Terrorism and the adolescent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Alyssa; Zalsman, Gil

    2003-01-01

    In recent years suicide bombings have became a part of life in Israel. Adolescents seem to be more vulnerable to the issues of life and death since they have to choose psychologically whether to live or die ("the fourth organizer"). The reaction to terrorism in this age group is unique. After September 11th, a great interest on the subject has arisen in the United States and some new data has been gathered. One of the important messages is that terrorism does not simply equal trauma. The aim of this article is to review current literature on emotional reaction, impact, and therapeutic strategies to terrorism in the adolescent population.

  13. American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    Goodnough, and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/us...Abby Goodnough and Liz Robbins , “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2009/10/22/us...July 8, 2009); Tony Allen-Mills, “FBI ‘Lured Dimwits’ into Terror Plot,” The Sunday Times, London, May 24, 2009, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news

  14. The United Nations and counter-terrorism after September 11:towards an assessment of the impact and prospects of counter-terror 'spill-over' into international criminal justice cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the recent role of the United Nations (UN) after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in improving the effectiveness and commitment of states to counterterrorism through the development of domestic legislation, policy and practice. The post- Cold War context provided a facilitative environment for the UN Security Council enabling ad hoc or case-by-case responses to acts of terrorism during the 1990s. However, the paper argues that the intervention of the Security Council in t...

  15. Liability for damage resulting from acts of the nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is defined as an attack on a nuclear installation serving peaceful uses (such as a nuclear power plant) or non-peaceful uses. Radiological terrorism, which may be more likely, is defined as an action which doesn't trigger a nuclear reaction but gives rise to the release of radioactivity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing legal framework covering such situations. The relevant provisions of the Vienna and Paris Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage, which represent a legal framework for nuclear liability at the international level, are discussed. The focus is on the identification of the the liable subject, including definition of the scope and nature of its liability. (author)

  16. Great Britain Against Libya’s state Terrorism in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jureńczyk

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present and assess Britain’s attitude towards Libya’s state terrorism in the 1980s. It presents the circumstances of involvement of Libyan authorities in the acts of terror, as well as the reasons for directing such activity against the United Kingdom. The paper discusses the response of the British authorities to the Libyan-backed terrorist activity and the results of investigations into attacks perpetrated by Libyans against British citizens. The main thesis of the paper is the statement that the politics of Great Britain in reaction for support offered by Muammar Gaddafi’s regime to the international terrorist network was formulated in line with the main directions of US policy towards Libya.

  17. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  18. A fatal elephant attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  20. The Swedish School Attack in Trollhättan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Åsa; Reid Meloy, J

    2018-04-23

    This is a case report of the offender and offense characteristics of a targeted attack on a Swedish school using a sword, with a particular focus upon the offender's history, the relationship between mental disorder and ideology, and whether or not it was an act of terrorism. Findings indicate that the offender had no drug or psychiatric treatment history, but postoffense analysis suggests autism spectrum disorder, depression, and both suicidal ideation and intent. The offender planned and prepared for his attack, and the triggering event appeared to be the loss of a temporary job. He expressed chronic anger concerning immigrants to Sweden and blamed them for his failures. Comparison of the fact pattern to other cases of lone actor terrorism with the Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) empirically demonstrates excellent criterion validity with other lone actor terrorists in Europe and North America-including right wing extremists-and contributes to further understanding of ideologically motivated mass murder. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Do Jews and Arabs Differ in Their Fear of Terrorism and Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory Bitton, Mally; Silawi, Yousef

    2016-10-01

    The current study was carried out with the aim of supplementing the existing literature and broadening the understanding of the determinants of two powerful types of fear, fear of terrorism and fear of crime, by comparing their presence among Jews and Arabs in Israel. Based on an overview of factors influencing fear of victimization, the study focused on individual variables (ethnicity, sex, age, objective, and subjective exposure) as well as on neighborhood disorder and social integration. The sample consisted of 375 Israeli students (191 Jews and 184 Arabs). Predictions of fear of terrorism and crime were conducted with two multiple regressions. Fear of terrorism was significantly predicted by gender (women more than men), higher self exposure to terror, and higher neighborhood disorder. The only interaction found with regard to exposure to incidents showed that previous victimization predicts only fear of terrorism and only among Arabs who were themselves affected or exposed to the victimization of others. Fear of crime was predicted by sector (Jews more than Arabs), gender (women more than men), higher neighborhood disorder, and lower social integration. As far as known, this is the first attempt to examine differences between Jews and Arabs with regard to these two types of fear and to predict their causes. The findings help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of crime and terrorism, in general and in the Arab-Jewish context in particular. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats. The results are discussed in accordance with the literature, concluding with the need for further research that will take into account the wider cultural and social context.

  2. Crowdsourcing Intelligence to Combat Terrorism: Harnessing Bottom-Up Collection to Prevent Lone-Wolf Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    websites and a YouTube station dedicated to radical Islamic topics. Also in April 2010, Chesser warned via email the creators of South Park, Trey...and severe depression .63 As with the issue of socially withdrawn individuals, not all people with the psychological problems listed above are

  3. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    After the September 11 terrorist attack, the threat of a potential for a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack became more apparent. The threats relating to radiological or nuclear materials include a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), an Improved Nuclear Device (IND) or a State Nuclear Device (such as a Soviet manufactured suitcase nuclear weapon). For more effective countermeasures against the disaster, multilayer protection concept - prevention of smuggling of radioactive or nuclear material into our country through seaports or airports, detection and prevention of the threat materials in transit on a road, and prevention of their entry into a target building - is recommended. Due to different surrounding circumstances of where detection system is deployed, different types of radiation detection systems are required. There have been no studies on characteristics of detection equipment required under Korean specific conditions. This paper provides information on technical requirements of radiation detection system to achieve multi-layer countermeasures for the purpose of protecting the public and environment against radiological and nuclear terrorism

  4. Fighting Terrorism With Strategy: Revisiting Competing Visions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schluckebier, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ... the threat of international terrorism requires America to make a grand strategic choice, This paper examines those choices by presenting four post-Cold War strategy options neo-isolationism, selective...

  5. Combatting Terrorism: A New National Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    .... Conducted by organized, highly trained, and technologically sophisticated paramilitary units, terrorism is in fact a form of warfare waged against the United States and its allies. But current U.S...

  6. On Teaching About Terrorism: A Conceptual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the use of conceptual mapping, case studies, and springboards to discussion and inquiry as viable approaches to the study of terrorism in secondary classrooms. Provides numerous examples of conceptual maps. (JDH)

  7. Islamic Law and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jihād and terrorism are not the same. In the context of sharia that implementation of the jihād has parameters measured with a layer of ethics based on the commands Al Quran and the Hadith of Prophet and the explanation the Ulama. Muslims in Indonesia views that the essentially not much different from the views on jihād and terror in other Islamic countries, especially the Middle East. In the context of Islamic law, jihād has multi spectral studies, but none of these studies that equate the meaning of jihād with terrorism, or none of them agreed that acts of terror as has been demonstrated by radical groups that are part of the concept Islam.

  8. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    OpenAIRE

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan

    2011-01-01

    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  9. Why is terrorism a man's business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2018-04-01

    Terrorism, whether it is group-related or performed as lone actor terrorism, is a predominantly male phenomenon. Generally and throughout history, young males have been the main protagonists of criminal and political violence.This article aims to contribute, from different perspecives, to the question of what makes young men violent. These include neurobiological aspects, such as sex differences in the brain that predispose males to physical aggression and violence; gender role aspects, with regard to aggression and violence being basic components for demonstrating and reconstructing masculinity; demographic aspects of male youth bulges as potential breeding grounds for terrorism; aspects of group dynamics and identity fusion in the process of radicalization; and psychosocial characteristics of lone actor terrorists, which differ from group-related terrorists.It is concluded that in addition to ideological, political, economic, regional, demographic, or psychosocial causes, experiences of threatened masculinity may be an underlying factor and driving force for terrorism.

  10. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  11. State of terror: women at risk

    OpenAIRE

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-01-01

    Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  12. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  13. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  14. On immorality of terrorism and war

    OpenAIRE

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others) who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable mora...

  15. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  16. Attacker Model Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz present Tutorial Quiz Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial the two sub-classes of computer attackers: amateurs and professionals. It provides valuable insight into the nature of necessary protection measure for information assets. CS3600 Information Assurance: Introduction to Computer Security Course

  17. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... major stroke. It's important to call 9-1-1 immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  18. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  19. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  2. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  3. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  4. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Rehm, Jürgen; Sapkota, Amir

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associations between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war, and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and substance use disorder disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The relationship between terrorism, and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality among World Health Organization Member States in 2002, controlling for adult per capita alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and economic variables at baseline in 1994. Deaths as a result of terrorism and related violence were related to substance use disorder DALYs: a 1.0% increase in deaths as a result of terrorism, war and one-sided violence was associated with an increase of between 0.10% and 0.12% in alcohol and drug use disorder DALYs. Associations were greater among males and 15-44 year-old. Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  6. Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Margo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Australian research has highlighted disparities in community perceptions of the threat posed by terrorism. A study with a large sample size is needed to examine reported concerns and anticipated responses of community sub-groups and to determine their consistency with existing Australian and international findings. Methods Representative samples of New South Wales (NSW adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI in 2007 (N = 2081 and 2010 (N = 2038. Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Data sets from the two surveys were pooled and multivariate multilevel analyses conducted to identify health and socio-demographic factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time. Results In comparison with 2007, Australians in 2010 were significantly more likely to believe that a terrorist attack would occur in Australia (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR = 1.24, 95%CI:1.06-1.45 but felt less concerned that they would be directly affected by such an incident (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI:0.55-0.75. Higher perceived risk of terrorism and related changes in living were associated with middle age, female gender, lower education and higher reported psychological distress. Australians of migrant background reported significantly lower likelihood of terrorism (AOR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.39-0.70 but significantly higher concern that they would be personally affected by such an incident (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04 and having made changes in the way they live due to this threat (AOR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.88-3.25. Willingness to evacuate homes and public places in response to potential incidents increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.33-1.76. Conclusion While an increased proportion of Australians believe that the national threat of terrorism remains high, concern about being personally affected

  7. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  8. Through the Lenses of Hollywood: depictions of Terrorism in American Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Hollywood cinema has shaped, and sometimes distorted, the perception of terrorism since the late 1960s. It does so by discussing emblematic movies in a comparative way. The main thesis is that Hollywood never seriously tried to offer an accurate assessment of terrorism. Instead, it offered a mediated version that transcends reality and is firmly rooted in a pop culture framework. Nonetheless, since movies are, according to cinema theorist Siegfried Kracauer, a "mirror of the prevailing society", they too reveal something about the historical evolution of terrorism and modifications in its understanding. Another issue briefly addressed is the question whether "real" terrorists tend to re-enact or copy (cinema"reel" violence – given the fact that terrorists too are subject to the influence of cinematic images and metaphors.

  9. Impact of terrorism and political instability on equity premium: Evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MengYun, Wu; Imran, Muhammad; Zakaria, Muhammad; Linrong, Zhang; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Muhammad, Shah Khalid

    2018-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact of terrorism and political instability on firm equity premium in Pakistan using panel data for 306 non-financial firms for the period 2001 to 2014. Other variables included are law & order, government regime change and financial crisis of 2007/08. The estimated results reveal that terrorism has statistically significant negative impact on firm equity premium in Pakistan. This result is robust with alternative equation specifications. The result also remains same when terrorism variable is replaced with external and internal conflict variables. Law & order variable has significant positive effect on firm equity premium, which implies that equity premium increases with the improvement in law & order situation in the country. Equity premium also increases with government stability and when there is democratic system in the country. The result also reveals that global financial crisis of 2007/08 negatively influenced the firm equity premium. The study suggests some policy implications.

  10. LEARNING INSTITUTIONS’ VULNERABILITY TO TERRORISM. AN OVERVIEW OF ISSUE COVERAGE IN NOWADAYS’ MEDIA AND SPECIALISED LITERATURE & A CASE STUDY OF GARISSA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Onyango Standslause ODHIAMBO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, (ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have the knowledge and the capability to strike anywhere in Kenya and with Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia in mid-October 2011, the citizens in Mandera, Moyale, Garrisa, Nairobi and Mombasa have been attacked and lives lost. This confirms that Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have been motivated by Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF, now under the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM incursion into Somalia and they will continue to attack Kenya as a way of retaliation. The importance of Learning Institutions makes it a soft target for ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists. The fact that ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists will strike at Learning Institutions is real and this can be confirmed by the Garissa University College, Kenya terror attack where 148 people were killed on 2 April, 2015. The risk of terrorists attack against this critical infrastructure can result in communal disruptions, disarray, and even overreaction on the part of governments and the public as a result of any attack, may be high. We argue that Learning Institutions are vulnerable to ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks. In summary, the article looks at the concepts of terrorism, the dangers of attack on Learning Institutions, Kenya’s Learning Institutions preparedness and concludes with a set of recommendations.

  11. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. Terror: Social Media and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    lists the 39 principles of jihad. One of the principles is, " performing electronic jihad.ř The principle describes cybercrime and cyber vandalism...attack on the Boston Marathon . A lesser-known case study of self-radicalization from YouTube is Roshanara Choudhry, a British woman who stabbed a Member...done in social media to counter the extremists. A recreation of USIA with a modern spin for the technology of today could vastly improve the US

  13. The Race Against Nuclear Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    franchised version of the nuclear “Wal-Mart” cannot be discounted. Yet, if we are 49 Christopher Clary. “Dr...much emphasis on the Pakistani scientist, other potential “ franchised ” proliferators may be operating and continuing where A.Q. Khan left off...behavior. In brief, Aum Shinrikyo’s decision to attack civilians on a Japanese subway reflects an organization in a desperate fight for survival

  14. Chemical Terrorism for the Intensivist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    used in the ICU, and the clinician needs to be mindful of this interaction (nerve agents and neuromuscular blockers ).6 Chemical and biological attacks...Frothy Sputum Headache, Fatigue, Anxiety , Irritability, Cardiac Arrest, Dyspnea Coma, Seizures Conjunctivitis, Sore Throat, Epistaxis, Erythema, Skin...Steroids and beta -agonists are com- monly used, and although there is no strong human clinical data to support this practice, there is some animal evidence

  15. Patterns of Global Terrorism 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    subsidiary of Swiss-owned Nestle Multinational. The explosion caused major damage but no injuries. India Official sources reported that unidentified militants... Malaysia , a local Bishop, two UNICEF officials, two local journalists, and 16 Sierra Leonean nationals. No one was injured in the attack. The rebels...one German, one US citizen, and several citizens from Malaysia , Singapore, and Thailand. The group, calling itself the Vigorous Burmese Student

  16. Automated Discovery of Mimicry Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathon T; Jha, Somesh; Miller, Barton P

    2006-01-01

    .... These systems are useful only if they detect actual attacks. Previous research developed manually-constructed mimicry and evasion attacks that avoided detection by hiding a malicious series of system calls within a valid sequence allowed by the model...

  17. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat, cholesterol and other substances (plaque). Watch an animation of a heart attack . Many women think the ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  18. Nonepileptic attack disorder among married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Arulmozhi, T; Vengatesan, A

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) among married women. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. A tertiary care teaching hospital. Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the generalized 'attack.' The data collected included clinical characteristics, semiology of the attacks, precipitating stressful events, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The control group included 30 age-matched married women with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The long-term outcome and factors influencing the outcomes were analyzed. The mean duration of illness was 18 months, and the pattern of the attack was 'fall and lying still' in 53% and 'fall with generalized motor movements' in 47%. The frequency was one or more per week in 57% and occasionally in 43%. The important stressful events were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman (chi2 = 9.02, P = 0.003) and constant quarrel with other family members (chi2 = 5.19, P = 0.02). The prevalence of sexual abuse was low (7%). Co-morbid psychiatric disorder was observed in 70%. At the end of 1 year, 39% were free from the attack. Resolution of the stressful life events (chi2 = 4.52, P = 0.03) and lower frequency of attack at the time of reporting (chi2 = 3.88, P = 0.05) correlated with good outcomes. Among patients with NEAD in India, the major precipitating factors were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman and constant quarrel with other family members and not sexual abuse. Women with low frequency of attack at the time of reporting and the remission of the stressful events had better outcomes.

  19. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  20. Terrorism in Indo-Pak nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Issue of terrorism, militancy and nuclear security of South Asia evokes a lot of concern not only to South-Asians but also to the larger world. The most difficult problem in relations between India and Pakistan since partition in August 1947 has been their dispute over Kashmir. A summary of root cause analysis has been presented in the paper. Nuclear terrorism, should it emerge, could prove the final destruction of sanity in South Asia. Widespread availability of radioactive materials worldwide makes threat of radiological terrorism plausible. Terrorist groups are trying to strangulate and talibanize Pakistan, sucking it into vortex of failed states, nuclear banana republics with their praetorian culture, and a whole new category of 'North Koreas' in the central Asian region. This would be highly unstable, as these rabid adventurous states would pose extreme risks to the neighboring states in the future. Two case studies have been presented in the paper, estimating horrifying future of the unfolding story, with visions of a nuclear attack on energy sectors at Mumbai in India, and Karachi in Pakistan; may be a crude bomb or a radiological dispersal devices. The statistical consequences of the strike are horrifying to say the least. Methodology of preventing such a happening has been worked out with deep analysis of society and bringing out remedial measures. Methodology of conflict management has been discussed at length. With suggestive organization, its relevance modus operandi, role and limitations. There is a great need to think rationally, indeed, compassionately and charitably. The resumption of serious, high-level dialogue provides an opening for Indian and Pakistani leaders to depart from scripts that reduce room for diplomatic manoeuvre. Given the multiplicity of targets and terrorist scenarios, India and Pakistan need to be persuaded that nuclear weapons make the world a more dangerous, not a safer, place and to take a step back and realize that

  1. Modeling a Strategy for the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Darral

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...

  2. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  3. 174 THE MORALITY OF SUICIDE TERRORISM AND BOKO HARAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    philosophically consider the moral implication of suicide terrorism with particular .... define terrorism is political rather than theoretical. Brian Berkey (2010) is of ..... elements of relativism to the concept of morality because an. Islamic cleric who ...

  4. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  5. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehr, W.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  6. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  7. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  8. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  9. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Office of Justice... promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program... international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is effective April 11, 2011. Comment...

  10. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  11. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  12. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  13. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  14. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  15. BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: THE NOTION, ESSENCE AND MAIN AREAS OF COUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sarankina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  16. Understanding and Teaching the Semantics of Terrorism: An Alternative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques conventional definitions of terrorism. Advocates sensitizing students to the semantics of terrorism and teaching skepticism of leaders who manipulate such concepts. Recommends using historical case studies to clarify issues, inform students about state and state-sponsored terrorism, and challenge students' preconceptions. Includes a…

  17. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  18. Terrorism preparedness in state health departments--United States, 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-31

    The anthrax attacks in fall 2001 highlighted the role of infectious disease (ID) epidemiologists in terrorism preparedness and response. Beginning in 2002, state health departments (SHDs) received approximately 1 billion dollars in new federal funding to prepare for and respond to terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and other public health threats and emergencies. This funding is being used in part to improve epidemiologic and surveillance capabilities. To determine how states have used a portion of their new funding to increase ID epidemiology capacity, the Iowa Department of Public Health's Center for Acute Disease Epidemiology and the Iowa State University Department of Microbiology conducted two surveys of U.S. state epidemiologists during September 2000-August 2001 and October 2002-June 2003. This report summarizes the results of these surveys, which determined that although the number of SHD epidemiology workers assigned to ID and terrorism preparedness increased by 132%, concerns remained regarding the ability of SHDs to hire qualified personnel. These findings underscore the need to develop additional and more diverse training venues for current and future ID epidemiologists.

  19. Unintentional drinking-water contamination events of unknown origin: surrogate for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gary; Leventhal, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Drinking-water is a direct conduit to many human receptors. An intentional attack (e.g. terrorism) on drinking-water systems can shock and disrupt elements of national infrastructures. We report on an unintentional drinking-water contamination event that occurred in Tel Aviv, Israel in July, 2001. Initially of unknown origin, this event involved risk management strategies used by the Ministry of Health for abating a potential public health crisis as might be envisaged of water contamination due to terrorism. In an abrupt event of unknown origin, public health officials need to be responsible for the same level of preparedness and risk communication. This is emphasized by comparison of management strategies between the Tel Aviv event and one of dire consequences that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. From the onset of the Tel Aviv incident, the public health strategy was to employ the precautionary principle by warning residents of the affected region to not drink tap water, even if boiled. This strategy was in contrast to an earlier crisis that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. An outcome of this event was heightened awareness that a water crisis can occur in peacetime and not only in association with terrorism. No matter how minor the contamination event or short-term the disruption of delivery of safe drinking-water, psychological, medical and public health impact could be significant.

  20. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.