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Sample records for territory of christmas island

  1. Phase and coherence analysis of VHF scintillation over Christmas Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shume

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This short paper presents phase and coherence data from the cross-wavelet transform applied on longitudinally separated very high frequency (VHF equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations over Christmas Island. The phase and coherence analyses were employed on a pair of scintillation observations, namely, the east-looking and west-looking VHF scintillation monitors at Christmas Island. Our analysis includes 3 years of peak season scintillation data from 2008, 2009 (low solar activity, and 2011 (moderate solar activity. In statistically significant and high spectral coherence regions of the cross-wavelet transform, scintillation observations from the east-looking monitor lead those from the west-looking monitor by about 20 to 60 (40 ± 20 min (most frequent lead times. Using several years (seasons and solar cycle of lead (or lag and coherence information of the cross-wavelet transform, we envisage construction of a probability model for forecasting scintillation in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere.

  2. Health assessment of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

    2014-07-01

    During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox.

  3. Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Meek, Paul D; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2014-04-01

    The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  5. Decolonizing through integration: Australia's off-shore island territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wettenhall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s three small off-shore island territories – Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean and Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling Islands Group in the Indian Ocean – can be seen as monuments to 19th century British-style colonization, though their early paths to development took very different courses. Their transition to the status of external territories of the Australian Commonwealth in the 20th century – early in the case of Norfolk and later in the cases of Christmas and Cocos – put them on a common path in which serious tensions emerged between local populations which sought autonomous governance and the Commonwealth government which wanted to impose governmental systems similar to those applying to mainstream Australians. This article explores the issues involved, and seeks to relate the governmental history of the three island territories to the exploration of island jurisdictions developed in island studies research.

  6. First record of Cephenniini on Christmas Island, with updated checklist of world Cephennomicrus species and summary of their distribution (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2017-02-06

    The tribe Cephenniini is reported for the first time to occur on Christmas Island (external territory of the Commonwealth of Australia). Cephennomicrus lawrencei sp. n. is described and illustrated; the new species shows similarities to several Oriental and Japanese congeners, with the endophallic complex of long flagellum flanked by elongate sclerites especially similar to that of Indonesian C. fesumatranus Jałoszyński. The distribution of world Cephennomicrus species is summarized, ranging from southern and central-eastern Africa, Madagascar, Indian Ocean islands, through Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, south-eastern China and Taiwan, the Ryukyus and Tsushima Island, eastern Papua New Guinea to Australia and southern Pacific islands. An updated checklist of Cephennomicrus species is provided.

  7. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  8. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karrie; Agius, Jessica; Hall, Jane; Thompson, Paul; Eden, John-Sebastian; Srivastava, Mukesh; Tiernan, Brendan; Jenkins, Cheryl; Phalen, David

    2017-01-01

    Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  9. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrie Rose

    Full Text Available Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  10. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply with...

  11. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Guam Island, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Guam Island, Guam U.S. Territory. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and 3500 meters. The...

  12. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 1215.6 Section 1215.6 Aliens... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... United States, any alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific...

  13. 8 CFR 215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 215.6 Section 215.6 Aliens... FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.6 Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific... alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an...

  14. Checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, with a description of a new species of Thecidellina from Europa Island and a re-description of T. blochmanni Dall from Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan; Hoffmann, Jana; Lüter, Carsten

    2015-09-08

    Compilation of a checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea indicates that members of this superfamily are represented by a small number of species. The subfamily Lacazellinae is represented by Ospreyella maldiviana from the Maldive Islands but the presence of Lacazella cannot yet be confirmed in the Indian Ocean as the holotype of Lacazella mauritiana from Mauritius is lost. The subfamily Thecidellininae is represented by Thecidellina blochmanni from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea while a new species T. europa is here described from Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. The subfamily Minutellinae is represented by Minutella minuta from Samper Bank and Walters Bank in the south-western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea. Since the holotype of Thecidellina blochmanni from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island is also lost, this species is re-described and illustrated mainly from topotypes in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, from which a suggested neotype has been selected.

  15. The genetic diversity,relationships,and potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale,Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo&Gullan(Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Kerriidae),a pest in Florida,the Bahamas,Cuba and Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lobate lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Kerriidae) is a polyphagous pest of woody plants in Florida (U.S.A), the Bahamas, Cuba, and Christmas Island (Australia). Its recent appearance as a pest in these places indicates that this scale is introduced; however, its native rang...

  16. Demographic resilience of territorial island birds to extinction: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been no substantial changes in the population at Malabar Island since the 1980s, but the previous estimate of the number of breeding pairs was revised downwards from c. 4 000 to c. 3 500. We made the first assessment of the number of non-breeding birds (floaters)—in early 2000, Malabar was estimated to ...

  17. Demographic resilience of territorial island birds to extinction: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1600, a disproportionate number of avian extinctions have occurred among flightless and island-dwelling species. Some of these happened very rapidly, implying that such populations had low resilience to perturbation. In managing insular populations, there is a need to be able to predict their demographic ...

  18. Mantle heterogeneities beneath the Northeast Indian Ocean as sampled by intra-plate volcanism at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; Rushmer, Tracy; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Turner, Simon; O'Neill, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The intra-plate region of the Northeast Indian Ocean, located between the Ninetyeast Ridge and the North West Shelf of Australia, contains numerous submerged seamounts and two sub-aerially exposed volcanic island groups. While the Cocos (Keeling) Archipelago is a coral atoll, Christmas Island is the only sub-aerially exposed volcanic island and contains Late Cretaceous, Eocene and Pliocene lavas. The lavas are predominantly basaltic in composition, except for one sampled flow that is trachytic. Although the evolution of the western margin of Australia, and the seismicity in the intra-plate region, has received considerable attention, the origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean is still a matter of debate. In order to constrain the origin of volcanism on Christmas Island and the associated Seamount Province we analysed 14 Christmas Island samples for major and trace element abundances and 12 of these for Nd, Hf and Pb isotope compositions. The trace element patterns of the lavas are similar to many ocean island basalts, while high 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb suggest affiliation with the DUPAL anomaly. The reconstructed position of Christmas Island during the Eocene (44-37 Ma) places the island in close proximity to the (present-day) upper mantle low-seismic velocity anomalies. Moreover, an enriched mantle (EM-2) type component in addition to the DUPAL anomaly is observed in the Eocene volcanic phase. The younger Pliocene ( 4 Ma) sequences at Christmas Island are inferred to be the product of partial melting of existing material induced by lithospheric flexure.

  19. Mean winds and the semiannual oscillation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Avery, S. K.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we analyze mesospheric wind data collected from August 1988 to November 1989 and January 1991 to December 1991 at Christmas Island (1.95°N, 157.30°W) using the Meteor Echo Detection and Collection system. A brief overview of the data analysis techniques used on these data sets and meteor arrival statistics are presented. The mean winds are computed for 80 to 100 km and compared with the CIRA(86) model of mesospheric equatorial mean winds. Examination of the zonal mean winds and a Fourier decomposition of the zonal wind field shows a strong semiannual oscillation (SAO). To determine the vertical characteristics of the zonal SAO, a least squares fit was computed at each height. The results show a semiannual oscillation that peaks in amplitude at 84 km and decreases with increasing height. The SAO at Christmas Island is compared with data collected at Ascension Island and Kwajalein Island and with the CIRA(86) model. This comparison shows good phase agreement between the sites and some variability in the amplitudes. To fully understand the SAO in the context of the theory presented by Delisi and Dunkerton (1988), the tropospheric mean winds and wind variances are computed to determine the extent of tropospheric gravity wave activity present. Finally, the amplitude and phase of the SAO in temperature are computed indirectly from the Christmas Island wind data and compared to temperature results from SME data. Our results show reasonable agreement below 87 km and a divergence in amplitude near 90 km. One probable reason for this difference is contamination of the SME data from the diurnal tide as noted by Garcia and Clancy (1990).

  20. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie

    2015-02-01

    Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world. © 2014 Crown copyright. Conservation Biology © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Enhancing the scientific value of the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erica H.; Francis, C.M.; Blancher, P.J.; Drennan, S.R.; Howe, M.A.; Lepage, D.; Robbins, Chandler S.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Sauer, J.R.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    2005-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC), conducted by the National Audubon Society (NAS) since 1900, constitutes the longest-running and geographically most widespread survey of bird life in the Western Hemisphere. Starting with 25 count locations in its first year, the program has grown continuously ever since, with 20–30 locations currently being added annually. Each CBC consists of a tally of all birds detected within a circle 24.1 km (15 miles) in diameter, on a single day within a few weeks around Christmas (current allowable dates are 14 December through 5 January). More than 50,000 observers now take part each year, in close to 2,000 count circles spread across the U.S. and its territories, southern Canada, and, increasingly, Latin America.

  2. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a "Christmas...

  3. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations. Indonesian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Southeast Sumatra. Area 2 - Christmas Island. Area 3 - Sunda Strait. Area 4 - Northwest Java Sea. Area 5 - Bangka Island Northwest. Area 6 - Natuna Island. Area 7 - Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

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  4. The Five Senses of Christmas Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the organic chemistry of five compounds that are directly associated with the Christmas season. These substances and related materials are presented within the framework of the five senses: silver fulminate (sound), alpha-pinene (sight), sodium acetate (touch), tryptophan (taste), and gingerol (smell). Connections with the…

  5. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  6. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  7. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Sarigan Island, Territory of Territory of Mariana, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  8. Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyatt, Kelly B; Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases...... having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. A case in point is the extinction of the endemic Christmas Island rat (Rattus macleari): although it has been argued that its disappearance ca. AD 1900 may have been partly or wholly caused by a pathogenic trypanosome carried...... by fleas hosted on recently-introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), no decisive evidence for this scenario has ever been adduced. Using ancient DNA methods on samples from museum specimens of these rodents collected during the extinction window (AD 1888-1908), we were able to resolve unambiguously sequence...

  9. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of... DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.64 Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the...

  10. Potential endocrine disruption of ovary synthesis in the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis by the insecticide pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Stuart; Barrow, Lauren; Davies, Claire; Harman, Laura

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the insecticide, pyriproxyfen on early ovary synthesis was examined in the Gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis. Crabs were fed a mixture of either leaf litter and bait containing 0.5% (wt/wt) pyriproxyfen (experimental groups), or a mixture of leaf litter and a control bait containing no pyriproxyfen (control groups), at simulated baiting doses of 2 kg ha(-1) and 4 kg ha(-1), during the period in which G. natalis synthesises its ovaries. A third group of crabs were fed ad libitum either the bait containing 0.5% Pypriproxyfen or the control bait. Pyriproxyfen affected early ovary development in G. natalis. The ovaries from crabs in the experimental groups at all baiting levels had a higher total nitrogen content and dry mass than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Pyriproxyfen affected the histology of the ovaries. Ovaries from animals in the experimental groups were more mature, containing more previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, of a larger diameter, than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Significant amounts of pyriproxyfen accumulated within the midgut gland and ovary, the hypothesised target tissues, while minor amounts of pyriproxyfen was accumulated in the muscle, a hypothesised non target tissue. Pyriproxyfen may have stimulated early ovary development and induced synthesis of yolk protein by mimicking methyl farnesoate and thus causing endocrine disruption. Given this, pyriproxyfen should not be used to control invasive insects in environments where gecarcinid and other land crab species are present.

  11. "Christmas Balls": a Christmas carol by the adolescent cancer patients of the Milan Youth Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Signoroni, Stefano; Silva, Matteo; Gaggiotti, Paola; Veneroni, Laura; Magni, Chiara; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Capelletti, Mirko; Lapidari, Pietro; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Massimino, Maura

    2017-03-24

    The Youth Project is a program developed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents and young adults with cancer. Among its various goals, the Youth Project organizes structured creative activities with the support of professionals, with the objective of offering young people a new way to express their hopes and fears. This article describes a project centered around music: patients created a Christmas carol with the help of musicians and authors. The adolescents explained with their own words the meaning of the lyrics, telling the story of a Christmas spent in a cancer hospital ward.

  12. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Christmas, consumption and materialism: discourse analysis of children’s Christmas letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Luna Batinga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article reports the results of an empirical research that sought to understand the many meanings referring to Christmas that appear in letters written by children and sent to Santa Claus. It is based on the idea that, by means of a playful activity such as writing Christmas letters, children would be able to bring up a variety of issues referring to their daily lives. Design/methodology/approach – This research, which is of interpretative nature, made use of elements belonging to discourse analysis. Discourse analysis is a theoretical and methodological field linked to Linguistics, which studies language in movement, producing meaning since it is a social practice. Findings – The results point to discursive marks that suggest traces of materialism and secularism in the narratives and stories created by children concerning Christmas. Moreover, Santa Claus is directly associated with the date and stands out as an emblematic figure in children’s imagination. Originality/value – Reporting Christmas imagery and the creation of its meanings by children can help unveil essential issues, or at least point out “clues” referring to the degree of symbolism that is present in the various social and cultural manifestations of contemporary society

  14. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  15. [Taxation of traditional rums in French overseas territories and public health: The example of Reunion Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mété, D

    2017-11-01

    France has a complex system for the taxation of alcoholic beverages. In the French overseas territories (FOT), the system includes little-known specificities whose purpose is to preserve the sugar-cane-rum sector, a pillar for the weak economies in these territories. Taxes are reduced for traditional rums produced and sold locally. This favors the marketing of alcoholic spirits at low prices. In metropolitan France, on the contrary, spirits are heavily taxed drinks and their share in consumption is minor. Reunion Island (RI) is a FOT confronted with significant socioeconomic precariousness and with one of the highest national morbidity and mortality rates associated with alcohol abuse. Spirits account for half of the total consumption of pure alcohol, with a strong predominance for local traditional rums. These products are preferentially consumed by vulnerable subjects, often affected by an alcohol-use disorder. This study consists of three parts. First, a comparative analysis of alcoholic beverage prices between RI and mainland France. Second, an analysis of the bibliography on the consequences of preferential consumption of spirits. Third, a literature review on the impact of taxation on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. In France, the cheapest gram of pure alcohol is found in the FOT. The preferential consumption of spirits is associated with more frequent and more rapid complications. It is correlated with the level of alcoholic psychoses. Taxation is effective in reducing damage caused by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. The World Health Organization recommends the application of a minimum price for alcohol and tax increases. The reduced taxation of the traditional rums of the FOT does not take into account public health data. Its purpose is economic. In RI, it contributes to a high level of consumption of spirits and encourages excess mortality through alcohol abuse. It constitutes an inequality of health for these populations. Changes in this tax

  16. Historical Mammal Extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Kelly B.; Campos, Paula F.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Hynes, Wayne H.; DeSalle, Rob; Daszak, Peter; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. A case in point is the extinction of the endemic Christmas Island rat (Rattus macleari): although it has been argued that its disappearance ca. AD 1900 may have been partly or wholly caused by a pathogenic trypanosome carried by fleas hosted on recently-introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), no decisive evidence for this scenario has ever been adduced. Using ancient DNA methods on samples from museum specimens of these rodents collected during the extinction window (AD 1888–1908), we were able to resolve unambiguously sequence evidence of murid trypanosomes in both endemic and invasive rats. Importantly, endemic rats collected prior to the introduction of black rats were devoid of trypanosome signal. Hybridization between endemic and black rats was also previously hypothesized, but we found no evidence of this in examined specimens, and conclude that hybridization cannot account for the disappearance of the endemic species. This is the first molecular evidence for a pathogen emerging in a naïve mammal species immediately prior to its final collapse. PMID:18985148

  17. Endangered and Threatened Animal Species and Subspecies of U.S., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. 1979 and 1980 Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    Presented is a listing of threatened and endangered animal species and subspecies both by State and collectively for the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. (BW)

  18. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...... spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further research is necessary...

  19. [Christmas seals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loytved, G

    2006-11-01

    Christmas seals, i. e., special stamps used to decorate or seal Christmas and New Year's mail, were created by the Danish post office clerk E. Holboell. The proceeds from the sale of the stickers were meant to alleviate the suffering of children sick with tuberculosis. The first Christmas seal, showing a portrait of Queen Louise of Denmark, was issued on December 10, 1904. The demand at the post office was enormous. The funds raised exceeded all expectations and made it possible to finance the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis children. The idea of Christmas seals spread quickly around the world and ended up being copied in 130 countries. At the beginning of the 20 (th) century, the small stamp with the red double-barred cross became a banner for the crusade against tuberculosis. For many patients, it also represented a symbol of hope for recovery even though this hope, given the cure rates of a sanatorium treatment, only became a reality for a few. Worldwide, Christmas seals were and are colourful and imaginatively designed, mostly with Christmas symbols or motives relating to the fight against tuberculosis. The funds raised through the sale of the seals initially helped to build hospitals and were later also used to screen persons at risk for tuberculosis, to improve housing conditions of patients and for other measures of support. With the decrease of tuberculosis, some organisations discontinued fundraising through Christmas seals while others widened their intended purpose and supported, for example, the prevention of and research on lung diseases. In Germany, Christmas seals are closely connected with the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis. Today the "Kuratorium Tuberkulose in der Welt" is the only organisation in this country that still raises funds by this means. The funds are mostly used to assist developing countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.

  20. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  1. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  2. 76 FR 9695 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... information program for fresh cut Christmas trees is reopened and extended. The comment period is also reopen and extended for the new Christmas tree information collection requirements by the Office of...

  3. Christmas Tree Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with Christmas tree production and marketing. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by four topics: introduction, starting a Christmas tree plantation, maintaining the plantation, and marketing Christmas trees. For each topic, objectives, an…

  4. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  5. Conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T he paper describes t he conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island. The activities of in situ and ex situ gene pool conservation have been defined in order to preserve and expand the populations of the above species, as carriers of complex wetland forest ecosystems.

  6. Christmas Messages by heads of state Multimodality and media adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, C.L.A.; Fetzer, A.; Lauerbach, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter investigates the multimodal quality of Christmas Messages by European heads of state on TV from a functional-pragmatic and semiotic angle. It defines them as dealing with multiple types of materialities from different modes and sub-modes. Section 1 develops the central concept of

  7. Developing Models to Forcast Sales of Natural Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett; Thomas H. Pendleton

    1977-01-01

    A study of practices for marketing Christmas trees in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and Denver, Colorado, revealed that such factors as retail lot competition, tree price, consumer traffic, and consumer income were very important in determining a particular retailer's sales. Analyses of 4 years of market data were used in developing regression models for...

  8. A Christmas Carol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Christmas Carol was an overnight success when first published in 1843, and was followed by two further Christmas books, The Chimes and The Cricket on the Hearth, also included in this volume. But A Christmas Carols Ebenezer Scooge is one of Dickenss most unforgettable characters, a miserable

  9. Temporal stereophotogrammetric analysis of retrogressive thaw slumps on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lantuit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian Arctic is identified as an area of potentially significant global warming. Thawing permafrost, sea level rise, changing sea ice conditions and increased wave activity will result in accelerated rates of coastal erosion and thermokarst activity in areas of ice-rich permafrost. The Yukon Coastal Plain is widely recognized as one of the most ice-rich and thaw-sensitive areas in the Canadian Arctic. In particular, Herschel Island displays extensive coastal thermokarst. Retrogressive thaw slumps are a common thermokarst landform along the Herschel Island coast that have been increasing in both frequency and extent have in recent years due to increased thawing of massive ground ice and coastal erosion. The volume of sediment and ground ice eroded by retrogressive slump activity and the potential release of climate change related materials like organic carbon, carbon dioxide and methane are largely unknown. The remote setting of Herschel Island, and the Arctic in general, make direct observation of this type of erosion and the analysis of potential climate feedbacks extremely problematic. Remote sensing provides possibly the best solution to this problem. This study looks at two retrogressive thaw slumps located on the western shore of Herschel Island and using stereophotogrammetric methods attempts to (1 develop the first three-dimensional geomorphic analysis of this type of landform, and (2 provide an estimation of the volume of sediment/ground ice eroded through back wasting thermokarst activity. Digital Elevation Models were extracted for the years 1952, 1970 and 2004 and validated using data collected in the field using Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System. Estimates of sediment volumes eroded from retrogressive thaw slumps were found to vary greatly. In one case the total volume of material lost for the 1970–2004 period was approximately 1560000m3. The estimated volume of sediment alone was 360000m3. The

  10. [The cerebral representation of the Christmas spirit. A transcultural functional magnetic resonance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Lindberg, Ulrich; Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta; Hougaard, Anders

    2012-12-03

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to detect specific cognitive functions of the human brain. To our knowledge, no attempt has yet been made to localize the Christmas spirit using this technique. We used a 3 tesla MR scanner and a visual stimulation paradigm consisting of Christmas-associated images and matched neutral images. We studied two healthy subjects with and two healthy subjects without a Christmas celebrating cultural background. In the Christmas celebrating group we observed an extensive cerebral response to Christmas associated stimulation comprising frontal, parieto-occipital and subcortical areas. In the control group we found a small response limited to visual association areas. Christmas-associated cerebral activation comprises a network involving areas of sensory, motor and emotional processing. The applied method is appropriate for the detection of Christmas-related areas of the brain but the results of the study should be verified in a larger sample size.

  11. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  12. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud; Haddock, Bryan T

    2015-12-16

    To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas theme. Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises Christmas. After scanning, participants answered a questionnaire about their Christmas traditions and the associations they have with Christmas. Brain activation maps from scanning were analysed for Christmas related activation in the "Christmas" and "non-Christmas" groups individually. Subsequently, differences between the two groups were calculated to determine Christmas specific brain activation. Significant clusters of increased BOLD activation in the sensory motor cortex, the premotor and primary motor cortex, and the parietal lobule (inferior and superior) were found in scans of people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. There is a "Christmas spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further

  13. Caring for Australia's most remote communities: obstetric services in the Indian Ocean Territories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roach, SM; Downes, S

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The Indian Ocean Territories (IOT) comprising Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are situated over 2500 km from Perth, Australia, and are accessible by commercial aircraft only twice a week...

  14. Development of a Christmas Menu for a Finnish restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Mishcheriakova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The choice of topic is based on personal interest of organization of the restaurant business in the hotel and creation of menu. The main goal of diploma project is development of the concept of the Christmas menu, that based on the Russian cuisine of the Huviretki restaurant in the Cumulus hotel. In this project I also explore the work cycle of the Huviretki restaurant and organization of food services in the hotel. The main methods of explore were interviews, analysis of information that...

  15. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  16. Is a White Christmas becoming rarer in southern parts of Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Jesper

    2015-07-01

    The notion of White Christmas, for instance snow conditions at Christmas Day, is occasionally discussed among people in certain countries in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the state of snow occurrence at Christmas Day at locations in Sweden are primarily considered binary events and methodology for statistical analysis of time series with binary responses is employed to investigate trend over time. None of the six locations studied showed a significant change over time.

  17. The Stuff of Christmas Homemaking: Transforming the House and Church on Christmas Eve in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic burning of Yule logs on Christmas Eve is an archaic tradition characteristic of the Christian population in the central Balkans. In the fifty years following World War Two, the socialist state suppressed these and other popular religious practices. However, ethnographic research in Serbia and Montenegro in the late 1980s showed that many village households, nevertheless, preserved their traditional Christmas rituals at home, in contrast to the larger towns, in which they were practically eradicated. Even in the micro-regions, such as the Bay of Kotor, there were observable differences between more secluded rural communities, in which the open hearth is still the ritual center of the house (on which the Yule logs are burned as many as seven times during the Christmas season, and the towns in which only a few households continued with the rite (burning small logs in the wood-stove. In the early 1990s, however, a revival of domestic religious celebrations as well as their extension into the public realm has occurred. This study shows how on Christmas Eve, houses and churchyards (as well as townsquares are being transformed into sacred places. By analyzing the temporal and spatial aspects of this ritual event, the roles that the key actors play, the actions they undertake and artifacts they use, I attempt to demonstrate how the space of everyday life is transformed into a sacred home. In the end, the meanings and functions of homemaking are discussed in a way that confronts the classic distinction between private and public ritual environs.

  18. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud; Haddock, Bryan T

    2015-01-01

    Objective?To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Design?Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting?Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. Participants?10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Main outcome measures?Brain activation uniqu...

  19. Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree......Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree...

  20. [The sweet Christmas rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P; Faurschou, Annesofie

    2013-12-02

    Christmas tree hypersensitivity is a rare condition, which has so far obtained scarce attention in the medical literature. We present two clinical cases of hypersensitivity associated with Christmas tree exposure, a 51-year-old woman with allergic contact dermatitis and a 41-year-old man with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas.

  1. Should Ramadan be prescribed after Christmas? Obesity in the healthcare profession and the health benefits of fasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hankir, Ahmed; Hankir, Mohammed; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    .... Religious periods such as Christmas and Ramadan are associated with weight changes. Weight gain has been reported during the Christmas period albeit not as much as was traditionally believed according to the results of recent research...

  2. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos C Hennicke

    Full Text Available In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  3. The thematic framework of Christmas orations by Venclović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Maja M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Christmas orations delivered by Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović to Komoran congregation from 1739 to 1743, the records of which are to be found in the anthology of orations, entitled Slova izbrana (1743. Particular attention has been paid to the thematic framework and to defining thematic layers, but in their correlation. In addition to that, the integral part of the analysis is identifying the Church Fathers' notional concepts as patterns to orations by Venclović.

  4. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI, and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  5. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ta'u Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI, and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery....

  6. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI, and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery....

  7. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Agrihan Island, Territory of Mariana, USA (NODC Accession 0126914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multispectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  8. Fifty years of coastal erosion and retrogressive thaw slump activity on Herschel Island, southern Beaufort Sea, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantuit, H.; Pollard, W. H.

    2008-03-01

    Patterns of coastal erosion in the Arctic differ dramatically from those coasts in more temperate environments. Thick sea ice and shore-fast ice limit wave-based erosional processes to a brief open water season, however despite this, permafrost coasts containing massive ice, ice wedges and ice-bonded sediments tend to experience high rates of erosion. These high rates of erosion reflect the combined thermal-mechanical processes of thawing permafrost, melting ground ice, and wave action. Climate change in the Arctic is expected to result in increased rates of coastal erosion due to warming permafrost, increasing active layer depths and thermokarst, rising sea levels, reduction in sea ice extent and duration, and increasing storm impacts. With the most ice-rich permafrost in the Canadian Arctic, the southern Beaufort Sea coast between the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula and the Alaskan border is subject to high rates of erosion and retrogressive thaw slump activity. Under many climate change scenarios this area is also predicted to experience the greatest warming in the Canadian Arctic. This paper presents results of a remote sensing study on the long-term patterns of coastal erosion and retrogressive thaw slump activity for Herschel Island in the northern Yukon Territory. Using orthorectified airphotos from 1952 and 1970 and an Ikonos image from 2000 corrected with control points collected by kinematic differential global positioning system and processed using softcopy photogrammetric tools, mean coastal retreat rates of 0.61 m/yr and 0.45 m/yr were calculated for the periods 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively. The highest coastal retreat rates are on north-west facing shorelines which correspond to the main direction of storm-related wave attack. During the period 1970-2000 coastal retreat rates for south to south-east facing shorelines displayed a distinct increase even though these are the most sheltered orientations. However, south to south-east facing shorelines

  9. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of the Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  10. Christmas party

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  11. Suppression of Phonon Transport in Molecular Christmas Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famili, Marjan; Grace, Iain; Sadeghi, Hatef; Lambert, Colin J

    2017-05-19

    Minimising the phonon thermal conductance of self-assembled molecular films, whilst preserving their electrical properties, is highly desirable, both for thermal management at the nanoscale and for the design of high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Here we highlight a new strategy for minimising the phonon thermal conductance of Christmas-tree-like molecules composed of a long trunk, along which phonons can propagate, attached to pendant molecular branches. We demonstrate that phonon transport along the trunk is suppressed by Fano resonances associated with internal vibrational modes of the branches and that thermal conductance is suppressed most-effectively in molecules with pendant branches of different lengths. As examples, we use density functional theory to demonstrate the reduction in phonon transport in tree-like molecules formed from alkane or acene trunks with various pendant branches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 75 FR 2158 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact...

  13. 76 FR 24047 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory... directional manner to all potential rat territories within a short operational period. Special measures to...

  14. RESET: Information Services Trends in 2012. Selected Papers from PIALA Conference 2012, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (22nd, Tumon, U.S. Territory of Guam, Nov 13-16, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 22th annual conference was held in Tumon, Territory of Guam USA, November 13-16, 2012. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2012 Planning Committee and…

  15. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE GENRE OF THE CHRISTMAS STORY IN MODERN LITERATURE (D. BYKOV, L. PETRUSHEVSKAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yur'evna Danilenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the transformation of the genre of the Christmas story in modern literature. Th e article analyzes the infl uence of the classic Christmas story by Hans Christian Andersen Th e Little Match Girl on the structure of modern texts of mass and elite literature. (D. Bykov Th e Little Match Girl gives a light, L. Petrushevskaya Black Coat. Th e subject of the study is a strategy of rethinking, recoding the source of the original content in the fabric of a new product. Th e structural and semiotic analysis of the texts revealed some tricks to updates-the-genre: fi lling-up with the new semantics, complicating a genre model of a Christmas story. Analysis showed that referring to the genre of a Christmas story, modern authors have diff erent purposes, using diff erent artistic strategies and methods. Some of them tend to reproduce the canon, appealing to the reader's memory (D. Bykov. Others develop the genre of a Christmas story, enriching it with new structural elements, interlacing it with other genres (L. Petrushevskaya.

  16. Territorial evolution and volcanic hazard, Ischia Island (Southern Italy)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberico, Ines; Petrosino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The Ischia Island, located in the north-western zone of Napoli bay (Southern Italy), is exposed to many natural events that represent sources of risk for both the tourists visiting the island all over the year and the local inhabitants...

  17. [Christmas from an allergist's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, Bettina

    2016-12-01

    The customs and traditions associated with Christmas may result in allergic reactions to allergens that are typical for this period. On the one hand the rise in prevalence of allergic diseases has continued in the industrialized world for the last decades and allergies are regarded as widespread diseases. On the other hand the 21th century is a time of "allergy delusion". This review summarizes the facts about allergic reactions to Christmas typical decoration, food and behavior. Taken together, allergic reactions to Christmas tree, poinsettia, Christmas cactus, perfumed candles, Christmas typical food, common gifts like mobile phones and laptops, frankincense, myrrh and pollens have been described but in very rare instances. The chance to survive Christmas without allergic symptoms is high, particularly for non-atopics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Pacific experience: supporting small island countries and territories to meet their 2012 International Health Regulations (2005) commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jacob; Nilles, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Issue By 15 June 2012, States Parties to the International Health Regulations (2005), or IHR (2005), were required to have established the core capacities required to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005). Context The Pacific is home to 10 million people spread over 21 Pacific island countries and territories. Seven of those have populations of less than 25 000 people; 14 of the 21 Pacific island countries and territories are States Parties to the IHR (2005). Action The World Health Organization Division of the South Pacific embarked on an initiative to support Pacific Island States Parties meet their 15 June 2012 IHR obligations. We adapted the 2012 IHR Monitoring Questionnaire (IHRMQ) to assist Pacific island countries and territories determine if they had met the capacities required to implement Annex 1 of the IHR (2005). If a Pacific island country or territory determined that it had not yet met the requirements, it could use the assessment outcome to develop a plan to address identified gaps. Outcome Direct support was provided to 19 of 21 (91%) Pacific island countries and territories including 13 of 14 (93%) States Parties. Twelve of 14 (86%) fulfilled their requirements by 15 June 2012; those that had not yet met the requirements requested extensions and submitted plans describing how the IHR core capacities would be met. Discussion Adapting the 2012 IHRMQ for this purpose provided an efficient tool for assessing national capacity to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005) and provided clear indication of what capacities required strengthening. PMID:24319608

  19. A systematic literature review of pediculosis due to head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: what country specific research on head lice is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speare, Rick; Harrington, Humpress; Canyon, Deon; Massey, Peter D

    2014-06-24

    Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually. PRISMA methodology was used. Exclusion criteria were: i) not on topic; ii) publications on pediculosis not relevant to the country of the particular search; iii) in grey literature. Of 24 publications identified, only 5 were included. Four related to treatment and one to epidemiology. None contained information relevant to informing national guidelines. Current local evidence on head lice in the PICTs is minimal and totally inadequate to guide any recommendations for treatment or control. We recommend that local research is required to generate evidence on: i) epidemiology; ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers and community members; iii) efficacy of local commercially available pharmaceutical treatments and local customary treatments; iv) acceptability, accessibility and affordability of available treatment strategies; and iv) appropriate control strategies for families, groups and institutions. We also recommend that operational research be done by local researchers based in the PICTs, supported by experienced head lice researchers, using a two way research capacity building model.

  20. Using Christmas Bird Count data in analysis of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific credibility of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) results depend on the development and implementation of appropriate methods of statistical analysis. The key to any successful analysis of CBC data is to begin with a careful review of how the limitations of the data are likely to influence the results of the analysis, then to choose methods of analysis that accommodate as much as possible the limitations of the survey. For our analyses of CBC data, we develop a flexible model for effort adjustment and use information from the data to guide the selection of the best model. We include geographic structuring to accommodate the regional variation in number of samples, use a model that allows for overdispersed poisson data appropriate for counts, and employ empirical Bayes procedures to accommodate differences in quality of information in regional summaries. This generalized linear model approach is very flexible, and can be applied to a variety of studies focused on factors influencing wintering bird populations. In particular, the model can be easily modified to contain covariates, allowing for assessment of associations between CBC counts and winter weather, disturbance, and a variety of other environmental factors. These new survey analysis methods have added value in that they provide insights into changes in survey design that can enhance the value of the information. The CBC has been extremely successful as a tool for increasing public interest in birding and bird conservation. Use of the information for bird conservation creates new demands on quality of information, and it is important to maintain a dialogue between users of the information, information needs for the analyses, and survey coordinators and participants. Our work as survey analysts emphasizes the value and limitations of existing data, and provides some indications of what features of the survey could be modified to make the survey a more reliable source of bird population data. Surveys

  1. Transformation of industrial territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. I.; Kolocova, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of removing industrial enterprises from the historical center of the city and the subsequent effective use of the territories has been relevant for Western countries. Nowadays, the problem is crucial for Russia, its megacities and regional centers. The paper analyzes successful projects of transforming industrial facilities into cultural, business and residential objects in the world and in Russia. The patterns of the project development have been determined and presented in the paper.

  2. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This... marine event sponsored by the London Bridge Yacht Club. The annual Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade...

  3. Device for protection of wellhead Christmas tree; Anordning for beskyttelse av ventiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Volden, A.

    1995-01-23

    The invention relates to a device for physical protection of a wellhead Christmas tree underwater. The circular type of device consists of a weight-increased pipe trusswork including an upper and lower section. These sections can be lowered rapidly down into the sea bed in advance of well drilling. In addition, scavenging water can be used to remove masses of soil alongside the outer edge of trusswork section. At the upper end of trusswork section there is connected a trusswork structure for protection of the Christmas tree which can be removed including the upper section. 2 figs.

  4. CHRISTMAS AND EASTER THEMES IN THE LITERARY HERITAGE OF YURIY MIROLYUBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Dmitrenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A  Russian emigrant writer Yuri Mirolyubov (1892—1970 wrote a  lot about Slavic antiquities. His name is associated with the origin of a  legendary “The book of Veles”  (Velesova kniga. This article studies his literary works in a historical and literary context, thematically associated with Christmas and Easter. The son of a priest, Mirolyubov was able to create original Christmas and Easter tales. As a priest’s son Mirolyubov managed to create indigenous Christmas and Easter stories. He brought back an already existing genre tradition of Christmas and Easter literature to its folklore origins, freed it from absolutely literary accretions and narrative stereotypes. Yuri Mirolyubov strived to put the Christmas and Easter stories beyond moral (much less entertaining literature, put them in the mainstream of a  folk, “Russian epic” (Ivan Shmelyov. That was a defi nition given by an author Ivan Shmelyov to his writing “The Lord’s summer”  (Leto Gospodne, who also updated the Canon of Russian calendar (Christmas and Easter literature in his own way. In fictional prose Yuri Mirolyubov acted as a scientist-ethnographer, a  sensitive receptionist of  everyday phenomena and psychological states. But in the works defi ned as scientific, he became a true artist, who felt free to deal with the most complicated and poorly studied material, however, existing in the depths of people’s consciousness.

  5. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  6. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single-centre bli......Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single...

  7. A new hybrid Christmas tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Critchfield

    1965-01-01

    A hybrid pine developed in the course of forest-tree improvement research. by the U. S. Forest Service has caught the interest of Christmas tree growers. It is a hybrid between two races of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) produced at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Placerville, California, and has some desirable attributes for use as a Christmas...

  8. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  9. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans. PMID:22829861

  10. Plant ethnoveterinary practices in two pyrenean territories of catalonia (iberian peninsula) and in two areas of the balearic islands and comparison with ethnobotanical uses in human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  11. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play "Like a Christmas Tree"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashqar, Hossam Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, "Like a Christmas Tree." The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of "binary opposition," transcultural…

  12. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Fritz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settlement on Herschel Island, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate site. The resulting map may help local stakeholders devise management strategies to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. We analyzed shoreline movement using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) after digitizing shorelines from 1952, 1970, and 2011. Using these data, forecasts of shoreline positions were made for 20 and 50 years into the future. Flooding risk was assessed using a cost-distance map based on a high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level estimates. Widespread erosion characterizes the study area. The rate of shoreline movement for different periods of the study ranges from -5.5 to 2.7 m·a-1 (mean -0.6 m·a-1). Mean coastal retreat decreased from -0.6 m·a-1 to -0.5 m·a-1, for 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively, and increased to -1.3 m·a-1 in the period 2000-2011. Ice-rich coastal sections, and coastal sections most exposed to wave attack exhibited the highest rates of coastal retreat. The geohazard map resulting from shoreline projections and flood risk analysis indicates that most of the area occupied by the historic settlement is at extreme or very high risk of flooding, and some buildings are vulnerable to coastal erosion. The results of this study indicate a greater threat by coastal flooding than erosion. Our assessment may be applied in other locations where limited data are available.

  13. Merry Christmas Jeffrey Kaplan: A Review of Adolescent Literature about Contemporary Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the author's childhood experiences of being Jewish at Christmas time. Presents and discusses 30 adolescent novels which deal with the difficulties of growing up Jewish in a Gentile world. Discusses being different, religious practices, interdating and intermarriage, anti-Semitism, and the holocaust. (SR)

  14. H08918: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Anchorage Area, West Side, Christmas Island, 1962-04-06

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  16. 7 CFR 1437.306 - Christmas tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree crops. 1437.306 Section 1437.306... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.306 Christmas tree crops. (a) A Christmas tree is a value loss crop... commercial use as a Christmas tree, and only if other requirements of this section are met. (b) The unit of...

  17. Greek Islands in Crisis: Social Vulnerability and the Need for Integrated Territorial Development Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study is structured around the relationship between insularity and social vulnerability, while research inevitably focuses on unemployment, youth unemployment, Neets and poverty with specific emphasis to the territorial dimension of poverty and social exclusion. For the latter, general findings at European level are drawn from the ESPON TIPSE Project, the main objective of which was to explore and reveal regional-scale patterns, inequalities and processes and their relationship with each territorial context. Furthermore, by the paper, some local findings are drawn concerning the Greek insular and micro-insular space. The question concerning this space is to what extent blue growth potential can create inclusive prosperity in coastal and island areas and how we can measure and effectively monitor this phenomenon.

  18. Christmas Tree Pest Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Entomology Michigan State University

    1998-01-01

    This manual can help you identify and control damaging Christmas tree pests in the North Central region of the United States. Most of the information also applies to the northeastern states and to the southern portions of the Canadian Provinces that border these states. You do not have to be a pest specialist to use this information; we wrote the manual in everyday...

  19. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year...

  20. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  1. Tourism Product Development : Case: Christmas Tourism - Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas Village

    OpenAIRE

    Golotina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas Village offers to its customers the experience of local folklore as a unique possibility for a Christmas adventure, taking place in winter season. All year around, Kalevala Spirit Oy offers services mainly for foreigners, but for local customers, as well. In winter season it attracts Russian tourists, who visit Vuokatti, with this Christmas adventure for families. The purpose of this thesis was to identify gaps in services of Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas...

  2. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...

  3. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones derived from gridded bathymetry of Swains Island,Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...

  4. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tau Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...

  5. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures derived from gridded bathymetry of Swains Island,Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the...

  6. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  7. [The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne B; Lauridsen, Mette H; Ilkjær, Susanne; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2016-12-12

    Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. We performed a single-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p Christmas atmosphere tended to increase DGH at the morning conferences. JN tended to have an additive effect. JN exposure may be beneficial. The study did not receive any funding. The trial was not registered and was kept secret for the participants in accordance with the tradition of Santa's elves.

  8. Mosaic of 2m bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS World View-2 satellite imagery of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, South Pacific, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  9. [A peaceful Christmas Eve at the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2011-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping"). A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months. During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p Christmas (p Christmas Eve. No increased admittance among the elderly at the end of Christmas was observed in our data. We conclude that overeating during the festivities of Christmas probably results in increased admittance rates in Danish hospitals. Christmas Eve is the day on which doctors can expect the lowest workload. Although the rate of admission due to lack of care at home was high, we could find no evidence of "granny dumping".

  10. A Geospatial Appraisal of Ecological and Geomorphic Change on Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Islands (British Indian Ocean Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly East

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compiled a wide range of modern and historic geospatial datasets to examine ecological and geomorphic change at Diego Garcia Atoll across a 38-year period (1967–2005. This remarkable collection of spatially referenced information offered an opportunity to advance our understanding of the nature and extent of environmental change that has taken place with the construction of the military airbase at Diego Garcia. Changes assessed included movements of the lagoon rim shorelines, changes in the terrestrial vegetation on the lagoon rim and amendments to the bathymetry of the lagoon basin through dredging activities. Data compiled included detailed shoreline and vegetation maps produced as part of the H.M.S. Vidal Indian Ocean Expedition (1967, three Ikonos satellite images acquired in 2005 that collectively covered the complete Atoll area, a ground truthing field dataset collected in the northern section of the lagoon for the purpose of seafloor mapping (2005, observational evidence of shoreline erosion including photographs and descriptions of seawater inundations and bathymetric soundings from five independent surveys of the lagoon floor (1967, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1997. Results indicated that much of the change along the lagoon rim is associated with the expansion of the inner lagoon shoreline as a result of the construction of the military airbase, with an estimated increase in land area of 3.01 km2 in this portion of the atoll rim. Comparisons of 69 rim width transects measured from 1967 and 2005 indicated that shorelines are both eroding (26 transects and accreting (43 transects. Within a total vegetated area of 24 km2, there was a notable transition from Cocos Woodland to Broadleaf Woodland for a land area of 5.6 km2. From the hydrographic surveys, it was estimated that approximately 0.55 km3 of carbonate sediment material has been removed from the northwest quadrant of the lagoon, particularly in the vicinity of the Main

  11. Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-29

    S SURFACE WINDS A.4VILL ", CI Al PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED Jill (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) I 16 S I -Ty ",,IT WT 4 2-~ 0 - TD ...92 &2 95.1 95o9 96,3 97&2 9Z, 97&2 97. 97 97,. 9.. > 0 o 83 1jj 86,2 8.84 91,6 92.2 95,1 9,9 96.0 97,4 97,4 97,4 98 , 973. 90. 98.> 400 68,3 1 oJ 86,t

  12. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Swains Island,...

  13. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Tau Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymety derivatives at Ta'u Island,...

  14. 76 FR 71241 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Stay of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...) establishing an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh cut Christmas trees... interested persons, including the Christmas tree industry and the general public, an opportunity to become...

  15. Images in Christmas Balls

    OpenAIRE

    van Beveren, Eef; Kleefeld, Frieder; Rupp, George

    2005-01-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, like balls in the Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham -- alias Alhazen -- more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being stil...

  16. Christmas: an event driven by our hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, M

    2011-12-01

    No other event in the Christian calendar has such a deep impact on our behaviour as the annual event called Christmas. Christmas is not just 'Christmas Day'; indeed, it is a long developmental rhythm with a period of almost exactly 365 days. Here, I describe the neuronal and hormonal changes and their effects on our behaviour during the preparation and the execution of the event(1) . © 2011 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an supervised classification of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from a supervised classification from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island,...

  18. Convenient synthesis of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals and their photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Li-Li; Tang, Ying; Wu, Huijie

    2017-06-01

    Novel twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals have been prepared via a convenient aqueous solution route at room temperature under the assistance of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The product was characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis and PL and BET techniques. It was found that β-CD plays an important role in the forming of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals. A five-step growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of such twin-Christmas tree-like structures. The photocatalytic performance of PbWO4 microcrystals was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) solution under the UV irradiation, and the photocatalytic results indicated that as-prepared PbWO4 microcrystals exhibit good and versatile photocatalytic activity as well as excellent recyclability.

  19. Comparison of noble fir progeny from US Pacific Northwest collection regions and Denmark for Christmas tree traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Chal; Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Chastagner, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Noble fir is the leading Christmas tree produced in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW). This study is based on evaluations of 24,721 trees collected from five native collection regions in Oregon and Washington plus imported seed from Denmark. The major collection areas were further subdivided...... into provenances utilizing 16 in the PNW and 6 from Denmark. A total of 22 test sites were evaluated from progeny trials planted between 1996 and 2007. Traits important for commercial Christmas tree production were evaluated and include commercial height, tree grade, value and colour. Tree height and quality were...... positively correlated while colour showed little correlation with either trait. Provenances from the Oregon Coast and Willapa Hills, Washington provided the highest potential gain for Christmas tree market value. Provenances from Denmark exhibited superior colour and slow growth. For breeding purposes...

  20. Review of "Charting New Territory"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    "Charting New Territory: Tapping Charter Schools to Turn Around the Nation's Dropout Factories" argues for a more prominent role for charter operators in turning around perennially low-performing high schools. However, the report's ultimate findings and conclusions are out of proportion to the strength of the research evidence on school…

  1. The Christmas tree industry in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Sidebottom

    2009-01-01

    Christmas tree production has grown in the last 50 years to one of the major farming enterprises in western North Carolina. The history, importance, and challenges to the Christmas tree industry are reviewed.

  2. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Esperança Carrió; Montse Rigat; Teresa Garnatje; Marina Mayans; Montse Parada; Joan Vallès

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use...

  3. Factors that influence Christmas tree sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the metropolitan Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N. C., shows that to sell more trees, Christmas tree retailers should locate their lots on heavily traveled streets in business areas, have adequate parking facilities, advertise, and have attractive displays of trees. Retailers who follow these practices can expect to receive higher prices for...

  4. The christmas effect on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-12-01

    Urban legend suggests that psychopathology tends to increase around the holidays, including Christmas. To explore this issue, we undertook a literature search of the PsycINFO and PubMed databases for empirical studies relating to this phenomenon. According to our findings, the general mood of individuals may worsen and the number of alcohol-related fatalities may increase around the Christmas holiday; however, overall utilization patterns by psychiatric patients in emergency rooms and in inpatient wards is lower as is the prevalence of self-harm behavior and suicide attempts/completions. Following the Christmas holiday, there appears to be a rebound phenomena with these latter behaviors-a concerning pattern that is relevant for both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  5. Christmas in the "Valley of Praise": Intersections of the Rural Idyll, Heritage and Community in Lobethal, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Rofe, Matthew W.

    2005-01-01

    The village of Lobethal in the Adelaide Hills is synonymous with Christmas. Its annual Festival of Lights originated in the 1940s and now attracts over 250,000 visitors each year. In 1994, the Lobethal Lights Festival Committee took over the coordination of activities and gained serious corporate sponsorship. The formalisation of the Festival…

  6. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  7. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for...

  8. 29 CFR 780.208 - Forest and Christmas tree activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest and Christmas tree activities. 780.208 Section 780... Christmas tree activities. Operations in a forest tree nursery such as seeding new beds and growing and transplanting forest seedlings are not farming operations. The planting, tending, and cutting of Christmas trees...

  9. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  10. The End of Eastern Territoriality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Krepelka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    How does compliance to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings on patient mobility in the new Member States compare to the old Member States? Studying the new Member States’ compliance practices would highlight the state of territoriality, the CJEU’s effective influence and the ......How does compliance to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings on patient mobility in the new Member States compare to the old Member States? Studying the new Member States’ compliance practices would highlight the state of territoriality, the CJEU’s effective influence....... For the results in the old Member States we rely on Obermaier’s 2009 “The End of Territoriality”. The study is qualitative in nature and relies mostly on qualitative semi-structured interviews with experts from ministries of health, health insurers and legal experts from all three countries. We distinguish...

  11. Observations on Territorial Behaviour of Springbok, Antidorcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some adult males defended territories of up to 40 ha in size all year round. Most males were seen both alone and with females on their territories. Males did not have permanent harems, since groups of females were fluid in composition and highly mobile. Groups of females moved into and out of male territories at will, ...

  12. Post-Christmas Blues: A Rare Cause of Cyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Barron

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred for urgent evaluation of cyanosis. Although she had symptoms and signs of an upper respiratory tract infection, she had a normal cardiorespiratory examination and normal transcutaneous oxygen saturation. Further evaluation revealed a benign cause for the cyanosis.

  13. National Audubon society's technology initiatives for bird conservation: a summary of application development for the Christmas bird count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Dale

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, Audubon's Christmas Bird Count (CBC) has been supported by an Internet-based data entry application that was initially designed to accommodate the traditional paper-based methods of this long-running bird monitoring program. The first efforts to computerize the data and the entry procedures have informed a planned strategy to revise the current...

  14. Redemption and the imagination of childhood: Dickens’s representation of children in A Christmas Carol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the representation of children in Dickens’s most famous Christmas book. Central to the article is a consideration of historical circumstances in which the book was written, as well as Dickens’s own childhood, and the possibility of redemption through the force of the imagination from the negative consequences of social circumstances and personal choices. The changing conception of the Victorian child, from a conception of sinfulness to that of innocence, provides historical and theoretical positioning of the literary work. The role of childhood memory and its influence on Dickens’s work is presented. The work of Edmund Wilson and the children’s literary scholar Adrienne Gavin is included in this consideration of the short novel.

  15. TERRITORIALITY: THE EXAMPLE OF THE WHITE RHINOCEROS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interactions within the territory; (iii) specialised scent marking techniques using dung and urine; (iv) exclusive participation in reproduction. Territories may be shared with one or more subsidiary bulls. Territoriality in the white rhino may be characterised as a space-correlated dominance relationship with the function of ...

  16. Mystery photos: Christmas edition

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Paraphrasing George R.R. Martin's novel Game of Thrones’ most famous quote: “Christmas is coming”. According to tradition, we’ve themed our last issue of the year to share the spirit of the festivities with our readers. We’ve collected some pictures of snowy scenes and Christmas parties at CERN from our archives.   Identifying pictures and albums in the CERN photo archive continues apace and we still need your help. However, in keeping with the holiday spirit, we’ve set you some Christmassy challenges. Were you at any of the events shown below, or do you recognise anyone in the pictures? Get in touch by email: photo.archive@cern.ch or use the “suggest a caption” link on each picture’s page. So far, more than 33,000 pictures have been uploaded, with nearly 1,000 old album records inspected and about 150 new ones created. We’ve had contact from an ever-increasing number of reti...

  17. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Document Server

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  18. Role of volatile and non-volatile plant secondary metabolites in host tree selection by Christmas beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Mamoru; Foley, William J; Floyd, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Individual Eucalyptus trees in south-eastern Australia vary considerably in susceptibility to herbivores. On the one hand, studies with insect herbivores have suggested that variation in the concentrations of foliar monoterpenes is related to variation in susceptibility. On the other, studies with marsupial folivores have suggested that variation in the concentrations of sideroxylonals (a group of formylated phloroglucinol compounds) is responsible for variation in susceptibility. We examined relative importance of sideroxylonals and 1,8-cineole (a dominant monoterpene) in host tree selection by Christmas beetles (Anoplognathus species: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) by using no-choice experiments, choice/no-choice experiments, and manipulative experiments in which concentrations of sideroxylonals or 1,8-cineole were altered. We used two species of host Eucalyptus, one species of non-host Eucalyptus, and three species of non-host non-Eucalyptus trees. Leaf consumption by Christmas beetles was negatively correlated with the concentrations of sideroxylonals and 1,8-cineole. Artificial increases in the concentration of sideroxylonals or 1,8-cineole reduced leaf consumption by Christmas beetles. An artificial reduction in foliar monoterpenes had no effect on leaf consumption by the beetles when leaves contained high or very low concentrations of sideroxylonals. However, when the concentration of sideroxylonals was moderate, a reduction in the foliar monoterpenes increased leaf consumption by the beetles. Therefore, monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole may be used as a negative cue by Christmas beetles. The pattern of food consumption on non-host Eucalyptus species and non-host non-Eucalyptus species suggest that both positive and negative cues may be used by Christmas beetles to select host trees.

  19. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  20. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. And All the Dark Make Bright Like Day: Christmas Books 1960-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sidney

    This annotated bibliography is prefaced by a brief introduction emphasizing the effect of social and cultural change in the past decade as reflected in Christmas books for children. Ten sections deal with the nights before Christmas, the Nativity, miracles and legends, carols, children and Christmas in other lands, Christmas in America, Christmas…

  2. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but…

  3. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single......-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p ... from 0.02 in November to 0.03 in December (without JN) and further to 0.05 with JN. At one department, the rise was significant. At a department without morning coffee, the DGH level raised after JN intervention corresponding to the level at the departments with morning coffee before JN intervention...

  4. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  5. Beyond food and medicine, but necessary for life, too: other folk plant uses in several territories of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Bonet, M Àngels; Carrió, Esperança; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2016-06-17

    Ethnobotanical academic research, particularly in European industrialised countries, has been, and is, mostly focused on folk uses of food and medicinal plants. Nevertheless, other uses, as may well be supposed, account for a significant portion of these folk uses. In the Catalan linguistic domain, a considerable amount of ethnobotanical work has been produced, but to date almost nothing has been published on these other plant uses. We basically used the method of semistructured interviews to collect data on names, knowledge and use of plants in the above-mentioned fields from 759 informants in three Catalonian (Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès) and two Balearic (Formentera and Mallorca) areas. We identified the plants quoted by the informants and prepared herbarium vouchers. We analysed and compared the results obtained. Information has been collected on 401 genera, 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families, totalling 4137 use reports for popular non-food and non-medicinal uses (classified in 14 modalities), and designated with 1303 folk Catalan names. The informant consensus factor is 0.87, accounting for a consistent and robust dataset. Contrarily to what could be thought a priori, and irrespective of the fact that some uses are declining or changing, non-medicinal and non-food folk plant uses strongly persist in the territories considered, are highly considered by their practitioners, and may even imply some economic revenues.

  6. 33 CFR 80.1490 - Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam. 80.1490 Section 80.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND....S. Territory of Guam. A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of Orote Island to the westernmost...

  7. Images in Christmas baubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beveren, Eef; Kleefeld, Frieder; Rupp, George

    2006-03-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, such as baubles on a Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham—alias Alhazen—more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well-known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being still of great relevance, e.g., for the aberration-free construction of telescopes. We do not attempt to perform an exhaustive survey of the rich historical and engineering literature on the subject, but develop a simple pedagogical approach to the issue, which we believe to be of continuing interest in view of its maltreatment in many high-school textbooks.

  8. Images in Christmas baubles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveren, Eef van [Centro de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Kleefeld, Frieder [Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, EdifIcio Ciencia, P-1049-001 Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Rupp, George [Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, EdifIcio Ciencia, P-1049-001 Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2006-03-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, such as baubles on a Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham-alias Alhazen-more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well-known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being still of great relevance, e.g., for the aberration-free construction of telescopes. We do not attempt to perform an exhaustive survey of the rich historical and engineering literature on the subject, but develop a simple pedagogical approach to the issue, which we believe to be of continuing interest in view of its maltreatment in many high-school textbooks.

  9. The surprising benefit of passive-aggressive behaviour at Christmas parties: being crowned king of the crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B Emma; Clifford, David; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh

    2014-12-11

    To test the effects of technique and attitude in pulling Christmas crackers. A binomial trial conducted at a Christmas-in-July dinner party involving five anonymous dinner guests, including two of the authors. Number of wins achieved by different strategies, with a win defined as securing the larger portion of the cracker. The previously "guaranteed" strategy for victory, employing a downwards angle towards the puller, failed to differentiate itself from random chance (win rate, 6/15; probability of winning, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-0.65). A novel passive-aggressive strategy, in which one individual just holds on without pulling, provided a significant advantage (win rate, 11/12; probability of winning, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.00). The passive-aggressive strategy of failing to pull has a high rate of success at winning Christmas crackers; however, excessive adoption of this approach will result in a complete failure, with no winners at all.

  10. The Territory of the Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking Owen Sheers’s novel, I Saw a Man and its representation of a drone strike in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas as its point of departure, this essay explores three ways in which the killing of an individual from thousands of miles away depends upon a series of screens through which the United States asserts, enacts, and enforces a claim over bodies-in-spaces. These are all nominally technical practices—kill lists; signals intercepts; visual feeds—whose supposed objectivity works to underwrite targeted killing as a rational and reasonable process. But they can each be read instead as part of a political technology that produces and executes ‘killable bodies’. Seen thus, the ‘territory of the screen’ diminishes and even de-materializes the corporeality of the human targets that eventually appear in its sights.

  11. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play Like A Christmas Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mahmoud Alashqar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, Like a Christmas Tree. The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of 'binary opposition', transcultural misunderstanding, and colonial hegemony versus native resistance. Supposedly, an American Journalist, Jim, is expected to dominate the discourse by force of his cultural and professional background, but sarcastically enough, the Iraqi butcher, Badr is the part who represents power and domination throughout the play. The current paper depends on more than one tool of analysis: Norman Fairclough's (2001 and Foucault's(2004 concepts of power and discourse, Grice's theory of 'cooperative principles'(1989, Brown and Gilman's study of 'address forms' (1972, and Georgia Green's contribution in the process of 'turn-taking' (1989.The study celebrates an analysis of data which uncovers the power of discourse in the exchanges of both characters and sheds light on the identity of both of them in an attempt to affirm that 'power' is not necessarily on the side of the stronger. Keywords: discourse, power, address forms, turn-taking, interruption, topic control

  12. Transfer of hexazinone and glyphosate through undisturbed soil columns in soils under Christmas tree cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Chauvin, C; Durlet, P; Thévenot, M

    2004-10-01

    Field studies monitoring pesticide pollution in the Morvan region (France) have revealed surface water contamination by some herbicides. The purpose of this study was to investigate in greater detail the transport of two herbicides, used in Christmas tree production in the Morvan, under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the leaching of hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-dimethyl-amino-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1H,3H) dione) and glyphosate (N-(phosphono-methyl-glycine)) through structured soil columns was studied using one loamy sand and two sandy loams from sites currently under Christmas tree cultivation in the Morvan. The three soils were cultivated sandy brunisol [Sound reference base for soils, D. Baize, M.C. Girard (Coord.), INRA, Versailles, 1998, 322 p] or, according to the FAO [FAO, World reference base for soil resources, ISSS-ISRIC-FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1998], the La Garenne was an arenosol and the two other soils were cambisols. The clay contents of the soils ranged from 86 to 156 g kg(-1) and the organic carbon ranged from 98 to 347 g kg(-1). After 160 mm of simulated rainfall applied over 12 days, 2-11% of the applied hexazinone was recovered in the leachate. The recovery was much higher than that of glyphosate, which was less than 0.01%. The greater mobility of hexazinone might be related to its much lower adsorption coefficient, K(oc), 19-300 l kg(-1), compared with 8.5-10231 l kg(-1) for glyphosate (literature values). Another factor that may explain the higher amounts of hexazinone recovered in the leachates of the three soil columns is its greater persistence (19.7-91 days) relative to that of glyphosate (7.9-14.4 days). The mobility of both herbicides was greater in the soils with higher gravel contents, coarser textures, and lower organic carbon contents. Moreover, glyphosate migration seems negatively correlated not only to soil organic carbon, but also to aluminium and iron contents of soils. This soil column study suggests that at the

  13. Christmas feast in Prévessin

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Restaurant No3 was invaded by a happy bunch of Santa Clauses last Wednesday. It has become a tradition for the restaurant staff to dress up to serve a real Christmas feast. In the menu : Foie gras des Landes, scallops, salmon tartar and of course the traditional Christmas turkey. And a special extra - an aperitif graciously offered by the restaurant. Places were laid for 450 people for this exceptional lunch.

  14. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS LUNA TUS. LUNA TUS ... paper is, furthermore, limited to the behavioural aspects of territorial organisation in the species. From a game ... pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), wild dog (Lycaon pictus), hyena (Crocuta crocuta) to the black-backed jackal ...

  15. A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is a complex concept that cannot be explained by a single definition. During the previous decades, territorial issues represented, undoubtedly, subjects of interest for various policy documents, actions and funding of the European Union, but the asymmetric impact of recent global crisis, doubled by the launch of the Green Paper (2008 and its inclusion in the Lisbon Treaty, in 2009, has underlined the importance of territorial cohesion, as one of the three main pillars of the new cohesion policy. In this context, this article tries to create a holistic perspective on territorial cohesion by analyzing the available studies and to determine its relevance to the European objective of strengthening the regions, promoting territorial integration and producing coherent policies, thus contributing to the sustainable development and global competitiveness of the European Union.

  16. Territory and management of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaíza Sposati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article developed in three movements. The territory building is historical construction and distinguishes this reading of which treat the territory as a place, a coverage area under a given geographic boundary. Assigns key character that distinction for the examination of the relationship territory and social policy. Shows that she is not limited to location of social equipment, and distinguishes it from the social policies operation format without territory, whose management logic is standardized, have homogeneous character of procedures, with similarity to financial agencies operation. In the second movement puts in scene the relationship between institutional agents of social services and the citizens who use them for lives being him. Finally highlights the constituent elements of that relationship as: the recognition of heterogeneity as an expression of singular identities; and the territory trajectory constitution that focuses of living on it, and these influenced by these trajectories.

  17. Can we spice up our Christmas dinner? : Busting the myth of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, N W E; Neefs, J; Berger, W R; Baalman, S W E; Meulendijks, E; Kawasaki, M; Kemper, E M; Piersma, F R; Veldkamp, M W; Wesselink, R; Krul, S P J; de Groot, J R

    2017-12-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also referred to as Vetsin or E621, is a flavour enhancer frequently used in Asian cuisine and abundantly present in the famous Chinese dish Peking duck. MSG is notorious for triggering the onset of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' (CRS), a complex of unpleasant symptoms, which might include flushing, sweating and the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aims to determine the effects of MSG on the occurrence of AF. We conducted a placebo self-controlled single-arm study in the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam. We included paroxysmal AF patients who reported a consistent onset of AF upon MSG intake. During three admissions, participants were subsequently administered: placebo, 1.5 g and 3 g MSG. If AF was recorded after the dose of 1.5 g MSG, patients were given another placebo instead of 3 g MSG. The primary outcome was the onset of AF registered by 24-hour Holter monitoring. The secondary outcomes were any other arrhythmia and the onset of CRS defined as two or more symptoms of CRS after MSG intake. Six men participated in the study. Both 1.5 g and 3 g MSG were unrelated to CRS, arrhythmias or AF occurrence. Peking duck can be put on the Christmas menu without risking guests to be admitted to the emergency department with new episodes of AF.

  18. Population trends of North American sea ducks as revealed by the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Butcher, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to other waterfowl, sea ducks are not well understood, yet evidence from a variety of analyses suggests that as many as 10 of the 15 species of North American sea ducks may be declining in population. However, because of the difficulty of conducting surveys of breeding populations and the lack of range-wide winter surveys, few data are available to assess the population trends of sea ducks with confidence. We analyze Audubon Christmas Bird Count data using hierarchical modeling methods that control for varying effort among circles and over time. These procedures allow us to assess early-winter relative density patterns among states and Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) while also assessing trends in these regions and across the species North American range. Over the interval 1966 - 2003, continent-wide declines were observed in 1 of 11 species (the White-winged Scoter; -3.7%/yr). We compare CBC results to estimates of population change derived from the midwinter waterfowl survey conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The CBC does not effectively sample offshore populations of sea ducks; however, the CBC data can be used to assist in development of species-specific surveys, and CBC data can be used in combination with additional offshore sampling programs to better sample sea duck species.

  19. Christmas tree worms of Indo-Pacific coral reefs: untangling the Spirobranchus corniculatus (Grube, 1862) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A.; Iñiguez, Abril R.; Kupriyanova, Elena K.; Starger, Craig J.; Varman, Tristan; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Maralit, Benedict A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2015-09-01

    Christmas tree worm is the common name of a group of colorful serpulid polychaetes from the genus Spirobranchus that are symbionts of hermatypic corals. As is increasingly common with reef-associated organisms, Spirobranchus is arranged as a complex of species with overlapping geographic ranges. Current species delimitations based largely on opercular morphology are problematic because of high intraspecific variation. Here, a multi-gene phylogeny of the Spirobranchus corniculatus complex, which tentatively includes S. corniculatus, S. cruciger, and S. gaymardi, sampled from the Coral Triangle, Australia, and Fiji, was reconstructed to test whether the complex includes three genetically distinct lineages identifiable by their opercula. Maximum-likelihood analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed a single, monophyletic clade for the S. corniculatus complex. Furthermore, the genetic and morphological variation observed is not geographically based, indicating that the former S. corniculatus complex of three morphospecies is a single, morphologically variable species across the Central Indo-Pacific. Resolving the taxonomy of S. corniculatus presents novel opportunities to utilize this tentative bio-indicator species for monitoring reef health.

  20. A silicon tracker for Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment installed the world’s largest silicon tracker just before Christmas. Marcello Mannelli: physicist and deputy CMS project leader, and Alan Honma, physicist, compare two generations of tracker: OPAL for the LEP (at the front) and CMS for the LHC (behind). There is quite a difference between 1m2 and 205m2.. CMS received an early Christmas present on 18 December when the silicon tracker was installed in the heart of the CMS magnet. The CMS tracker team couldn’t have hoped for a better present. Carefully wrapped in shiny plastic, the world’s largest silicon tracker arrived at Cessy ready for installation inside the CMS magnet on 18 December. This rounded off the year for CMS with a major event, the crowning touch to ten years of work on the project by over five hundred scientists and engineers. "Building a scientific instrument of this size and complexity is a huge technical a...

  1. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  2. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 500.322 Section 500.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  3. A Christmas Book from 1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This is a story about a book that I found in my collection, its author, and the boy who owned it. The book is "The Boy's Playbook of Science", first published in 1860 by John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). On the flyleaf is written "Arthur G. Webster; Christmas/75; from Mama." Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923) was one of the founders of the American…

  4. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  5. Animal interactions and the emergence of territoriality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giuggioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes.

  6. A working Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The repair of faulty elements in the cryogenic distribution line is making great progress in building 927 at CERN. While many of us were relaxing over the two-week Christmas break, the team repairing elements of the LHC cryogenic distribution line - or QRL - continued working, keeping the repair schedule on course for completion by the end of March. Pipe elements with faulty sliding tables are being repaired by the ICS consortium, in charge of installing the cryo-magnets in their cryostats. This team began repairs at the beginning of November, fixing 10 elements a week (See Bulletin 42/2004 from 11 October 2004). However, during the five-week winter shutdown of the magnet test facility they are being assisted by 20 personnel who normally work on magnet testing. With the extra help a repair rate of five pipe elements a day has been reached - 25 elements a week - thanks to the remarkable effort of the ICS personnel led by Patrick Voisin, the DBS personnel assuring the transport and handling of the elements, an...

  7. Long-Term Soil Productivity in Christmas Tree Farms of Oregon and Washington: A Comparative Analysis between First- and Multi-Rotation Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christmas tree production removes organic matter and associated nutrients from a site and can change soil physical properties, reduce mycorrhizal populations, and result in pesticide over-use/accumulation. These impacts have been implicated in potential field productivity declines. Assessing Christmas tree productivity is complicated by genetics, management, and market forces. We approached the perceived or possible productivity decline by examining soil properties on 22 pairs of sites. Each pair was comprised of an early rotation and late rotation plot with 1 and 3 or more rotations of Christmas trees, respectively. All sites were located on commercial Christmas tree plantations from the major production areas in Washington and Oregon. Chemical properties assessed to 45cm included pH, total C and N, and extractable P, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil physical properties assessed included aggregate stability and soil resistance. In general, we found little impact on soil resources that would impact long term production of Christmas trees. These impacts may have been mitigated by farmers following extension service recommendations. Nitrogen, K, and Ca appeared to be primarily affected by harvesting, but replacement by fertilizer application was probably adequate.

  8. Territorial stigmatisation and the negotiation of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2018-01-01

    The article addresses the negotiated meaning of notorious places through a consideration of a recent tendency in Danish TV documentaries where marginalized, often peripheral, places are portrayed and debated. Based partly on sociological research about territorial stigmatisation, partly on location...

  9. Territorialities of a Transnational Oil Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosn, Rania

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the territoriality of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (Tapline), a cross-border pipeline that carries Aramco crude from the wells of its sister concession in eastern Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean. Through the case study of Tapline, I argue that territorial organization is a necessary force of production for international concessionary enterprises. Given that the flow of oil depended on the continuity of the Aramco operation, the pipeline company was ...

  10. CERN SHOP CHRISTMAS SALE

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2000-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 December from 10.00 to 16.00.   Sweat-shirt col zippé, grey, blue, black (M, L, XL) 30.- Sweat-shirt col polo, grey, collar blue (M, L, XL) 30.- T-shirt, black, (M, L, XL) 15.- WWW T-shirt, white, bordeau (M, L, XL) 15.- CERN silk tie (3 colours) 33.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau 25.- Silk scarf (blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- New model of CERN watch 25.- New CERN baseball cap 10.- Antimatter (English/anglais) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English,) 35.- Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen 45.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs (Shop will be closed at 12.00 on 22.12.).

  11. Historizing the production of territorial stigmatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz; Delica, Kristian Nagel

    While the past decades has seen a massive political and media driven focus on neglected neighbourhoods and housing estates, bordering a moral panic, it is only recently that scholarly attention has been paid towards the territorial stigmatization of these neighbourhoods. During the last ten years...... we have witnessed a steep increase in the academic publication on Territorial stigmatization and its consequence; however there seem to be a rather large fragmentation in the different approaches, which makes for fragmented discussions and a confusing debate. Secondly the focus of the majority...... of the literature has been on the effects of territorial stigmatization rather than its actual production. This article brings structure to the debate and cast light on the production of territorial stigmatization by analysing a corpus of 119 publications from peer reviewed academic journals. Building...

  12. Restaurants closed over Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The restaurants will be closed during the Christmas holiday period : please note that all three CERN Restaurants will be closed from 5 p.m. on Wednesday, 21 December until Wednesday, 4 January inclusive. The Restaurants will reopen on Thursday, 5 January 2012.

  13. CHRISTMAS – FROM RELIGIOUS TO LAIC. THE STIMULI THAT “SELL” CHRISTMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Romania has been a country with a strong cultural background since ancient times. The Romanian people, born Christian, cherished holy days as part of its daily life, Christmas included. From a religious viewpoint, Christmas is one of the twelve holy days celebrated by the rulers of Byzantine Churches, being considered the third great holy day after Easter and Pentecost. However, in relation to the field of marketing, Christmas is a popular holy day, hence an occasion to increase sales. At the level of financial advantages provided, this holy day is the most important one, not only for retailers, but also for the other categories of merchandisers. There are various ways to celebrate this feast: parties, family gatherings, going to church and gifts. Christmas is a religious feast, supported by some people and rejected by others for having been turned into an occasion to spend money and party, thus ignoring its sacred character. Based on the aspects above as premises, this paper aims at shaping the buyer’s behaviour during Christmas time. Therefore, our aims are the identification of those in-store stimuli that create the atmospherics desired by customers when they take the decision to shop in a Christmas context. Another aim is to shape the buyer’s behaviour in choosing Christmas gifts, considering two variables: gender and age. Last but not least, we aim at highlighting the period in which in-store Christmas stimuli have been perceived, whether this coincides with the one when first gifts are bought or not, which was the average budget allocated or the moment people became aware they had to do the shopping for this holy day. The methodological approach includes both a qualitative approach, by using the structured interview and a quantitative approach by conducting a survey based on the snowball sampling method. The population investigated is aged between 25 and 65, lives in the urban area, is married and it was compulsory for the respondents

  14. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multipectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  15. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Rota Island, Territory of Mariana, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  16. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Sarigan Island, Territory of Mariana, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  17. Mosaic of 5m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, South Pacific, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  18. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Tau Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  19. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  20. Increased suicides during new year, but not during Christmas in Sweden: analysis of cause of death data 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of the Christmas and New Year holiday on suicide rates. However, no such data has yet been published on Swedish suicides. To examine the occurrence of suicides on these dates in Sweden between 2006 and 2015. The suicide count for each date between December 15th and January 15th was obtained from the Swedish cause of death registry. The observations were transformed to Z-scores to enable calculation of p-values. A small but non-significant decrease in suicides was observed on Christmas and New Year's Eve. A significant spike was found on New Year's Day (NYD) (Z = 3.40; p < .001), and these excess suicide occurred mainly among men aged 15-24 and 45-64. However, the number of suicides were somewhat lower than expected on the 31st of December (Z = -1.58; p = .115). The noted increase in suicide on NYD is in line with previous research from other countries. However, the decrease in suicides on the day before NYD suggests a delay rather than a spontaneous increase of suicides. Possible mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are discussed, such as the "broken promise effect", increased alcohol consumption, or lower help-seeking and accessibility to care.

  1. Territory size and habitat selection of Cinnamon-breasted Rock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of our understanding of territorial behaviour in birds comes from studies of temperate species. Territoriality and factors influencing territory size of tropical birds are still poorly studied. In this study, 11 territories of the Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting Emberiza tahapisi were measured in the Amurum Forest Reserve ...

  2. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ta'u Island, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  3. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  4. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...

  5. Should Ramadan be prescribed after Christmas? Obesity in the healthcare profession and the health benefits of fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Hankir, Mohammed; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the UK, one in four people are considered overweight or obese and that number is expected to rise to one in three by 2020. Employees of the National Health Service (NHS) are no exception with up to half of healthcare workers considered overweight or obese. Religious periods such as Christmas and Ramadan are associated with weight changes. Weight gain has been reported during the Christmas period albeit not as much as was traditionally believed according to the results of recent research. Conversely, weight loss has been reported in Muslims who fast during the Islamic month of Ramadan; however, this amount tends to be modest and weight gradually returns to pre-Ramadan status according to a meta-analysis of the literature. We report a case of an NHS healthcare worker - which is the first of its kind that illustrates the role that fasting and other factors have played a role in causing dramatic oscillations in his weight.

  6. Goal Programming: A New Tool for the Christmas Tree Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen

    1977-01-01

    Goal programing (GP) can be useful for decision making in the natural Christmas tree industry. Its usefulness is demonstrated through an analysis of a hypothetical problem in which two potential growers decide how to use 10 acres in growing Christmas trees. Though the physical settings are identical, distinct differences between their goals significantly influence the...

  7. 76 FR 69110 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... whether the continuation ] of the Christmas Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) is favored by domestic producers and importers of Christmas trees. This program will be implemented under the...

  8. 29 CFR 778.212 - Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses. 778.212... COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Bonuses § 778.212 Gifts, Christmas and... Christmas time or on other special occasions, as a reward for service, the amounts of which are not measured...

  9. The Russians Debate the Kuril Islands Territorial Dispute: An Aspect of Russo-Japanese Relations in the Post-Cold War World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    relations, privatization of state-owned property, a mixture of private and 蕌 Fred Hiatt, "For Russia, Surviving Is A Plus Sign," The Washington Post...Big Success Story." World Monitor (Decemv_2ber 1992), pp. 30-6. Hiatt, Fred . "A Relic of the Evil Empire Enters the Capitalist Era." The Washington...Strategic and International Studies. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1974. Mackintosh , Malcolm. "The New Russian Revolution: The Military Dimension

  10. Use of shaking treatments and pre-harvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii’s quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the an...

  11. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Agrihan Island, Territory of Mariana, USA from 2003-08-26 to 2012-05-03 (NODC Accession 0126914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  12. 2004 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0402 collected around Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands, Territory of American Samoa.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected from 30 January and March 12, 2004, aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Tutuila,...

  13. The team that plays together stays together: the effect of departmental Christmas party attendance on team cohesion within a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromb, Daniel; Thomas, Helen; Garcia-Nicoletti, Martin; Cheung, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    To understand the effect of attendance at departmental Christmas parties on cohesion and teamwork within the healthcare setting. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: We used the 'Team Development Measure' questionnaire to assess team cohesiveness among healthcare professionals before and after departmental Christmas parties took place. A pooled mean score (PMS) of responses was used to compare between groups. There were no significant differences in perceived measures of team cohesion when comparing responses before (PMSbefore=1.86±0.20) and after (PMSafter=1.91±0.22) the departmental Christmas party (p=0.37), nor was there a significant difference when comparing responses from attendees (PMSbefore=1.83±0.23, PMSafter=1.89±0.24, p=0.52) or non-attendees (PMSbefore=1.84±1.47, PMSafter=1.83±0.15, p=0.91). No difference was observed between professional groups (PMSdoctors=1.85±0.23, PMSnurses=1.95±0.18, p=0.064). Attendance at departmental Christmas parties does not seem to result in improved team cohesion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  15. OBSERVATIONS ON TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SPRINGBOK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thomasi, and Estes (1969) for wildebeest. Quantitative study of daily activity of territorial males. Methods. The method used by Spinage (1968) during his study of the Uganda defassa waterbuck was adopted. The activities of springbok were divided into their most basic daily components as follows: grazing; ruminating ...

  16. The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service: a review of an annual volunteer-led dental service for homeless and vulnerably housed people in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, J; Stagnell, S; Shah, N; Vasey, A; Gillard, C

    2018-01-01

    Background The UK charity Crisis originated in 1967 as a response to the increasing numbers of homeless people in London, and the first Crisis at Christmas event for rough sleepers was established in 1971. Since then, Crisis has provided numerous services over the Christmas period to the most vulnerable members of society. One of these is the Crisis at Christmas Dental Service (CCDS) which provides emergency and routine dental care from 23-29 of December each year. The charity is entirely dependent on voluntary staffing and industry donations including materials and facilities. This paper aims to assess the impact of the service over the last six years of clinical activity from 2011-2016.Method Anonymised data were collected from the annual CCDS delivered over the last six consecutive years. Services included: dental consultations; oral hygiene instruction; scale and polishes; permanent fillings; extractions; and fluoride varnish applications. In addition, anonymised patient feedback was collected after each dental attendance.Results On average, 80-85% of the patients were male and the majority were between 21 and 60 years of age. The most common nationality was British (46%). Over the six-year data collection period intervention treatments (restorations and extractions) remained fairly consistent, while the number of fluoride varnish applications and oral hygiene instruction have increased. The majority of patients reported positive satisfaction with their treatment and would have recommended the service to others. Approximately 75% of patients did not regularly attend a dentist outside of Crisis and a similar proportion were given information on where to access year round dental services for homeless people in London. The majority of dental volunteers felt that they enjoyed the experience and would consider volunteering again for Crisis in the future.Conclusion The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service has emerged as a valuable asset to the portfolio of resources

  17. Resolution of territorial disputes in international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial disputes in international law are resolved by peaceful means, like negotiations, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and in the procedure at the International Court of Justice. Borders between states are, in practice, determined on the basis of the uti possidetis iuris principle and principle of effective control. Historical arguments for territorial acquisition are not generally accepted, because changes of borders have to be a result of democratically expressed will of states. Also, the right of people for self-determination was used in the process of decolonization for creating new states but it has emerged in later years like in the case of East Timor, as a legal title for gaining independence. Apart from the process of decolonization, the right to self-determination is rather unclear and disputable regarding its scope and content. Traditional modes of territorial acquisition still have decisive role in international law. Almost all states rely on them in order to substantiate their claims for possession of certain territories. Therefore, international courts and arbitrations cannot ignore them.

  18. Territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Crispín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the nuclei, flows and surfaces generated by tourism in Guatemala that, nowadays, constitute the basis for the promotion of the country in the international market. Following the trend in Central America, and after a long civil war, Guatemala is encouraging the growth of its tourism economy. The starting point of this research is rooted in the fact that there are only a handful of places, distributed over the Guatemalan territory, that articulate the tourist flows (constituted mainly by international visitors and onto which tourism surfaces are being constructed. We assume that this territorial structure is still weak, does not include all areas of the country and it is mostly dependant on regional emitting markets. The context of the territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala suggests that all countries in the region are competing to get access to the international tourism market and that this competition will be decided in favour of those nations that mastermind the administration of their natural and cultural resources. At the end of the text, we comment on the basics of the territorial structure found by our study.

  19. Human territoriality: an examination of a construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Wickham; Harry C. Zinn

    2001-01-01

    Human territory research has generally been focused in a variety of settings including urban neighborhoods, libraries, mall parking lots, and areas around phones in public places. It refers to an intertwined system of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors that are place specific, socially and culturally influenced, and are linked to person-place transactions dealing with...

  20. The essential ingredients leading to the explosive growth stage of the European wind storm "Lothar" of Christmas 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, G.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.; Joly, A.

    2009-04-01

    The explosive growth stage of the first Christmas wind storm of 1999 (Lothar) is studied by performing different numerical sensitivity experiments using the Météo-France operational model (ARPEGE). Apart from its exceptional strength and the spectacular disasters that were generated along its trajectory, the storm is particularly interesting to study because of its unusual dynamical properties. It is a relatively small-scale extratropical cyclone that travelled across the Atlantic Ocean with moderate amplitude south of the upper-level jet and strongly deepened as it crossed it in its exit region. Note finally that no clear pre-existent upper-level precursor was detected before the explosive growth stage (Wernli et al., 2002). First of all, the model is shown to reproduce quite well the explosive growth stage of the storm by starting the forecasts 24 hours before the latter stage. Using the potential vorticity inversion algorithm developed by Arbogast et al. (2008), all the numerical experiments consists in modifying the initial conditions of the operational analysis precisely 24 hours before the explosive growth stage and to look at the impact of these modifications. The first set of experiments will check that upper-level high-frequency anomalies have only a weak impact on the rapid deepening of the surface cyclone. Other experiments are conducted to look at the sensitivity to the strength of the upper-level jet, to the low-level baroclinicity, and finally to the shape, amplitude and location of the low-level cyclone. An intercomparison will be finally made with the behavior of the second storm of Christmas 1999 usually called "Martin".

  1. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give the CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Friday 11.12.2009 to Thursday 17.12.2009. Come to visit the CERN Shop at the Reception, Building 33. PH-EDU-PO

  2. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Monday 13.12.2010 to Saturday 18.12.2010. Come and visit the CERN Shop in the Reception Building 33.

  3. Generosity and Hospitality in Christmas Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, T.

    2013-01-01

    This short subject discusses what might be understood as Santa Claus’ essence, which is the logic of and limits to his overarching generosity, as depicted in the film Christmas Story (Wuolijoki, 2007). The plot centres on the orphan Nikolas, who grew up to be Santa Claus. Young Nikolas moves to a

  4. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Radiosonde Data (Level 2) from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains radiosonde data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 26 January to 27 March 2016. These "Level 2" data have been reprocessed using...

  5. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological Data from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161526)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 25 January to 28 March 2016. These data have been corrected for known...

  6. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...... in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal...

  7. 20 CFR 655.2 - Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territory of Guam. 655.2 Section 655.2... Workers) § 655.2 Territory of Guam. Subpart A of this part does not apply to temporary employment in the Territory of Guam, and the Department of Labor (Department or DOL) does not certify to the USCIS of DHS the...

  8. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica I. Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  9. 20 CFR 655.215 - Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territory of Guam. 655.215 Section 655.215... Agricultural Employment § 655.215 Territory of Guam. Subpart C of this part does not apply to temporary employment in the Territory of Guam, and the Department of Labor does not certify to the United States...

  10. Pedestrian headways - Reflection of territorial social forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hrabák, Pavel; Bukáček, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the article is to give a more detailed insight into territorial social forces acting between pedestrians by means of headway distribution and spectral rigidity. Probabilistic distribution of time headways between consecutive pedestrians is studied theoretically and experimentally. Several original experiments/empirical observations are presented and compared to data obtained from previously published experiments. The study is restricted to an unidirectional one-lane motion where overtaking is forbidden. The main stress is put on natural choices of mutual interaction represented by logarithmic and hyperbolic potentials leading to gamma and generalized inverse Gaussian distribution respectively. We show that the time headway distribution does not sufficiently reflect the differences between such distributions. The tools related to spectral rigidity and compressibility are chosen instead so as to predict the territorial social forces more accurately. Surprisingly, pedestrian flow seems to show a higher level of synchronization (lower compressibility) than vehicular flow.

  11. The Cinematic Northern Territory of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Australia’s Northern Territory has been inscribed on film as an unspoilt wilderness, an iconic national resource and as a threatening horror landscape. From the definition of ‘the Territory’ as a definitive national location in The Overlanders (1946), this most remote and vacant area of a sparsely populated continent has been promoted as a unique and marketable landscape for Australian cinema. This is epitomised by the convergence of cinema and tourist advertising campaigns with the productio...

  12. Negotiation of territorial boundaries in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehrencamp, Sandra L; Ellis, Jesse M; Cropp, Brett F; Koltz, John M

    2014-11-01

    How do territorial neighbors resolve the location of their boundaries? We addressed this question by testing the predictions of 2 nonexclusive game theoretical models for competitive signaling: the sequential assessment game and the territorial bargaining game. Our study species, the banded wren, is a neotropical nonmigratory songbird living in densely packed territorial neighborhoods. The males possess repertoires of approximately 25 song types that are largely shared between neighbors and sequentially delivered with variable switching rates. Over 3 days, boundary disputes among pairs of neighboring males were synchronously recorded, their perch positions were marked, and their behavioral interactions were noted. For each countersinging interaction between 2 focal males, we quantified approach and retreat order, a variety of song and call patterns, closest approach distance, distance from the territorial center, and female presence. Aggressors produced more rattle-buzz songs during the approaching phase of interactions, whereas defenders overlapped their opponent's songs. During the close phase of the interaction, both males matched frequently, but the key determinant of which one retreated first was song-type diversity-first retreaters sang with a higher diversity. Retreaters also produced more unshared song types during the interaction, and in the retreating phase of the interaction, they overlapped more. A negative correlation between song-type diversity asymmetry and contest duration suggested sequential assessment of motivational asymmetry. The use of this graded signal, which varied with distance from the center and indicated a male's motivation to defend a particular position, supported the bargaining model. The bargaining game could be viewed as a series of sequential assessment contests.

  13. Territory choice during the breeding tenure of male sedge warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    A territorial male can shift the location of its territory from year to year in order to increase its quality. The male can base its decision on environmental cues or else on its breeding experiences (when territory shift is caused by breeding failure in previous seasons). We tested these possible mechanisms of territory choice in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), a territorial migrating passerine that occupies wetlands. This species bases its territory choices on an environmental cue: tall wetland vegetation cover. We found that the magnitude of territory quality improvement between seasons (measured as the area of tall wetland vegetation) increased throughout the early stages of a male's breeding career as a result of territory shifts dependent on the earliness of arrival. The distance the territory was shifted between seasons depended negatively on the previous year's territory quality and, less clearly, on the previous year's mating success. On the other hand, previous mating or nesting success had no influence on territory quality improvement between seasons as measured in terms of vegetation. The results imply that tall wetland vegetation is a long-term, effective environmental cue and that a preference for territories in which this type of landcover prevails has evolved into a rigid behavioral mechanism, supplemented by short-term individual experiences of breeding failure.

  14. 12 CFR 616.6200 - Out-of-territory leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-territory leasing. 616.6200 Section 616.6200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6200 Out-of-territory leasing. A System institution may make leases outside its chartered territory. ...

  15. Territoriality: the example of the White Rhinoceros | Owen-Smith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territoriality is exhibited by certain adult males and has the following features: (i) mutually exclusive ranges of 1-2 km2; (ii) a dominant assertiveness in interactions within the territory; (iii) specialised scent marking techniques using dung and urine; (iv) exclusive participation in reproduction. Territories may be shared with ...

  16. CERN Shop Christmas Sale

    CERN Document Server

    Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

    2001-01-01

    11-13.12.2001 Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 11 to Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Calendar 10.- CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt (M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 25.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- CERN watch 25.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'How the web was born' (English) 25.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German) 40.-   If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs.

  17. Computer Modelling of Chromosome Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. However, the regulation of genes - their transcription and replication - has been shown to be closely connected to the three-dimensional organization of the genome and

  18. Computer Modelling of Chromosome Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. However, the regulation of genes - their transcription and replication - has been shown to be closely connected to the three-dimensional organization of the genome and the cell

  19. Caring for Australia's most remote communities: obstetric services in the Indian Ocean Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Sally M; Downes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Territories (IOT) comprising Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are situated over 2500 km from Perth, Australia, and are accessible by commercial aircraft only twice a week. The IOT Health Service (IOTHS) is administered from the Department of Transport and Regional Services in Canberra, ACT, Australia. Since 1998, all pregnant women have been required to leave the islands by 36 weeks gestation and travel to the mainland for birthing. Previously most women with low risk pregnancies were delivered on their island. Women and their partners regularly question medical staff as to reasons for the current obstetric service and, in particular, why they have to leave the Islands to give birth. While this is a common scenario in many remote parts of Australia, the vast distance involved and the cultural differences of the predominantly Chinese and Malay population make the IOT situation unique. A study was conducted during 2005 to determine the requirements for providing a safe, cost-effective and socially-acceptable obstetrics service, and to identify possible areas for improvement in the current service, and to explore potential solutions. This article presents one aspect of the study, involving qualitative analysis of recorded interviews with 28 of the islands' women. Having choice about where the baby would be born was the most significant category of data analysis. In making choice, a number of variables come into play, including positive and negative social, economic, logistical and cultural factors related to the decision. Women were also strongly influenced by issues of safety, and their response to these issues was largely based on their previous experience and understanding of the IOT obstetric service. Many families expressed a desire for full obstetric services to be reinstated on the islands for low-risk pregnancies, particularly because of the difficulties they experience with the current service. Three recommendations were formulated in

  20. Christmas Bird Counts from Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historical bird data set comprised of bird counts conducted at Loess Bluffs NWR around the Christmas season. Weather data was collected in conjunction with these...

  1. Couch potatoes do better: Delayed dispersal and territory size affect the duration of territory occupancy in a monogamous mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-06-01

    In territorial, socially monogamous species, the establishment and defense of a territory are an important strategy to maximize individual fitness, but the factors responsible for the duration of territory occupancy are rarely studied, especially in long-lived mammals. A long-term monitoring program in southeast Norway spanning over 18 years allowed us to follow the individual life histories of Eurasian beavers ( Castor fiber ) from adolescence in their natal family group to dispersal and territory establishment until the end of territory occupancy. We investigated whether territory size, resource availability, population density, and dispersal age could explain the duration of territory occupancy, which ranged from 1 to 11 years. The duration of territory occupancy was positively related to dispersal age, suggesting that individuals that delayed dispersal had a competitive advantage due to a larger body mass. This is in support with the maturation hypothesis, which states that an animal should await its physical and behavioral maturation before the acquisition of a territory. Further, we found that individuals that established in medium-sized territories occupied them longer as compared to individuals in small or large territories. This suggests that large territories are more costly to defend due to an increased patrolling effort, and small territories might not have sufficient resources. The lifetime reproductive success ranged from zero to six kits and generally increased with an increasing duration of territory occupancy. Our findings show the importance of holding a territory and demonstrate that dispersal decisions and territory selection have important consequences for the fitness of an individual.

  2. Canopy interception during rainfall, storm break time and after cessation of rainfall: experimental study using artificial Christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation of canopy interception can be divided into three phases: evaporation during rainfall IR, storm break time when it stops raining temporarily ISbt, and after cessation of rainfall IAft. In this study, IR, ISbt, and IAft were measured using model forests, i.e. plastic Christmas tree stands. The method and preliminary results are described in Murakami and Toba (2013). Christmas trees with original height of 65 cm (small tree) and 150 cm (large tree) were placed on three trays. Small trees were set on Tray #1. The same trees with height of 110 cm (extended using plastic rod) were placed on Tray #2, and large trees with height of 240 cm (raised using iron pipe) were set on Tray #3. The dimension of Tray #1 and #2 were a 180-cm square, and Tray #3 was a 360-cm square. Measurement was conducted under natural rainfall. Gross rainfall and net rainfall of each tray (discharge from each tray), in addition to single tree weight on Tray #1 and #3 were measured. Initial tree density of each tray was 41 trees per tray. Thinning was conducted in the middle of the experiment period and it was reduced to 25 trees per tray on Tray #2 and #3, but Tray #1 was unthinned. Total rainfall for pre-thinning period was 204.2 mm with 16 rain events and canopy interception CI was 10.8% (22.0 mm), 13.9% (28.3 mm) and 16.3% (33.4 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Amount of rainfall for after thinning period was 291.5 mm with 24 rain events and canopy interception was 12.7% (40.0 mm), 21.7% (63.3 mm) and 13.6% (39.7 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. It is noteworthy that canopy interception increased on Tray #2 after thinning. IR, ISbt, and IAft were calculated for each tray using gross rainfall, net rainfall and the weight of single tree. Before thinning the value of IR/CI was 67.3% to74.9% and IAft occupied the remaining part of CI with ISbt/CI being nearly equal to zero. After thinning, IR/CI ranged from 65.3% to 93.8%. Both before and after

  3. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  4. Christmas and New Year as risk factors for death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David; Barker, Gwendolyn E; Brewer, Kimberly M

    2010-10-01

    This paper poses three questions: (1) Does mortality from natural causes spike around Christmas and New Year? (2) If so, does this spike exist for all major disease groups or only specialized groups? (3) If twin holiday spikes exist, need this imply that Christmas and New Year are risk factors for death? To answer these questions, we used all official U.S. death certificates, 1979-2004 (n = 57,451,944) in various hospital settings to examine daily mortality levels around Christmas and New Year. We measured the Christmas increase by comparing observed deaths with expected deaths in the week starting on Christmas. The New Year increase was measured similarly. The expected number of deaths was determined by locally weighted regression, given the null hypothesis that mortality is affected by seasons and trend but not by holidays. On Christmas and New Year, mortality from natural causes spikes in dead-on-arrival (DOA) and emergency department (ED) settings. There are more DOA/ED deaths on 12/25, 12/26, and 1/1 than on any other day. In contrast, deaths in non-DOA/ED settings display no holiday spikes. For DOA/ED settings, there are holiday spikes for each of the top five disease groups (circulatory diseases; neoplasms; respiratory diseases; endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases; digestive diseases). For all settings combined, there are holiday spikes for most major disease groups and for all demographic groups, except children. In the two weeks starting with Christmas, there is an excess of 42,325 deaths from natural causes above and beyond the normal winter increase. Christmas and New Year appear to be risk factors for deaths from many diseases. We tested nine possible explanations for these risk factors, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-06-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year. We aimed to replicate this effect for Austria. The analyses were based on the official suicide statistics 2000-13 using Poission regression and Bayesian changepoint analysis. We also investigated changes of suicide rates during other major holidays and weekends. Seasonal effects were controlled for by using restricted control periods. Suicide rates declined before Christmas and were minimal on December 24th, remained low until the end of the year, peaked on New Year's day, but remained at average level in New Year's week. In contrast, suicide rates increased in the week after Easter and on Mondays/Tuesdays after weekends. No significant effects were found in the week after Whitsun and summer holidays. Compared with other holidays, Christmas time is clearly associated with fewer suicides in Austria, too, and may even counteract the 'broken promise' effect. This finding may help clarifying common myths in suicide prevention and may enhance the proper timing of preventive efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data to evaluate seasonal components of population change in Northern Bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Annual surveys of wildlife populations provide information about annual rates of change in populations but provide no information about when such changes occur. However, by combining data from 2 annual surveys, conducted in different parts of the year, seasonal components of population change can be estimated. We describe a hierarchical model for simultaneous analysis of 2 continent-scale monitoring programs. The Christmas Bird Count is an early winter survey, whereas the North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted in June. Combining information from these surveys permits estimation of seasonal population variance components and improves estimation of long-term population trends. The composite analysis also controls for survey-specific sampling effects. We applied the model to estimation of population change in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Over the interval 1969?2004, bobwhite populations declined, with trend estimate of -3.56% per year (95% CI = [-3.80%, -3.32%]) in the surveyed portion of their range. Our analysis of seasonal population variance components indicated that northern bobwhite populations changed more in the winter and spring portion of the year than in the summer and fall portion of the year.

  7. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496 were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217, and the least were found in Obrenovac (47. In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were tested 34929 blood serums of pigs from farms located at the territory of Belgrade. For the investigations there was used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT on seven varieties of L. interrogans: L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. sejroe, L. canicola, L. bataviae and L. australis. Seropositivity in pigs was determined in 760 blood serums, or in 2.17%. Leptospirosis prevalence was not very high, but it was constant, which indicates that leptospirosis infection maintained at the territory of Belgrade for ten years throughout our continual investigation.

  8. The Structural Geographic Components of a Territorial Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPEI COCEAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When using regional geographic approaches, i.e. when applying its concepts to the problems of anthropic communities from a certain territory, is compulsory. In this study we have taken into account the complex and the etymologically adequate meaning of the notion and not the meaning most commonly used at present (i.e. the functional zoning and regionalisation of the territory. Relying on the estimations of territorial surveys, one may give the solutions for the extant malfunctions and for optimising future developments. The geographic components of this parameter (the territorial survey are: the natural support basis, the population and its settlements, the social and economic development level, the technical equipment of the territory, and the extant risks and malfunctions. Indices from 1 to 10 will be summed in order to give us the big picture, namely the present-day situation and the favourability level of that territory for various anthropic interventions.

  9. Christmas Sale on 11 and 12 December

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    CERN Shop Are you short of ideas for Christmas presents? If so, come and have a look at the stall the CERN shop will be setting up outside Restaurant No. 1 in the Main Building on the Meyrin site on Thursday 11 and Friday 12 December from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Various new items will be on sale, including a new LHC booklet for the general public. In the style of a travel log, it recounts the fabulous voyage of a proton inside the accelerator. The text is complemented by eye-catching photos and illustrations and is available in English or French. The 2009 calendar, based on the same theme, will also be on sale at 10 CHF. Special reductions will be available on certain items. So come and stock up on your Christmas presents at the CERN shop. Bookshop If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, ...

  10. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  11. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  12. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  13. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  14. When Christmas decoration goes hand in hand with bronchial aspiration ….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Baravalle-Einaudi, Mélisande; Dubus, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 14-month-old girl suffering from cough and wheeze around Christmas. She was treated with anti-asthmatic drugs with no success, and 3 weeks later a chest X-ray revealed a LED bulb in the left main bronchus. This LED bulb came from a Christmas light garland decorating the Christmas tree. We discuss the different Christmas objects that can be inhaled by young children, the challenge to diagnose bronchial inhalation during this winter period, and the emergence of new foreign bodies, such as LED bulbs, with a particularly aerodynamic shape.

  15. When Christmas decoration goes hand in hand with bronchial aspiration …

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Carsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-month-old girl suffering from cough and wheeze around Christmas. She was treated with anti-asthmatic drugs with no success, and 3 weeks later a chest X-ray revealed a LED bulb in the left main bronchus. This LED bulb came from a Christmas light garland decorating the Christmas tree. We discuss the different Christmas objects that can be inhaled by young children, the challenge to diagnose bronchial inhalation during this winter period, and the emergence of new foreign bodies, such as LED bulbs, with a particularly aerodynamic shape.

  16. Territoriality and Freedom of Language: The Case of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jeught, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    Language law in Belgium is based on two concepts. The territoriality principle entails that official language use varies from one linguistic region to another. The constitutional freedom of language is an essential complement to territoriality and grants residents the right to use the language of their choice. In the monolingual regions of the…

  17. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  18. ANALYSIS OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some aspects of the analysis of territorial development of the region. The focus is on the planned and actual indicators of territorial development of the region. Analysis of the three major indicators of territorial development: the volume of capital investment, tax and non-tax revenues of the consolidated budget, production of industrial and agricultural products. When assessing the proposed region development to assess not only the actual execution of the planned indicators, but in order to assess the effectiveness of regional development planning system to compare planned and actual growth of indicators.

  19. The role of territory settlement, individual quality, and nesting initiation on productivity of Bell's vireos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara J. Joos; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2014-01-01

    Variation in habitat quality among territories within a heterogeneous patch should influence reproductive success of territory owners. Further, territory settlement order following an ideal despotic distribution (IDD) should predict the fitness of occupants if territory selection is adaptive. We recorded settlement order and monitored nests in territories occupied by...

  20. Site attachment of floaters predicts success in territory acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Leo W.; van de Pol, Martijn

    In many territorial species, a fraction of all mature individuals are classified as floaters, and little is known about how these animals eventually acquire a breeding territory of their own. We observed intrusion behavior of floaters, subsequently removed breeding birds, and then observed floaters

  1. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  2. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phalen, D. N.; Hall, J.; Ganesh, G.; Hartigan, Ashlie; Smith, C.; De Jong, C.; Field, H.; Rose, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2017), s. 428-437 ISSN 0022-2372 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * flying fox * mitochondrial DNA * phylogeny * Pteropus melanotus natalis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2016

  3. An African metropolis: the imploded territoriality of Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana D'Ascenzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral and segmented nature of the urban network and communication routes in the Democratic Republic of Congo condemns the country to being outwardoriented, allowing little room for integration of national territory and favouring the neighbouring inter-African context. In this situation, the city of Kinshasa is forced to carry not just the weight of its role as capital city but also the burden associated with a territorial expansion that has occurred very much in the post-Independence style, where a veritable territorial implosion has resulted due to the existence of an inward-looking system of relationships. Based on field work, this article discusses the spatial factors existing in the social context under consideration, and identifies, as a result of the interaction of those factors, a complex territoriality that affects all the various facets of the urban fabric. Key words: Kinshasa, urban organisation, spatial expansion, imploded territoriality, peripheral urbanisation, outwardoriented relationships.

  4. 77 FR 43063 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico AGENCY: National Geodetic Survey (NGS), National Ocean Service.../a016/a016.html ), to affirm the Puerto Rico Vertical Datum of 2002 (PRVD02) as the official civilian vertical datum for surveying and mapping activities for the islands of Puerto Rico, Culebra, Mona and...

  5. Territoriality: Defining the Construct in the Organizational Context of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Alan B.; Vineburgh, James H.; Dee, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to make schools more collaborative are likely to evoke concerns and conflicts regarding territory, as administrators, teachers, and staff members are compelled to interact differently in both physical and psychological spaces. Territoriality, as an organizational construct, examines how people negotiate issues of space, ownership,…

  6. Aggressive display and territoriality of the bateleur Terathopius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggressive display and territoriality of the bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus. R.T. Watson. Abstract. Bateleurs exhibit an aggressive display to conspecifies that incorporates an 'attack' pattern; the display has a territorial function because it drives intruders away from the nest, usually by a gain in altitude by the intruder.

  7. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta

  8. Coal and oil shale of Early Carboniferous age in northern Canada - significance for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interpretations. [Canada - Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Potter, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) coal beds and oil shale occur at several locations in northern Canada. In the northern Yukon Territory coal of semi-anthracite/anthracite rank occurs in the Kayak Formation in the British Mountains and at Hoidahl Dome near the headwaters of Blow River. Farther south in the Liard Basin, Northwest Territories, coals of high volatile bituminous rank occur in the Mattson Formation. In the Arctic Islands thicker beds of the Emma Fiord Formation, the oldest unit in the Sverdrup Basin, contain thin coal seams and oil shale on Devon Island, near the southern edge of the basin and on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands on the north side of the basin. Organic matter in the Devon Island section is at a low maturity level (R[sub o, max] % 0.26-0.50), whereas that from Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg has reached the level of meta-anthracite. Depositional environments for these carbonaceous sediments were different. The coal-bearing Kayak strata accumulated in a coastal plain setting overlain transgressively by younger marine beds. The Mattson coal beds appear to have formed in a prograding delta, but coal and oil shale in the Emma Ford were deposited in lacustrine environments in a rift basin. These Canadian occurrences resemble penecontemporaneous deposits in Svalbard and elsewhere, adjacent to the present-day Arctic Ocean. They formed at low latitudes where conditions were favourable for the preservation of carbonaceous matter. Prior to the opening of the Arctic Ocean basin in Mesozoic times, sites on the mainland were undoubtedly closer to sites in the Arctic Islands than they are today.

  9. Simulation study of territory size distributions in subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wonju; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2011-06-21

    In this study, on the basis of empirical data, we have simulated the foraging tunnel patterns of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), using a two-dimensional model. We have defined a territory as a convex polygon containing a tunnel pattern and explored the effects of competition among termite territory colonies on the territory size distribution in the steady state that was attained after a sufficient simulation time. In the model, territorial competition was characterized by a blocking probability P(block) that quantitatively describes the ease with which a tunnel stops its advancement when it meets another tunnel; higher P(block) values imply easier termination. In the beginning of the simulation run, N=10, 20,…,100 territory seeds, representing the founding pair, were randomly distributed on a square area. When the territory density was less (N=20), the differences in the territory size distributions for different P(block) values were small because the territories had sufficient space to grow without strong competitions. Further, when the territory density was higher (N>20), the territory sizes increased in accordance with the combinational effect of P(block) and N. In order to understand these effects better, we introduced an interference coefficient γ. We mathematically derived γ as a function of P(block) and N: γ(N,P(block))=a(N)P(block)/(P(block)+b(N)). a(N) and b(N) are functions of N/(N+c) and d/(N+c), respectively, and c and d are constants characterizing territorial competition. The γ function is applicable to characterize the territoriality of various species and increases with both the P(block) values and N; higher γ values imply higher limitations of the network growth. We used the γ function, fitted the simulation results, and determined the c and d values. In addition, we have briefly discussed the predictability of the present model by comparing it with our previous lattice model

  10. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  11. On the essence of the brand of territory

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Svyatoslavovna Vazhenina

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the relevance and necessity of the conscious processes of image, reputation and territory brand formation (countries, regions and municipalities). In the context of globalization and intensification of competition, interterritorial image, reputation and brand are becoming important areas of intangible assets that create competitive advantages and competitive immunity of the reinforcing areas. The concept of "brand of territory" is studied. Different perspectives on this issue...

  12. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peti, Marton, E-mail: mpeti@vati.hu

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  13. Territorial prevention of natural disasters. Campania Region: a high risk territory. Studies by PLINIVS Centre and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Zuccaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of the territory and the environment is a theme much discussed, but often not in organic and competent way. PLINIVS study centre has been studying for several years the impact of potentially disastrous events on the territory and has produced analysis models and scenery simulation of main natural risks regarding Campania territory (seismic, hydrogeological, volcanic, meteo-marine risks, etc.. Knowing the risk, and quantifying it, is important in order to single out critical aspects of the territory (threats and to intervene through mitigation measures and eventually a modern Plan of Civil Protection. Therefore the plan becomes a dynamic process able to control rhythmically the state of the risk and the safety level of the territory, and spatial planning should avail itself of the fundamental contribution of knowledge offered by these tools.

  14. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham

    1960-01-01

    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  15. Beyond isolated Atlantises in a infinite ocean : Replacing the climate change and migration nexus in the context of territorial networks in the South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Pacific islands are made up of twenty-two countries and territories. Approximately 10 million inhabitants live in about 300 islands (Nansen Initiative, 2013, p. 4). In the last decade, the region has emerged among the media, international institutions and civil society as one of climate change’s icons and hotspots. The United Nations Environment Program declared in 2005 that the inhabitants of Lataw (Tegua island, Torres archipelago, northern Vanuatu) were the ‘Wor...

  16. Christmas cards workshop in a Restricted Access Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Christmas cards workshop is an intervention study made in the Restricted Access Ward (RAW of Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, in December 2001, from the 5th to the 22nd. The object of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this workshop to improve the quality of the RAW patients´ hospital day, through their participation. They made 47 cards, the mean per patient was 1,52. Participation: 91,2% of the patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Drawings and texts alluded to the convict´s perspective of Christmas time, from their own experience. The Christmas cards were exhibited in the hospital and they also were sent to different penitentiary institutions in Madrid, to make the RAW known. The course “Education for health for interdisciplinary projects in penitentiary institutions” was the frame of this workshop.

  17. Innovative factors and conditions of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main features of sustainable development of rural territories, identifies the factors of innovative entrepreneurship, and assesses their influence on the condition of rural economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of concepts, programmes, and projects in the field of rural territory development. The authors summarise conceptual and strategic approaches and actions of the Baltic region states in the field of sustainable development of rural territories. The article identifies objectives, common for the Baltic region, relating to sustainability of rural territories, including sustainable use of natural resource potential, diversification of production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative infrastructure, and the formation of innovative culture. The authors corroborate the idea of innovative entrepreneurship development in rural territories through the transformation of organizational and economic mechanism of management relating to the creation of institutional, infrastructure, and spatial conditions. Research and technological cooperation in the Baltic region is emphasised as a priority area.

  18. Innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The consideration in this paper is given to innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories. We emphasize the following basic approaches to the employment of innovative potential of territories: diversification and restructuring of local economy, integration and disintegration of life-sustaining activity of neighboring territories, progressive economic advance, as well as simultaneous combination of several approaches (mixed model. Progressive model of development is sufficiently popular and is related tothe increasing already existing potential of territories. In practice,it doesn’t generally suppose essential changes in sectoral structure of local economy and means developing existing productions and spheres of activity of territory. Mixed model of structural transformations is characterized through the fact, that it supposes simultaneous use of different elements from the models counted. It allows: firstly, to adopt in a bigger extent a complex of measures to conditions of certain territory; secondly, to take into account a broader range of exogenous and endogenous factors; thirdly, to raise the effectiveness of the program of structural transformations being realized

  19. 75 FR 68512 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... years, Christmas trees have been farmed and harvested as an agricultural row crop. Most Christmas trees.... During those years, imports from Canada accounted for 99.72 percent of the total imports. Italy, Colombia... 1214.5 would define the term ``crop year'' to mean August 1 through July 31. Section 1214.6 would...

  20. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... horticultural commodities such as the following are employed in agriculture: (1) Planting seedlings in a nursery...

  1. Christmas-tree Derived Amplification Immuno-strategy for Sensitive Visual Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Based on Gold Label Silver Stain Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Wu, Yanjie; Wu, Lin; Hu, Yufang; Li, Wenrou; Guo, Zhiyong; Su, Xiurong; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    A developed Christmas-tree derived immunosensor based on a gold label silver stain (GLSS) technique was fabricated for a highly sensitive analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticu (VP). In this strategy, captured VP antibody (cAb) was immobilized on a solid substrate; then, the VPs were sequentially tagged with a signal probe by incubating the assay with a detection VP antibody (dAb) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-labeled graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4). Finally, the attached signal probe could harvest a visible signal by the silver meal deposition, and then followed by homebrew Matlab 6.0 as a grey value acquisition. In addition, the overall design of the biosensor was established in abundant AuNPs and g-C3N4 with a two-dimensional structure, affording a bulb-decorated Christmas-tree model. Moreover, with the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the as-proposed biosensor is as low as 102 CFU (Colony-Forming Units) mL-1, exhibiting an increase of two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional immune-gold method. Additionally, the developed visible immunosensor was also successfully applied to the analysis of complicated samples.

  2. Revisiting the "Christmas Holiday Effect" in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Schilling, Chris; Barnett, Adrian; Jackson, Rod; Clarke, Phillip

    2016-12-22

    A "Christmas holiday effect" showing elevated cardiovascular mortality over the Christmas holidays (December 25 to January 7) was demonstrated previously in study from the United States. To separate the effect of seasonality from any holiday effect, a matching analysis was conducted for New Zealand, where the Christmas holiday period falls within the summer season. New Zealand mortality data for a 25-year period (1988-2013) was analyzed based on the same methodology used in the previous study. Locally weighted smoothing was used to calculate an "expected" number of deaths for each day of the year. The expected value was compared with the actual number of deaths. In addition, mean age at death was estimated and used to assess the life-years lost due to excess mortality. There were 738 409 deaths (197 109 coded as cardiac deaths) during the period. We found evidence of a Christmas holiday effect in our of medical facility's cardiac deaths, with an excess event rate of 4.2% (95% CI 0.7-7.7%) leading to ≈4 additional deaths per annum. The average age of those with fatal cardiac deaths was 76.8 years (SD 13.5) during the Christmas holiday period, resulting in 148 to 222 years of life lost per annum. Cardiac mortality is elevated during the Christmas holiday period relative to surrounding time periods. Our findings are consistent with a previously reported study conducted in the United States, suggesting that cardiac mortality does not take a "summer break." © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  4. Arctic wildlife sketches: Bison of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the bison of the northwest territories. Historical range, physical description, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and the future of bison in...

  5. The ghost of Christmas past: health effects of poverty in London in 1896 and 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, D; Mitchell, R; Shaw, M; Orford, S; Smith, G D

    To compare the extent to which late 20th century patterns of mortality in London are predicted by contemporary patterns of poverty and by late 19th century patterns of poverty. To test the hypothesis that the pattern of mortality from causes known to be related to deprivation in early life can be better predicted by the distribution of poverty in the late 19th century than by that in the late 20th century. Data from Charles Booth's survey of inner London in 1896 were digitised and matched to contemporary local government wards. Ward level indices of relative poverty were derived from Booth's survey and the 1991 UK census of population. All deaths which took place within the surveyed area between 1991 and 1995 were identified and assigned to contemporary local government wards. Standardised mortality ratios for various causes of death were calculated for each ward for all ages, under age 65, and over age 65. Simple correlation and partial correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of the indices of poverty from 1896 and 1991 in predicting ward level mortality ratios in the early 1990s. Inner London. For many causes of death in London, measures of deprivation made around 1896 and 1991 both contributed strongly to predicting the current spatial distribution. Contemporary mortality from diseases which are known to be related to deprivation in early life (stomach cancer, stroke, lung cancer) is predicted more strongly by the distribution of poverty in 1896 than that in 1991. In addition, all cause mortality among people aged over 65 was slightly more strongly related to the geography of poverty in the late 19th century than to its contemporary distribution. Contemporary patterns of some diseases have their roots in the past. The fundamental relation between spatial patterns of social deprivation and spatial patterns of mortality is so robust that a century of change in inner London has failed to disrupt it.

  6. Ideas and Practices for the Social Management of Territories of Citinzenship. The Case of the Borborema Territory, Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Caniello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Territories of Citizenship Program aims to strengthen small-scale farmers in Brazil by financing productive projects and infrastructures defined within deliberative institutional arrangements which is implementing the so-called “cycle of social management”. It presupposes dialectic active and progressive between the social capital of the territory, collective participation and project implementation, resulting in a virtuous process and sustainable rural development. The Territory of Borborema, in the state of Paraiba, was created in 2003 with a high level of social capital and one process of consolidation ofpeasant social movements and agroecological transition. However it does not show a good performance in terms of implementation of investment projects. This paper analyse this apparent paradox making relationship between the ideology of the government and the practice of social actors within the territorial device.

  7. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  8. Vital stability of territory: the contents and ways of strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the traditional outlook on development of territories as the process of alignment of their socio-economic development with the help of external influences should be advanced and replaced by a new vision. The purpose of the work is the definition of the basic rules of the concept of vital stability of territories. The creation by the local population of the riches and well being by expansion of manufacturing industry on the basis of the use of intelligence — technological and moral — ethical factors are shown as the basic contents of the offered concept. A consequence of such approach is the growing feedback of made expenses, as technologically completed production will be realized but not raw material or semi-finished item. Only the differentiation industrial development of the territory is capable to deduce it from a condition of poverty and depression. The understanding of development of the territory as creation of conditions for growth of people’s wellbeing and formation of a man as a person is opened. The accent of the attention on the promotion of a man not only as the purpose of transformation of territory, but also as the factor of its safe development through an increase of his or her intellectual and spiritual levels is made. The measures and instruction on innovation to the strengthening of vital stability of territories are offered. The separate results of research were used at the prolongation of the Plan for strategic development of Yekaterinburg up to 2020. Authorities of territories at the formation of their development strategy can apply the new offered rules.

  9. The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Territorial Dispute between Japan and China : Between the Materialization of the ‘China Threat’ and Japan ‘Reversing the Outcome of World War II’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Drifte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La disputa territorial entre Japón y China sobre la soberanía de las Islas Senkaku/Diaoyu está muy influida por una serie de intereses económicos, circunstancias domésticas, cuestiones de identidad, exigencias de la legislación internacional y agravios históricos. Este artículo proporciona un análisis sobre estas cuestiones que también resultan a su vez indicativas del estado de las relaciones bilaterales en general. El análisis del período 1972-2010 indaga en las razones de la erosión de los acuerdos de 1972 y 1978 que ambos países acordaron para poner de lado la disputa territorial, usando para ello perspectivas tanto constructivistas como realistas. La segunda parte contiene un estudio de caso de los incidentes de las Senkaku en el 2010 y 2012/13, el último de los cuales fue iniciado por Shintaro Ishihara, el marcadamente conservador gobernador de Tokio, cuando manifestó en abril del 2012 la intención de su administración local de comprar algunas de las islas en disputa a sus propietarios privados, lo cual a su vez obligó al gobierno central del primer ministro Noda a adelantarse y comprarlas en su lugar. La respuesta ulterior por parte de China llevó a una crisis en las relaciones bilaterales de consecuencias políticas, militares y económicas de considerable importancia tanto para el futuro de las relaciones entre China y Japón como para la estabilidad de toda la región de Asia Oriental.

  10. Can we spice up our Christmas dinner? Busting the myth of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, N. W. E.; Neefs, J.; Berger, W. R.; Baalman, S. W. E.; Meulendijks, E.; Kawasaki, M.; Kemper, E. M.; Piersma, F. R.; Veldkamp, M. W.; Wesselink, R.; Krul, S. P. J.; de Groot, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also referred to as Vetsin or E621, is a flavour enhancer frequently used in Asian cuisine and abundantly present in the famous Chinese dish Peking duck. MSG is notorious for triggering the onset of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' (CRS), a complex

  11. Spread and development of Phytophthora ramorum in a California christmas tree farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Norm Dart

    2008-01-01

    The risk of conifers being infected by Phytophthora ramorum under natural conditions is poorly understood. In California, infected conifers commonly occur as understory plants beneath or adjacent to heavily infected plants like California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). During wet periods, P. ramorum is...

  12. Don't Smile before Christmas: The Role of Humor in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Linda Moody

    1997-01-01

    Humor can be a powerful, productive tool to help teachers succeed in the classroom. Humor cultivates spirit, alleviates stress, improves communication, and diffuses conflict. Reviews types of humor (satire, cheerfulness, eccentricity, and sarcasm), discusses humor's classroom uses and benefits, and shows how school leaders can introduce humor into…

  13. The role of citizen science in bird conservation: The Christmas Bird Count and Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Butcher, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Many birders in the United States, Canada, and Mexico are critical participants in bird monitoring and conservation activities. This linkage between recreational birders and avian conservation surveys is not new. It was established long before the internet and long before any fast communication facilitated the connection of birders to scientists. It started because a few key individuals realized that birding with a purpose added a new and important dimension to a recreational activity—and birders loved the idea that they were helping to study and conserve the birds they watch. And they still do today.

  14. Changing children's understanding of the brain: a longitudinal study of the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures as a measure of public engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia L Gjersoe

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the impact of public engagement is an increasingly important activity for today's academics and researchers. The difficulty is that many areas of interest do not lend themselves well to evaluation because the impact of each single intervention can be hard to trace and take time to become manifest. With this in mind, we evaluated a lecture based around the 2011 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, "Meet Your Brain," delivered to school children from low performing schools. We compared knowledge about four neuroscience facts one week before, one week after and six weeks after the lecture. Analysis revealed significant knowledge transfer one week after the lecture that was retained five weeks later. We conclude that public engagement through tailored lectures can have significant impact in the moderate term with the potential to leave a lasting impression over a longer period.

  15. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  16. The sweet Christmas rash (case series)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas....

  17. Effects of an alien ant invasion on abundance, behavior, and reproductive success of endemic island birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Green, Peter T; Nally, Ralph Mac

    2008-10-01

    Biological invaders can reconfigure ecological networks in communities, which changes community structure, composition, and ecosystem function. We investigated whether impacts caused by the introduced yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), a pantropical invader rapidly expanding its range, extend to higher-order consumers by comparing counts, behaviors, and nesting success of endemic forest birds in ant-invaded and uninvaded rainforest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Point counts and direct behavioral observations showed that ant invasion altered abundances and behaviors of the bird species we examined: the Island Thrush (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus), Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica natalis), and Christmas Island White-eye (Zosterops natalis). The thrush, which frequents the forest floor, altered its foraging and reproductive behaviors in ant-invaded forest, where nest-site location changed, and nest success and juvenile counts were lower. Counts of the dove, which forages exclusively on the forest floor, were 9-14 times lower in ant-invaded forest. In contrast, counts and foraging success of the white-eye, a generalist feeder in the understory and canopy, were higher in ant-invaded forest, where mutualism between the ant and honeydew-secreting scale insects increased the abundance of scale-insect prey. These complex outcomes involved the interplay of direct interference by ants and altered resource availability and habitat structure caused indirectly by ant invasion. Ecological meltdown, rapidly unleashed by ant invasion, extended to these endemic forest birds and may affect key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal.

  18. Can We Still Sing Christmas Carols in Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the arguments and the court decisions, particularly in relation to school Christmas programs, that are a part of the social concern on the place of religious music in the large issue of the separation of Church and State. (Editor/RK)

  19. 19 CFR 148.22 - Examination of air travelers' baggage in foreign territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... territory. 148.22 Section 148.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... territory. (a) Examination and surrender of declaration. When places have been established in a foreign... the Customs territory of the United States. When baggage is examined in foreign territory, the baggage...

  20. 31 CFR 545.311 - Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territory of Afghanistan controlled...) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.311 Territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The term territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban means the territory referred to as the “Islamic...

  1. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  2. Checklist of vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. territories, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    1987-01-01

    On 30 January 1980 the Policy Group of the 1978 Interagency Agreement on Classifications and Inventory established a work group on fish and wildlife species names. The participating agencies were the Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Geological Survey, and Soil Conservation Service. The Fish and Wildlife Service was assigned the role of establishing and leading this work group in developing a national list of standard vertebrate species names that is up-to-date and accurate. The Association of Systematic Collections was contracted to develop the reference list. This publication is a revision of portions of the list (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals), including updating to the end of 1985. The geographic areas encompassed by this list are: the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Navassa Island; the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (the Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Marshall Islands, and northern Mariana Islands); and the U.S. Territories of American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, the Johnston Islands, Kingman Reef, the Midway Islands, and Wake Islands. Canadian species that do not also occur in the United States have been included. This list includes the names of all Recent species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the geographic areas indicated above. No distinction is made between resident and migratory species or between those that occur regularly and those of casual or accidentally occurrence. The occurrence of all species listed is documented by specimen or photographic evidence. Zoo, aquarium, game park, and hunting preserve populations are not listed, nor are unestablished escapes from such populations. Species that are extinct are marked with a 1. Species whose only occurrence in an area is the result of introduction by man are marked with a 2. Species introduced into one area but native to another

  3. Christmas advice to pass on to pet owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Pre-empting pet owners' Christmas pitfalls, BVA Media Officer Girija Duggal shares statistics from BVA's Voice of the Veterinary Profession survey and some top tips to help your clients avoid having to use the out-of-hours number. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Outline of a model of responses to territorial stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz; Delica, Kristian Nagel

    of different sets of strategies designed to cope with territorial stigma according to the relevance and efficacy of the inherently different groups living in territorially stigmatized places based on their specific position in the model. By doing so we can also critically examine Wacquants central claim...... are and what strategies they employ to counteract, cope, hide or simply move away from it. Research dealing with these questions tend to rely on analytical simplifications reducing the different groups living in the neglected housing estates simply to ‘the residents’ or by applying Hirschman’s EVLN model...... groups inhabiting neglected neighbourhoods inform their reactions to the symbolic boundaries and hierarchies, their relations to the place they inhabit and the strategies with which they react towards the territorial stigma. Further, we demonstrate that it is possible to chart the distribution...

  5. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  6. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  7. Characteristics of trauma mortality in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen M; Brearley, Matt B; Hudson, Steven M; Ward, Linda; Read, David J

    2017-12-01

    While factors including remoteness, alcohol consumption, age and Indigenous ethnicity are well-documented associations of trauma mortality, less is known of trauma seasonality. This is particularly relevant to Australia's Northern Territory, with its tropical regions experiencing a climate of wet (hot and humid) and dry (warm) seasons annually. The aim of this study was to therefore, examine the characteristics of trauma mortality in the Top End, Northern Territory, Australia. A retrospective review of the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) database from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2007 analysed four-hundred and sixteen traumatic deaths where the trauma event and death occurred within the Top End of the Northern Territory. The annual traumatic death rate for the Top End was 58.7 per 100 000, with variance between regions (accessible 38.1; remote 119.1 per 100000, respectively). Overall alcohol was involved in 56.5% of cases. The three most frequent mechanisms of death were suicide, transport related and assault, accounting for 81.5% of deaths. These respective mechanisms of death demonstrated seasonal influence, with transport related deaths 2.5 times more likely to occur in the dry than the wet season (p Territory were evident, with contrasting seasonal and regional profiles. Based upon the data of this investigation, existing programmes to minimise trauma in the Northern Territory ought to be evaluated for seasonal and regional specificity.

  8. "The moment is all we have": patients and visitors reflect on a staff Christmas choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; Hornby, Colin J; Pearson, Elizabeth J; Ball, David L

    To examine how performances by the Staff Christmas Choir of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre ("Peter Mac") affected inpatients, outpatients and visitors in 2008. During the Christmas season 2008, the Peter Mac Staff Christmas Choir gave seven performances at the Centre. Locations included inpatient wards, outpatient waiting areas and a cafeteria. To assess their response to the choir, oncology inpatients, outpatients and visitors (including early-departing bystanders) were given anonymous, semi-structured questionnaires during and after performances. To analyse the responses, we used a constructivist research approach informed by grounded theory. Participants' descriptions of the choir's effects on them. Questionnaires were returned by 111 people. The performances were received favourably by 93.7% of respondents, including nine from Jewish, Hindu or atheist backgrounds. Many said the music aroused positive emotions and memories. Several described transformative thoughts and physical reactions, felt affirmed by the Christmas spirit or message, and/or appreciated the peaceful or enlivened and social atmosphere. The choir also elicited personal perspectives about Christmas and Judaism, and the importance of "enjoying the moment". Only three respondents (2.7%) reported adverse effects, relating to emotional and audible intrusiveness. The Staff Christmas Choir created a supportive and uplifting atmosphere for many oncology patients and their visitors. However, responses from people from non-Christian backgrounds were limited, and further investigation is warranted to extend our understanding of the effect of Christmas music in Australian public health settings.

  9. Coal as an option for power generation in US territories of the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I. Y.

    1981-11-30

    A survey of general considerations relating to the use of coal in US territories and trust territories of the Pacific suggests that coal is a viable option for power generation. Future coal supplies, principally from Australia and the west coast of America, promise to be more than adequate, but large bulk carriers will probably not be able to land coal directly because of inadequate port facilities. Hence, smaller than Panamax-class vessels (60,000 dwt) or some arrangement utilizing self-loading barges or lighters would have to be used. Except for Guam, with peak power requirements on the order of 175 MW/sub e/, most territories have current, albeit inadequate, installations of 1 to 25 MW/sub e/ Turnkey, conventional-coal-fired, electrical-power generating systems are available in that size range. US environmental laws are now applicable to Guam and American Samoa; the trust territories are exempt. However, the small power requirements of many small islands will qualify for exemption from the New Source Performance Standards called for in the Clean Air Act. The principal problems with coal use in the territories, apart from the shallow draft of most harbors, are the limited amount of land available and the high capital costs associated with conversion. Ocean dumping of ash and sludge can be permitted under existing Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and barge-mounted power installations are not out of the question. The feasibility of converting from oil-fired to coal-fired electrical-power generating systems must be determined with site-specific information.

  10. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  11. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Sulistyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  12. The Christmas list

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2010-01-01

    List making seems to be among mankind’s favourite activities, particularly as the old year draws to a close and the new one begins. It seems that we all want to know what the top 100 annoying pop songs are, who are the world’s most embarrassing people and what everyone’s been watching on TV. The transition from 2009 to 2010 was no different, but some of the latest batch of lists have a few surprising entries. According to the Global Language Monitor, ‘twitter’ was the top word of 2009. No surprises there, but ‘hadron’ came in at number 8 on the list. ‘King of pop’ was top phrase, according to the same source, but ‘god particle’ came in at number 10. And while ‘Barack Obama’ was the name of the year, ‘Large Hadron Collider’ came in at number four. The Global Language Monitor was not the only organization whose lists included particle physics references. &ls...

  13. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Multimedia

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  14. Influence of territorial aggressiveness of ostrich males on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    and this suggests that a female will start laying on certain behavioural cues of the male. This study investigated the influence of territorial aggressiveness and shin colour of ostrich males on the reproductive performance of accompanying females. Materials and Methods. Ostrich breeding pairs (n = 136 pairs) at the Klein ...

  15. Influence of territorial aggressiveness of ostrich males on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    influence of territorial aggressiveness and shin colour of ostrich males on the reproductive performance of accompanying females. Materials and Methods. Ostrich breeding pairs (n = 136 pairs) at the Klein Karoo Agricultural Development Centre, Oudtshoorn, were mated in camps of approximately 0.25 ha and received a ...

  16. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web

  17. Redefining territorial scales and the strategic role of spatial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Elinbaum, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    into the cases of Denmark and Catalonia through an analysis concerned with: i) the strategic spatial role attributed to each level of planning; and ii) the redefinition of territorial scales as a result of changing political objectives and spatial relationships occurring between planning levels. The assessment...... pertaining to the strategic roles of spatial planning instruments as well as the evolving redefinition of territorial scales in both Denmark and Catalonia suggests that the conventional, hierarchical ‘cascade-shaped’ ideal of policy implementation is superseded. While both cases tend to converge...

  18. The Legends of the Serpent Island in the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Shevchuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a variety of ancient legends, connected with the cult of Achilles on the Serpent (Snake Island, located in 35 km far from the Danube Delta in the territorial waters of Ukraine. The sources of ancient legends are the essay of Flavius Arrian “Periplus Ponti Euxini (maritime guide”, Flavius Philostratus dialogue “On Heroes” (Heroikos, as well as the outlines of Arctinus of Miletus, Maximus of Tyre and Romanian folklore. The imageries of Achilles Pontarchis cult on the Serpent Island (in ancient times – Levka Island, White Island, Island of the Blessed, Fidonisi, Ilan-Ada, Sherpilor disclose the peculiarities of his worship in Scythia and Dacia.

  19. Augustus: Conquest and administration of the Asturian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso SANTOS YANGUAS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The roman conquest of Asturian territory, in times of Augustus, es a peculiarity inside asturian-cantabrian wars: it doesn't exist any written or arqueologic document concerning this period.Nevertheless, the roman administration of this territory had an impor- tant impact on the way of life of the population from the economic and social perspective.The asturian population’s gradual integration in the roman organiza- tion was developed in two following periods: over the participation in the roman army (as auxiliary troups and as non specialised workforce in the roman gold mines.

  20. CULTURAL HERITAGE IN STUDIES OF GEOGRAPHY AND TERRITORIAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DOLORES PALAZÓN BOTELLA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Geography and Territorial Planning Degree replaces, under the provisions of the European Higher Education Area and the recommendations of the “Libro Blanco: Título de Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio”, the Geography Bachelor’s Degree. This change not only affected its name, including territory and its planning, but it also developed into a regulation of its curricula, introducing new subjects that would train the future geographer in order to make him capable of confronting new challenges in their areas of work, where cultural heritage has become an additional option. 

  1. Reunion Island's Position in the southern African and the Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reunion Island is one of the islands in southeastern Africa. Like most other islands, it experienced colonisation and became part of the French colonial empire. What is interesting is that Reunion Island rather opted for continued dependency while other colonised territories opted for sovereignty; the island thus became

  2. Two centuries of economic territorial dynamics: the case of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Talandier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analysis of the socio-economic development processes at work in territories at the scale of French communes from 1806 to 2010. This is an extremely fine scale for such analysis, given that there are 36,000 communes in mainland France. The diachronic dimension, spanning two centuries, makes it possible to consider the temporal depth of territorial development. But the primary interest is not so much demographics as the socio-economic dimension of these variations over two centuries. We have analysed demographic changes as the expression of the socio-economic processes that shaped French territory over two centuries. Dynamic mapping of long-term population shifts reflects the industrial expansion of certain territories, decline due to the end of traditional farming practices, the shock produced by two world wars, the Fordist period and the post-war boom; the subsequent impact of an increasingly globalized, metropolitan economy then becomes apparent. We thus identify, map and analyse several historico-socio-economic phases.

  3. An Examination of Visa Free Travel for Russian and Chinese Citizens to U.S. Territories in the Pacific (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    was not long (1565) until the Spanish claimed sovereignty over the islands. About a century later, the permanent colonization of the islands by the...culture on Guam was influenced by 300 years of Spanish rule before it became a U.S. Trust Territory. Guam relies on tourism as its primary source of... Spanish created significant friction with the native Chamorro people until 1696, when they took an oath of allegiance to Spain. The Spanish held

  4. The ``Christmas burst'' GRB 101225A revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Kann, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Long GRBs are related to the death of massive stars and reveal themselves through synchrotron emission from highly relativistic jets. The `Christmas Burst' GRB 101225A was an exceptionally long GRB with a thermal afterglow, very different from the standard GRB. Initially, no spectroscopic redshift could be obtained and SED modeling yielded z=0.33. A plausible model was a He-NS star merger where the He-star had ejected part of its envelope in the common envelope phase during inspiral. The interaction between the jet and the previously ejected shell can explains the thermal emission. We obtained deep spectroscopy of the host galaxy which leads to a correction of the redshift to z=0.847. Despite the higher redshift, our model is still valid and theoretically better justified than the alternative suggestion of a blue supergiant progenitor proposed by Levan et al. (2014) for several ``ultra-long'' GRBs.

  5. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION TOURIST CLUSTER IN PRIMORSKI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Martyshenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In work the innovative approach to the decision of a problem of formation tourist cluster on an example of Primorski Territory is offered. The basic stages of the decision of a problem of formation tourist cluster are designated.

  6. Empowerment of Indigenous Women in the Federal Capital Territory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's development of the new Federal Capital Territory in the central part of the country named Abuja 8,000 km² in size greatly impacted on all spheres of lives of the host communities. However, the host communities of 845 settlements with over 316,000 people were exposed to urban violence and there was fear that ...

  7. Topologies of race: doing territory, population and identity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.; Schramm, K.; Skinner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Territorial borders just like other boundaries are involved in a politics of belonging, a politics of "us" and "them". Border management regimes are thus part of processes of othering. In this article, we use the management of borders and populations in Europe as an empirical example to make a

  8. INNOVATION LANDSCAPE AS PRIORITY CONDITION OF INDUSTRIAL AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Salikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rational development of industrial territories and regions implies the improvement of their cooperation in economic sector of the country, perfecting the territorial structure of husbandry, rational exploration of natural resources, usage of promising technologies, mobilization of investment etc. Along with this, the improvement of the existing and formation of a new industrial manufacture structure should be implemented with consideration of key market aspects, connected with competitiveness and innovations. Thus, an important condition of industrial structure development is the formation of innovative landscape representing the entirety of innovative territorial subjects that use innovative technologies, management tools for creation the product. In narrow sense, innovative landscape can be understood as an integrative entirety of parameters including socio-economic conditions, state administrative body, innovative economic subjects, existence of innovative infrastructure and cluster interactions etc. A methodic approach to comparative estimation of industrial regions innovative landscape parameters considered in the article lets identify its state and structural characteristics with the purpose of making more reasonable decisions on productive forces location and o n the increase of innovativeness level of industrial territories and regions.

  9. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP). The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rur...

  10. SYSTEM RISKS OF ENTERPRISES AND TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Bochko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of failures in interaction between industrial enterprises and territories. The authors see the reason for that in industrial enterprises taking unnecessary risks. The authors also suggest a new vision for the realization of social responsibility of the businesses via balanced management of system risks.

  11. Géographie Volontaire and the Territorial Logic of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Cupers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the architectural and intellectual history of 'géographie volontaire', a series of experiments in inserting design volition into the study of territory. From the 1940s until the 1970s, an important group of geographers, engineers, state administrators, urban planners, and architects in France used the novel term 'géographie volontaire', or ‘volitional geography,’ to convey their ambitions for a comprehensive organization of space, from the modernization of housing and industry to the shaping of the national territory at large. It was therefore less a subdiscipline of geography than a particular logic for intervention, originating in wartime national planning and carried by the ambitions of postwar reconstruction and development. Focusing on the relationship between knowledge and design, the article reveals how 'géographie volontaire' circulated in the institutions of government and the hallways of academia and how it shaped state-led architecture and planning projects. Corresponding to postwar revisions of international modernism, 'géographie volontaire' extended the conventional scales of architecture and urbanism to the territorial. Yet more than just a change in scale, it implied both a particular political economy and a particular organization of knowledge. Shaped by the intersection of architectural and geographical knowledge, territory became a central logic for the state-led management of postwar capitalism.

  12. Surgical Anatomy of the Vertebrobasilar Territory and Posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of the vertebrobasilar arterial complex and the posterior circle of Willis (COW) in Nigerians has not been previously reported despite various variants of these complexes existing in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To review and document the size, distribution and anomalies of the vertebrobasilar territory and ...

  13. Fishers and Territorial Anxieties in China and Vietnam: Narratives of the South China Sea Beyond the Frame of the Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Roszko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the geopolitical conflict over the South China Sea (SCS, fishers are at the center of Chinese and Vietnamese cartographic imaginations that define the sea as either “Chinese” or “Vietnamese” and hence tied to the disputed territories of the Paracel and Spratly Islands. While their historical presence and customary fishing rights in the SCS have been much publicized in the context of this territorial dispute, the long-standing Cham seafaring trade networks and legacy are ignored by both countries. The ethnic and national categories of Cham, Việt, and Han intersect with occupational categories such as those of fisher, trader, shipbuilder, sailor, and pirate, which in the past represented shifting, relational, and situational activities by the same people. The contemporary use of such professional and national labels produces particular political effects by projecting recent closures and enclosures onto the past, in spite of the common historical, cultural, and ethnic flows that always existed in the SCS. Rather than aiming to legitimize or delegitimize Vietnam’s or China’s territorial claims to the SCS, this article argues that seafaring narratives should be liberated from abstract, anachronistic discourses of sovereignty, territoriality, and territorial anxieties that separate the interconnected histories of the Cham, Vietnamese, and Chinese.

  14. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  15. Territoriality of Cape Sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ) between and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Sugarbirds are southern African endemics, found in fynbos vegetation of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, and they feed almost exclusively on the nectar of Protea inflorescences. Breeding male Sugarbirds are highly territorial and defend resources for themselves, their mates and their ...

  16. Monitoring Urban Sprawl in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization in Abuja and its environs was largely due to the movement of the Federal Capital Territory to Abuja in 1991 causing the influx of internal/national and international migrants and natural increase of birth rate over mortality. This increase has not only put pressure on the city (Abuja) but the surrounding settlements ...

  17. The oxidative costs of territory quality and offspring provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindre-Parker, S; Baldo, S; Gilchrist, H G; Macdonald, C A; Harris, C M; Love, O P

    2013-12-01

    The costs of reproduction are an important constraint that shapes the evolution of life histories, yet our understanding of the proximate mechanism(s) leading to such life-history trade-offs is not well understood. Oxidative stress is a strong candidate measure thought to mediate the costs of reproduction, yet empirical evidence supporting that increased reproductive investment leads to oxidative stress is equivocal. We investigated whether territory quality and offspring provisioning increase oxidative stress in male snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) using a repeated sampling design. We show that arrival oxidative stress is not a constraint on territory quality or the number of offspring fledged. Nevertheless, owners of higher-quality territories experienced an oxidative cost, with this cost increasing more rapidly in younger males. Males that provisioned offspring at a high rate also experienced increased oxidative stress. Together, these findings support the potential role of oxidative stress in mediating life-history trade-offs. Future work should consider that reproductive workload is not limited to offspring care, and other activities - including territory defence - may contribute significantly to the costs of reproduction. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Preschool Education in the Union Territory of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Carole Cummings

    This master's thesis gives an overview of education in India from ancient times to the present and presents data from brief visits to seven schools which provide early childhood education in the Union Territory of Delhi. The schools visited were either parochial, public, government corporation, or private schools. Data collection problems…

  19. Expanded Territories of "Literacy": New Literacies and Multiliteracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Facing the radical change in society in the 21st century, the conventional view of literacy and literacy education may no longer satisfy students' needs in working and social lives, especially beyond classroom settings. Therefore, expanded territories of literacy have been proposed to better support teachers' and students' literacy education and…

  20. Infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatka, L A; Depper, M H; Marini, A M

    1998-08-01

    Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory is an uncommon cause of stroke. The clinical findings of ACA infarctions are not fully characterized but include contralateral hemiparesis, urinary incontinence, transcortical aphasia, agraphia, apraxia, and executive dysfunction. We report a patient with a large right ACA infarction, who in addition to previously reported findings also had a complete hemiplegia, profound sensory neglect, and micrographia.

  1. Accountability of International Territorial Administrations: a public law approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Momirov (Aleksandar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis book conceptualizes the accountability deficit of missions engaged in the international administration of territories. In so doing, a public-law approach is adopted. The book explores to what extent it is warranted to perceive these missions as public entities exercising public

  2. The Political and Territorial Development of Nations without States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issue of nations without states in contemporary Europe between the Atlantic and the Urals. The political map of the continent comprises forty-seven countries, most of which are nation-states. However, the cultural mosaic of Europe is far more complex; there are around fifty ethnic groups (in addition to historical, territorial, or indigenous ethnic minorities and an enormous number of immigrant ethnic communities lacking a state-based organization. Together, these people add up to 78 million, or almost 15% of the European population. Twenty-seven groups can be considered nations without states; they are culturally and ethnically based and have various forms of territorial integrity and political organization. However, they did not create a state organization, despite many attempts by some through history. Without a state organization, those communities have poorer opportunities to protect their folk culture and to reproduce various elements of ethnic identity. This is why they seek territorial autonomy or independent statehood through nationalist movements. In many cases, these ambitions are encompassed in regional movements. These movements have been popular in Europe, particularly because the idea of a “Europe of regions” as part of the European Union has had broad political support and acceptance. However, it has not actually succeeded. The EU and Europe as a whole are still a Europe of (nation-states. In general, regional movements have been successful and through this some nations without states have attained part of their political ambitions in the form of territorial autonomy. The regionalization of former centralist states (e.g., Spain and the United Kingdom increased the chances of ethnic survival for the Catalans, Basques, Scots, and Welsh. On the other hand, the regionalization of nations without states represented territorial division, a kind of “divide and rule” strategy serving to reduce their

  3. The Role of Geographical Landscape Studies for Sustainable Territorial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Franch-Pardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of physical geography is to determine how natural phenomena produce specific territorial patterns. Therefore, physical geography offers substantial scientific input into territorial planning for sustainability. A key area where physical geography can contribute to land management is in the delimitation of landscape units. Such units are fundamental to formal socio-economic zoning and management in territorial planning. However, numerous methodologies—based on widely varying criteria—exist to delineate and map landscapes. We have selected five consolidated methodologies with current applications for mapping the landscape to analyse the different role of physical geography in each: (1 geomorphological landscape maps based on landforms; (2 geosystemic landscape maps; (3 Landscape Character Assessment; (4 landscape studies based on visual landscape units; (5 landscape image-pair test. We maintain that none of these methodologies are universally applicable, but that each contributes important insights into landscape analysis for land management within particular biogeophysical and social contexts. This work is intended to demonstrate that physical geography is ubiquitous in contemporary landscape studies intended to facilitate sustainable territorial planning, but that the role it plays varies substantially with the criteria prioritized.

  4. Building synthetic indicators for aspects of territorial capital

    OpenAIRE

    Pompili, Tomaso; Martinoia, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Empirical analyses highlight local structural features (territorial capital) as constraints on regional growth and interregional convergence processes, but scant attention is devoted to traditional localised resources and specifically the natural and cultural heritage. However, only the application of know-how embodied in human capital to resources provides value. Specifically, heritage becomes economically relevant through human capital acting via tourist, recreational and cultural activitie...

  5. BRASILIA – 50 YEARS OF URBAN TERRITORIAL DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzio Araújo dos Anjos, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The urban Federal District (Distrito Federal – DF), like most Brazilian metropolitan spaces has shown similar problems, differentiating in degree and intensity of its spatial processes. One on the most relevant issues happens due to the quick paced and uncontrolled urban growth, a spatial fact that causes environmental, social, economic, institutional, and political damage, and mainly, compromises the territorial planning process.

  6. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States.

  7. Sentiment and Vision in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol and The Cricket on the Hearth

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Tilley

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the ways in which sentimentality is manifested through the visible, and through associative functions of the eye, in two of Dickens's Christmas books of the 1840s. I situate the relationship between vision and sentiment within discourses from eighteenth-century moral philosophy, as Adam Smith's figure of the “Impartial Spectator” (of central importance to the development of ideas around sympathy) is constructed mainly through the visual. I focus on two of the Christmas Boo...

  8. Area's of territorial responses and distress: Displays of the Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) while nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a measure for the protection of their young, some bid species establish territories which surround their nests. A territorial behavior is practiced within the...

  9. The Christmas season as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Neil W; McIvor, Andrew; Lambert, Kim; Greene, Justina M; Hussack, Pat; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Higenbottam, Tim; Lewis, Jonathan; Newbold, Paul; Herath, Athula; Jenkins, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections. To compare the incidence and determinants of COPD exacerbations occurring between the Christmas holiday period and the remainder of the winter season. Seventy-one subjects with COPD of mixed severity faxed daily symptom diaries to a computer monitoring system from December 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007. Possible exacerbations prompted a home visit for assessment, spirometry and specimen collection for virological testing. Study subjects submitted a total of 95.4% of possible daily symptom diary sheets by fax. Of 114 possible COPD exacerbations detected using the faxed diaries, 110 met the Anthonisen criteria for true exacerbations. A total of 47 exacerbations (mean 6.7/week) occurred during the Christmas holiday period, while 63 exacerbations (mean 4.3/week) occurred during the remainder of winter. Of the Christmas period exacerbations and of those in the balance of winter, 21 (44%) and 20 (32%), respectively, coincided with respiratory viral infections. The incidence of COPD exacerbations during the Christmas period was greater than during the rest of winter in 2006/2007 and peaked immediately before Christmas - in contrast to hospital presentation for COPD, which peaked during the Christmas week. No clear role of respiratory viral infections in the increased rate of exacerbations during the Christmas period was established in the present study. COPD patients were highly compliant with daily symptom reporting using faxed daily diaries, which permitted nearly complete detection of all exacerbations that occurred at incidence.

  10. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Ofu and Olosega Islands, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymety derivatives at Ofu and Olosega...

  11. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the potential significance within the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus, a comprehensive historical account of this important concept of nuclear organization was lacking so far. Here, we describe the early rise of chromosome territories within the context of the discovery of chromosomes and their fundamental role in heredity, covering a period from the 1870th to the early 20th century (part I, this volume. In part II (next volume we review the abandonment of the chromosome territory concept during the 1950th to 1980th and the compelling evidence, which led to its resurrection during the 1970th to 1980th.

  12. Territory occupancy and parental quality as proxies for spatial prioritization of conservation areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Tschumi

    Full Text Available In order to maximize their fitness, individuals aim at choosing territories offering the most appropriate combination of resources. As population size fluctuates in time, the frequency of breeding territory occupancy reflects territory quality. We investigated the relationships between the frequency of territory occupancy (2002-2009 vs. habitat characteristics, prey abundance, reproductive success and parental traits in hoopoes Upupa epops L., with the objective to define proxies for the delineation of conservation priority areas. We predicted that the distribution of phenotypes is despotic and sought for phenotypic characteristics expressing dominance. Our findings support the hypothesis of a despotic distribution. Territory selection was non-random: frequently occupied territories were settled earlier in the season and yielded higher annual reproductive success, but the frequency of territory occupancy could not be related to any habitat characteristics. Males found in frequently occupied territories showed traits expressing dominance (i.e. larger body size and mass, and older age. In contrast, morphological traits of females were not related to the frequency of territory occupancy, suggesting that territory selection and maintenance were essentially a male's task. Settlement time in spring, reproductive success achieved in a given territory, as well as phenotypic traits and age of male territory holders reflected territory quality, providing good proxies for assessing priority areas for conservation management.

  13. Territory occupancy and parental quality as proxies for spatial prioritization of conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschumi, Matthias; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    In order to maximize their fitness, individuals aim at choosing territories offering the most appropriate combination of resources. As population size fluctuates in time, the frequency of breeding territory occupancy reflects territory quality. We investigated the relationships between the frequency of territory occupancy (2002-2009) vs. habitat characteristics, prey abundance, reproductive success and parental traits in hoopoes Upupa epops L., with the objective to define proxies for the delineation of conservation priority areas. We predicted that the distribution of phenotypes is despotic and sought for phenotypic characteristics expressing dominance. Our findings support the hypothesis of a despotic distribution. Territory selection was non-random: frequently occupied territories were settled earlier in the season and yielded higher annual reproductive success, but the frequency of territory occupancy could not be related to any habitat characteristics. Males found in frequently occupied territories showed traits expressing dominance (i.e. larger body size and mass, and older age). In contrast, morphological traits of females were not related to the frequency of territory occupancy, suggesting that territory selection and maintenance were essentially a male's task. Settlement time in spring, reproductive success achieved in a given territory, as well as phenotypic traits and age of male territory holders reflected territory quality, providing good proxies for assessing priority areas for conservation management.

  14. 'It pushed me back into the human race': evaluative findings from a community Christmas event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracy; Kenney, Christine; Hesk, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    Many older people in Britain spend Christmas day alone. The Christmas period may be especially difficult for older people who are socially isolated, living with dementia or who have physical impairments, and may feel particularly marginalised at this time of year. This paper draws on evaluative research findings from a community Christmas event held in December 2014 at the University of Salford for older people and their carers who would be on their own on Christmas day. A multi-method approach was employed, seven guests took part in semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences and perceptions of the event, seven staff and student volunteers participated in a group interview to explore and discuss their participation in the event. Data collection took place during April and May 2015. Interview transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews: 'reasons for participants attending the event', 'a different Christmas day: the impact on guests and volunteers', and 'learning, planning and moving forwards'. The findings illustrate that a range of people participated in the Christmas day event for a variety of reasons. The event itself had a positive impact, including the shared experience of social belonging, for all involved. There are tangible longer term benefits as a result of the event, such as ongoing contact between participants and the development of supportive networks in the local community. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The locations of 22 territorial gray wolves (Canis lupus) killed by conspecifics in northeastern Minnesota were analyzed in a study involving radio-telemetry from 1968 through 1992. Twenty-three percent of the wolves were killed precisely on the borders of their estimated territories; 41%, within 1.0 km (16% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) inside or outside the estimated edge; 91%, within 3.2 km inside or outside (50% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) of the estimated edge. This appears to be the first report of intraspecific mortality of mammals along territorial boundaries.

  16. Oncology staff reflections about a 52-year-old staff Christmas choir: constructivist research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; Hornby, Colin J; Pearson, Elizabeth J M; Ball, David L

    2010-12-01

    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre has one of the world's most enduring staff Christmas choirs. Commencing in 1956, the choir performs in a cafeteria, patient wards, and outpatient waiting areas before each Christmas. With recent emphasis on oncology staff support needs the choir's relevance warranted investigation. This constructivist research examined what effect the staff Christmas choir had on the choir members and staff bystanders in 2008. Sampling was convenience and purposive. Staff choir members were invited to participate during rehearsals, and staff bystanders were invited at seven choir performances in the hospital. Respondents completed anonymous and semistructured questionnaires and the conductor (of 29 years) was interviewed. The inductive, comparative, and cyclic data analyses were informed by grounded theory and qualitative interrater reliability was performed. Questionnaires from 64 staff were returned. The choir elicited positive emotions, memories, Christmas spirit, hospital community and/or work-life effects for many staff, in a cancer context described as sometimes "overwhelming" and "stressful." Choir members' reactions included stress relief, friendship and feeling rewarded. Bystanders' reactions included feeling uplifted, inspired and moved. Suggestions for future performances were offered, including musical acknowledgement of other religious festivals. Two respondents were concerned about intrusive effects on patients and work practices. A staff Christmas choir supported most choir member and staff bystander respondents in an oncology hospital and is recommended in comparable contexts. Further investigation is warranted to extend understanding about Christmas music's effects in palliative care settings.

  17. Evolution of foraging behaviour: Deep intra-generic genetic divergence between territorial and non-territorial southern African patellid limpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmonwa, Kolobe L; Teske, Peter R; McQuaid, Christopher D; Barker, Nigel P

    2017-12-01

    Southern Africa is a biodiversity hotspot of patellid limpets, with three genera (Helcion, Cymbula and Scutellastra) identified and described in the region. Scutellastra is the most diverse and most frequently studied of these and, along with Cymbula, includes species with territorial and non-territorial foraging behaviours. We used three mitochondrial markers (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and COI) and one nuclear marker (ATPSβ intron) to assess evolutionary relationships among species of Cymbula and Scutellastra with these two foraging behaviours and to identify which foraging mode is the more ancient. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses revealed that the species sharing a foraging type are monophyletic in both genera. Territoriality is a derived character, as the clades with this foraging type are nested within a tree that otherwise comprises non-territorial taxa. These include Helcion, which was recovered as sister to the Cymbula/Scutellastra clade, and the next basal genus, Patella, which is ancestral to all southern African patellogastropods. Deep genetic divergence between the two foraging traits reflects strong adaptive effects of resource partitioning in the evolution of southern African patellid limpets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition...... of N, K and Mg varied between 16 and 21 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), 2 and 10 kg K ha(-1) year(-1), and 2 and 3 kg Mg ha(-1) year(-1). The concentration of NO3-N in the soil water on the sandy sites was characterized by notable pulses contrasting the mitigated peaks on the clayey site. In general, the soil...... with the commonly used 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer NO3-N leaching was estimated to be approximately 46 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Annual leaching of N was described in a general model based on the fertilizer input. K and Mg leaching were distinctly more site specific than was N leaching. The magnitude of NO3-N leaching...

  19. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCTIC TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article and summarized the regularities of formation of foreign experience and trends of development of Arctic territories. Set out the important points predetermine orientation and specificity of manifestations of national interests – potential participants of the subsoil in the Arctic zone. On the basis of the illuminated materials were obtained the following conclusions: Signifi cant interest in the Arctic show today, not only the fi ve countries (Russia, USA, Canada, Norway, Denmark, who own Arctic territories, but also polar state (Iceland, Sweden, Finland, the European Union and Asia. As a consequence of that, it is expected that in the XXI century the Arctic region will be the focus of attention as an official Arctic 45, and a number of states whose territory is quite removed from it; For Russia, given the current, acute political conditions (sanctions, confrontation with the West, Ukrainian crisis and war in the Middle East development of Arctic territories, some moved away, moved on tomorrow and the day after tomorrow on the agenda. This approach is fundamentally fl awed and fraught with a number of threats, because other countries do not decrease, but only increase their interest in this issue; Territorial opposition to all those involved in the topic of causing instability in the Arctic region, but does not represent a real threat for the emergence of large-scale conflict. Therefore, making the choice between the hard pressure of national interests and the interests of harmonization of the Arctic states, Russia must be based on international cooperationand mutual consideration of interests in the development of its Arctic strategy; Considering the cooperation of the countries of the Arctic Council and their cooperation in the framework of a global economic forum G8, there are prerequisites for the decision of the Arctic confl ict through negotiation and compromise. In this context it is very important to develop

  20. The Territorial Concept of Official Bilingualism; A Cheaper Alternative for Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Ridler, Suzanne; Ridler, Neil B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines two approaches to official bilingual programs in Canada, personality and territorial, applying economic analysis to language planning. Territoriality is suggested as a means of protecting threatened linguistic minorities and assisting them in retaining their cultural identity. (Author/OD)

  1. Intermediary Cities in the territorial integration of Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja M. Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Economies of agglomeration” have acted as catalysts of the progress and modernisation of many nations in the Global South but have also contributed to unbalancing the territory, widening the gap between urban and rural populations and the accumulation of high environmental and social deficits. In contrast to the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, the economies that make up the MINTs (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey have better territorial integration of their urban systems, with intermediate cities that act as “economies of intermediation” with the rural hinterlands, and which could contribute to achieving the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations Habitat iii of October 2016 placed intermediary cities at the heart of the New Urban Agenda. The aim is to promote national urban policies in many of the economies of the Global South, allowing them to strengthen their role as the main instrument of economic integration and regional cohesion.

  2. Where's the smartness of learning in smart territories ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the future smarter territories are expected to induce transformations of many aspects of the learning processes, but how their smartness is and will be related to that of the learning ecosystems ? In this paper, by means of Principal Component Analysis, we critically analyse methods presently used to benchmark and produce University rankings, by focusing on the case study of the Italian Universities. The outcomes of such analysis allow us to demonstrate the existence of a strong correlation between smart cities' and universities' rankings, i.e. between learning ecosystems and their territories of reference. Present benchmarking approaches, however, need to take in more consideration people feelings and expectations. Accordingly we suggest an innovative point of view on the benchmarking of learning ecosystems based, also, on the so called flow.

  3. Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to Christmas cacti has been reported as a cause of type I allergy. Therefore, the prevalence of immediate-type mucosal and skin reactions related to cactus exposure was studied in 103 employees in a cactus nursery. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire...... HRT/ Refix to cactus, 8% of the cactus workers were allergic to cacti. No noncactus workers or controls were allergic to cacti by these criteria. Testing with fresh cactus material elicited positive SPT and negative HRT/Refix in 27 nursery workers and controls, of whom 12 had immediate-type skin...... and mucosal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Christmas and Easter cacti seemed to be able to induce contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis on both an immunologic and a nonimmunologic basis. Personal atopy was associated with positive reactions to cacti....

  4. Disputes And The Territory. The Case Of Deseado Massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Valiente

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the problems presented in the area of the Deseado Massif, in the north-centre of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina's southern Patagonia, a space in which the metalliferous mega-mining develops, almost exclusively, as the only possible activity. In this context, we will analyze the disputes that untie "in and for" the territory due to this activity, in a context where the multiplicity of people involved in this space make the conflicts more complex. In this scenario, the concept of territory proposed by Bernardo Mançano Fernándes, supported by a critical perspective, allows us to disrupt the plot of the conflict, under a qualitative methodology based on secondary sources. Regarding the results, this article describes the operation of the rentier mentality, the violence and the trap of abundance in regions with extractive vocation.

  5. “Spiritual and Moral Culture in the Higher Education” Expectations and fears (the results ofChristmas Educational Readings’ in PFUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the key issues of the III International Conference “Spiritual and Moral Culture in the Higher Education” devoted to the discussion of the action plan to implement the National Strategy of Education Development until 2025. The authors consider the basic ideas of the key conference speakers’ presentations and present the results of the express-poll among the conference participants conducted to identify their expectations. The main leitmotif of all speakers’ presentations was as follows: the higher school is responsible for training the new generations of professionals - with high moral standards and responsibility for the fate of the country and one’s homeland. Young Russian citizens focused on fruitful activity can be raised only by joint efforts of the state, the church and society. It is extremely important to coordinate the efforts of the church and the state in the support and protection of the family, in combating extremism, and in forming high moral standards. ‘Christmas Readings’ is a good tradition established several years ago, which continues to bring together people interested in solving the most urgent problems in the educational sphere. The participants of the round tables discussed the issues of youth education and its impact on the country’s national security, the relationships of spiritual values and nation’s health, pedagogical aspects of spiritual and moral education of the youth, the impact of mass culture on the society, the student volunteer movement, spiritual and moral criteria of science.

  6. 26 CFR 1.103-1 - Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest upon obligations of a State, territory....103-1 Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, etc. (a) Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, a possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof...

  7. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection, laboratory processing, and MRO actions) shall be conducted outside the territory of the United States. (1...

  8. Territorial community: a systematic approach to advance functions of individual elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Serohina

    2017-03-01

    It is established that in conditions of the administrative-territorial reform, is the need to change in the approach to the basic concepts, in particular, of the territorial communities category as well as of a new category of amalgamated territorial community. New categories need to be identifyed and be enshrined in the legal framework.

  9. Cost of territorial maintenance by Parodon nasus (Osteichthyes: Parodontidae in a Neotropical stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Elias Silva

    Full Text Available The combined demand over a certain resource may exceed its immediate supply, which can then lead to competition between individuals. This competition may result in territorial behavior. In this study we determine the density and spatial distribution, describe the interactions arising from territorial behavior and evaluate the costs of keeping the territories defended by adults of Parodon nasus. The study was conducted in Camarinha Stream located in the Serra das Araras Ecological Station, Porto Estrela, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The density was constant throughout the length of the stream, with a mean (± standard deviation of 1.01 ind./m² (± 0.14. Our results show that the spatial distribution of individuals in the area ranged between uniform and random. The territories were defended more often against intraspecific than interspecific intruders. The time that the owners of the territories devoted to defending them was not influenced by the size of the territories. However, owners of larger territories spent more time foraging than owners of smaller territories. As a result, owners of larger territories had less time to rest than owners of smaller territories. The results of this study show behavioral patterns relevant to understanding the relationship between size and territorial maintenance cost of P. nasus and other species of fish with territorial behavior.

  10. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASES OF ORGANIZING STATE GOVERNANCE FOR TERRITORY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsybuliak VITALINA

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying institutional basis of organizing public governance for territory development by means of e-Governance system. In particular, there were presented the bases for creating such a system, its components, stages of implementation and were developed institutional governance mechanisms by means of basic “e-services”. Assuming that public authorities represent a certain “black box” which provides services according to the “one stop” principle, a citizen has a possi...

  11. The Politics of Oil in the Somali Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Skovsted, Kristian; Bamberger, Jakob Grandjean

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explores the politics of oil in the Somali territories of Somaliland, Puntland, the Ogaden region of Ethiopia, and South-Central Somalia with a specific focus on the causal mechanisms between oil exploration and exploitation, and conflict dynamics. The main argument put forward is that the on-going oil exploration and likely future oil exploitation will exacerbate already existing conflicts and possibly ignite new conflicts. Each of the conflict locations analysed have ...

  12. INSTITUTIONAL BASES OF ORGANIZING STATE GOVERNANCE FOR TERRITORY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsybuliak VITALINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying institutional basis of organizing public governance for territory development by means of e-Governance system. In particular, there were presented the bases for creating such a system, its components, stages of implementation and were developed institutional governance mechanisms by means of basic “e-services”. Assuming that public authorities represent a certain “black box” which provides services according to the “one stop” principle, a citizen has a possibility to obtain them in accordance with his “life episode”. Thus, one governing system would be characterized by the principles of responsibility and accountability to the locals and by the involvement in meeting local territories needs.

  13. 75 FR 29466 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... operations below flight level (FL) 160 within the territory and airspace of Afghanistan, when approved by the... territory and airspace of Afghanistan by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators; persons...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1. Applicability... prohibition. No person may conduct flight operations over or within the territory of Iraq except as provided...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Somalia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia 1... 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory and airspace of Somalia below flight level (FL...

  16. 77 FR 72709 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final..., 1996, SFAR No. 77 was issued to prohibit flight operations within the territory and airspace of Iraq by... flights within the territory and airspace of Iraq. In the final rule, the FAA cited a threat made by then...

  17. 31 CFR 545.407 - Services performed in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services performed in the territory... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The prohibitions on transactions involving blocked... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban or by the Taliban, wherever located, when the benefit of...

  18. 75 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan; Supplemental Regulatory Flexibility Analysis AGENCY... Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan. DATES: Comments must be received on or... Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan.\\1\\ The comment period...

  19. Accountability of International Territorial Administrations: a public law approach

    OpenAIRE

    Momirov, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis book conceptualizes the accountability deficit of missions engaged in the international administration of territories. In so doing, a public-law approach is adopted. The book explores to what extent it is warranted to perceive these missions as public entities exercising public power rather than international organizations merely engaged in extensive peacekeeping and, if such a paradigm shift is accepted, how public law influences our understanding of the accountability defic...

  20. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no recent data on the prevalence and causes of blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the population aged 50 years and above in the Occupied Palestinian Territories using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB survey method. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 40 people who were 50 years and above were selected with probability proportionate to size using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Participants received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in their homes, including visual acuity testing by one of three experienced ophthalmologists. The principal cause for visual loss was determined by an experienced ophthalmologist using portable diagnostic instruments. Information about previous cataract surgery, satisfaction with surgery and barriers to cataract surgery were collected. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was also determined. The prevalence of bilateral blindness (VAor=3/60 and or=6/60 and or=6/18, 23.2% had a borderline outcome (VAor=6/60 and 22.3% had a poor outcome (VAor=50 year age group was 26.4% (95% CI: 24.9-27.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness suggests that significant numbers of people in the Occupied Palestinian Territories exist who do not access eye care - predominantly women and those residing in Gaza. Programmes need to focus on maximizing the use of current services by these excluded groups.

  1. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  2. Polis Used in the Sense of Hinterland or Territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mogens Hermann

    2007-01-01

    I arkaisk og klassiske kilder har Ordet polis i betydningen by i flere tilfælde bebetydningen opland og polis i betydningen stat har i flere tilfælde bibetydningen territorium In archaic and classical sources the word polis in the sense of town sometimes carries the connotation hinterland and in ...... and in the sense of state it carries the the connotation territory   ...

  3. 12 CFR 618.8030 - Out-of-territory related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-territory related services. 618.8030... Related Services § 618.8030 Out-of-territory related services. (a) System banks and associations may offer related services outside their chartered territories subject to the following conditions: (1) The System...

  4. 19 CFR 146.70 - Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs territory. 146.70 Section 146.70 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... a Zone § 146.70 Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory. (a) General. Zone-restricted merchandise may be transferred to Customs territory only for entry for exportation, for entry for...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 87—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1... SFAR, no person described in paragraph 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory and...

  6. Aphasia and infarction of the posterior cerebral artery territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan, J; Verstichel, P; Catala, M; Yakovleff, A; Rancurel, G

    1995-01-01

    Spoken language disorders are rarely mentioned in superficial infarction of the posterior cerebral (PCA) territory. Two clinical types have been reported: transcortical sensory and amnesic aphasia. Between 1979 and 1990, we studied retrospectively 76 patients suffering from an occipitotemporal infarction located in the superficial territory of the posterior cerebral artery, all well documented by CT. Aphasia was one of the first and prominent signs in 18 cases. Middle cerebral artery concomitant infarction could have been the cause of language impairment in 10. In 8 patients aphasia was only explained by a PCA territory infarct. Three patients showed features of transcortical sensory aphasia. CT localization showed internal lobe and thalamic involvement of the dominant hemisphere. Five patients exhibited word finding impairment with various degrees of amnestic syndrome. The dominant internal temporal lobe was always affected. Dominant thalamus involvement was found in one case only. Some correlations between clinical features and anatomical support (vascular supply and anatomical structure) might be suggested in our 8 cases of aphasic disorders due to PCA infarcts. They are discussed and compared with data in the literature.

  7. Territorial differentiation of incomes adjusted for inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valeryevna, Moroshkina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze and evaluate the regional disparities of socioeconomic development of the Russian regions in terms of income differentiation adjusted for the level of inflation. Methods indicator by which to measure the level of regional growth heterogeneity is Gini coefficient allowing to determine the degree of the Russian regionsrsquo deviation from absolute equality. The unique feature of the authorrsquos approach is the calculation and analysis of the Gini coefficient not only in current prices but also in comparable prices of 1991. Thus the comparison of the Gini coefficient in terms of quotper capita incomequot in the period from 1991 to 2013 in comparable and current prices allows to estimate the impact of changes in the prices level on the dynamics of regional development. Results the article states that the regions differentiation by the level of economic development determines the necessity of considering this factor in economic policy areas. In these circumstances the analysis of income differentiation of the Russian regions has to take the impact of inflation into account. The article reviews the Russian and foreign research in the sphere of the income differentiation. Significant scientific interest to the problem of regional inequality is obvious over the past several decades. Approaches and methods of assessing the level of regional disparities are systematized as well as its key performance indicators. To assess the level of differentiation of Russian regions we used the Gini coefficient which was calculated not only by current but also by comparable prices. The calculation was carried out basing on the recalculation of the per capita income using the consumer price index. In the framework of the analysis the calculated Gini coefficient for per capita income by current and integrated prices allowed to observe the differential behavior of this indicator. In terms of quotper capita incomequot by current prices there is a

  8. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile...

  9. Year-round territoriality in long-lived birds: rethinking the concept of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini are sedentary and territorial year round, with juveniles expressing strong natal philopatry. At four South African study sites (two mainland and two islands) breeding numbers more than doubled between the late 1970s/early 1980s and 2005 in response to improved ...

  10. Print mass media: territory of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Akhmadulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the survival of the print media in the information market in the conditions of intense competition with online journalism and the whole information flow on the Internet. Despite the predictions of the impending death of print periodicals, more than half of the world adult population read a daily newspaper. At the same time, the trends taking place in the media market, confirm the reduction of print media segment in favor of the Internet. According to TNS-Russia data, only in 2013 the Internet audience has grown by 6 %. At the same time the circulation of print media in the US fell by 15 % in 2008- 2014, in Western Europe – by a quarter. In Russia, subscription circulation periodicals in the second half of 2014 fell by 20.2 %, and on the basis of subscription for the first half of 2015, the national average – 22 % (data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Post”. Finding ways to stabilize the fall of the print media, many US publishing houses see the transition from advertcentric business model to consumcentric model. It is necessary to use the specifics and advantages of newspapers and magazines (comfort, media planning logic, analytic, continuity and consistency of the content of individual and hypertext editions, and others to maintain the intellectual elite. Print media targeting to an elite audience (willing to pay for exclusiveness allows publishers to offset the rising cost of issuing paperbased, and consumers (subscribers will give a sense of communion to a certain social community, receiving verified and thorough information. In this case, the subscription to a newspaper or magazine (no retail outlet and online will be fashionable factor of association of elite communities and acquire new qualitative features in the development of civil society.

  11. Territorial behaviour of the Tsessebe ( Damaliscus lunatus lunatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damaliscus lunatus lunatus Burchell) presently being undertaken in the Kruger National Park. Territorial demarcation and maintenance is achieved by various ritualized displays and marking techniques. Territory marking includes both visual and ...

  12. Incorporating territory compression into population models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, J; Komdeur, J; Sutherland, WJ; Sutherland, William J.

    The ideal despotic distribution, whereby the lifetime reproductive success a territory's owner achieves is unaffected by population density, is a mainstay of behaviour-based population models. We show that the population dynamics of an island population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus

  13. Territories of knowledge in Japanese conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayano, K.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one aspect of interactional competence: competence to manage knowledge distribution in conversation. In order to be considered competent in everyday interaction, participants need not only to index one another's knowledge states but also to engage in dynamic negotiation of

  14. Navigating the territory of job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, David; Clegg, Chris; Waterson, Patrick

    2002-05-01

    Assuming that work contexts are changing and becoming ever more diverse, questions have been raised about the current state and relevance of job design theory. In this paper we review the field of job design from three paradigmatic perspectives, namely, functionalism, interpretivism and critical theory. We point out that the core of job design theory, across all paradigms, has traditionally been concerned with the outcomes of job design, the role of key factors such as control, demand, and skill, and how jobs can be changed. By outlining two scenarios about how work is changing, we argue that, although job design still has a lot to offer (its traditional core concerns are still relevant), it must develop to have a wider appeal and to have more relevance. Finally, we propose how job design can develop as a field. These proposals are based on our belief that job design theory can progress most fully if it draws on a wide range of theories from across different paradigms and from grounded studies of the changing nature of work in diverse occupational contexts.

  15. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar Leal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996 water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010. This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never before experienced by our species, such as loss of biodiversity, global climate change, and changes in biogeochemical fluxes (Steffen et al. 2015. These crises, in addition to water crises, threaten our quality of life and even our ability to survive.

  16. TERRITORIALITY: THE EXAMPLE OF THE WHITE RHINOCEROS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were seen; and (iii) in encounters, even between bulls, aggression was only occasionally manifested. ... Thirty-five animals, mostly subadults, were marked with ear-tags. Ten radio transmitters were placed on cows and sub adults to assist in the detennination of range patterns. R ep rod u ced b ... Drinking excursions when.

  17. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  18. Territorial Service as part of the social and territorial control of the Salvadoran State during the armed conflict (1972-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historiography study done with a narrative approach, based on documentary research and consulting oral sources. A historical review of the social and territorial control developed by the Salvadoran State during the internal armed conflict (1972-1992 is made. This is an academic effort to bring relevant elements that could be useful for contemporary contexts, especially in stages where irregular armed groups have a presence in the territory and exercise powers. The Territorial Service was a strategy to recover the State’s presence in the territory and exercise social control over vulnerable populations.

  19. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  20. APPLICATION OF SENTINEL-1 RADAR DATA FOR MAPPING HARD-TO-REACH NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Baldina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new European space satellites Sentinel-1A and 1B with C-band radars on board, launched in 2014 and 2016 respectively, provide regular radar data on the Earth’s surface with high temporal resolution. These new non-commercial data provides extensive opportunities for research of remote Arctic territories, poorly supplied with optical images due to cloud conditions. Difficulties in recognizing objects on radar images can be compensated for by the possibility of using multiple repeated surveys, which make it possible to identify areas of the terrain which are similar in character of changes. In the study, four Sentinel-1A images of the largest from the New Siberian islands – Kotelny – were used, which were acquired during the summer period from July 3 to August 20, 2015. After preprocessing aimed at improving the visual properties and coregistration of the multitemporal images, an automated clustering of the multitemporal image set was carried out. Clustering results were analyzed on comparison with additional sources of spatial information. Both specialized software for Sentinel-1 radar data processing - SNAP, and the GIS software complex ArcGIS were used. The latter provided the creation of the spatial data base for comparing the results of radar data processing and cartographic sources. The map of the territory zoning was obtained as clustering results which is based on the changes in the normalized radar cross section (sigma nought over the summer period, and the approximate correspondence of the areas to the main types of the relief and landscapes of the island was established.

  1. The territory of Bonfim: space of knowledge production in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Lima Simões

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the significance of the territory of Bonfim as an area of knowledge production for students of the Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, in Vitória-ES, Brazil. Methods: This study conducted a survey of all the works produced by undergraduate and postgraduate students of the health area from that university who investigated the mentioned territory. The field work resulted in the cataloging of eleven studies that had been characterized in accordance with the subject, the investigated problem; the approaches of the study and the year of its production. These works were distributed in two great thematic axis: studies related to the local management of health system and studiesrelating to child and adolescent health, respectively. Results: Surprisingly, we found out that all the works consisted of studies conducted by nursing graduate students. Conclusions: The non-participation of students from other graduation courses and / or post-graduation of that university, in the generation of knowledge that take account of exploring that reality, points to the need of the university community to cross the imaginary line that separates the academy from real world.

  2. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  3. Program Management Approach to the Territorial Development of Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Knysh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research of the application on a state level of the program management approach to the territorial development of small business. Studying the main mechanism of the state policy implementation in the sphere of small business on a regional level, the authors have revealed the necessity to take into account the territorial specificity while the government programs of small business development are being formed. The analysis of the national practice of utilizing the program management mechanism in the regional system of the government support of small entrepreneurship was conducted on the example of Omsk region. The results of the analysis have shown the inefficiency of the current support system for small business and have determined the need to create an integrated model of territorial programming, which would not only contribute to the qualitative development of small business, but also provide the functioning efficiency of program management mechanism. As a result, the authors have created the two-level model of the programming of the territorial development of small business, which allows to satisfy purposefully the needs of entrepreneurship taking into account the specificity of the internal and external environment of the region. The first level of the model is methodological one and it is based on the marketing approach (the concepts of place marketing and relationship marketing to the operation of the program management mechanism. The second level of the model is methodical one. It offers the combination of the flexible methods of management of programming procedure (benchmarking, foresight, crowdsourcing and outsourcing. The given model raises the efficiency of the management decisions of the state structures in the sphere of small business. Therefore, it is interesting for the government authorities, which are responsible for the regional and municipal support programs of small business, as well

  4. The Intertidal Biota of Volcanic Yankich Island (Middle Kuril Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...

  5. An Unusual Stellar Death on Christmas Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Mimica, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, usually associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets producing non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the peculiar GRB 101225A (the "Christmas burst"). Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long and followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical couuterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling blackbody after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We determine its distance to 1.6 Gpc by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a helium star-neutron star merger that underwent a common envelope phase expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which gets thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material and thus creating the observed black-body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star io the Galaxy

  6. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF ENGINEERING PROTECTION OF TERRITORIES AND STRUCTURES FROM IMPOUNDING

    OpenAIRE

    Voronov Jurij Viktorovich; Shirkova Tat'jana Nikolaevna

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the development of the system of engineering protection of territories and structures from impounding. The emphasis is made on the engineering protection associated with the risk of negative impacts produced on structures and the adjacent territory by subterranean waters. The territory of Imeretinskaya Lowland, Adler District, Sochi, designated for the accommodation of Winter Olympic Games in 2014, served as an example of the technology underlying the system of engineering ...

  8. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  9. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  10. Radiodiagnosis of larvaceous paragonimiasis in the Primorye Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, G.I. (Vladivostokskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    It has been established that a species of paragonimus (lung fluke) parasitizes in the Primorye Territory. A study was made of 115 patients with larvaceous paragonimiasis. Typical x-ray changes in the form of intensified lung markings, foci and infiltrates, exudative pleurisy, pneumothoraxes recur in the course of a long migration of larvae up to 1.5 yrs. and more. The diagnostic symptoms are hypereosinophilia of the blood and leukocytosis. The definitive diagnosis of paragnosimiasis can be established in positive seroimmunodiagnostic reactions to the invasion.

  11. ДО ІСТОРІЇ ЄВРОПЕЙСЬКОГО ВЕРТЕПУ (ШЛЯХИ ФОРМУВАННЯ КУЛЬТУРНОЇ ТРАДИЦІЇ / European wandering of Christmas manger (towards the history of the nativity play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Курочкін Олександр

    2015-03-01

    reconstructed the scene of the Nativity of Jesus Christ which is mentioned in the Gospel. The impressive peculiarity is characteristic for the presepi of different industrial schools of the Apennines: from the Neapolitan to the Sicilian, from the southern Tyrolese to the Apulian, and from the Ligurain to the Bolognese. In southern French departments where there are strongest positions of Roman Catholic Church, making of Christmas manger and the figures for it which are there called santones became a popular kind of folk art. As far back as in 1803 there was a first fair of santones in Marseilles which considerably promoted the development of this original folk handicraft in the cities Aix, Avignon, Saint-Remy, and Aubagne. Up to our times, the whole dynasties of the maitres-santonniers have been working here and passing their own trade secrets on from father to son. The Nativity play is known as Krippe on the German-speaking territories. At first this term meant a manger — a feeding- trough for cattle, and later it also became pertained to the artistic models of dramatizing the Nativity of Jesus Christ. The first church manger has been known in Austria (city of Graz since 1579; it was constructed by the pupils of local Jesuit college. It was the activities of the Catholic cloistered orders in the years of the Counter-Reformation pointed at teaching and attracting the flock that the improvised dramatic stage adaptations of the Christmas plays with manger have changed into the constant texts resounded in the church walls during the Christmas parochial church circular procession as well. Numerous families in Germany and Austria, especially in the villages, still practice installation of Christmas manger at the places of honour among the interiors of dwelling. The tradition of the Christmas manger is also deep-rooted among the customs of the western Slavs professing the Roman Catholicism — the Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles. As in Italy, this custom has become firmly established

  12. National Politics of Territorial Management: The Brazilian Case Política nacional de ordenamiento territorial: el caso de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gregório de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of the Brazilian Territorial Politics, we can observe the option for the elaboration and implementation of Politics for Territorial Arrangement, in a national level, which contemplates the contemporary management methodologies. This means, the decentralization and consequent social participation as also the articulation of actions between the different government instances, together with the idea of sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion regarding the national politics of Territorial Arrangement through the case of Brazil. The discussion is supported by observations, experiences and studies of the author, based on lectures and primary and secondary analysis, mainly on statistical and cartographical material from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, publications of the Brazilian National Integration Ministry (MIN, books and scientific magazine papers.En la historia reciente de las políticas territoriales brasileñas se observa la opción por la elaboración e implantación de Políticas de Ordenamiento Territorial a nivel nacional, las cuales contemplan las metodologías de gestión contemporánea, o sea, la descentralización y consecuente participación social como también la articulación de acciones entre las diferentes instancias del gobierno. Asimismo se presenta la idea de sostenibilidad del desarrollo. El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir para la discusión respecto a las políticas nacionales de Ordenamiento Territorial trayendo el caso de Brasil. La discusión es fruto de observaciones, experiencias y estudios de la autora, con lecturas y análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias, sobre todo material estadístico y cartográfico del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE, publicaciones del Ministerio de Integración Nacional de Brasil (MIN, libros y artículos de revistas científicas.

  13. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of ci...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  14. Which psychoactive substances are used by patients seen in the healthcare system in French overseas territories? Results of the OPPIDUM survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Frauger, Elisabeth; Peyrière, Hélène; Moracchini, Christophe; Haramburu, Françoise; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-02-01

    Addiction to illicit substances or medicines is influenced by cultural, religious, ethnic factors as well as local availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of drug users and characteristics of the psychoactive substances used in French overseas territories, using data from the OPPIDUM survey. OPPIDUM is an annual, nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional study based on specialized care centres that included subjects presenting a drug addiction or under opiate maintenance treatment. The current study includes data from the 2012 and 2013 surveys and focuses on patients included by drug addiction centres located in French overseas departments and territories: French Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia, New Caledonia), French Americas (Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, French Guiana) and Reunion Island. Data from metropolitan France (2013 survey) were included as reference. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The sex ratio was 3.7 for the Pacific Ocean, 3.5 for the French Americas and 3.3 for Reunion Island. Cannabis was consumed in all the territories, from 50.8% in Reunion Island to 81.7% in Pacific Ocean. Cocaine was most frequently consumed in the French Americas (61%), mainly in the 'freebase' form (91%), whereas 6.5% of cocaine users in metropolitan France did so. Problematic use of medicines was most frequent in Reunion Island. Heroin seems rarely used in all overseas territories. This study highlights the complexity of substances used in French overseas territories, which often differ from that in mainland France. The relative difference between different areas provides valuable information for future investigations and possible interventions. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Causes of some hazardous engineeringgeological processes on urban territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kril, Tetiana

    2017-11-01

    Population growth in cities, the need to expand the living space requires of rational use of territories within the existing boundaries of the city. The necessity of compliance with the functional zones of the city is shown on the example of a representative part of Kiev, that should be performed taking into account engineering-geological features of the territory. It is necessary to comply with the underlying zones in the underground space to ensure the bearing capacity of the soil mass. The changes in soil bases are defined as a result of changes in the stress-strain state under the construction, development of underground space, changes of soils water content as the result of soaking from the surface, formation of "perched water", raising the groundwater level. The vibration analysis of high-rise building - the main library building is made from the dynamic loads that arise during the movement of the vehicle, taking into account the work of the pile foundation as a rigid body relative to the longitudinal axis, which passes through the center of the building at the level of the cap of piles.

  16. Historical Determinants of Regional Divisions of Georgia and their Implications for Territorial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mądry Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Georgia can be characterised by its turbulent history, centuries-old traditions, and a great ethnic diversity. This makes it necessary to include historical determinants, in addition to geopolitical and economic factors, when making a regional analysis of its territory and contemporary governance issues. Five stages of the development of the present territorial division of Georgia are distinguished. They have been identified by means of an analysis of key events (critical junctures of significance in the formation of its historical regions. Additionally, their influence at each of the three levels of the current territorial division of independent Georgia is discussed, in particular in the context of territorial governance.

  17. Cedros: Origin and permanence of the place names in a Mexican Pacific Island

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    Jesús Israel Baxin Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Toponymy is a field of knowledge pertaining to geography, as it contributes to the naming of geographical space and its parts, and is a sign of the appropriation of territories by human groups. Mexican toponymy has diverse linguistic origins: most stem from indigenous languages and Spanish, and their combinations, both on continental and island soils. The geographical names used to designate natural elements and places of itinerant or permanent occupation on island territories have been arbitrarily assigned in different historical eras. This paper analyzes the toponyms of the island of Cedros (Baja California, Mexico, their historical denominations, and the names assigned by its contemporary inhabitants. The toponyms discussed here are compared with some geographical names from the western shore of the Baja California peninsula and from other Mexican islands.

  18. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

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    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  19. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-05-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island's interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ˜0.01-0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ˜20-800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ˜2,000-90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  20. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  1. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M

    2015-03-31

    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  2. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  3. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia

    2017-04-01

    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  4. Mission in the strategic territory management (on the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Tsvetkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the main aspects of the territory mission development in the context of strategic management of the territory. The paper shows the role and importance of the mission in the management of the territory and reflects the main issues and the principles of its formation. Using the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago the author analyzes the mission, gives recommendations for its improvement and provides the model of the Solovetsky archipelago mission development.

  5. SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL TERRITORY CAPACITY WITHIN THE STABILITY'S ASSESSMENT OF ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Gershanok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Some principles of working out of methodological bases of providing stable development of the territory are listed in the article, one of the principles is the necessity of determination and taking into account its social-economical and ecological capacity. The definition and calculations of ecological, economical and social capacity of the territories of Permsky area are given. The calculations of life level and quality of habitation environment on the territories of Permsky area are presented. The conclusion on the degree of the stability of development of separate territories is drawn.

  6. 75 FR 1559 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... proper disposal of expired and used tritium exit signs. From the standpoint of solid waste management... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 32 Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Notice of... Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) (petitioner). The petition was docketed by the NRC and...

  7. Territorial Disputes in Spratly: An Assessment of the Philippine Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    claim over the KIG was first made in 1956 by Tomas Cloma who called the islands “Freedomland”. The sovereignty of the Philippines over KIG rests...2011. Another Hamilton cutter is expected to be turned over to the Philippines by the U.S. government in 2013.39 President Aquino , in his 2012 state...to internationalize” the dispute was openly refuted by President Aquino .53 The failure of the regional bloc to make a common stand on the South

  8. Cluster as the Institute of Reindustrialization Territorial and Industrial Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Inna, K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of reindustrialization of the economy, which is characteristic not only for developing but also for developed countries, one of the major policy areas of capacity building and restoration of the industrial production growth rates is the maximum concentration of existing capacity. One of the basic mechanisms of concentration of scientific-technical and production potential is a cluster, which is concentrated by geography group of related companies and organizations interact with each other in order to reduce investment costs and facilitate the search for highly specialized experts, as well as access to new technologies, methods Management, based suppliers and buyers. Currently in operation on the territory of Russian clusters that are based on the Soviet scientific-production associations generally have a positive effect on the economy of the region, including its investment and innovation, which allows us to consider the clusters as institutions implementing the strategy of reindustrialization.

  9. ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL ZONING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ketenchiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The article considers the zoogeographical zoning of the Mediterranean and adjacent territories with the purpose of specification of the scheme of zoogeographic zoning of land on the basis of the distribution of dragonflies.Methods. Use common methods of entomological research, mapping and analysis of the fauna.Results. On the based on our analysis of the composition and distribution of odonatofauna Mediterranean zoogeographical subregion is offered to divide into 5 provinces: Caucasian, South-European, Pyrenees, Asian and African. Analysis of the existing schemes zoning of land based on the distribution of taxa dragonflies, installed the advantages and disadvantages presented by different authors, the result of which is proposed to change the borders between the Holarctic and Subholarctic areas of the Boreal fauna Kingdom (BFK. It is connected with the fact that the dividing them into subdomains and evaluation role in the establishment of regional odonatofauna not always convincing. In this regard, the article proposed to abolish the Holarctic region sub-region: European and Mongolian-Kazakh, and in Subholarctic - add 1 sub-region of Central Asia. In a new form Subholarctic region becomes clear and logical configuration, but her name becomes inadequate, therefore, we re-name it in Paleosubtropical.The scope of the results. In fundamental research on systematics of animals, ecology and biogeography.Main conclusions. Based on the study of the composition and distribution of taxa of dragonflies in the Mediterranean and adjacent territories proposed the division of the Mediterranean subregion 5 provinces and refined scheme of zoogeographic zoning of land.

  10. Politics of Territoriality in Ethiopia: the Case of the Pastoral Gabra of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the current explosion of identity politics in Ethiopia and its entanglement with territoriality. It explains how neighboring groups negotiate, contest, re/construct and deconstruct their politico-territorial positions. It focuses on the processes by which the rules of political participation produce and reinforce ...

  11.   Biotechnology in Danish forestry - Christmas trees and Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Clonal propagation of elite trees by somatic embryogenesis (SE) can shorten periods needed for breeding of trees, and can ensure a stable production of high quality plants for the forestry sector. SE has special interest as a breeding tool, because it for many species is the preferred basis for d...... methods developed at the University of Copenhagen for SE in nordmanns fir and sitka spruce. Nordmanns fir has special interest in Denmark for production of Christmas trees and sitka spruce has gained renewed interest for production of biofuels.  ...

  12. Christmas Disease (Hemophilia –B – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rafiqul Alam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 25 years old man developed Haemarthrosis of left hip joint with a history of recurrent swelling and pain in multiple joints and prolonged bleeding following minor trauma since childhood. Subsequent investigations revealed Christmas disease (Haemophilia B. Hemophilia B is an X-linked bleeding disorder. This case emphasises the importance of considering a diagnosis of haemophilia in a man with unexplained bleeding, even in the absence of a positive family history. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4766 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 90-91

  13. Sentimento de invasão do espaço territorial e pessoal do paciente Sentimientos de invasión del espacio territorial y personal del paciente Intrusion's feeling of personal and territory space of the patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cristina Gasparino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa identificar os sentimentos dos pacientes frente à invasão do seu espaço territorial e pessoal. Utilizou-se a Escala de Medida do Sentimento frente à Invasão do Espaço Territorial e Pessoal junto a 40 pacientes. Os dados mostraram que os pacientes se sentem mais invadidos no seu espaço territorial do que no seu espaço pessoal. O instrumento resultou em alta consistência interna para ambas subescalas, espaço territorial (a =0,88 e espaço pessoal (a =0,85. Ressalta-se o papel do enfermeiro quanto à importância em melhor adequar a distribuição desses espaços, a fim de minimizar esses sentimentos do paciente.Este estudio visa identificar los sentimientos de los pacientes frente a la invasión de su espacio territorial y personal. Utilizó la Escala de Medida del Sentimiento frente a la Invasión del Espacio Territorial y Personal con 40 pacientes. Los datos demuestran que los pacientes se sienten más invadidos en su espacio territorial de lo que en su espacio personal. El instrumento resultó en alta consistencia interna para ambas subescalas, espacio territorial (a=0,88 y espacio personal (a=0,85. Se resalta el papel del profesional de enfermería cuanto a la importancia en mejor adecuar la distribución de estos espacios con el objeto de minimizar esos sentimientos del paciente.This study aims to identify the patients' feelings in relation to the intrusion of their personal and territorial space. It was used the Scale of Measurement of Feeling's Intrusion of the Personal and Territory Space with forty patients. The data pointed out that the patients feel more invaded in their territory space than in their personal space. The instrument resulted in high internal consistency for both subscales, physical space (a=0.88 and personal space (a=0.85. It is highlighted the role of the nurse concerning the importance of better adapting the distribution of these spaces, aiming to minimize these feelings on the patient.

  14. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  15. Identities and conflicts in territories of rural-urban border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Gonzalez Maraschio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes socio-economical transformation processes, occurred in the last two decades booth in rural and urban dimensions, and his further consequences. It also tries to explain why such transformations, thereby, posits the need of rethinking rural as a concept considering the new mea­nings and values that country side has in the actual moment. Also, it presents briefly three different cases of rural border placed in the frontier with metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentinean Re­public, where government and citizen action’s allow reducing conflicts and feed backing activities in order to achieve local development. Finally, it sets what the author considered the main factors in the specific recognition of border line between rural and urban spaces, which they consider should be the backbone (or the grassroot for public policy in order to attend sustainable and inclusive territorial dynamics at the frontiers. 

  16. Radiological monitoring of food on the French territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissieux, T.; Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France)

    2014-07-01

    Drink the milk of cows grazing near French nuclear power plants is it really safe in normal times? In case of a nuclear accident leading to release in the environment, what kind of foodstuff can we still eat? In his regulatory mission of environmental monitoring, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) tends to answer these questions by acquiring radioactivity data in the food chain. Food radiological monitoring program by IRSN is implemented with a three scale strategy. Locally, i.e. within the range 0 to 10 kilometers of nuclear installations, foodstuff locally produced and thus potentially exposed to radioactive sources are frequently sampled and analyzed. At the regional level, specific studies are carried out to establish an updated levels baseline of radioactivity in the environment, especially in agricultural productions characteristic of the area concerned. At the national level, monitoring food aims to map the average contamination observed all around the French territory. This work of vigilance is organized in partnerships with other French actors involved in food monitoring. In the event of a nuclear accident or small-scale incidents, it would allow having an efficient support network of samplers and measurers located on the whole French territory and quickly mobilized in short or medium terms. Since 2008, IRSN has developed a food monitoring program with the Directorate general for food (DGAL) and the Directorate general for competition policy, consumer affairs and fraud control (DGCCRF). These directions have a general mission of food safety control (animal and plant products) and animal feed-stuff, which requires the search for chemical, physical, biological and radioactive substances. Likewise, a sampling program of grain products is efficient since 1969 with the support of France Agrimer. In 2013, the food monitoring is based on multi-radionuclides analysis (cesium, iodine, tritium, alpha emitters...) in about 650

  17. Pollen of the Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species from the Northern Territory of Australia: morphology and taxonomic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, S.; Harwood, R.; Smets, E.; Robbrecht, E.

    2005-01-01

    Complementary to the revision of the genus Spermacoce in the Northern Territory of Australia, pollen morphology of 48 of the 53 native Spermacoce species from the Northern Territory has been investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. There is considerable variation for most diagnostic

  18. What proof is in your Christmas pudding? Is caring under the influence possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Daniel G; Amir, Amaleena B; Punch, Gratian J; Lim, Christopher S H; Toh, James

    2014-12-11

    To determine the ethanol concentration of commonly available Christmas puddings, and to extrapolate the blood alcohol content (BAC) of typical health care professionals after Christmas lunch at the hospital. We conducted fractional distillation of Christmas puddings and analysed the distillate for ethanol content. We then applied standard pharmacological and physiological assumptions to assess predicted BAC in typical male and female health care professionals at our hospital. Ethanol concentration of each pudding; estimated BAC of health care professionals after ingestion and at the end of a 30-minute lunch break. The concentration of ethanol in common Christmas puddings ranged from 0.260 to 1.685 g per 125 mg slice. The concentration of ethanol per pudding was not greater than the stipulated specifications on the packaging, where shown. After pudding ingestion, the theoretical BAC of a typical 70 kg male and 60 kg female health care professional ranged from 0.001 to 0.004 g/dL and from 0.001 to 0.006 g/dL, respectively. Neither male nor female staff had a predicted BAC > 0.000 g/dL by the end of the lunch break. Christmas puddings contain ethanol that does not all evaporate during the cooking process. However, the rise in BAC after ingestion of a typical slice of Christmas pudding was negligible and unlikely to affect work performance or safety or impair a health care worker's ability to make complex decisions.

  19. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  20. CONTRIBUCIÓN DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS AL DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL/CONTRIBUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES TO THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel AUSÍN GÓMEZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el Tratado de Ámsterdam se dio el paso para empezar una política de cohesion con todas las regiones europeas. El primer bloque de medidas a adoptar se daría en el periodo 2000- 2006 (añadiendo la reforma de la política de estructuras, centrándose en ajustes estructurales, reconversiones y educación y, a partir de ahí, se planificaba un segundo periodo (2007- 2013 en el que se profundizará en los procesos de desarrollo. Es aquí donde las sociedades cooperativas juegan un papel decisivo, entre otras razones por su contribución a la mejor integración y cohesión social para alcanzar un buen desarrollo territorial./The Amsterdam Treaty was followed by the begining a policy of cohesion with all European regions. The first set of steps took place within the time period 2000- 2006 (including the structure policy reform, focusing on structural adjustments, modernization and education. At this point, a second period (2007- 2013 has been planified by the EU where development processes will be dealt with. Cooperative societies play a key role in this issue thanks to their contribution to a better integration and social cohesion, among other reasons, in order to reach an appropriate territorial development.

  1. Effects of climate change on subterranean termite territory size: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2011-01-01

    In order to study how climate change affects the territory size of subterranean termites, a lattice model was used to simulate the foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and the minimized local rules that are based on empirical data from the development of termites' foraging territory was applied. A landscape was generated by randomly assigning values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 to each lattice site, which represented the spatially distributed property of the landscape. At the beginning of the simulation run, N territory seeds - one for each founding pair, were randomly distributed on the lattice space. The territories grew during the summer and shrank during the winter. In the model, the effects of climate change were demonstrated by changes in two variables: the period of the summer season, T, and the percentage of the remaining termite cells, σ, after the shrinkage. The territory size distribution was investigated in the size descending order for the values of T (= 10, 15, ... , 50) and σ (= 10, 15, ... , 50) at a steady state after a sufficiently long time period. The distribution was separated into two regions: the larger-sized territories and the smaller-sized territories. The slope, m, of the distribution of territory size on a semi-log scale for the larger-sized territories was maximal with T (45 ≤ T ≤ 50) in the maximal range and with σ in the optimal range (30 ≤ σ ≤ 40), regardless of the value of N. The results suggest that the climate change can influence the termite territory size distribution under the proper balance of T and σ in combination.

  2. Canine demodicosis in territory of city of Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cases of demodicosis in dogs from the territory of the city of Niš. The objective of the investigations was to learn more about the parameters that can influence the susceptibility of certain dogs to the cause of demodicosis, such as: age, hair length, sex, and seasonal dynamics of the incidence of the disease. It was established following examinations of 76 dogs suspected of demodicosis that they were all infected with the specie Demodex canis. The changes were localized or generalized. In the total number of infected dogs, there was a larger share of males (61.84% than females (38.16%. The number of dogs diseased with demodicosis was twice higher in shorthaired than in long-haired animals. The most frequently infected were dogs of the Doberman and German Shepherd breeds. The number of male and female animals among short-haired dogs diseased with demodicosis was equal, while there were more males among the long-haired animals. The biggest number of infected animals was in the category of young dogs, up to one year of age, and they accounted for 65.79% of the total number of diseased animals, which shows without any doubt that younger dogs are more susceptible to demodicosis. There were more infected dogs in the period autumn-winter than in the period spring-summer.

  3. Relationship of Aphasia and Topography of Cerebrovascular Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghandehari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a common manifestation of stroke and evaluation of relationships of aphasia and brain topography could lead to better understanding of cognitive neurophysiology.Consecutive 100 stroke patients with aphasia admitted in Valie Asr hospital, Khorasan in 2003 enrulled in this prospective study. Diagnosis of stroke and aphasia was made by a neurolosist and topography of involved cerebrovascular territories confirmed by topographic maps of brain in CT scan. Global, Broca and Wernicke subtypes of aphasia constituted 52%, 40% and 6% of the cases respectively. Based on the usual nourishment of Broca and Wernicke areas by anterior and posterior cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery, 79% of Global, 47% of Broca and 50% of Wernicke aphasias had a compatible infarct topography. Other cases had no congruent infarct topography with involved linguistic area of their brain. Specific cerebrovascular topography for subtypes of aphasia in stroke patients was not found. The effects of cerebrovascular lesions on linguistic functions are not predictable by their topography in CT scan.

  4. 2012-2013 U.S. Geological Survey LiDAR: Territory of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Territory of Guam, LiDAR Task G11PD01189 This task order is for production of surface model products of The Territory of Guam. The models are produced from data...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF NOISE POLLUTION OF INHABITED TERRITORIES IMPACTED BY AIRFIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonov Eduard Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, authors provide an overview of effective regulatory, reference and technical documents that govern the extent of suitability of territories adjacent to airfields for building-up. Methods of assessing the acceptable limits of the aviation noise in the areas adjacent to airfields are considered in the article. Ecologization of airfield environs is not a new problem. The research described in the article is noteworthy for the proposed optimization of any plans for the assurance of habitability of specific areas impacted by noise pollutions. The optimization consists in a set of organizational and technical solutions based on the noise levels in specific areas, development planning conditions of inhabited areas, and the monitoring of the airfield environs. It is the multi-factor approach that is capable of resolving the problem of ecological stress imposed by the noise coming from the air transport. Towards this end, the problem-solving strategy is to be developed and implemented in the areas that feature the same unfavorable environmental characteristics.

  6. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  7. Territories of Engagement in the Design of Ecohumanist Healthcare Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Terri; Verderber, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, architectural and allied designers, engineers, and healthcare facility administrators are being challenged to demonstrate success in adroitly identifying and contextualizing ever-shifting and expanding spheres of knowledge with respect to the role of energy conservation and carbon neutrality in healthcare treatment environments and their immediate exterior environs. This calls for making sense of an unprecedented volume of information on building energy usage and interdigitizing complex and at times contradictory goals with the daily requirements of building occupants. Ecohumanist Design Strategies: In response, a multidimensional framework is put forth with the aim of advancing theory and practice in the realm of designers', direct caregivers', and administrators' engagement with ecohumanist design strategies in the creation of ecohumanist healthcare environments. Ten territories for engagement are presented that both individually and collectively express salient themes and streams of inquiry in theory and practice, within an operative framework placing the patient, the patient's significant others, and the caregiver at the center of the relationship between the built environment and occupant well-being.

  8. Territorial'no-politicheskie i regional'nye geopoliticheskie sistemy: sootnoshenie ponjatij [Territorial-political and regional geopolitical systems: correlation of concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelatskov Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the notions ofterritorial political system’ and ‘regional geopolitical system' as well as a correlation between them from the viewpoint of the socalled activity-based geospatial approach. A regional geopolitical system includes geopolitical relations between the states within the region and those with powerful external actors. A geopolitical region itself can be characterized by integration, autonomization or a permanent geopolitical conflict. A territorial political system is studied in a broad sense (all political phenomena of a certain territory and in a narrow context (geopolitical relations of a certain territory. The latter is considered to be a subsystem of regional geopolitical system. The research results can be applied in the study of geopolitical regions and geopolitical systems. The article develops a methodology for regional geopolitical and political geographical studies. The author wishes to thank his colleagues from Saint Petersburg State University for their comments on earlier versions.

  9. Territorial Aspects of Community Trademarks – the Single Market’s Splendid Sovereignty”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machnicka, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual property rights are traditionally subject to the principle of territoriality, meaning that their protection is extended only to the territorial jurisdiction of the national granting authority (usually patent and trademark offices). In the light of cross-border commercial expansion that

  10. 22 CFR 92.5 - Acceptability of notarial acts under State or territorial law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptability of notarial acts under State or territorial law. 92.5 Section 92.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Introduction § 92.5 Acceptability of notarial acts under State or territorial law. The acceptability with the...

  11. From Individual to Group Territoriality: Competitive Environments Promote the Evolution of Sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Markus; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2017-03-01

    In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident. We show that competitive environments initially favor the evolution of an aggressive (territorial) strategy. Yet as competition increases further, a shift occurs from aggressive to social strategies. Moreover, territory owners (residents) respond to the behavior of floaters, such that a feedback occurs in which residents adjust their degree of tolerance to the level of floater aggression and vice versa. This feedback resembles the dynamics of a biological market and eventually leads to the coexistence of aggressive and social floater strategies in the population. Such mixed equilibria commonly occur in nature.

  12. Insect pollinators boost the market price of culturally important crops: holly, mistletoe and the spirit of Christmas

    OpenAIRE

    Ollerton, Jeff; Rouquette, James R.; Breeze, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Animal pollination is a vital ecological process in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Economic valuation studies have demonstrated that pollination services may underpin a significant proportion of global crop market outputs. However these assessments are probably under-estimates because they have rarely included non-food crops, for which very few data are currently available. In particular, culturally symbolic plants have received no attention. Here we show that pollinators have cons...

  13. Territory and group sizes in Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber): echoes of settlement and reproduction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, R.D.; Rosell, F.; Nolet, B.A.; Dijkstra, V.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    According to current theories of territoriality, an animal is expected to defend the smallest area that can provide resources for maximisation of reproduction, known as the economically defendable area. In group territorial species however, the strategies behind resource defence are likely to be

  14. United States and territory policies supporting maternal and neonatal transfer: review of transport and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, E M; Kroelinger, C D; Lasswell, S M; Goodman, D A; Williams, A M; Barfield, W D

    2016-01-01

    Summarize policies that support maternal and neonatal transport among states and territories. Systematic review of publicly available, web-based information on maternal and neonatal transport for each state and territory in 2014. Information was abstracted from published rules, statutes, regulations, planning documents and program descriptions. Abstracted information was summarized within two categories: transport and reimbursement. Sixty-eight percent of states and 25% of territories had a policy for neonatal transport; 60% of states and one territory had a policy for maternal transport. Sixty-two percent of states had a reimbursement policy for neonatal transport, whereas 20% reimbursed for maternal transport. Thirty-two percent of states had an infant back-transport policy while 16% included back-transport for both. No territories had reimbursement or back-transport policies. The lack of development of maternal transport reimbursement and neonatal back-transport policies negatively impacts the achievements of risk-appropriate care, a strategy focused on improving perinatal outcomes.

  15. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... Territory of Guam. The State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam are designated as States in which any of...

  16. 31 CFR 586.409 - Approval or other facilitation of other persons' investment in the territory of the Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other persons' investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. 586.409 Section 586.409 Money and... Interpretations § 586.409 Approval or other facilitation of other persons' investment in the territory of the....S. persons of other persons' investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia bars any action...

  17. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  18. ALWAYS COMING HOME: METIS LEGAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF COMMUNITY AND TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Sloan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metis ideas of territory are complex, varied and often not well understood.  Metis perspectives on intersections of territory and community are likewise not appreciated by Canadian courts.  This is evident in the difficulties of Metis rights claimants in British Columbia, where misconceptions about Metis history and traditional use areas have resulted in courts questioning the existence of historic Metis communities in the province.  The leading case on Metis rights in Canada, R v Powley, requires claimants to prove there is a historic Metis community in an area where claimed rights are exercised.  In BC, courts following Powley in three cases – R v Howse, R v Nunn and R v Willison – have held there are no historic Metis communities in the Kootenays, the south Okanagan, or the Kamloops/Shuswap area.  Although these regions comprise only a portion of lands within provincial boundaries, the BC government takes the position there are no Metis communities in the province capable of meeting the Powley test, and thus asserts there can be no Metis Aboriginal rights holders in BC.      To challenge this position, and in order to illustrate the multiplicity and richness of Metis legal understandings of territory and community, the author braids family history, narrative, legal analysis and the perspectives of 23 Metis people from the southern BC interior who were involved in or affected by the Howse, Nunn and Willison cases.  The author suggests that expansive and nuanced Metis understandings of communities and territories cannot be encompassed by the Powley/Willison definition of a Metis community as “... a group of Métis with a distinctive collective identity, living together in the same geographic area and sharing a common way of life”.  While the court’s definition posits history, territory and community as separable, Metis views suggest these concepts are interlinked and mutually constitutive.    Les idées des Métis au

  19. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  20. The Place of Social Capital in the Formation and Integration of the Territorial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsaenko Mykola I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the mechanisms for activating the integration of territorial communities through the formation and use of social capital. The relevance of the study of administrative and territorial reforms based on the integration of the territorial communities from the perspective of the formation and use of social capital has been disclosed. The results of decentralization of power have been analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of this process have been highlighted. On the basis of studying publications on the indicated issue, the essence of the concepts of «community» and «territorial community» has been defined, their constituents and relationships with social capital have been disclosed. The article proposes application of an integrated estimation based on the method of expert estimations, which allows for the determination of the socio-economic performance of a single territorial community (STC, comparison of the activities by territorial communities and their integrations in the region, as well as the desirability of creating a STC. Prospect for further research is an analysis of the directions of institutional change, which facilitate the implementation of mechanisms for the effective development of social capital of both the territorial communities and the STC.

  1. A field study investigating effects of landmarks on territory size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Eason, Perri K

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how landmarks affect territories' fundamental characteristics. In this field study, we investigated effects of landmarks on territory size, shape and location in a cichlid fish (Amatitlania siquia). We provided cans as breeding sites and used plastic plants as landmarks. During 10 min trials, we recorded locations where residents chased intruders and used those locations to outline and measure the territory. In two experiments, we observed pairs without landmarks and with either a point landmark (one plant) or linear landmark (four plants) placed near the nest can. We alternated which trial occurred first and performed the second trial 24 h after the first. Territories were approximately round without landmarks or with a point landmark but were significantly more elongated when we added a linear landmark. Without landmarks, nests were centrally located; however, with any landmark, pairs set territory boundaries closer to the landmark and thus the nest. Territory size was significantly reduced in the presence of any landmark. This reduction suggests that a smaller territory with well-defined boundaries has greater benefits than a larger territory with less well-defined borders.

  2. Father Christmas came to CERN on Saturday, 2 December!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Every year, ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised the CERN Children’s Christmas Party, bringing together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. The success of the party continues to motivate the organizers of the Staff Association. This year, the party took place on Saturday, 2 December, and no less than 240 children were welcomed in two sessions, at 13.30 and at 15.30. The children attended a show with music, tales and a speaking puppet: “Zéphirine et les légendes de Noël”. After the show, they enjoyed a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their valuable help and generous contribution. Then, Father Christmas himself came to give the children their presents. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for taking the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and big ones alike during the busy season! We would also like to thank all the parents for their valuable c...

  3. Transactional Mechanism of Territorial Administration: Conceptualisation and Systematization of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Аleksandrovna Petrova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transaction expenses developed by R. Coase allows to consider functioning of economy and its agents from the information viewpoint. This viewpoint implies that information exchange between agents and the urge to overcome information incompleteness start playing the crucial role. Transaction expenses are information exchange costs for the purpose of elimination (reduction of its incompleteness and the related uncertainty. R. Coase showed that creation and the size of firms are closely connected with the urge to minimize transaction expenses. Traditionally transaction expenses are associated with functioning of firms, however, the state actively participates in economy, for example, through formation of tax policy. Besides, financing of the public benefits takes place on the basis of collective decisions. But collective character of the decision causes interest, though smaller in comparison with the private choice, in the maximum efficiency of the decision. It is ensured by two factors: firstly, the position of an individual is not of great importance at collective decision-making; secondly, an individual is responsible for a small part of benefits and expenses which are formed in the course of decision implementation. The article deals with the concept of transaction costs, and systematically occurring types of transaction costs in the following groups: search information costы, the cost of negotiating, measuring costs, the costs of specification and protection of property rights, the costs of opportunistic behavior, the cost of “politicizing”, the costs of collective decisionmaking, influence costs. The authors propose a model of transaction mechanism of territorial administration, which includes the following elements: economic entities; a goal determined by system of indicators; methods; instruments; channels; forms of target use; landmark feedback on the system; subject to the experience stage of modernization; criteria

  4. No snow for Christmas: the impact of the 2015 extreme winter on CO2 fluxes in European mountain grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammerle, Albin; Filippa, Gianluca; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The increasing frequency in extreme climate events is very likely to impact the Alps since this region is characterized by very sensitive ecosystems. Typical alpine ecosystems such as mountain grasslands, show a strong seasonality in carbon uptake and release mostly driven by the onset and the end of the snow season. Extreme climate events, such as long warm and/or dry periods, could change typical snow cover temporal pattern, thereby altering the duration of the period of CO2 uptake and release. In recent years many studies have analyzed the impact of delayed or anticipated snowmelt on alpine plant phenology, growth and carbon cycling. However, little is known on the effects of a delayed onset of the snow season. During 2015 the whole planet witnessed several record-breaking warm spells which exceptionally warmed the Alps where the temperature anomaly reached +4°C during both the autumn and winter periods. In particular, the onset of the 2015 winter in the Alps was marked by one of the most prolonged lack of snow in years. In this study, we investigate and discuss the impact of the altered temperature and precipitation pattern during the autumn/winter 2015 on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of mountain grasslands at high and low altitudes measured by means of the eddy covariance method. In particular we test the following hypotheses: (i) The presence of a snowpack impedes plant photosynthesis, while without a snowpack, plant net CO2 uptake may be possible even during wintertime provided temperatures are warm enough. (ii) Below a snowpack, soil temperatures are around zero degrees Celsius, allowing for microbial activity resulting in intermediate soil respiration; without a snow cover soil temperatures may be either lower or higher than zero degrees Celsius, decreasing or increasing soil respiration. The magnitude and direction of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of mountain grassland ecosystems is governed by the complex interplay of the factors addressed in

  5. SOFTWARE OF THE ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF NATURAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF THE TERRITORY OF PERM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Krasilnikov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with environmental management and economic valuation of natural resource potential. The reason for the relevance and the prospects for the use of geographic information technologies. On the basis of GIS system shows a new approach to integrated assessment of the natural richness of the territory. Was creating а geographic information-analytical system of the natural resources of the territory. A geographic information and tested model for assessing economic and natural resources.

  6. Mitochondrial genome of the Christmas tree worm Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) reveals a high substitution rate among annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Russo, Claudia Augusta de Moraes; Paiva, Paulo Cesar

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe, for the first time, the mitochondrial genome of Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) and compare it with all available annelid mitogenomes. The entire mitogenome has 22,058bp in length and bears 12 protein-coding genes (the ATP8 gene is missing), two rRNA, and 24 tRNA genes. The nucleotide composition and GC-skew are surprisingly different from those reported for other annelids. In addition, the pairwise genetic distances between the mitogenomes of S. giganteus and other annelids are higher than the distances for all annelid taxa analyzed. This result is consistent with a faster rate of mitochondrial sequence evolution in S. giganteus, which may explain the difficulty in obtaining PCR products with the available primers. The mitochondrial gene order of S. giganteus was remarkably different not only from that of the Sedentaria lineage, which includes S. giganteus, but also from the mitochondrial gene order of other major annelid lineages. The mitogenome of S. giganteus has no repetitive motifs despite its long control region (4769bp), but genes are shorter and have a lower AT content than other members of Annelida. Finally, we show that mitochondrial gene order rearrangements can directly correlate to variations in gene length. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity

  8. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  9. Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

  10. ECOLOGY OF CICONIIFORMES BIRDS IN FORESTS OF CRIMEA TIMBER ENTERPRISE OF KRASNODAR TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. GOJKO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of ecology ciconiiformes birds in the conditions of plantings of the Crimean timber enterprise of Krasnodar territory are considered. Biotopes, number, phenology, nested ecology and feed of birds are analyzed.

  11. A New Species of Mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roy A.; Davis, Steven S.; Weir, Richard; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter; Allcock, Richard; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV), a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively), along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species. PMID:24670468

  12. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... Interpretations § 545.412 Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban... bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by...

  13. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Territory, Rank and Mental Health: The History of an Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Price

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We trace the development of ideas about the relation of mood to social rank and territory. We suggest that elevated mood enabled a person to rise in rank and cope with the increased activities and responsibilities of a leadership role, while depressed mood enabled a person to accept low rank and to forego the rewards associated with high rank. This led to the concept of a trio of agonist/investor strategy sets, each consisting of escalating and de-escalating strategies, one set at each of the three levels of the triune forebrain. Depressed mood can be seen as a de-escalating (appeasement strategy at the lowest (reptilian level; this should facilitate de-escalation at the highest (rational level, but sometimes this rational level de-escalation is blocked (e.g., by stubbornness, courage, pride or ambition and then clinical depression may ensue. These evolved psychobiological mechanisms survived the partial transition from agonistic to prestige competition. We discuss difficulties which have arisen with our ideas, and their implications for clinical work and research.

  15. Updated estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurganova, I. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.; Gerenyu, V. O. Lopes de (Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, RAS, Pushchino (Russian Federation)), e-mail: ikurg@mail.ru

    2010-11-15

    The land use system in Russia changed considerably after 1990: 30.2 million ha of croplands were abandoned. Based on the own field investigations that were carried out in abandoned lands of different age (Luvic Phaeozems, deciduous forest zone; Moscow region, 54 deg 50' N, 37 deg 37' E), it has been shown that after 4.5 yr of abandonment, the former croplands acted as a stable sink of CO{sub 2}. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the post-agrogenic ecosystems averaged 245 +- 73gCm-2 yr-1 for the first 15 yr after land use change that corresponds to an estimated 74 +- 22 Tg C yr-1 for the total area of abandoned lands in Russian Federation. Currently, the Russian territory acts as an absolute sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at a rate about 0.90 Pg C yr-1. Using three different approaches, it was demonstrated that after 1990, the carbon sequestration in Russian soils (0.20 cm layer) has averaged 34 +- 2.2 Tg C yr-1. This soil C forms net biome production (NBP) where carbon lifetime is much longer than in 'Kyoto forests'. Thus, the post-agrogenic ecosystems in Russia provide with the additional CO{sub 2} sink in NEP and NBP that could annually compensate about 25% of the current fossil fuel emissions in the Russian Federation

  16. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Schmidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods: This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT, and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU. Results: Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions: The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North.

  17. TERRITORIAL DISPARITIES OF THE POPULATION FROM BACĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Harja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The last census of 20 October 2011, confirmed the decrease in the stable population in most localities, although this did not occur uniformly across the county. The analysis aims to highlight the stable population evolution in the last two censuses, which mainly led to decreases in existent disparities between localities, to a slight increase of the degree of uniformity in this regard. If in urban areas, all localities have recorded drops, in the rural areas there were 11 localities with population increases, especially large suburban cities. This led to a slight decrease in the degree of variation in the area, from a coefficient of 45,6% at the census of 2002 to 43,4% in 2011 and the reduction in the ratio of the largest and smallest area, from 7,84 times to 6,08 times. If in 2002 there were 21 local rural residents under 3000 inhabitants, in 2011 their number increased to 26, while more than 10 thousand people do not exist in any village in the county, compared to 2 as they were at the previous census. Territorial disparities are found also among the population by age, existing only 8 villages where the average age has decreased compared to 2002, these being mainly poor localities from Valea Siretului, where the birth rate is higher.

  18. The syndrome of unilateral tuberothalamic artery territory infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F; Assal, G

    1986-01-01

    The study of 3 personal cases and 5 published cases of unilateral infarct limited to the territory of the tuberothalamic artery suggests that this syndrome should be differentiated from the other thalamic syndromes. The onset is usually sudden, with moderate contralateral weakness. Sensory changes may be present but remain mild. The patients are apathetic, show perseveration and may be disoriented. In left-sided infarcts, transcortical aphasia, verbal and visual memory impairment and sometimes acalculia are found. In right-sided infarcts, hemispatial neglect, visual memory impairment and disturbed visuospatial processing are common. A decreased level of consciousness, disturbed ocular movements, severe motor weakness and delayed abnormal movements do not occur. Involvement of the ventral lateral and dorsomedial nucleus with sparing of the intralaminar nuclei, posterolateral formation and upper midbrain may explain this picture. The fact that the tuberothalamic artery arises from the posterior communicating artery, which often receives its supply from the carotid system, further justifies considering unilateral tuberothalamic infarcts as a syndrome.

  19. Inscription dedicated to Neptune from the territory of ancient Doclea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new votive inscription from the territory of Doclea has recently been published. The reading of the text needs revision, and consequently, reinterpretation. The inscription should be read as follows: Neptuno ׀ sacrum p׀ericuloru׀m Absolu׀tori Petro׀5nius Aspe׀r v(otum s(olvit ׀ l(ibens a(nimo. Neptune’s attribute periculorum Absolutor appears here for the first time. The noun «Absolutor», i.e. «he who absolves, liberator », attested late in the narrative sources e.g. Cassiod. Var . XI, praef. 3, should be close to the Jupiter’s epithets Liberator or Servator. The dedication could be connected with a successful ending of a journey, possibly after being exposed to maritime perils: the dedicator may well be a person engaged in trade and businesses that involve transmarine voyage. His name - Petronius Asper - implies the connection with the large group of Italian settlers in Dalmatia, whose presence is attested in the province all through the Principate. Such relations are illustrated in the light of other Dalmatian examples.

  20. 31 CFR 545.505 - Importation of goods, software, or technology exported from the territory of Afghanistan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology exported from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to July 6, 1999. 545... technology exported from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to July 6, 1999. (a... technology from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban is authorized provided that: (1) The...

  1. [Schooling conditions and children's morbidity at schools of small towns of the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I Iu; Klimatskaia, L G

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives a brief analysis of the prevalence and trends of childhood morbidity in small towns of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Morbidity in small towns is shown to be greater than the average territorial rate. The increase in overall morbidity in children is affected by the schooling environment where a child stay 6-8 hours daily and that ensures no conditions for keeping and promoting the child's health at school at the present stage. Monitoring of material resources yields a special territorial program whose major task is to increase the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being at general educational establishments.

  2. USE OF TERRITORY AND CONSOLIDATION OF AGRIBUSINESS IN REGION CENTER-WEST: A STUDY ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION THROUGH SYSTEM OF AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gallo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to make some reflections on the use of small aircrafts for the integration and modernization of the Brazilian territory. The system of air transport, in a country of large territorial extension, is very important to narrow the regional ties and it is an important  element of the productive space circuit of the modern agriculture developed in the Brazilian Center-West. The small aircrafts of not-regular routes, act as basic vector of the interactional fluidity, speeding the transport of people, in function of its flexibility of displacement and time, act as basic vector of the productivity integration of the Brazilian territory, a time that the production properly said and corporative command if had separated given to the possibilities techniques of the actual technician-scientific and informational period. 

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL OF CONCENTRATED CONSTRUCTION TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the kinds of the concentrated construction are considered, which differ by types of construction production with account of branch and regional estimate factors. The methods of assessing the level of preparation of the territories taking into account different types of models and the purposes of regional planning are given. Despite the approved postulates, which are available in the theory and practice of organizational preparation of the territories, many questions still have not been solved and are handled using ineffective methods. The authors believe, that during preparation of territories it is necessary to introduce the elements of cycles’ combination of engineering calculations and laying design of communications to a building site. Defining the sequence of these works’ performance for objects is modelled taking into account the cyclic-combined method of preparing the sites for construction. The development of the territory can be provided only in case of annual investment into various objects of cluster construction, in order to uniformly or rhythmically load the construction capacities upon condition of the rhythmical preparation level of the territories of concentrated construction. As the generalizing indicator the criterion of rhythm of means planning can be used. Thus, using a rhythm indicator as a criterion of organizational preparation of territorial clusters it is possible to provide the necessary level of investment of preparation and construction programs for a certain period.

  4. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island’s interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ~0.01–0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ~20–800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ~2,000–90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  5. Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Brazilian Rural Territorial Development Policy: A Study of Território Meio Oeste Contestado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecchio, Andréia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The territory ‘Meio Oeste Contestado’, located in Santa Catarina, Brazil, was created in 2003, after the implementation of the rural territorial development policy of the government of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010. This article analyzes how social and political relations were established and administered in the territory; how the disputes between different actors and interests were dealt with; the ideas and interpretations that were at stake; and what territorial rules and regulations were established for the negotiation and conciliation between the different social actors. In general, we observe that the ideas that the territorial actors have about public policies for rural territorial development differ from those of the federal government. The main interest of the different actors in the territority is to raise more financial resources for the local organizations and municipalities in the territory due to the fragile nature of the different territorial institutions.

  6. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

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    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  7. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bustillos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to entitle the collective ownership for these human beings groups. Fifteen years after the Constitution was approved, this process of delineation has been slow and misleading. This delay has caused that in the present, these human beings groups are being stalked by outside interests (illegal mining, development projects, irregular forces, among others who threaten their existence as distinct cultures; since the right to territory is a fundamental human right for their survival. This article is the result of a field research. In the first part, the study analyzes the Organic Law of Indigenous Peoples and Communities (LOPCI (2005 in Venezuela, with the purpose of clarifying at what stage the territorial demarcation process is paralyzed; and as a result, it describes how many communities and indigenous peoples have been demarcated and entitled from 2005 to 2014.

  8. "Oh the weather outside is frightful": Severe injury secondary to falls while installing residential Christmas lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Michael R; Gupta, Arjun; Wells, Bryan; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G

    2016-01-01

    Falls are an increasingly common source of severe traumatic injury. They now account for approximately 40% of both overall trauma volumes and injury-related deaths within Canada. In northern climates, the risk of all types of falls may increase during the fall/winter months when conditions become increasingly dangerous. The purpose of this study was to define the injury and patient demographics of severe trauma that occurs during falls associated with the installation of Christmas lights. All patients who were admitted to a referral level 1 trauma center (2002-2012) with severe injuries (ISS≥12) caused during Christmas light installation were retrospectively reviewed. Standard statistical methodology was utilised (pChristmas lights. Injuries included: neurologic (68%), thoracic (68%), spinal (43%), extremity (40%), and multiple other sites. Fall mechanisms were: ladder (65%), roof (30%), ground (3%) and railing (3%). Interventions included intubation and critical care (20%), as well as orthopaedic and neurosurgical operative repairs (30%). The median length of hospital stay was 15.6 days (range: 2-165). The fall-related morbidity (28%) and mortality (5%) were significant with a total of 12.5% patients requiring transfer to a long-term care or rehabilitation facility. Falls while installing Christmas lights during the fall/winter seasons can result in severe life-altering injuries with considerable morbidity and mortality. Caution should be employed when installing lights at any height. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. INVENTORY OF CRANES AND THEIR MODERN STATE ON THE TERRITORY OF DAGESTAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye. V. Vilkov

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of information from literary sources for the last 132 years together with the data of the author's records and interviews show presence of three crane species on the territory of Dagestan...

  10. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  11. STUDY OF IMMUNITY TO POLIOVIRUSES ON CERTAIN "SILENT" TERRITORIES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The degree of immunity to polioviruses of three serotypes among children of different ages was analysed on certain "controlled" and "silent" territories of Russia in different periods of Polio Eradication Initiative. It was shown that the levels of immunity of children’s population to polioviruses on "controlled" and "silent" territories had no significant difference. It was stated that on the phase which preceded the certification for the absence of circulation of wild polioviruses, when the National Immunisation Days were conducted in the country, the percentage of eronegative children to polioviruses of different serotypes was low on all the territories of Russia. After Russia as a part of the WHO European region was certified as a polio free country and mass immunisation was stopped thepercentage of seronegative children increased, especially to poliovirus of serotype 3, both on the "controlled" and on the "silent" territories.

  12. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Shoot-Feding Characteristics and Overwintering Behavior in Scotch Pine Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Robert K. Lawrence; George C. Heaton

    2001-01-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were...

  13. Territoriality of feral pigs in a highly persecuted population on Fort Benning, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparklin, B.D.; Mitchell, M.S.; Hanson, L.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined home range behavior of female feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a heavily hunted population on Fort Benning Military Reservation in west-central Georgia, USA. We used Global Positioning System location data from 24 individuals representing 18 sounders (i.e., F social groups) combined with markrecapture and camera-trap data to evaluate evidence of territorial behavior at the individual and sounder levels. Through a manipulative experiment, we examined evidence for an inverse relationship between population density and home range size that would be expected for territorial animals. Pigs from the same sounder had extensive home range overlap and did not have exclusive core areas. Sounders had nearly exclusive home ranges and had completely exclusive core areas, suggesting that female feral pigs on Fort Benning were territorial at the sounder level but not at the individual level. Lethal removal maintained stable densities of pigs in our treatment area, whereas density increased in our control area; territory size in the 2 areas was weakly and inversely related to density of pigs. Territorial behavior in feral pigs could influence population density by limiting access to reproductive space. Removal strategies that 1) match distribution of removal efforts to distribution of territories, 2) remove entire sounders instead of individuals, and 3) focus efforts where high-quality food resources strongly influence territorial behaviors may be best for long-term control of feral pigs.

  14. 31 CFR 545.520 - Noncommercial personal remittances to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.520 Section 545.520 Money and... Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.520 Noncommercial personal remittances to or from the territory of... authorized to process transfers of funds to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban in...

  15. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... operational year round. The Nature Conservancy's mission is to preserve plants, animals and natural communities that represent the biological diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they...

  16. Practical Approach of the PEST Analysis from the Perspective of the Territorial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bîrsan

    2016-01-01

    Digging deeper in the Knowledge Economy, we propose as the subject of this paper and as apart of our research, a theoretical approach in assessing and analyzing a region from theperspective of both territorial intelligence and smart developing.

  17. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  18. 31 CFR 545.516 - Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.516 Section 545.516 Money and Finance: Treasury... Policy § 545.516 Certain payments to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. (a... funds to or from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban if the transfer is covered in...

  19. 31 CFR 545.519 - Payments and transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to the... transfers authorized for goods and services exported to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the... the effective date, directly or indirectly to the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban...

  20. 31 CFR 586.408 - Exempt financial transactions within the territory of the FRY (S&M); prohibition on establishment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the territory of the FRY (S&M); prohibition on establishment of new offices in Serbia. 586.408 Section...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 586.408 Exempt financial transactions within the territory... U.S. persons physically located within the territory of the FRY (S&M), where those transactions are...

  1. Infanticide in Wolves: Seasonality of Mortalities and Attacks at Dens Support Evolution of Territoriality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas W. Smith; Matthew C. Metz; Kira A. Cassidy; Erin E. Stahler; Richard T. McIntyre; Emily S. A lmberg; Daniel R. Stahler

    2015-01-01

    ... (protection against infanticide). This emphasis on prey and infrequent opportunity to observe wild wolf behavior has led to little investigation into the causes of or competitive underpinnings in the evolution of wolf territoriality...

  2. The role of territorial capital in building the competitive advantages of Podkarpackie Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the discussion of regional development factors in recent years, more and more importance has been attributed to territory, locality, site specificity and endogenous resources, as evidenced on theoretical grounds by the concept of territorial capital (Camagni 2008 and regional, place-based policy. This article aims to identify the elements of territorial capital that play a key role in the process of changing the development path of an underdeveloped region - Podkarpackie - as well as ascertaining what consequences territorial capital has for development planning within regional policy. The research highlights the importance of the immobile and intangible development factors - a high level of social capital, extensive networks and the ability to cooperate - which have helped to eliminate the limitations resulting from the weakness of other factors (especially material factors, such as private capital and low GDP.

  3. TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT SUPPORTS FOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALLA EMESE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supports for the rural micro-enterprises played a significant role in the EU rural development policy in the 2007 - 2013 programming period. Among the rural development measures proposed by the EU, the measure 312 focused especially on the rural micro-enterprises, and it was included in the National Rural Development Programme 2007 – 2013 of Romania. Recent data show, that only less than half of the projects submitted was selected for financing and contracts concluded cover only about 70 % of the total value of these projects. The aim of this study is to analyze the territorial distribution of the supports provided under the measure 312 in Romania. The source of data is the selection reports published on the website of the Rural Investment Funding Agency. Firstly, a county level analysis is carried out, in order to see which counties of the country were able to obtain more financing. In the second step, the results of a settlement-level analysis are presented. We created a map which shows by communes the value of the total supports obtained by the micro-enterprises under the measure 312. As the results show, high discrepancies exist between the counties and settlements regarding the value of the supports. Analyses refering to the disparities in the distribution confirm this observation. Finally, a correlation analysis is carried out based on settlement data, and it proves that the total value of the supports obtained under the measure 312 positively correlates with the population, surface and development level of the communes.

  4. Greek loanwords in Serbian vernaculars on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajić-Popović Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot version of a more comprehensive study on Greek loanwords in Serbian vernaculars which will deal with their identification, distribution, periodisation, and adaptation. The materials excerpted from the presently existing dialectal dictionaries will be compared with the data from three classical sources on the topic: VASMER, POPOVIĆ 1953-1955, and SKOK. In this phase our goal was to find out whether there is any point in proceeding with the study of Greek loanwords in Serbian, after the results that have been reached by the three abovementioned authors. Our choice for the pilot analysis is Rečnik srpskih govora Vojvodine (RSGV because of its size, representativeness and actuality: it is the largest single dictionary (ten volumes comprising over 2,000 pages, it has covered the vastests continual territory (at the same time most distant from the line of contact with Greek, and also beyond the borders of the Balkan linguistic unity, it falls in the number of the most up-to-date ones (published in the period 2001 to 2011. The paper offers not just a linear inventory of Grecisms from RSGV, but a classification of types of divergencies from the standard body of Grecisms. It features primarily novelties - be they represented by new words (ponomarh ‘cleric’, mironisati ‘to pray in the church’, parasnik ‘unruly person’, by new semantics (buklijaš ‘horse ridden by the man who carries buklija’, Grk ‘shopkeeper’, katarka ‘long pole onto which knife for cutting the fishing-net is poised’, kolaba ‘structure for drying meat in the attic’, kondir ‘bucket for cattle; mode of cutting wine’, krevet ‘laundry; chair; the lower layer of sheaves in a stook’, liman ‘underwater source’, mira ‘extract produced by cooking large amounts of fish in little water, used as an additon to fish-stew’, paripa ‘horse farm’, by new formation (krevetnjača ‘a solid piece of wood fencing a straw

  5. Effect of vegetation structure on breeding territory selection by red-winged blackbirds in a floodplain forest restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria A. Furey; Dirk E. Burhans; Hong He; Michael A. Gold; Bruce E. Cutter

    2003-01-01

    Our research investigates the role of vegetation structure in the selection of breeding territories by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in two floodplain oak-restoration sites. Perches are used extensively by red-winged blackbirds in territorial display during the spring (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). We hypothesized that breeding territory...

  6. In search of the territorial land resource in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Herrera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Land and property issues constitute a crucial element in spatial planning and management. Spatial malfunctions (homogenisation of landscapes, urban sprawl, etc. and socio-economic problems (exclusion of the most fragile elements of the population, growth of second homes, etc. have led local authorities in charge of managing land and development to re-examine their relationship with space. The rhetoric of political actors responsible for addressing this question has thus become increasingly marked by a desire to intervene more strongly in land management issues. However, they have always come up against the problem of deciding how to deal with privately owned land, which constitutes a substantial part of the area under their control. The question of management at a level above that of the commune (supra-communal is thus envisaged in order to avoid a public/private dialectic by promoting the idea of a territorial land resource. The processes involved in this step could thus be seen as a means of clarifying the methods of land management at the scale of a supra-communal territory through better knowledge and application of regulations, the basis for any measure of collective action.La question foncière apparait comme un élément crucial dans la gestion des espaces. Les dysfonctionnements spatiaux (banalisation des paysages, étalement urbain,… et socio-économiques (exclusion des populations les plus fragiles, problème des résidences secondaires,… ont conduit les collectivités locales en charge des problèmes de gestion de l’espace à réinterroger leur rapport à l’espace. Le désir d’une intervention plus forte sur la ressource foncière se fait d’une façon plus prégnante dans les discours des acteurs politiques en charge de cette question. Mais ils se heurtent toujours aux moyens d’action à utiliser face à une propriété foncière privée occupant une place prépondérante sur leurs territoires. La question de la supra

  7. Territory occupancy and breeding success of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus at various stages of population recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael J.; Hines, James; Rollie, Chris; Smith, George D.; Morton, Elise R.; Moore, Jennifer F.; Mearns, Richard M.; Newton, Ian; Murillo-Garcia, Oscar E.; Oli, Madan K.

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides disrupted reproduction and killed many raptorial birds, and contributed to population declines during the 1940s to 1970s. We sought to discern whether and to what extent territory occupancy and breeding success changed from the pesticide era to recent years in a resident population of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus in southern Scotland using long-term (1964–2015) field data and multi-state, multi-season occupancy models. Peregrine territories that were occupied with successful reproduction in one year were much more likely to be occupied and experience reproductive success in the following year, compared with those that were unoccupied or occupied by unsuccessful breeders in the previous year. Probability of territory occupancy differed between territories in the eastern and western parts of the study area, and varied over time. The probability of occupancy of territories that were unoccupied and those that were occupied with successful reproduction during the previous breeding season generally increased over time, whereas the probability of occupancy of territories that were occupied after failed reproduction decreased. The probability of reproductive success (conditional on occupancy) in territories that were occupied during the previous breeding season increased over time. Specifically, for territories that had been successful in the previous year, the probability of occupancy as well as reproductive success increased steadily over time; these probabilities were substantially higher in recent years than earlier, when the population was still exposed to direct or residual effects of organochlorine pesticides. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that progressive reduction, followed by a complete ban, in the use of organochlorine pesticides improved reproductive success of Peregrines in southern Scotland. Differences in the temporal pattern of probability of reproductive success between south-eastern and south

  8. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  9. Territorial (DisOrdering in Salta. A look into the context prior to the Territory Planning of Native Forests in the Province of Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schmidt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we look into the characteristics of production in the Province of Salta during the years prior to the approval of National Law No. 26,331 of "Minimum Budget for Environmental Protection of Native Forests" and to the implementation of policies of Territory Planning of Native Forests. We begin briefly describing the transformations occurred in the Argentinian countryside since the early 1970, and go on characterizing such process and its specific features in the east of Salta, where the agricultural border in the last decades has rapidly gained ground over territories in the past considered marginal for agricultural and livestock business production

  10. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes are controlled, of each train operating in automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal territory shall be...

  11. Assessing the significance of borders and territoriality in a globalized Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    challenges this vision, which despite losing importance in academic circles has now been reproduced in popular culture, arguing that borders have not been removed and that territoriality still plays a crucial role at the beginning of the 21st century. This claim will be justified with evidence stemming from...... different policies, dynamics and discourses. By analysing the importance of territoriality from three different angles (policy, territorial disputes and discourses) the article aims to demonstrate that borders and their ‘barrier’ function are likely to continue being significant in the foreseeable future....

  12. Adaptive Campaigning Applied: Australian Army Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    territories, such as Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Heard and McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island and also waters adjacent...threat to the population or the Land Force. 117 The infantry element of the Combat Team would then approach the “ Green Zone” in darkness in the early

  13. Representation of Multiple Body Parts in the Missing-Hand Territory of Congenital One-Handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahamy, Avital; Macdonald, Scott N; van den Heiligenberg, Fiona; Kieliba, Paullina; Emir, Uzay; Malach, Rafael; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Brugger, Peter; Culham, Jody C; Makin, Tamar R

    2017-05-08

    Individuals born without one hand (congenital one-handers) provide a unique model for understanding the relationship between focal reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex and everyday behavior. We previously reported that the missing hand's territory of one-handers becomes utilized by its cortical neighbor (residual arm representation), depending on residual arm usage in daily life to substitute for the missing hand's function [1, 2]. However, the repertoire of compensatory behaviors may involve utilization of other body parts that do not cortically neighbor the hand territory. Accordingly, the pattern of brain reorganization may be more extensive [3]. Here we studied unconstrained compensatory strategies under ecological conditions in one-handers, as well as changes in activation, connectivity, and neurochemical profile in their missing hand's cortical territory. We found that compensatory behaviors in one-handers involved multiple body parts (residual arm, lips, and feet). This diversified compensatory profile was associated with large-scale cortical reorganization, regardless of cortical proximity to the hand territory. Representations of those body parts used to substitute hand function all mapped onto the cortical territory of the missing hand, as evidenced by task-based and resting-state fMRI. The missing-hand territory also exhibited reduced GABA levels, suggesting a reduction in connectional selectivity to enable the expression of diverse cortical inputs. Because the same body parts used for compensatory purposes are those showing increased representation in the missing hand's territory, we suggest that the typical hand territory may not necessarily represent the hand per se, but rather any other body part that shares the functionality of the missing hand [4]. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition and stability of coyote families and territories in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.; Kohn, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coyote (Canis latrans) families studied in North Dakota during 1976 to 1978 contained three or more adults during the spring-summer season, and they occupied large contiguous, non-overlapping territories. Coyote territories averaged 61 km2 during the spring-summer season and 30 km2 during fall-winter season. Three of four families occupied territories that were similar in size for two consecutive years; however, boundaries changed within individual families when one or both alpha adults were killed. All coyotes replacing dead alpha adults were 1 year old.

  15. The Socioecology of Territory Size and a "Work-Around" Hypothesis for the Adoption of Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines theory from ecology and anthropology to investigate variation in the territory sizes of subsistence oriented agricultural societies. The results indicate that population and the dependence of individuals within a society on "wild" foods partly determine the territory sizes of agricultural societies. In contrast, the productivity of an agroecosystem is not an important determinant of territory size. A comparison of the population-territory size scaling dynamics of agricultural societies and human foragers indicates that foragers and farmers face the same constraints on their ability to expand their territory and intensify their use of resources within a territory. However, the higher density of food in an agroecosystem allows farmers, on average, to live at much higher population densities than human foragers. These macroecological patterns are consistent with a "work-around hypothesis" for the adoption of farming. This hypothesis is that as residential groups of foragers increase in size, farming can sometimes better reduce the tension between an individual's autonomy over resources and the need for social groups to function to provide public goods like defense and information.

  16. Kosher and the Christmas Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencik, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The article present results from a questionnaire investigation with members of the Jewish communities in Sweden, Finland and Norway.......The article present results from a questionnaire investigation with members of the Jewish communities in Sweden, Finland and Norway....

  17. Territoriality as Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2010-01-01

      The present paper questions the idea of unity in a circumvented coherent territory as it has been naturalized in modern social and political theory. The paper demonstrates that there was nothing democratic in that idea and in the historical constructions of European state territories....... The argument is displayed through a system analysis of territories as codified systems. The sociology offered by Niklas Luhmann is used to take a theoretical grasp over historical materials and historical sociology, thus the paper also test Luhmann's abstract theory in its capacity to analyse seemingly more...... concrete evidences as space, land, roads and bricks. The paper discusses especially the history of French territorialisation from 1500 to 1900 as model for state-territory.The methodological devices of the paper are, first, to observe the territorial state system as an improbable system emerged through...

  18. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  19. EXPLORING THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA AT DIFFERENT TERRITORIAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the quality of employment at different territorial levels (national, macro-regional, regional, county and local level. The first section of the study approaches the quality of employment in terms of several perspectives (sociological, economic and geographical. Methodological aspects are discussed in the second section, with focus on the selection of statistical indicators by two main criteria: the relevance of the indicators and their availability for all the mentioned territorial levels. The largest part of the paper presents the analysis results, basically the typologies of the mentioned territorial levels in terms of selected indicators mirroring the quality of employment. The study shows that there exists a relationship between the situation of the quality of employment (weak, average or good and the different territorial levels analysed.

  20. People's Daily and the reality of South China Sea territorial disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the representations of the South China Sea territorial disputes in the main Chinese newspapers and analyses the rhetorical strategies used in the promotion of the Chinese official interpretation of these disputes.