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Sample records for terreus causative agents

  1. Causative Agents of Aspergillosis Including Cryptic Aspergillus Species and A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyotome, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species. On the other hand, azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in clinical specimens and in the environment have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative to precisely identify the species, including cryptic Aspergillus spp., and evaluate the susceptibility of isolates.In this manuscript, some of the causative cryptic Aspergillus spp. are briefly reviewed. In addition, the exometabolome of Aspergillus section Fumigati is described. Finally, azole resistance of A. fumigatus is also discussed, in reference to several studies from Japan.

  2. Helicobacter pylori : the causative agent of peptic ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review examines Helicobacter pylori as an organism and as the causative agent of peptic ulcers. The review also examined the classification of ulcers, ... Elimination of Helicobacter pylori by treatment with antibiotics in peptic ulcer patients resulted in the healing of the ulcer. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infections is ...

  3. Identification of fungal causative agents of rhinosinusitis from Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Rhinosinusitis is a common disorder, influencing approximately 20% of the population at some time of their lives. It was recognized and reported with expanding recurrence over the past two decades worldwide. Undoubtedly, correct diagnosis of fungi in patients with fungal rhinosinusitis affects the treatment planning and prognosis of the patients. Identification of the causative agents using the standard mycological procedures remains difficult and time-consuming. Materials and Methods: Based on clinical and radiological parameters, 106 patients suspected of fungal rhinosinusitis were investigated in this cross-sectional prospective study from April 2012 to March 2016 at an otorhinolaryngology department. In this study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and calmodulin (CaM sequencing were respectively validated as reliable techniques for the identification of Mucorales and Aspergillus to species level (both agents of fungal rhinosinusitis. Results: Of these, 63 (59.4% patients were suspected of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS, 40 (37.7% patients suspected of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS, and 3 (2.8% patients suspected of fungus ball. In patients suspected of AFRS, AIFRS, and fungus ball only 7, 29, and 1 had positive fungal culture, respectively. After ITS and CaM sequencing, Aspergillus flavus was the most common species isolated from non-invasive forms, and A. flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were more frequently isolated from invasive forms. Conclusion: Aspergillus flavus is the most common agent of fungal rhinosinusitis in Iran, unlike most other reports from throughout the world stating that A. fumigatus is the most frequent causative agent of this disease.

  4. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, J; Wren, B W; Thomson, N R; Titball, R W; Holden, M T; Prentice, M B; Sebaihia, M; James, K D; Churcher, C; Mungall, K L; Baker, S; Basham, D; Bentley, S D; Brooks, K; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A M; Chillingworth, T; Cronin, A; Davies, R M; Davis, P; Dougan, G; Feltwell, T; Hamlin, N; Holroyd, S; Jagels, K; Karlyshev, A V; Leather, S; Moule, S; Oyston, P C; Quail, M; Rutherford, K; Simmonds, M; Skelton, J; Stevens, K; Whitehead, S; Barrell, B G

    2001-10-04

    The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

  5. The Human Ureaplasma Species as Causative Agents of Chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Emma L; Dando, Samantha J; Kallapur, Suhas G; Knox, Christine L

    2017-01-01

    The human Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms from the amniotic fluid and placentae of women who deliver preterm and are also associated with spontaneous abortions or miscarriages, neonatal respiratory diseases, and chorioamnionitis. Despite the fact that these microorganisms have been habitually found within placentae of pregnancies with chorioamnionitis, the role of Ureaplasma species as a causative agent has not been satisfactorily explained. There is also controversy surrounding their role in disease, particularly as not all women infected with Ureaplasma spp. develop chorioamnionitis. In this review, we provide evidence that Ureaplasma spp. are associated with diseases of pregnancy and discuss recent findings which demonstrate that Ureaplasma spp. are associated with chorioamnionitis, regardless of gestational age at the time of delivery. Here, we also discuss the proposed major virulence factors of Ureaplasma spp., with a focus on the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), which may facilitate modulation/alteration of the host immune response and potentially explain why only subpopulations of infected women experience adverse pregnancy outcomes. The information presented within this review confirms that Ureaplasma spp. are not simply "innocent bystanders" in disease and highlights that these microorganisms are an often underestimated pathogen of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Aspergillus species as emerging causative agents of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouripour-Sisakht, S; Mirhendi, H; Shidfar, M R; Ahmadi, B; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; Geramishoar, M; Zarei, F; Jalalizand, N

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), and yeasts. Aspergillus species are emerging as increasing causes of toenail onychomycosis. The purpose of this study was species delineation of Aspergillus spp. isolated from patients with onychomycosis. During a period of one year (2012-2013), nail samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis and subjected to microscopic examination and culture. Species identification was performed based on macro- and micro-morphology of colonies. For precise species identification, PCR-amplification and sequencing of the beta-tubulin gene followed by BLAST queries were performed where required. A total of 463/2,292 (20.2%) tested nails were diagnosed with onychomycosis. Among the positive specimens, 154 cases (33.2%) were identified as saprophytic NDM onychomycosis, 135 (29.2%) of which were attributable to Aspergillus. Aspergillus species isolated from the infected nails included Aspergillus flavus (77.3%, n=119), Aspergillus niger (n=4), Aspergillus tubingensis (n=4), Aspergillus terreus (n=3), Aspergillus sydowii (n=2), Aspergillus spp. (n=2), and Aspergillus candidus (n=1). Among the patients diagnosed with onychomycosis due to Aspergillus (average patient age, 47.4 years), 40 had fingernail and 95 toenail involvement. The large toenails were most commonly affected. This study identified a markedly high occurrence of A. flavus, and this fungus appears to be an emerging cause of saprophytic onychomycosis in Iran. The study moreover highlights the necessity of differentiating between dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic nail infections for informed decisions on appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological agents and respiratory infections: Causative mechanisms and practice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Noboru

    2015-09-01

    Biological agents are increasingly being used to treat patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease. In Japan, currently approved biological agents for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, interleukin-6 receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and T-cell costimulation inhibitor. Rheumatologists have recognized that safety issues are critical aspects of treatment decisions in RA. Therefore, a wealth of safety data has been gathered from a number of sources, including randomized clinical trials and postmarketing data from large national registries. These data revealed that the most serious adverse events from these drugs are respiratory infections, especially pneumonia, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and that the most common risk factors associated with these respiratory infections are older age, concomitant corticosteroid use, and underlying respiratory comorbidities. Because of this background, in 2014, the Japanese Respiratory Society published their consensus statement of biological agents and respiratory disorders. This review summarizes this statement and adds recent evidence, especially concerning respiratory infections in RA patients, biological agents and respiratory infections, and practice management of respiratory infections in patients treated with biological agents. To decrease the incidence of infections and reduce mortality, we should know the epidemiology, risk factors, management, and methods of prevention of respiratory infections in patients receiving biological agents. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [MANIFESTATIONS OF EPIDEMIC PROCESS AND TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF CAUSATIVE AGENT OF ENTEROVIRUS SEROUS MENINGITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergevnin, V I; Tryasolobova, M A; Kudrevatykh, E V; Kuzovnikova, E Zh

    2015-01-01

    Study the manifestations of epidemic process and leading transmission routes of causative agents of enterovirus serous meningitis (SM) by results of laboratory studies and epidemiologic examination of epidemic nidi. During 2010 - 2014 a study for enterovirus was carried out in cerebrospinal fluid in 743 patients, hospitalized into medical organizations of Perm with primary diagnosis "serous meningitis", feces of 426 individuals, that had communicated with patients with SM of enterovirus etiology; 827 water samples from the distribution network, 295 water samples from open water and 57 washes from surface of vegetables and fruits. All the samples were studied in polymerase chain reaction, part--by a virological method. Epidemiologic examination of 350 epidemic nidi of SM was carried out. Enterovirus and (or) its RNA were detected in 62.0% of patients and 61.9% of individuals that had communicated with patients with enteroviris SM. ECHO 6 serotype enterovirus dominated among the causative agents. Maximum intensity of epidemic process of enterovirus SM, based on data from laboratory examination of patients, was detected in a group of organized pre-school and school age children during summer-autumn period. . Examination of epidemic nidi and laboratory control of environmental objects have shown that CV causative agent transmission factors are, in particular, unboiled water from decentralized sources (boreholes, wells, springs), water from open waters during bathing, as well as fresh vegetables, fruits, berries and meals produced from them. .

  9. [Formation of microbial biofilms in causative agents of acute and chronic pyelonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagun, L V; Atanasova, Iu V; Tapal'skiĭ, D V

    2013-01-01

    Study the intensity of formation of microbial biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated during various forms of pyelonephritis. 150 clinical isolates of microorganisms isolated from urine ofpatientswith acute and chronic pyelonephritiswere included into the study. Determination of intensity of film-formation was carried out by staining of the formed biofilms by crystal violet with consequent extraction of the dye and measurement of its concentration in washout solution. Among causative agents ofpyelonephritis P. aeruginosa isolates had the maximum film-forming ability. The intensity of biofilm formation of these isolates was 2-3 time higher than staphylococcus and enterobacteria strains. Strains isolated from patients with chronic pyelonephritis by ability to form biofilms significantly surpassed strains isolated from acute pyelonephritis patients. A higher ability to form microbial biofilms for microorganisms--causative agents of pyelonephritis progressing against the background ofurolithiasis was noted. The ability to form biofilms is determined by both causative agent species and character of the infectious process in which this microorganism participates. Intensive formation of biofilms by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus clinical isolates may be an important factor of chronization of urinary tract infections.

  10. Observational goals for Max '91 to identify the causative agent for impulsive bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of impulsive hard x ray and microwave bursts suggest that a propagating causative agent with a characteristic velocity of the order of 1000 km/s is responsible for these bursts. The results of these studies are summarized and observable distinguishing characteristics of the various possible agents are highlighted, with emphasis on key observational goals for the Max '91 campaigns. The most likely causative agents suggested by the evidence are shocks, thermal conduction fronts, and propagating modes of magnetic reconnection in flare plasmas. With new instrumentation planned for Max '91, high spatial resolution observations of hard x ray sources have the potential to identify the agent by revealing detailed features of source spatial evolution. Observations with the Very Large Array and other radio imaging instruments are of great importance, as well as detailed modeling of coronal loop structures to place limits on their density and temperature profiles. With the combined hard x ray and microwave imaging observations, aided by loop model results, the simplest causative agent to rule out would be the propagating modes of magnetic reconnection. To fit the observational evidence, reconnection modes would need to travel at approximately the same velocity (the Alfven velocity) in different coronal structures that vary in length by a factor of 10(exp 3). Over such a vast range in loop lengths, it is difficult to believe that the Alfven velocity is constant. Thermal conduction fronts would be suggested by sources that expand along the direction of B and exhibit relatively little particle precipitation. Particle acceleration due to shocks could produce more diverse radially expanding source geometries with precipitation at loop footprints

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF HOLMIUM TO CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF SUPPURATIVE -INFLAMMATORY COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubnaya H. N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Article denotes to determination of antibacterial action of polyoxometalate holmium to causative agents of suppurative-inflammatory process in wounds of patients, which were suffered from trauma. Method of serial dilutions was used for determination of minimal inhibiting concentration (MIC of holmium to staphylococci, enterococci and E. coli. Registration of holmium action shows the strong antibacterial influence to staphylococci and enterococci (MIC of holmium action to staphylococcal and enterococcal strains same 1 10 M, to strains of E.coli – 2,5 10 M. Solutions of holmium don’t have antibacterial action to strains of E.coli.

  12. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules...

  13. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  14. Prevalence and causative agents of superficial mycoses in a textile factory in Adana, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, E; Ilkit, M; Tanir, F

    2003-09-01

    This study was carried out in a textile factory settled in the city center of Adana, Turkey. The workers were evaluated for the presence of superficial mycoses and the interaction of their working environment or working condition. A total of 431 textile workers were included in the study, with a male to female ratio of 378 (87.7%) to 53 (12.3%) and an age range of 19-52 (mean: 33.7 +/- 6.8). Direct examination and/or culture revealed superficial mycoses in 73 (16.9%) workers, among them 56 (76.7%) were classified as dermatophytoses, 8 (11.0%) as Pityriasis versicolor while in nine (12.3%) of the cases, no causative agent could be determined. Trichophyton rubrum (57.1%) and T. mentagrophytes (42.9%) were the two species isolated on culture. This study emphasized that textile workers should be admitted as a risk group for superficial mycoses, especially tinea pedis.

  15. Are Abeta and its derivatives causative agents or innocent bystanders in AD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakis, Nikolaos K

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration in neocortical regions of the brain. Currently, Abeta-based theories, including amyloid depositions and soluble Abeta, form the basis of most therapeutic approaches to AD. It remains unclear, however, whether Abeta and its derivatives are the primary causative agents of neuronal loss in AD. Reported studies show no significant correlations between brain amyloid depositions and either degree of dementia or loss of neurons, and brain amyloid loads similar to AD are often found in normal individuals. Furthermore, behavioral abnormalities in animal models overexpressing amyloid precursor protein seem independent of amyloid depositions. Soluble Abeta theories propose toxic Abeta42 or its oligomers as the agents that promote cell death in AD. Abeta peptides, however, are normal components of human serum and CSF, and it is unclear under what conditions these peptides become toxic. Presently, there is little evidence of disease-associated abnormalities in soluble Abeta and no toxic oligomers specific to AD have been found. That familial AD mutations of amyloid precursor protein, PS1 and PS2 promote neurodegeneration suggests the biological functions of these proteins play critical roles in neuronal survival. Evidence shows that the PS/gamma-secretase system promotes production of peptides involved in cell surface-to-nucleus signaling and gene expression, providing support for the hypothesis that familial AD mutations may contribute to neurodegeneration by inhibiting PS-dependent signaling pathways. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Are Aβ and Its Derivatives Causative Agents or Innocent Bystanders in AD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakis, Nikolaos K.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration in neocortical regions of the brain. Currently, Aβ-based theories, including amyloid depositions and soluble Aβ, form the basis of most therapeutic approaches to AD. It remains unclear, however, whether Aβ and its derivatives are the primary causative agents of neuronal loss in AD. Reported studies show no significant correlations between brain amyloid depositions and either degree of dementia or loss of neurons, and brain amyloid loads similar to AD are often found in normal individuals. Furthermore, behavioral abnormalities in animal models overexpressing amyloid precursor protein seem independent of amyloid depositions. Soluble Aβ theories propose toxic Aβ42 or its oligomers as the agents that promote cell death in AD. Aβ peptides, however, are normal components of human serum and CSF, and it is unclear under what conditions these peptides become toxic. Presently, there is little evidence of disease-associated abnormalities in soluble Aβ and no toxic oligomers specific to AD have been found. That familial AD mutations of amyloid precursor protein, PS1 and PS2 promote neurodegeneration suggests the biological functions of these proteins play critical roles in neuronal survival. Evidence shows that the PS/γ-secretase system promotes production of peptides involved in cell surface-to-nucleus signaling and gene expression, providing support for the hypothesis that familial AD mutations may contribute to neurodegeneration by inhibiting PS-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:20160455

  17. Evidence for a close phylogenetic relationship between Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, and the genus Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Collins, M D

    1994-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene sequence of Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, was determined in order to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between this organism and other low-G + C-content gram-positive bacteria. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that M. pluton is a close phylogenetic relative of the genus Enterococcus.

  18. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Coassin, S.; Haun, M.; Binder, U.; Kronenberg, F.; Haas, H. de; Jank, M.; Maurer, E.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Lass-Florl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem

  19. The genomic sequence of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Nanhai; Danila, Maria I.; Feng Zehua; Buller, R. Mark L.; Wang Chunlin; Han Xiaosi; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Upton, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ectromelia virus is the causative agent of mousepox, an acute exanthematous disease of mouse colonies in Europe, Japan, China, and the U.S. The Moscow, Hampstead, and NIH79 strains are the most thoroughly studied with the Moscow strain being the most infectious and virulent for the mouse. In the late 1940s mousepox was proposed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of smallpox and generalized vaccinia in humans. Studies in the last five decades from a succession of investigators have resulted in a detailed description of the virologic and pathologic disease course in genetically susceptible and resistant inbred and out-bred mice. We report the DNA sequence of the left-hand end, the predicted right-hand terminal repeat, and central regions of the genome of the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (approximately 177,500 bp), which together with the previously sequenced right-hand end, yields a genome of 209,771 bp. We identified 175 potential genes specifying proteins of between 53 and 1924 amino acids, and 29 regions containing sequences related to genes predicted in other poxviruses, but unlikely to encode for functional proteins in ectromelia virus. The translated protein sequences were compared with the protein database for structure/function relationships, and these analyses were used to investigate poxvirus evolution and to attempt to explain at the cellular and molecular level the well-characterized features of the ectromelia virus natural life cycle

  20. Detection and impact on cancer causation of persons exhibiting abnormal susceptibility to carcinogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The so-called 'late biological effects', like cancer and genetic consequences and cytotoxic effects (cell killing, at higher doses), were once thought to be an inevitable consequence of a given level of exposure, whether to background radiation, to chemicals in our biosphere, or form spontaneous damage, the 'wear and tear' of living. The measurement of exposure, which results in living organisms in the formation of a related amount of DNA damage, became a surrogate for the end-effects that constitute risk. This may not be entirely appropriate. The concept of 'equal exposure -- equal risk' assumes a homogeneous response of individuals. However, there are subgroups within the human population of persons whose cultured cells exhibit abnormal sensitivity to specific carcinogenic agents and who may be at increased risk of cancer induced by these of similar agents. Modern molecular biology has shown that the majority of the damage in DNA is repaired by enzymatic DNA repair processes that restitute or ameliorate the lesions and restore normal DNA structure and function. In this view, it is not the initial damage that is of consequence but rather the residual damage left after the repair processes have acted. Since the vast majority of the initial DNA damage undergoes repair normally, variation in the efficiency of these processes in different persons may affect the actual risk of exposure. The human side of the cancer causation formula, that is, considerable importance. To understand how human DNA repair processes function, our laboratories at Chalk River have studied 'mutant' human cell strains in tissue culture. Generally, these DNA repair-defective cell strains are derived from individual donors with heritable disorders that are associated with carcinogen-hypersensitivity and cancer-proneness. Such studies, together with related epidemiological research, have highlighted the importance of this new 'human' factor in carcinogenesis

  1. Role of chicken astrovirus as a causative agent of gout in commercial broilers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbule, N R; Mandakhalikar, K D; Kapgate, S S; Deshmukh, V V; Schat, K A; Chawak, M M

    2013-01-01

    Several outbreaks of gout were reported in commercial broilers in India during 2011 and 2012, causing up to 40% mortality in the birds. Gross and histopathological observations confirmed gout. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis from kidney samples of gout-affected birds indicated the presence of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in 41.7% of cases and a mixed infection of CAstV and avian nephritis virus (ANV) in 36.4% of cases. CAstV isolated from gout-affected kidneys by inoculating embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs showed dwarfing in embryos and a cytopathic effect in chicken embryo kidney cells. Inoculation of 1-day-old SPF and broiler chicks with CAstVs caused gout and mortality between 4 and 10 days post inoculation. Virus isolation and qRT-PCR analysis showed the presence of only CAstV in inoculated chicks. Sequence analysis of capsid genes indicated a major group of Indian CAstVs that displayed 92.0 to 99.2% intergroup amino acid identity and 83.9 to 90.4% identity with subgroup Bi CAstVs of UK origin. We designated this group Indian Bi. Analysis of the partial polymerase amino acid sequences of our isolates indicated two groups of CAstVs (Indian 1 and 2) that displayed 90.2 to 95.5% amino acid identity between them. We thus report for the first time that, in addition to infectious bronchitis virus and ANV, CAstVs are a causative agent of gout.

  2. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, AJ; Knudsen, GM; Beekman, C; Perry, JA; Johnson, AD; DeRisi, JL; Craik, CS; Bennett, RJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian ho...

  3. [Invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with focus on aspergillosis and its causative agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloušová, Dita; Lengerová, Martina; Volfová, Pavlína; Bejdák, Petr; Kocmanová, Iva; Mayer, Jiří; Ráčil, Zdeněk

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a life-threatening infectious complications in immunocompromised patients and are associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. The most common invasive mycosis in patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is invasive aspergilosis (IA), most frequently caused by the clinically dominant species Aspergillus fumigatus and, rarely, also by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger. In recent years, other related Aspergillus species were also reported to cause IFD, phenotypically similar to A. fumigatus and moreover, frequently exhibiting resistance towards various antifungals. For example, it is Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartoya fischeri, etc. Classical microbiological methods such as direct microscopy or culture are usually used for the identification of Aspergillus species. The application of PCR-based molecular techniques and monitoring of secondary metabolites production enable detection and identification of species, which are not distinguishable solely by their morphology. PCR methods are also useful for molecular strain typing of aspergilli and can reveal the genetic diversity of isolates.

  4. Probing the genome-scale metabolic landscape of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Olivier, Brett G; Boele, Joost; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Krumpochova, Petra; Klau, Gunnar W; Giera, Martin; Dehottay, Philippe; Teusink, Bas; Goffin, Philippe

    2017-08-25

    Whooping cough is a highly-contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussi s. Despite vaccination, its incidence has been rising alarmingly, and yet, the physiology of B. pertussis remains poorly understood. We combined genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, a novel optimization algorithm and experimental data to probe the full metabolic potential of this pathogen, using strain Tohama I as a reference. Experimental validation showed that B. pertussis secretes a significant proportion of nitrogen as arginine and purine nucleosides, which may contribute to modulation of the host response. We also found that B. pertussis can be unexpectedly versatile, being able to metabolize many compounds while displaying minimal nutrient requirements. It can grow without cysteine - using inorganic sulfur sources such as thiosulfate - and it can grow on organic acids such as citrate or lactate as sole carbon sources, providing in vivo demonstration that its TCA cycle is functional. Although the metabolic reconstruction of eight additional strains indicates that the structural genes underlying this metabolic flexibility are widespread, experimental validation suggests a role of strain-specific regulatory mechanisms in shaping metabolic capabilities. Among five alternative strains tested, three were shown to grow on substrate combinations requiring a functional TCA cycle, but only one could use thiosulfate. Finally, the metabolic model was used to rationally design growth media with over two-fold improvements in pertussis toxin production. This study thus provides novel insights into B. pertussis physiology, and highlights the potential, but also limitations of models solely based on metabolic gene content. IMPORTANCE The metabolic capabilities of Bordetella pertussis - the causative agent of whooping cough - were investigated from a systems-level perspective. We constructed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model for B. pertussis , and challenged its predictions

  5. Etiology of Infectious Complications and Antibiotic-Resistance of Major Causative Agents in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vasina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the spectrum of major pathogens of infectious complications in patients with concomitant injury.Materials and methods. 560 biological samples taken from 331 patients were bacteriologically studied. A significant reduction in the isolation frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an increase in etiological role of Staphylococcus aureus were ascertained in victims with severe injury and concomitant infectious complications during long-term 1982—1984 and 2002—2004 follow-ups.Results. The significant pathogens of infectious complications in concomitant injuries are Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. Vancomycin, imipenem/cilastatin, and amikacin are shown to be the most effective drugs for early antibiotic therapy. Thus, the findings reflect structural changes in the leading causative agents of infectious complications in victims with severe injury. If their principal pathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the 1990s, Staphylococcus aureus and representatives in the colibacillus group prevail today. This supports and generates a need for continuous microbiological monitoring of the causative agents of pyoin-flammatory complications in intensive care units wherein patients with immunosuppression are also present. Pathogen monitoring makes it possible to apply of a well-grounded and rational package of preventive and therapeutic measures and to perform early target antibiotic therapy. 

  6. Syphilis may be a confounding factor, not a causative agent, in syphilitic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuk, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Based upon a review of published clinical observations regarding syphilitic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), I hypothesize that syphilis is actually a confounding factor, not a causative factor, in syphilitic ALS. Moreover, I propose that the successful treatment of ALS symptoms in patients with syphilitic ALS using penicillin G and hydrocortisone is an indirect consequence of the treatment regimen and is not due to the treatment of syphilis. Specifically, I propose that the observed effect is due to the various pharmacological activities of penicillin G ( e.g ., a GABA receptor antagonist) and/or the multifaceted pharmacological activity of hydrocortisone. The notion that syphilis may be a confounding factor in syphilitic ALS is highly relevant, as it suggests that treating ALS patients with penicillin G and hydrocortisone-regardless of whether they present with syphilitic ALS or non-syphilitic ALS-may be effective at treating this rapidly progressive, highly devastating disease.

  7. Is Ureaplasma spp. the leading causative agent of acute chorioamnionitis in women with preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhney, J; von Schöning, D; Steding, I; Schulze, J; Petrich, A; Hiergeist, A; Reischl, U; Moter, A; Thomas, A

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to detect microorganisms in fetal membranes and placental tissue in preterm chorioamnionitis by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with broad range PCR. The combination of the two molecular techniques enables identification and localization of the microorganisms within the tissue, confirming their clinical relevance. In a prospective cohort study, we compared 31 women with preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour and preterm delivery by caesarean section with a control group of 26 women undergoing elective caesarean section at term. Fetal membranes and placental tissue were analysed by FISH and broad range 16S rRNA-gene PCR and sequencing. For 20 women in the preterm group, caesarean section was performed because of a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Microorganisms were detected in the tissues by both molecular techniques in 11 out of 20 women. Among those, Ureaplasma spp. was most abundant, with five cases that remained culture-negative and would have been missed by routine diagnostic procedures. Other infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis or Escherichia coli. FISH and PCR were negative for all women without suspected chorioamnionitis and for the control group. Combination of FISH with broad-range PCR and sequencing permitted unambiguous identification of the causative microorganisms in chorioamnionitis. The high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. should lead to a re-evaluation of its clinical significance and possible therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diversity of the causative agent of ice-ice disease of the seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafitri, E.; Prayitno, S. B.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Radjasa, O. K.

    2017-02-01

    An essential step in investigating the bacterial role in the occurrence of diseases in Kappaphycus alvarezii is the characterization of bacteria associated with this seaweed. A molecular characterization was conducted on the genetic diversity of the causative agents of ice-ice disease associated with K. alvarezii widely known as the main source of kappa carrageenan. K. alvrezii infected with ice-ice were collected from the Karimunjawa island, North Java Sea, Indonesia. Using Zobell 2216E marine agar medium, nine bacterial species were isolated from the infected seaweed. The molecular characterizations revealed that the isolated bacteria causing ice-ice disease were closely related to the genera of Alteromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Glaciecola, Aurantimonas, and Rhodococcus. In order to identify the symptoms causative organisms, the isolated bacterial species were cultured and were evaluated for their pathogenity. Out of 9 species, only 3 isolates were able to cause the ice-ice symptoms and consisted of Alteromonas macleodii, Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii and Aurantimonas coralicida. A. macleodii showed the highest pathogenity.

  9. Infection of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was conducted to obtain the prevalence of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 reactor as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats in abatoir at Jakarta and some small holder farms in Indonesia. Serological test using serum neutralization from 724 goat sera and 109 sheep sera indicated that only 1% of goats were serologically reactors and none of sheep sera had antibodies against PI-3 virus. Isolation of the virus from 56 bronchus and trachea swab and 345 lungs indicated that only one sampel from lung showed cythopathic effect (CPE in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell lines identification of the virus using serum neutralization test indicated that the virus neutralized reference PI-3 antisera. The isolate came from one lung (7% of 24 that showed histopathologically pneumonia intertitialis that usually caused by viral infection.

  10. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  11. In vitro evaluation of the effects of some plant essential oils on Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease

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    Mohammad Javed Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is one of the major fungal pathogens of honey bee broods and the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease. The factors responsible for the pathogenesis of Chalkbrood disease are still not fully understood, and the increasing resistance of A. apis to commonly used antifungal agents necessitates a search for new agents to control this disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of 27 plant essential oils against two isolates of A. apis (Aksu-4 and Aksu-9 were evaluated. Out of the 27 plant essential oils tested, 21 were found to be effective in killing both isolates of A. apis. Based on their minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values, the effective oils were grouped into three categories: highly effective, moderately effective and minimally effective. Mountain pepper oil, Kala Bhangra oil, spearmint oil, babuna oil, betel leaf oil, carrot seed oil, cumin seed oil and clove bud oil were highly effective, with MBC values between 50.0 μg/mL and 600.0 μg/mL. Mountain pepper was the most effective essential oil, with an MBC value of 50.0 μg/mL. Citral and caryophyllene containing oils were the most effective with MIC 50 ppm. The essential oils tested exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against both strains of A. apis, and they may contain compounds that could play an important role in the treatment or prevention of Chalkbrood disease of honeybee.

  12. Inhibition of Xanthomonas fragariae, Causative Agent of Angular Leaf Spot of Strawberry, through Iron Deprivation

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    Peter Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial production settings, few options exist to prevent or treat angular leaf spot of strawberry, a disease of economic importance and caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae (Xfr. In the process of isolating and identifying Xfr bacteria from symptomatic plants, we observed growth inhibition of Xfr by bacterial isolates from the same leaf macerates. Identified as species of Pseudomonas and Rhizobium, these isolates were confirmed to suppress growth of Xfr in agar overlay plates and in microtiter plate cultures, as did our reference strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Screening of a transposon mutant library of KT2440 revealed that disruption of the biosynthetic pathway for the siderophore pyoverdine resulted in complete loss of Xfr antagonism, suggesting iron competition as a mode of action. Antagonism could be replicated on plate and in culture by addition of purified pyoverdine or by addition of the chelating agents tannic acid and dipyridyl, while supplementing the medium with iron negated the inhibitory effects of pyoverdine, tannic acid and dipyridyl. When co-inoculated with tannic acid onto strawberry plants, Xfr’s ability to cause foliar symptoms was greatly reduced, suggesting a possible opportunity for iron-based management of angular leaf spot. We discuss our findings in the context of ‘nutritional immunity’, the idea that plant hosts restrict pathogens access to iron, either directly, or indirectly through their associated microbiota.

  13. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profiles in causative agents of sporotrichosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals, which is typically acquired by traumatic inoculation of plant material contaminated with Sporothrix propagules, or via animals, mainly felines. Sporothrix infections notably occur in outbreaks, with large epidemics currently taking place in southeastern Brazil and northeastern China. Pathogenic species include Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii s. str., Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei, which exhibit differing geographical distribution, virulence, and resistance to antifungals. The phylogenetically remote species Sporothrix mexicana also shows a mild pathogenic potential. Methods We assessed a genetically diverse panel of 68 strains. Susceptibility profiles of medically important Sporothrix species were evaluated by measuring the MICs and MFCs for amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PCZ), flucytosine (5FC), and caspofungin (CAS). Haplotype networks were constructed to reveal interspecific divergences within clinical Sporothrix species to evaluate genetically deviant isolates. Results ITC and PCZ were moderately effective against S. brasiliensis (MIC90 = 2 and 2 μg/mL, respectively) and S. schenckii (MIC90 = 4 and 2 μg/mL, respectively). PCZ also showed low MICs against the rare species S. mexicana. 5FC, CAS, and FLC showed no antifungal activity against any Sporothrix species. The minimum fungicidal concentration ranged from 2 to >16 μg/mL for AMB against S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii, while the MFC90 was >16 μg/mL for ITC, VRC, and PCZ. Conclusion Sporothrix species in general showed high degrees of resistance against antifungals. Evaluating a genetically diverse panel of strains revealed evidence of multidrug resistant phenotypes, underlining the need for molecular identification of etiologic agents to predict therapeutic outcome. PMID:24755107

  14. Vibrio harveyi as a causative agent of the White Syndrome in tropical stony corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gian Marco; Bongiorni, Lucia; Gili, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca; Danovaro, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    We investigated bacterial assemblages associated with corals displaying symptoms of the 'White Syndrome' (WS), a general term used for indicating the appearance of bands, spots or patches of tissue loss, which is devastating wide areas of tropical ecosystems worldwide. We collected WS-diseased (n = 15) and healthy (n = 15) corals from the natural reef (Indonesia, Indian Ocean) and from four large public aquaria. By using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we found that a large fraction (73%) of the investigated WS events was associated with the presence of a high bacterial abundance and, specifically, of Vibrio spp. Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of many marine organisms and recently involved in coral Yellow Band disease, was the most represented species, being recovered from five out of 15 diseased corals. In experimental infection assays, two V. harveyi strains, isolated from diseased corals, were inoculated on a total of 62 healthy colonies of Pocillopora damicornis. WS signs appeared in 57 corals, confirming the ability of V. harveyi strains to induce the disease. We conclude that V. harveyi is one of the coral pathogens involved in the appearance of WS. However, not all of the investigated WSs were associated to V. harveyi detection, nor to other Vibrio species (such as V. coralliilyticus), which supports the hypothesis that WS is not caused exclusively by Vibrio spp., but rather can have a multifactorial aetiology, or can represent a group of diseases caused by a variety of agents. Further investigations to identify specific virulence traits will contribute to the understanding of the role of V. harveyi in WS pathogenesis. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A comparison of DNA extraction procedures for the detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, in clinical and environmental specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Stragier, Pieter; Roebben, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. Although the disease is associated with aquatic ecosystems, cultivation of the bacillus from the environment is difficult to achieve. Therefore...

  16. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: A possible causative agent in human morbidity and risk to public health safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn’s disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised. Following colonisation of the host, the parasitic organism evades the host immune system by use of molecular mimicry, displaying peptide sequences similar to that of the host cells causing a disruption of self-verses non self-recognition. Theoretically, this failure to recognise the invading organism as distinct from host cells may result in numerous autoimmune conditions. Here, the author presents current information assessing the link between numerous diseases states in humans such inflammatory bowel disease, Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto\\'s thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis and autism following infection with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of the organism and its significant risk to public health safety as a consequence is also discussed.

  17. [Epidemiologic diagnostic of nosocomial suppurative-septic infections of Pseudomonas etiology based on intraspecies typing of causative agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fel'dblium, I V; Zakharova, Iu A; Nikolaeva, A M; Fedotova, O S

    2013-01-01

    Scientific justification of optimization of epidemiologic diagnostic of suppurative-septic infection (SSI) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on comparability of antibiotic sensitivity and beta-lactamase production. Intraspecies typing of 37 P. aeruginosa strains isolated during microbiological monitoring of 106 patients and 131 objects of clinical environment of surgical and obstetrician hospitals by using a complex ofphenotypic and molecular-biological methods including determination of sensitivity to antibiotics by serial dilutions method and PCR-diagnostics with determination of TEM, SHV, CTX, OXA, MBL, VIM genes was performed. P. aeruginosa strains combined into groups by isolation location during studies turned out to be heterogeneous by sensitivity to antibiotics and beta-lactamase production that allowed to form subgroups of strains by focality attribute. Isolates recovered from different SSI foci had significant differences in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) reaching 1024 times. MIC parameter within subgroups did not exceed 8 - 16 consequent dilutions. Use of a complex of phenotypic and molecular-biologic methods of causative agent typing including determination of sensitivity to antibiotics by serial dilutions method and evaluation of beta-lactamase production allowed to establish a mechanism of development of SSI epidemic process caused by P. aeruginosa, detect origins and reservoirs of infection in hospital, modes and factors of transmission and reach maximum justification of epidemiologic control and prophylaxis measures of localization of foci of nosocomial infections of pseudomonas etiology.

  18. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  19. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey and molecular detection of Melissococcus plutonius, the causative agent of European Foulbrood in honeybees in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javed Ansari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale field survey was conducted to screen major Saudi Arabian beekeeping locations for infection by Melissococcus plutonius. M. plutonius is one of the major bacterial pathogens of honeybee broods and is the causative agent of European Foulbrood disease (EFB. Larvae from samples suspected of infection were collected from different apiaries and homogenized in phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Bacteria were isolated on MYPGP agar medium. Two bacterial isolates, ksuMP7 and ksuMP9 (16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, KX417565 and KX417566, respectively, were subjected to molecular identification using M. plutonius -specific primers, a BLAST sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates were M. plutonius with more than 98% sequence identity. The molecular detection of M. plutonius from honeybee is the first recorded incidence of this pathogen in Saudi Arabia. This study emphasizes the need for official authorities to take immediate steps toward treating and limiting the spread of this disease throughout the country.

  1. Historical distribution and host-vector diversity of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jake; Kracalik, Ian T; Vydayko, Nataliya; Goodin, Douglas; Glass, Gregory; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-10-16

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a zoonotic agent that remains across much of the northern hemisphere, where it exists in enzootic cycles. In Ukraine, tularemia has a long history that suggests a need for sustained surveillance in natural foci. To better characterize the host-vector diversity and spatial distribution of tularemia, we analyzed historical data from field collections carried out from 1941 to 2008. We analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution of bacterial isolates collected from field samples. Isolates were characterized by source and dominant land cover type. To identify environmental persistence and spatial variation in the source of isolation, we used the space-time permutation and multinomial models in SaTScan. A total of 3,086 positive isolates were taken from 1,084 geographic locations. Isolation of F. tularensis was more frequent among arthropods [n = 2,045 (66.3%)] followed by mammals [n = 619 (20.1%)], water [n = 393 (12.7%)], and farm produce [n = 29 (0.94%)], respectively. Four areas of persistent bacterial isolation were identified. Water and farm produce as sources of bacterial isolation were clustered. Our findings confirm the presence of long-standing natural foci of F. tularensis in Ukraine. Given the history of tularemia as well as its environmental persistence there exists a possibility of (re)emergence in human populations. Heterogeneity in the distribution of tularemia isolate recovery related to land cover type supports the theory of natural nidality and clusters identify areas to target potential sources of the pathogen and improve surveillance.

  2. Neonatal nosocomial sepsis in a level-III NICU: evaluation of the causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaz, Mehmet; Cetin, Hasan; Akisu, Mete; Aydemir, Söhret; Tunger, Alper; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in supportive care and use of antibiotics, sepsis preserves its importance due to its high mortality and morbidity for neonates. Identifying the causative agents and antibiotic resistance yearly in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) helps the physician to choose the most appropriate empirical therapy. In this study we aimed to evaluate positive blood cultures and antibiotic susceptibilities of newborns with proven sepsis during the years 2000-2002 in our NICU. The charts of babies with sepsis were evaluated for clinical characteristics, positive cultures and antimicrobial susceptibilities, retrospectively. Although most of the admitted patients were premature (76.5%), the frequency of proven sepsis was quite low, at 9.1% among 909 newborns. Mortality rate in sepsis was 16%. The most commonly isolated micro-organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (31.3%), fungi (19.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%). Methicillin resistance for CoNS was 92.3% and for S. aureus was 72.7%. In the last year, a significant increase in the frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3 vs 14.2%), CoNS (27.1 vs 37.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.1 vs 8.6%) and fungal infections (18.8 vs 20%) was observed compared to the previous years. An initial empirical antibiotic therapy for late-onset sepsis was designed with teicoplanin + piperacillin-tazobactam/meropenem + antifungal (fluconazole or amphotericin B) as the best combination to cover this spectrum until the culture results arrive. However, this combination is only compatible with our results and may not be applied in all units. Every unit must follow the bacterial spectrum and antibacterial resistance patterns to choose their specific empirical treatment strategy for nosocomial infections.

  3. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  4. The complete genome sequence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758, the causative agent of Far East scarlet-like fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eppinger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The first reported Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF epidemic swept the Pacific coastal region of Russia in the late 1950s. Symptoms of the severe infection included erythematous skin rash and desquamation, exanthema, hyperhemic tongue, and a toxic shock syndrome. The term FESLF was coined for the infection because it shares clinical presentations with scarlet fever caused by group A streptococci. The causative agent was later identified as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, although the range of morbidities was vastly different from classical pseudotuberculosis symptoms. To understand the origin and emergence of the peculiar clinical features of FESLF, we have sequenced the genome of the FESLF-causing strain Y. pseudotuberculosis IP31758 and compared it with that of another Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, IP32953, which causes classical gastrointestinal symptoms. The unique gene pool of Y pseudotuberculosis IP31758 accounts for more than 260 strain-specific genes and introduces individual physiological capabilities and virulence determinants, with a significant proportion horizontally acquired that likely originated from Enterobacteriaceae and other soil-dwelling bacteria that persist in the same ecological niche. The mobile genome pool includes two novel plasmids phylogenetically unrelated to all currently reported Yersinia plasmids. An icm/dot type IVB secretion system, shared only with the intracellular persisting pathogens of the order Legionellales, was found on the larger plasmid and could contribute to scarlatinoid fever symptoms in patients due to the introduction of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive capabilities. We determined the common and unique traits resulting from genome evolution and speciation within the genus Yersinia and drew a more accurate species border between Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. In contrast to the lack of genetic diversity observed in the evolutionary young descending Y. pestis lineage, the population

  5. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Elfadil (Hassabelrasoul); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); W. Kloezen (Wendy); E.M. Ahmed (Elhadi M.); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by

  6. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as an emerging technology for detection of Yersinia ruckeri the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Hatem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric Redmouth (ERM disease also known as Yersiniosis is a contagious disease affecting salmonids, mainly rainbow trout. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the causative agent, or detection of the Pathogen using fluorescent antibody tests, ELISA and PCR assays. These diagnostic methods are laborious, time consuming and need well trained personnel. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed and evaluated for detection of Y. ruckeri the etiological agent of enteric red mouth (ERM disease in salmonids. The assay was optimised to amplify the yruI/yruR gene, which encodes Y. ruckeri quorum sensing system, in the presence of a specific primer set and Bst DNA polymerase at an isothermal temperature of 63°C for one hour. Amplification products were detected by visual inspection, agarose gel electrophoresis and by real-time monitoring of turbidity resulted by formation of LAMP amplicons. Digestion with HphI restriction enzyme demonstrated that the amplified product was unique. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplification products when tested against related bacteria. The assay had 10-fold higher sensitivity compared with conventional PCR and successfully detected Y. ruckeri not only in pure bacterial culture but also in tissue homogenates of infected fish. Conclusion The ERM-LAMP assay represents a practical alternative to the microbiological approach for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Y. ruckeri in fish farms. The assay is carried out in one hour and needs only a heating block or water bath as laboratory furniture. The advantages of the ERM-LAMP assay make it a promising tool for molecular detection of enteric red mouth disease in fish farms.

  7. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  8. [Public health pests. Arthropods and rodents as causative disease agents as well as reservoirs and vectors of pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, M; Freise, J

    2014-05-01

    Globally, infectious diseases pose the most important cause of death. Among known human pathogenic diseases, approximately 50 % are zoonoses. When considering emerging infectious diseases separately 73 % currently belong to the group of zoonoses. In Central Europe, hard ticks show by far the biggest potential as vectors of agents of human disease. Lyme borreliosis, showing an estimated annual incidence between 60,000 and 214,000 cases is by far the most frequent tick-borne disease in Germany. Continually, formerly unknown disease agents could be discovered in endemic vector species. Additionally, introduction of new arthropod vectors and/or agents of disease occur constantly. Recently, five mosquito species of the genus Aedes have been newly introduced to Europe where they are currently spreading in different regions. Uncommon autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya fever viruses in Southern Europe could be directly linked to these vector species and of these Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are currently reported to occur in Germany. The German Protection against Infection Act only covers the control of public health pests which are either active hematophagous vectors or mechanical transmitters of agents of diseases. Use of officially recommended biocidal products aiming to interrupt transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases, is confined to infested buildings only, including sewage systems in the case of Norway rat control. Outdoor vectors, such as hard ticks and mosquitoes, are currently not taken into consideration. Additionally, adjustments of national public health regulations, detailed arthropod vector and rodent reservoir mapping, including surveillance of vector-borne disease agents, are necessary in order to mitigate future disease risks.

  9. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  10. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassabelrasoul Elfadil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  11. Assays for Detection and Identification of the Causative Agent of Mange in Free-Ranging Black Bears ( Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Sarah K; Brown, Justin D; Ternent, Mark A; Fenton, Heather; Niedringhaus, Kevin D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2018-03-02

    Three mite species ( Demodex ursi, Ursicoptes americanus, and Sarcoptes scabiei) have been associated with mange in black bears ( Ursus americanus). Since the early 1990s, the number and geographic distribution of mange cases in black bears in Pennsylvania has increased; however, the causative mites have yet to be completely defined. We evaluated several diagnostic approaches for detection and identification of mites in 72 black bears with severe lesions consistent with mange. Sarcoptes scabiei was morphologically identified in skin scrapes from 66 of the bears; no mites were identified in the remaining six. Histopathologic lesions consistent with sarcoptic mange were observed in 39 of 40 bear skin samples examined, and intralesional mites were observed in samples from 38 of these bears. Samples were collected from a subset of the 72 bears for PCR testing targeting both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 region and cytochrome c oxidase I ( cox1) gene including 69 skin scrapes ( ITS-2 only), 56 skin biopsies ( ITS-2 and cox1), and 36 fecal samples ( ITS-2 and cox1). Skin scrapes were a more sensitive sample for PCR detection than either skin biopsies or fecal samples, and the ITS-2 primers proved more sensitive than cox1. Using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to S. scabiei were detected in 45/49 (92%) black bears with confirmed mange and 0/62 (0%) cubs with no gross lesions suggestive of mange and which were born to seronegative sows. Sarcoptes scabiei was the predominant mite associated with mange in black bears in Pennsylvania. Diagnostically, cytologic examination of skin scrapes was the most effective approach for diagnosing active mite infestations in black bears. The evaluated serologic assay accurately detected antibodies to S. scabiei in most bears with confirmed S. scabiei infestations. Additional research is needed to determine the usefulness of this approach for larger scale surveys and for asymptomatic bears.

  12. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (Causative Agent of Glanders) Determined by Broth Microdilution and E-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Henry S.; England, Marilyn J.; Waag, David M.; Byrne, W. Russell

    2001-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 28 antibiotics were determined for 11 strains of Burkholderia mallei by the broth microdilution method. The B. mallei strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, doxycycline, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and imipenem. For comparison and evaluation, 17 antibiotic susceptibilities were also determined by the E-test. E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents. PMID:11408233

  13. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibonne Aydee García-Romero

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  14. The life cycle of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae), a causative agent of fish-borne trematodosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Susana Balmant Emerique; Barbosa, Helene Santos; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2010-03-01

    The complete life cycle of the trematode Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is elucidated by natural observation validated by experimental infections. The natural first intermediate host of A. (P.) longa, an agent of human heterophyiasis in Brazil, is the cochliopid snail Heleobia australis (new first intermediate host). Metacercariae were found encysted in the body musculature, heart, stomach, liver, kidney, spleen, gonads and mesentery of mullets Mugil liza. Hamsters Mesocricetus auratus were experimentally infected with metacercariae of A. (P.) longa obtained from the mullets, and the adults recovered were used to infect the snails H. australis. Rediae and cercariae of A. (P.) longa are described for the first time. The ultrastructure of the tegument of A. (P.) longa shows a change in spination pattern from the cercaria with single-pointed spines to the metacercaria and adult with multipointed, brush-shaped spines. The life cycle of A. (P.) longa is related to estuaries and coastal lagoons where the recruitment of mugilid juveniles occurs. The high prevalence (100%) of A. (P.) longa encysted in the mullets examined within the urban area of Rio de Janeiro indicates the potentially great public health impact of the consumption of raw mullets. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At submerged cultivation of A. terreus 4 and A. terreus 20 on five different glucose and lactose based media the highest titer of lovastatin has been obtained on lactose based media, namely 276 mg/l and 236 mg/l, respectively. Five various types of bran have been tested as solid substrates for production of lovastatin in SSF ...

  16. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Stentorin, the Probable Causative Agent for Discolored ("Purple") Eggs and Ovaries in Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W; Papoulias, Diana M; Schmitt, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    Observations of reddish to "purple" discolored eggs in the ovaries of adult female blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from the northern arm of Eufaula Lake, a eutrophic multiuse impoundment in east-central Oklahoma, were first reported in 2006. Blue catfish eggs are normally cream to light yellow. Reports peaked in 2007-2008 and declined through 2009-2010; purple eggs have not been reported between 2010 and 2014. In the laboratory, all tissues and fluids of affected fish were strongly orange-red fluorescent under UV illumination, with the fluorescence most apparent in the lipid-rich ovaries and eggs. The causative agent was isolated chromatographically and confirmed by mass spectrometry as stentorin (1,3,4,6,8,10,11,13-octahydroxy-2,5-diisopropyl-phenanthro[1,10,9,8,o,p,q,r,a]perylene-7,14-dione), the fluorescent, lipophilic pigment associated with the photoreceptor protein of the ciliated protozoan Stentor coeruleus (Heterotrichea; Stentoridae). Larval medaka (Orizias latipes) readily consumed S. coeruleus in the laboratory and were observed to fluoresce in the same manner as the affected blue catfish. Potential deleterious effects of stentorin bioaccumulation remain to be determined, as do the geographic extent and the identities of other fluorescent compounds isolated from catfish eggs and ovaries.

  18. Bioaccumulation of stentorin, the probable causative agent for discolored (“purple”) eggs and ovaries in blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of reddish to “purple” discolored eggs in the ovaries of adult female blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from the northern arm of Eufaula Lake, a eutrophic multiuse impoundment in east-central Oklahoma, were first reported in 2006. Blue catfish eggs are normally cream to light yellow. Reports peaked in 2007–2008 and declined through 2009–2010; purple eggs have not been reported between 2010 and 2014. In the laboratory, all tissues and fluids of affected fish were strongly orange-red fluorescent under UV illumination, with the fluorescence most apparent in the lipid-rich ovaries and eggs. The causative agent was isolated chromatographically and confirmed by mass spectrometry as stentorin (1,3,4,6,8,10,11,13-octahydroxy-2,5-diisopropyl-phenanthro[1,10,9,8,o,p,q,r,a]perylene-7,14-dione), the fluorescent, lipophilic pigment associated with the photoreceptor protein of the ciliated protozoan Stentor coeruleus (Heterotrichea; Stentoridae). Larval medaka (Orizias latipes) readily consumed S. coeruleus in the laboratory and were observed to fluoresce in the same manner as the affected blue catfish. Potential deleterious effects of stentorin bioaccumulation remain to be determined, as do the geographic extent and the identities of other fluorescent compounds isolated from catfish eggs and ovaries.

  19. Revisiting Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Causative Agent of Tularemia in Germany With Bioinformatics: New Insights in Genome Structure, DNA Methylation and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Busch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella (F. tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008–2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Pinchbeck, G L; Loughnane, P; Aklilu, N; Ashine, T; Stringer, A P; Gordon, L; Marshall, M; Christley, R M; McCarthy, A J

    2016-12-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL. Copyright © 2016 Scantlebury et al.

  1. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s).

  2. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Boire

    Full Text Available The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C. Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%, had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Adults in the Early Post-Liver Transplant Period: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causative Agents, and Microbial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rasekh, Razieh; Khosravifard, Leila; Janghorban, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections after liver transplant, especially soon after surgery. This study analyzed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria, their causative agents, and related risk factors in the early period after liver transplant in hospitalized adult transplant recipients in the main liver transplant referral center in Iran. In this prospective study, 389 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplant at the Nemazee Teaching Hospital were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2015. Risk factors were compared for patients who developed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria ("infection group "; n = 63 [16.2% ]) and patients without evidence of infection ("control group "; n = 211 [54.2% ]). Patients with sites of infection other than the urinary tract were excluded. Antimicrobial sus ceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared variables between the 2 groups. Seventy-nine episodes of urinary tract infections or bacteriuria occurred in the infection group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, hospitalization 2 to 7 days before transplant, and frequency of abdominal exploration were 11.0, 5.9, and 3.0 times more common in the infection group than in the control group. The chance of infection rises 1.1 times with each one unit increase of body mass index. The most common infection causes were gram-negative bacteria (n = 50; 63.3%), predominantly Escherichia coli (n = 24; 30.4%); followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 20; 25.3%), predominantly Enterococcus species (n = 14; 17.8%) that had a high incidence of vancomycin resistance (n = 10; 71.4%); and non-Candida albicans species isolates (n = 9; 11.4%). Urinary tract infections are a common infection in hospitalized adult patients soon after liver transplant. Female sex, hospitalization shortly before transplant, more frequent abdominal exploration, and higher

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchbeck, G. L.; Loughnane, P.; Aklilu, N.; Ashine, T.; Stringer, A. P.; Gordon, L.; Marshall, M.; Christley, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum. This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL. PMID:27707938

  5. Essential Oils of Myrtaceae Species Growing Wild in Tunisia: Chemical Variability and Antifungal Activity Against Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the Causative Agent of Charcoal Canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangui, Islem; Zouaoui Boutiti, Meriem; Boussaid, Mohamed; Messaoud, Chokri

    2017-07-01

    The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC/MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56 - 96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene, and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13 - 98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-Pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations. Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC 50  = 3.83 mg/ml) and M. communis oil from Zaghouan (IC 50  = 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde, and linalool. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Field and laboratory evidence that Bungowannah virus, a recently recognised pestivirus, is the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlaison, Deborah S; King, Katherine R; Frost, Melinda J; Kirkland, Peter D

    2009-05-12

    In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 2-3-week-old piglets on a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn piglets and preweaning losses associated with a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis with myonecrosis. The aim of this study was to review existing data and to undertake further investigations of specimens from naturally infected pigs to provide evidence to support the hypothesis that Bungowannah virus, a recently recognised pestivirus, causes the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC). Sera collected from gilts and sows from affected and unaffected units were tested for Bungowannah virus antibody by a peroxidase-linked assay and Bungowannah virus RNA by qRT-PCR in selected cases. Stillborn piglets from affected and an unaffected unit were also tested for Bungowannah virus antibody and RNA. Body fluid IgG levels and the incidence of myocardial lesions in these stillborn piglets are summarised. Tissue sections from stillborn piglets with myocarditis/myonecrosis were examined for Bungowannah virus RNA by in situ hybridisation. A clear temporal association between the occurrence of PMC on a unit or module and exposure to Bungowannah virus was identified by serological tests in both breeding aged animals and stillborn pigs. In addition, at the individual animal level on affected units, Bungowannah virus RNA was detected in stillborn piglets in large amounts by qRT-PCR and in association with myocardial lesions by in situ hybridisation. The examination of field material from cases of PMC by serology, qRT-PCR and in situ hybridisation provides strong indirect evidence that Bungowannah virus is the causative agent for PMC.

  7. Study of the Prevalence of Causative Bacterial&Protozoal Agents of in Stool Samples of 470 Gastroenteritis Patients Referring to the Nikoopour Clinic in Yazd,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sharifi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Interoduction: Gasteroenteritis is one of the problems worth consideration all over the world. It is one of the important causes of mortality, especially in children < 5 years of age, in developing countries including Iran. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the demographic conditions influencing the presence of causative bacteria and protozoa, followed by antibiograms of isolated bacteria from stool samples of patients with gasteroenteritis referring to Nikoopour Clinic in the city of Yazd, Iran from 1998 – 2001. Materials and method: A total of 470 samples were microbiologically examined by direct method, culture and then antibiogramed. In order to isolate the possible bacteria, differential and selected media were used. Also, wet – mount technique was applied for detection of protozoa. Results: Results revealed that 272 samples (57.9% were infected by pathogenic bacteria or protozoa. 138 (50.8% pathogenic specimens were from male patients and the remaining 134(49.3% were from female patients. Isolated species were: Enteropathogenic E.coli 117(43%, Shigella 51(18.8%, Salmonella.interetidis 25(9.2%, C.jejuni 16(5.9%, Giardia lambdia 51(18.8% and Amoebae spp 12(4.4%. The most commonly detected shigella species was dysenteriae, (74.5% while boydii with 2% was the least common type observed in the specimens. Except shigella, all the other bacteria were more common in males than female, but insignificant statistically. In order to determine the sensitivity and/or resistance of pathogenic bacteria, antibiogram test was performed using selected antibiotic disks such as Ampicillin, Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Sulfamethaxazole. Conclusion: Results revealed that some patients were probably infected by pathogenic factors other than bacteria or protozoa. Since all viruses and parasites are almost resistant to antibiotics and on the other hand, administration of antibiotics may lead to resistance of bacterial agents

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro

  9. Coxsackievirus B4 as a Causative Agent of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Is There a Role of Inefficiently Treated Drinking Water and Sewage in Virus Spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Senousy, Waled M; Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; El-Hefnawy, Mohamed H; Khalil, Rehab G

    2018-03-01

    for isolation of separate EV isolates from treated and untreated water and sewage samples. Characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing of these isolates revealed high homology (97%) with human coxsackievirus B4 (CV B4) in 60% of the isolates, while the rest of the isolates belonged to poliovirus type 1 and type 2 vaccine strains. On the other hand, characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing for T1D-EV + children specimens indicated that all samples contained CV B4 with the same sequence characterized in the environmental samples. CV B4-contaminated drinking water or treated sewage may play a role as a causative agent of T1D in children.

  10. Exploitation of Aspergillus terreus for the Production of Natural Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Subhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Aspergillus (A. terreus has dominated the biological production of the “blockbuster” drugs known as statins. The statins are a class of drugs that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and lead to lower cholesterol production. The statins were initially discovered in fungi and for many years fungi were the sole source for the statins. At present, novel chemically synthesised statins are produced as inspired by the naturally occurring statin molecules. The isolation of the natural statins, compactin, mevastatin and lovastatin from A. terreus represents one of the great achievements of industrial microbiology. Here we review the discovery of statins, along with strategies that have been applied to scale up their production by A. terreus strains. The strategies encompass many of the techniques available in industrial microbiology and include the optimization of media and fermentation conditions, the improvement of strains through classical mutagenesis, induced genetic manipulation and the use of statistical design.

  11. Fermentatative production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was carried out using jatropha seed cake. Itaconic acid is commercially produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus terreus with molasses. Jatropha seed cake is one of the best carbon sources among various carbohydrates, because it is pure, inexpensive and available ...

  12. Structural Equations and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ned

    2007-01-01

    Structural equations have become increasingly popular in recent years as tools for understanding causation. But standard structural equations approaches to causation face deep problems. The most philosophically interesting of these consists in their failure to incorporate a distinction between default states of an object or system, and deviations therefrom. Exploring this problem, and how to fix it, helps to illuminate the central role this distinction plays in our causal thinking.

  13. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated.

  14. Fixed drug eruption induced by an iodinated non-ionic X-ray contrast medium: a practical approach to identify the causative agent and to prevent its recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Medina, Jesus; Prieto, Pilar [JUSTESA IMAGEN SA, Biological R and D Department, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    We describe the case of a 61-year-old physician who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) after i.v. administration of a non-ionic monomeric iodinated X-ray contrast medium (CM) (iopromide). During CM injection, a sensation of heat occurred, which was most intense in the right inguinal region. Four hours later, the FDE arose with a red macule of approximately 2 cm in diameter covering a dermal infiltration in the right inguinal region, and enlarged up to a final size of 15 x 8 cm, accompanied by a burning sensation. The patient's history revealed a similar reaction in the same localization and of the same clinical appearance after CM injection 1 year before. Patch testing 4 months later revealed positive reactions to iomeprol and iohexol. Iopamidol injection for another CT examination 23 months later was well tolerated. Based on these results, we suggest patch testing after CM-induced FDE, which could help to select a CM for future CT examinations. Late onset of adverse CM reactions may manifest as FDE. Patch testing within the previous skin reaction area is the diagnostic tool that should be used to confirm the suspected agent, possible cross-reacting agents and well-tolerated agents. (orig.)

  15. Fixed drug eruption induced by an iodinated non-ionic X-ray contrast medium: a practical approach to identify the causative agent and to prevent its recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Ingrid; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H.; Medina, Jesus; Prieto, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    We describe the case of a 61-year-old physician who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) after i.v. administration of a non-ionic monomeric iodinated X-ray contrast medium (CM) (iopromide). During CM injection, a sensation of heat occurred, which was most intense in the right inguinal region. Four hours later, the FDE arose with a red macule of approximately 2 cm in diameter covering a dermal infiltration in the right inguinal region, and enlarged up to a final size of 15 x 8 cm, accompanied by a burning sensation. The patient's history revealed a similar reaction in the same localization and of the same clinical appearance after CM injection 1 year before. Patch testing 4 months later revealed positive reactions to iomeprol and iohexol. Iopamidol injection for another CT examination 23 months later was well tolerated. Based on these results, we suggest patch testing after CM-induced FDE, which could help to select a CM for future CT examinations. Late onset of adverse CM reactions may manifest as FDE. Patch testing within the previous skin reaction area is the diagnostic tool that should be used to confirm the suspected agent, possible cross-reacting agents and well-tolerated agents. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of recombinant terrelysin, a hemolysin of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Blachere, Françoise M; Hettick, Justin M; Lukomski, Slawomir; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-01-01

    Fungal hemolysins are potential virulence factors. Some fungal hemolysins belong to the aegerolysin protein family that includes cytolysins capable of lysing erythrocytes and other cells. Here, we describe a hemolysin from Aspergillus terreus called terrelysin. We used the genome sequence database to identify the terrelysin sequence based on homology with other known aegerolysins. Aspergillus terreus mRNA was isolated, transcribed to cDNA and the open reading frame for terrelysin amplified by PCR using specific primers. Using the pASK-IBA6 cloning vector, we produced recombinant terrelysin (rTerrelysin) as a fusion product in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and using MALDI-TOF MS determined to have a mass of 16,428 Da. Circular dichroism analysis suggests the secondary structure of the protein to be predominantly β-sheet. Results from thermal denaturation of rTerrelysin show that the protein maintained the β-sheet confirmation up to 65°C. Polyclonal antibody to rTerrelysin recognized a protein of approximately 16.5 kDa in mycelial extracts from A. terreus.

  17. An Investigation of the Spanish Causatives: "Hacer Ver, Hacer Creer, Hacer Pensar, Hacer Saber."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    Presents study which shows that although these causatives have same surface structure as productive causative constructions they differ in several ways, e.g., unlike other productive causatives their meaning changes when "que" subjunctive is substituted for the infinitive, and they function like lexical causatives which involve agent-patient, not…

  18. Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. and Micrococcus terreus sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yue; Liu, Xing-Yu; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial strains, DNG5T and V3M1T, isolated from forest soil of the Changbai mountains in China, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains DNG5T and V3M1T were phylogenetically related to members of the genus Agrococcus (96.0-98.4% similarity) and Micrococcus (96.7-98.0% similarity), respectively, within the order Actinomycetales. Strains DNG5T and V3M1T were Gram-stain-positive and strictly aerobic and formed yellow colonies on LB agar. Cells of strain DNG5T were short, non-motile rods, 0.4-0.5x0.8-1.0 microm. Strain DNG5T contained MK-10 and MK-11 as the major respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (49.2%) and iso-C16:0 (22.4%) as the major fatty acids. The diamino acid in the peptidoglycan of strain DNG5T was 2,4-diaminobutyric acid and the murein was of the acetyl type. Cells of strain V3M1T were cocci, 0.6-0.7 microm in diameter. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain V3M1T contained the amino acids lysine, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Strain V3M1T contained MK-7, MK-7(H2), MK-8 and MK-8(H2) as respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (78.2%) and iso-C15:0 (13.1%) as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DNG5T and V3M1T were 75.9 and 67.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DNG5T to Agrococcus jejuensis DSM 22002T, A. jenensis JCM 9950T, A. baldri JCM 12132T and A. citreus JCM 12398T was 58.3, 43.9, 36.1 and 54.1%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain V3M1T to Micrococcus luteus CGMCC 1.2299T, M. antarcticus CGMCC 1.2373T and M. lylae CGMCC 1.2300T was 57.5, 45.4 and 39.0%, respectively. Combining phenotypic and genotypic traits, strain DNG5T represents a novel species of the genus Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. is proposed, with DNG5T (=CGMCC 1.6960T =NBRC 104260T) as the type strain. Strain V3M1T represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus terreus sp. nov. is

  19. Periprosthetic hip joint infection with Aspergillus terreus: A clinical case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infections due to Aspergillus species are rare but are associated with significant cost and morbidity. We present a case of Asperigillus terreus prosthetic joint infection of the hip. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of systemic antifungals along with surgical management. Keywords: Fungal prosthetic joint infection, Aspergillus terreus

  20. 'A' by Aspergillus terreus through mutation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest drug yielding isolate FCBP-58 was subjected to both physical and chemical mutation to increase the biosynthetic capabilities of Cyclosporin 'A'. In this study, mutation was carried out by ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) and alkylating agent ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS). UV 5 min time treatment was proved to be ...

  1. Identification and functional analysis of the S-layer protein SplA of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Poppinga

    Full Text Available The gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, a globally occurring, deathly epizootic of honey bee brood. AFB outbreaks are predominantly caused by two genotypes of P. larvae, ERIC I and ERIC II, with P. larvae ERIC II being the more virulent genotype on larval level. Recently, comparative proteome analyses have revealed that P. larvae ERIC II but not ERIC I might harbour a functional S-layer protein, named SplA. We here determine the genomic sequence of splA in both genotypes and demonstrate by in vitro self-assembly studies of recombinant and purified SplA protein in combination with electron-microscopy that SplA is a true S-layer protein self-assembling into a square 2D lattice. The existence of a functional S-layer protein is novel for this bacterial species. For elucidating the biological function of P. larvae SplA, a genetic system for disruption of gene expression in this important honey bee pathogen was developed. Subsequent analyses of in vivo biological functions of SplA were based on comparing a wild-type strain of P. larvae ERIC II with the newly constructed splA-knockout mutant of this strain. Differences in cell and colony morphology suggest that SplA is a shape-determining factor. Marked differences between P. larvae ERIC II wild-type and mutant cells with regard to (i adhesion to primary pupal midgut cells and (ii larval mortality as measured in exposure bioassays corroborate the assumption that the S-layer of P. larvae ERIC II is an important virulence factor. Since SplA is the first functionally proven virulence factor for this species, our data extend the knowledge of the molecular differences between these two genotypes of P. larvae and contribute to explaining the observed differences in virulence. These results present an immense advancement in our understanding of P. larvae pathogenesis.

  2. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Reetika; Kocher, Gurvinder Singh; Bhogal, Ravinder Singh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2014-12-01

    Thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY produced cellulases and xylanases in optimal concentrations at 45 °C in solid state fermentation process, though enzyme production was also observed at 50 and 55 °C. Filter paper cellulase (FP), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase, β-xylosidase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and xylan esterase activities for A. terreus RWY at 45 °C in 72 h were 11.3 ± 0.65, 103 ± 6.4, 122.5 ± 8.7, 10.3 ± 0.66, 872 ± 22.5, 22.1 ± 0.75, 126.4 ± 8.4 and 907 ± 15.5 U (g-ds)(-1) , respectively. Enzyme was optimally active at temperatures and pH ranging between 50-60 °C and 4.0-6.0, respectively. The half life (T1/2 ) of 270 and 240 min at 70 and 75 °C, respectively for the enzyme indicates its stability at higher temperatures. The addition of MnCl2 , CoCl2 , and FeCl3 significantly enhanced cellulase activity. Enzyme demonstrated multiplicity by having seven, one and three isoform(s) for EG, CBH and BGL, respectively. Significant production of functionally active consortium of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from A. terreus RWY makes it a potential candidate in bioprocessing applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  4. Identification and characterization of a phospholipase A1 activity type three secreted protein, PP_ExoU from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NB2011, the causative agent of visceral granulomas disease in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, Y; Guo, H; Mao, Z; Ge, C

    2017-06-01

    Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NB2011, the causative agent of visceral granulomas disease in farmed Larimichthys crocea in China, encodes a predicted type three effector PP_ExoU, a homolog of the cytotoxin ExoU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, secretion of PP_ExoU was tested in various broth, the protein was expressed with the pET30a prokaryotic system, the phospholipase A (PLA) activity of the recombinant protein was determined with fluorogenic phospholipid substrates, fusion expression with green fluorescent protein in transfected HeLa cells was investigated, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was measured. The results showed the protein was type three secreted in several media; the recombinant protein displayed significant PLA1 activity with ubiquitin. Fluorescence was observed on the cell membrane and scattered in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells expressing catalytic wild-type PP_ExoU, blebbing and stretching developed in the cell membranes indicating of membrane damage. Fluorescence scattered in the cytoplasm of cells expressing the catalytic inactive protein. A significant LDH level was detected in HeLa cells expressing wild-type PP_exoU, but not in the Ser/Asp-mutated protein, suggestion mutation of predicted catalytic residues abolished the PLA activity. This is the first report on the function of a secreted type three protein from P. plecoglossicida. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A comparison of disease susceptibility and innate immune response between diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) siblings following experimental infection with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Lynn; Taylor, John F; Roy, William; Preston, Andrew C; Migaud, Herve; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry. The results indicated that ploidy had no significant effect on gross gill score or gill filaments affected, while infection and time had significant effects. Ploidy, infection and time did not affect complement or anti-protease activities. Ploidy had a significant effect on lysozyme activity at 21 days post-infection (while infection and time did not), although activity was within the ranges previously recorded for salmonids. Stock did not significantly affect any of the parameters measured. Based on the study results, it can be suggested that ploidy does not affect the manifestation or severity of AGD pathology or the serum innate immune response. Additionally, the serum immune response of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon may not be significantly affected by amoebic gill disease.

  6. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  7. Probability of causation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Probability of causation (PC) is sometimes viewed as a great improvement by those persons who are not happy with the present rulings of courts in radiation cases. The author does not share that hope and expects that PC will not play a significant role in these issues for at least the next decade. If it is ever adopted in a legislative compensation scheme, it will be used in a way that is unlikely to please most scientists. Consequently, PC is a false hope for radiation scientists, and its best contribution may well lie in some of the spin-off effects, such as an influence on medical practice

  8. HELICOBACTER PYLORI: THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PEPTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Helicobacter pylori by treatment with antibiotics in peptic ulcer patients resulted in the healing of the ulcer. ... and gastric cancers. .... H. pyloris cause chronic active gastritis in humans and ... of the night when the stomach is empty and is.

  9. Optimization of production of anti-tumor l-asparaginase by free and immobilized marine Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available l-asparaginase plays a vital role in medical application, particularly in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as an effective anti-tumor agent. In the present study, twenty-one fungal strains were isolated from marine environment of the Red Sea coasts of Egypt. Screening for fungal l-asparaginase production was done, and only five fungal strains were selected and identified as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most potent fungal isolate was Aspergillus terreus which yielded the highest l-asparaginase specific activity (4.81 U/mg protein. The highest enzyme productivity was observed on the 5th day and the optimized fermentation parameters were pH 6.0, temperature 35 °C. The yield was also high up on using dextrose and asparagine (8.26 U/mg protein as carbon and nitrogen sources. The cultural conditions were studied using the Plackett–Burman experimental design. Immobilization using A. terreus adsorbed on sponge enhanced the enzyme production by 1.33-fold compared to the conventional free-cells. Repeated reuse of the adsorbed cells achieved the maximum enzyme specific activity after three cycles (33.86 U/mg protein.

  10. Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis.

  11. Epidemiological and genetic analysis concerning the non-enterovirus 71 and non-coxsackievirus A16 causative agents related to hand, foot and mouth disease in Anyang city, Henan Province, China, from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bao, Honghong; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhai, Mingqiang; Bao, Xiaobing; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Shuanhu

    2017-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and have been associated with consecutive outbreaks of HFMD in China over the past years. Although several other human enteroviruses (HEVs) have also acted as causative agents of HFMD, published information on their roles in the prevalence of HFMD is limited. This study was conducted to reveal the characteristics of the pathogenic spectrum and molecular epidemiology of the non-EV-71 and -CV-A16 HEVs in Anyang City, which is located in north-central China and has a population of five million. From 2011 to 2015, 2270 samples were collected from HFMD patients (3.89 ± 1.06 years of age), and 1863 HEV-positive samples, including 524 samples with 23 non-EV-71 and non-CV-A16 serotypes, were identified. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the VP1 gene, 6 common non-EV-71 and non-CV-A16 HEVs, including coxsackievirus A2, A6, A10, A14, B2, and B5, were studied to determine their phylogenies and selective pressures. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a high level of genetic divergence and a pattern of lineage replacement over time in Mainland China. Selective pressure analyses showed that purifying selection was predominant in the evolution of the VP1 gene, whereas positive selection acted on individual codons. Overall, non-EV-71 and non-CV-A16 HEVs were important constituents of the pathogenic spectrum of HFMD in Anyang City during 2011-2015. Some of these HEVs with complex and active phylogenies represent a potential threat to public health, suggesting that long-term monitoring of these pathogens should be implemented to prevent HFMD outbreaks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Onicomicosis: epidemiología, agentes causales y evaluación de los métodos diagnósticos de laboratorio Onychomycoses: epidemiology, causative agents and assessment of diagnostic laboratory methods

    OpenAIRE

    Javier R Nazar; Paula E Gerosa; Osvaldo A Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Desde marzo de 2007 hasta marzo de 2011 se estudiaron prospectivamente 414 pacientes con onicodistrofias en un laboratorio privado de Esquel. La prevalencia de onicomicosis de pie fue del 78 %; la de mano, del 58 %. Los principales agentes etiológicos fueron Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. El desarrollo de dermatofitos prevaleció en las onicopatías de pie y el de Candida spp. en las de uñas de mano (ambos, p < 0,05). En las onicomicosis candidiásicas predomina...

  13. Onicomicosis: epidemiología, agentes causales y evaluación de los métodos diagnósticos de laboratorio Onychomycoses: epidemiology, causative agents and assessment of diagnostic laboratory methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Nazar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde marzo de 2007 hasta marzo de 2011 se estudiaron prospectivamente 414 pacientes con onicodistrofias en un laboratorio privado de Esquel. La prevalencia de onicomicosis de pie fue del 78 %; la de mano, del 58 %. Los principales agentes etiológicos fueron Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. El desarrollo de dermatofitos prevaleció en las onicopatías de pie y el de Candida spp. en las de uñas de mano (ambos, p Since March 2007 to March 2011, 414 patients with onychopathies were prospectively analyzed. Prevalence of the toenail and fingernail mycoses was 78 % and 58 %, respectively. The major etiological agents were Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Dermatophytes were more frequently cultured from toenails, whereas Candida spp. from fingernails (both, p < 0.05. In candidal onychomycosis, species different from C. albicans were prevalent. A higher prevalence of toenail and fingernail mycoses, a predominance of T. rubrum in toenails (p < 0.05, and greater positivity in the direct examination (DE and in culture (both, p < 0.05 were more frequently observed in men than in women. The correlation between DE and culture was 68 %. DE and culture yields were associated with a greater size lesion. DE was more effective in onycodystrophies with duration of more than 5 years. Culture positivity was independent of nail affection chronicity.

  14. Calcium-dependent disorder-to-order transitions are central to the secretion and folding of the CyaA toxin of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Darragh P; Perez, Ana Cristina Sotomayor; Karst, Johanna; Cannella, Sara E; Enguéné, Véronique Yvette Ntsogo; Hessel, Audrey; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Voegele, Alexis; Subrini, Orso; Davi, Marilyne; Guijarro, J Inaki; Raynal, Bertrand; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Hernandez, Belen; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Hourdel, Véronique; Malosse, Christian; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Brier, Sébastien; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2018-01-12

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) plays an essential role in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Once secreted, CyaA invades eukaryotic cells, leading to cell death. The cell intoxication process involves a unique mechanism of translocation of the CyaA catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane of the target cell. Herein, we review our recent results describing how calcium is involved in several steps of this intoxication process. In conditions mimicking the low calcium environment of the crowded bacterial cytosol, we show that the C-terminal, calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) domain of CyaA, RD, is an extended, intrinsically disordered polypeptide chain with a significant level of local, secondary structure elements, appropriately sized for transport through the narrow channel of the secretion system. Upon secretion, the high calcium concentration in the extracellular milieu induces the refolding of RD, which likely acts as a scaffold to favor the refolding of the upstream domains of the full-length protein. Due to the presence of hydrophobic regions, CyaA is prone to aggregate into multimeric forms in vitro, in the absence of a chaotropic agent. We have recently defined the experimental conditions required for CyaA folding, comprising both calcium binding and molecular confinement. These parameters are critical for CyaA folding into a stable, monomeric and functional form. The monomeric, calcium-loaded (holo) toxin exhibits efficient liposome permeabilization and hemolytic activities in vitro, even in a fully calcium-free environment. By contrast, the toxin requires sub-millimolar calcium concentrations in solution to translocate its catalytic domain across the plasma membrane, indicating that free calcium in solution is actively involved in the CyaA toxin translocation process. Overall, this data demonstrates the remarkable adaptation of bacterial RTX toxins to the

  15. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight Revisión sobre el hongo Microcyclus ulei, agente causal del mal suramericano de la hoja del caucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancízar Aristizábar Fabio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.El hongo ascomycete Microcyclus ulei es el agente causal del SALB que es una de las enfermedades más importan­tes del árbol de caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis en América Latina y ha sido responsable de numerosas pérdidas económicas. Este hongo ha presentado alta variabilidad fisiológica y se sugiere su alta adaptabilidad, dentro de los mecanismos asociados a su virulencia se ha descrito la tolerancia al HCN. Se han obtenido clones de Hevea resistentes mediante mejoramiento genético, sin embargo, aun no son bien conocidos los mecanismos asociados a ésta. Un mayor conocimiento de este patógeno permitirá el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control así como el mayor entendimiento de los mecanismos asociados a resistencia del hospedero. Palabras clave: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  16. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladashvili, N.V.; Tkeshelashvili, M.Ya.; Berikashvili, V.Sh.; Babayan, T.L.; Latov, V.K.; Belikov, V.M.; Kvesitadze, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  17. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  18. Identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Huang, Xuenian; Zhong, Chengwei; Li, Jianjun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus. Previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in A. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. In this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA), and citramalyl-CoA lyase (CclA), that are involved in the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. In the itaconic acid catabolic pathway in A. terreus, itaconic acid is first converted by IctA into itaconyl-CoA with succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor, and then itaconyl-CoA is hydrated into citramalyl-CoA by IchA. Finally, citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by CclA. Moreover, IctA can also catalyze the reaction between citramalyl-CoA and succinate to generate succinyl-CoA and citramalate. These results, for the first time, identify the three key enzymes, IctA, IchA, and CclA, involved in the itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing A. terreus. The results will facilitate the improvement of itaconic acid production by metabolically engineering the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus.

  19. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mannan, A.; Zubair, H.; Mirza, B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  20. Fungus-Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Aspergillus terreus. The reaction occurred at ambient temperature and in a few hours. The bioreduction of AgNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the AgNPs obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized AgNPs were polydispersed spherical particles ranging in size from 1 to 20 nm and stabilized in the solution. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH was found to be an important reducing agent for the biosynthesis, and the formation of AgNPs might be an enzyme-mediated extracellular reaction process. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs was systematically evaluated. The synthesized AgNPs could efficiently inhibit various pathogenic organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The current research opens a new avenue for the green synthesis of nano-materials.

  1. Factual causation in medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joanna

    2007-12-01

    The conventional approach to causation in negligence is the "but for" test, decided on the balance of probabilities. Even when supplemented by the "material contribution" principle, satisfying the onus of proof of causation can be an insuperable obstacle for plaintiffs, particularly in medical cases. Yet, having found a breach of duty, a court's sympathies may gravitate toward the plaintiff at this point in the case. Accordingly, courts have sometimes accepted a relaxation of strict causation principles. The judicial devices are described: a special principle of causation in particular duties of care; a shifting burden of proof; "bridging the evidentiary gap" by drawing a robust inference of causation; treating a material increase in risk as sufficient proof of causation; and permitting causation to be established on the basis of the loss of a material chance of achieving a better outcome and discounting damages. In Accident Compensation Corp v Ambros [2007] NZCA 304 the New Zealand Court of Appeal recognised the need for a legal device to ameliorate the injustice sometimes caused by the strict rules of causation, and preferred the "inferential reasoning" approach favoured by the Canadian common law for use in the context of the accident compensation scheme. It is hoped that the New Zealand Supreme Court approves Ambros if the opportunity arises.

  2. View of Causation for CSCW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars R.; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we attempt to achieve a better understanding of how cooperative work is partly accomplished by virtue of the actors’ manipulation and control of causal relationships central to their material field of work. Previous CSCW studies have not focused extensively on causation in cooper...... in cooperative work (e.g. see Schmidt and Bannon 2013). Consequently, it is a challenge to find a conception of causation appropriate for the study of cooperative work. This chapter addresses this challenge....

  3. Fluid convection, constraint and causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  4. Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus Using Agro-Biomass as Substrate in Solid State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate. PMID:23118499

  5. In vivo emergence of Aspergillus terreus with reduced azole susceptibility and a Cyp51a M217I alteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken C; Jensen, Rasmus; Grif, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus terreus isolates was explored. Twenty related (MB) and 6 unrelated A. terreus isolates were included. CYP51A sequencing and RAPD genotyping was performed. Five MB isolates were itraconazole susceptible, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 15 MB...

  6. Ninety six well microtiter plate as microbioreactors for production of itaconic acid by six Aspergillus terreus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid (IA) is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. However, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for production of IA. Previously, 100 A. terreus strains we...

  7. The mutagenic action of UV-light irradiation on aspergillus terreus in relation to antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Four strains of cellulolytic fungi (i.e Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and antibiotic action. these fungi were cultured on Czapek Dox's media with different cellulosic substrates. A. terreus. exhibited the highest cellulolytic activity and the highest level of anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. and Escherichia Coli, Ultraviolet light as a mutagenic treatment for A.terreus was investigated. Two treated isolates U.30.12 and U.60.10 were obtained after the treatment at dose 30 and 60 min., respectively with a higher antibiotic activity in comparison with the wild isolate. A compound of fifteen carbon atom of terrecylic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract using spectroscopic analysis

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to hyphal exoantigens derived from the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Janotka, Erika; Hettick, Justin M; Friend, Sherri; Vesper, Steve J; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-09-01

    Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to identify species-specific biomarkers that can be used to detect invasive A. terreus disease. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed to a partially purified preparation of cytolytic hyphal exoantigens (HEA) derived from A. terreus culture supernatant (CSN). Twenty-three IgG1 isotype murine MAbs were developed and tested for cross-reactivity against hyphal extracts of 54 fungal species. Sixteen MAbs were shown to be specific for A. terreus. HEA were detected in conidia, hyphae, and in CSN of A. terreus. HEA were expressed in high levels in the hyphae during early stages of A. terreus growth at 37°C, whereas at room temperature the expression of HEA peaked by days 4 to 5. Expression kinetics of HEA in CSN showed a lag, with peak levels at later time points at room temperature and 37°C than in hyphal extracts. Serum spiking experiments demonstrated that human serum components do not inhibit detection of the HEA epitopes by MAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis demonstrated that MAbs 13E11 and 12C4 immunoprecipitated a putative uncharacterized leucine aminopeptidase (Q0CAZ7), while MAb 19B2 recognized a putative dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DPP5). Studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the uncharacterized leucine aminopeptidase mostly localized to extracellular matrix structures while dipeptidyl-peptidase V was mostly confined to the cytoplasm.

  9. [Studies on metabolites from marine microorganism Aspergillus terreus collected from nature reserve region of mangrove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Dai, Jungui

    2011-09-01

    To search for new antitumor active lead compounds from marine microorganism. A marine strain, Aspergillus terreus, was cultured and up-scaled in artificial seawater media, from which the metabolites were isolated and elucidated by using modern spectroscopy techniques. Twelve compounds were isolated from mycelia and fermentation broth of A. terreus. Compounds 1-4 were steroids, compounds 5-8 were organic acids and esters, compound 9 was an alkaloid, compound 10 was an isocoumarin, compound 11 was ceramide, compound 12 was propenyl cyclic pentanediol.

  10. Azole-Resistance in Aspergillus terreus and Related Species: An Emerging Problem or a Rare Phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zoran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied.Methods: A global set (n = 498 of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin, tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene.Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8%, followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4%, A. hortai (2.6%, A. alabamensis (1.6%, A. neoafricanus (0.2%, and A. floccosus (0.2%. One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4% of all tested isolates, 6.2% of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s. were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0% in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7% in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V.Conclusions:Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4% of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus

  11. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-L-rhamnosides using recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Schlack, B.; Weignerová, Lenka; Pelantová, Helena; Soetaert, W.; Desmet, T.; Křen, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 640-644 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Glycosylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  12. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

  14. Mannose and galactose as substrates for production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. Softwood has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for its production. Effective utilizati...

  15. Social mechanisms and social causation

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider ...

  16. Biodegradación de compuestos fenólicos del alpechín con Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Paeja, María P.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater degradation by Aspergillus terreus and under aerobic conditions at 28°C, was measured by the parameter of phenol content. We have explored the effect of different concentrations of olive mill wastewater upon the activity of Aspergillus terreus. Through HPLC, 10 phenol compounds (90% of the total phenolic content of the olive mill wastewater were identified.Se estudia la degradación de alpechines con Aspergillus terreus en condiciones de aerobiosis y temperatura de 28°C, utilizando como parámetro el contenido fenólico. Se analiza el efecto de la concentración de alpechín con Aspergillus terreus utilizando el mismo parámetro. Se han identificado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (CLAE 10 compuestos fenólicos que suponen el 90% del total del alpechín.

  17. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-17

    Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over

  18. Removal of Lead from Wastewater Contaminated with Chemical Synthetic Dye by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel isolated microorganisms have been demonstrated to efficiently remove lead from wastewater contaminated with chemical synthetic dye. In this study, the physical and chemical parameters of wastewater samples (including Pb concentrations were analyzed before and after treatment with microorganisms. The highest Pb concentration detected in wastewater was 0.788 mg/l. Investigations of the Pb tolerance and removal capacities of microorganism strains isolated from the wastewater sediment resulted in the selection of three fungal isolates (F102, F203 and F302. Interestingly, isolate F203 had a Pb tolerance of up to 100 mg/l. Using DNA barcoding and morphological characteristics, fungal isolate F203 was identified as Aspergillus terreus. Wastewater characteristics before treatment included a grayish black color with pH, TDS, BOD, COD and Pb concentrations higher than the Thailand standard values. Wastewater qualities after treatment with A. terreus showed definite improvement; however, the values of certain parameters were still higher than the allowed values based on the Thailand standard. The only improvement that fell within the allowed standard was the Pb concentration. Next, A. terreus was used for Pb adsorption in wastewater with an initial Pb concentration of 0.788 mg/l at time points corresponding to 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h of incubation. The results showed that A. terreus could adsorb and remove higher amounts of Pb from wastewater than the other fungal isolates. Time course adsorption analysis showed the remaining Pb concentrations as 0.788, 0.213, 0.162, 0.117, 0.100, 0.066, 0.042 and 0.032 mg/l, respectively; the percentage of Pb removal could be estimated as 0, 72.97, 79.44, 85.15, 87.31, 91.62, 94.67 and 95.94%, respectively. In conclusion, A. terreus possessed the ability to adsorb up to 96% of Pb from chemical synthetic dye within 168 h. Thus, A. terreus might be suitable for adaptation and use in Pb treatment.

  19. Improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial Aspergillus terreus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-11

    Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.

  20. Recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus in selective trimming of rutin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerstorferová, Daniela; Fliedrová, Barbora; Halada, Petr; Marhol, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2012), s. 828-835 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0767; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11010 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Isoquercitrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2012

  1. Spondylodiscitis Due to Aspergillus terreus in an Immunocompetent Host: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comacle, Pauline; Le Govic, Yohann; Hoche-Delchet, Cyril; Sandrini, Jeremy; Aguilar, Claire; Bouyer, Benjamin; Blanchi, Sophie; Penn, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillus terreus, a saprophytic fungus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen responsible for various infections in human beings. However, bone and joint involvement is uncommon. We report a rare case of A. terreus spondylodiscitis in a 20-year-old male with a past history of recurrent, incompletely treated pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical signs at the time of admission included cough, low-grade fever, general weakness and left-sided back pain. Histological examination of spinal biopsy samples revealed lesions of necrosis, granulomatous inflammation and septate hyphae with acute-angle branching. A. terreus was recovered from culture. The patient received antifungal therapy with voriconazole plus caspofungin and underwent surgical debridement. Further investigations revealed no cause of primary immunodeficiency such as chronic granulomatous disease, severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome or disorders of the IL-12/IFNγ signaling pathway. Moreover, HIV serological tests resulted negative and the patient was not under immunosuppressive therapy. Unfortunately, owing to precarity and medication non-adherence, vertebral sequelae occurred. This new report emphasizes the need to consider a fungal infection in patients with spondylodiscitis, regardless of the immune status.

  2. Molecular detection of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome on Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and two species of migratory bats in the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Riley F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Willcox, Emma V; Parise, Katy L; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-04-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), is responsible for widespread mortality of hibernating bats across eastern North America. To document P. destructans exposure and infections on bats active during winter in the southeastern US, we collected epidermal swabs from bats captured during winters 2012-13 and 2013-14 in mist nets set outside of hibernacula in Tennessee. Epidermal swab samples were collected from eight Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), six eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and three silver-hair bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Using real-time PCR methods, we identified DNA sequences of P. destructans from skin swabs of two Rafinesque's big-eared bats, two eastern red bats, and one silver-haired bat. This is the first detection of the WNS fungus on Rafinesque's big-eared bats and eastern red bats and the second record of the presence of the fungus on silver-haired bats.

  3. Do cultural conditions induce differential protein expression: Profiling of extracellular proteome of Aspergillus terreus CM20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Saritha; Singh, Surender; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Goel, Renu; Nain, Lata

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the diversity in extracellular proteins expressed by the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus terreus CM20 with respect to differential hydrolytic enzyme production profiles in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, and analysis of the extracellular proteome. The SSF method was superior in terms of increase in enzyme activities resulting in 1.5-3 fold enhancement as compared to SmF, which was explained by the difference in growth pattern of the fungus under the two culture conditions. As revealed by zymography, multiple isoforms of endo-β-glucanase, β-glucosidase and xylanase were expressed in SSF, but not in SmF. Extracellular proteome profiling of A. terreus CM20 under SSF condition using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 63 proteins. Functional classification revealed the hydrolytic system to be composed of glycoside hydrolases (56%), proteases (16%), oxidases and dehydrogenases (6%), decarboxylases (3%), esterases (3%) and other proteins (16%). Twenty families of glycoside hydrolases (GH) (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 28, 30, 32, 35, 43, 54, 62, 67, 72, 74 and 125), and one family each of auxiliary activities (AA7) and carbohydrate esterase (CE1) were detected, unveiling the vast diversity of synergistically acting biomass-cleaving enzymes expressed by the fungus. Saccharification of alkali-pretreated paddy straw with A. terreus CM20 proteins released high amounts of glucose (439.63±1.50mg/gds), xylose (121.04±1.25mg/gds) and arabinose (56.13±0.56mg/gds), thereby confirming the potential of the enzyme cocktail in bringing about considerable conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to sugar monomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodegradation of imidacloprid in liquid media by an isolated wastewater fungus Aspergillus terreus YESM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Youssef M M; Badawy, Mohammed E I

    2017-10-03

    In the present study, a new fungal strain capable of imidacloprid degradation was isolated from agricultural wastewater drain. The fungal strain of YESM3 was identified as Aspergillus terreus based on ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 gene sequence by PCR amplification of a 500 bp sequence. Screening of A. terreus YESM3 to the insecticide imidacloprid tolerance was achieved by growing fungus in Czapek Dox agar for 6 days at 28°C. High values (1.13 and 0.94 cm cm -1 ) of tolerance index (TI) were recorded at 25 and 50 mg L -1 of imidacloprid, respectively in the presence and absence of sucrose. However, at 400 mg L -1 the fungus did not grow. Effects of the imidacloprid concentration, pH, and inoculum size on the biodegradation percentage were tested using Box-Behnken statistical design and the biodegradation was monitored by HPLC analysis at different time intervals. Box-Behnken results indicated that optimal conditions for biodegradation were at pH 4 and two fungal discs (10 mm diameter) in the presence of 61.2 mg L -1 of imidacloprid. A. terreus YESM3 strain was capable of degrading 85% of imidacloprid 25 mg L -1 in Czapek Dox broth medium at pH 4 and 28°C for 6 days under static conditions. In addition, after 20 days of inoculation, biodegradation recorded 96.23% of 25 mg L -1 imidacloprid. Degradation kinetics showed that the imidacloprid followed the first order kinetics with half-life (t 50 ) of 1.532 day. Intermediate product identified as 6-chloronicotinic acid (6CNA) as one of the major metabolites during degradation of imidacloprid by using HPLC. Thus, A. terreus YESM3 showed a potential to reduce pollution by pesticides and toxicity in the effected environment. However, further studies should be conducted to understand the biodegradation mechanism of this pesticide in liquid media.

  5. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The enzyme was active for 40 min at 70°C with an optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time of 60 min. Amylase was compatible with all detergents tested having highest activity with Surf excel followed by Henko and Ariel. SDS and Tween 20 reduced the activity. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum α-amylase activity was attained in the presence of Ca2+, followed by Mg2+ and Mn2+. The activity of α-amylase was not considerably affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100. Amylase activity was accelerated in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not significantly (or slightly affect the activity and stability. Tween 20, urea (5%, and the reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited the activity of α-amylase. Owing to its noteworthy stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors, and metal ions, this α-amylase could be an impending enzyme for significant industrial exploitations.

  6. On Reciprocal Causation in the Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2018-01-01

    Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). The EES will supposedly expand the scope of the Modern Synthesis (MS) and SET, which has been characterized as gene-centred, relying primarily on natural selection and largely neglecting reciprocal causation. Here, I critically examine these claims, with a special focus on the last conjecture. I conclude that reciprocal causation has long been recognized as important by naturalists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists working in the in the MS tradition, although it it could be explored even further. Numerous empirical examples of reciprocal causation in the form of positive and negative feedback are now well known from both natural and laboratory systems. Reciprocal causation have also been explicitly incorporated in mathematical models of coevolutionary arms races, frequency-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics and sexual selection. Such dynamic feedback were already recognized by Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin in their bok The Dialectical Biologist . Reciprocal causation and dynamic feedback might also be one of the few contributions of dialectical thinking and Marxist philosophy in evolutionary theory. I discuss some promising empirical and analytical tools to study reciprocal causation and the implications for the EES. Finally, I briefly discuss how quantitative genetics can be adapated to studies of reciprocal causation, constructive inheritance and phenotypic plasticity and suggest that the flexibility of this approach

  7. Production of lovastatin and itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth. While there are several reviews on various aspects of lovastatin and itaconic acid production, the survey on growth conditions, biochemistry and morphology related to the formation of these two metabolites has never been presented in the comparative manner. The aim of the current review is to outline the correlations and contrasts with respect to process-related and biochemical discoveries regarding itaconic acid and lovastatin production by A. terreus.

  8. Purification, characterization and antimicrobial activity of chitinase from marine-derived Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Farag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 was produced from the culture filtrate of marine-derived Aspergillus terreus and purified by 65% ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion exchange chromatography, with 5.16-fold of purification and specific activity of 182.08 U/mg protein. The molecular weight of the purified chitinase was 60 kDa, determined by a sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature of purified chitinase were 5.6 and 50 °C, respectively. The chitinase enzyme was stable from pH 5 to 7.5 and stable up to 70 °C. The effect of activators and inhibitors was studied, Hg+, pb, EDTA, ethanol, methanol and acetone strongly inhibited the enzyme activity, while, metal ions such as Ca2+, Mn2+ and Na2+ highly increased chitinase activity. The purified chitinase produced by A. terreus inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillum oxysporium, Rhizocotonia solani, Candida albicans and Fusarium solani, while did not inhibit the growth of Rhizopus oryzae. Moreover, the purified enzyme had antibacterial effects against some pathogenic bacteria such as; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while, it had not any activity against Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila and Photobacterium damsela.

  9. Detection and diagnosis of prions, the causative agent for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technique is also a sensitive tool for studying and uncovering the mechanism of potential drugs that can inhibit or slow down the spread of TSE infection. It will advance the frontiers on the study of the mode of infection and conversion of prions and has significantly already contributed to the new paradigm that has ...

  10. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  11. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  12. Pedestrian injury causation study (pedestrian accident typing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    A new computerized pedestrian accident typing procedure was tested on 1,997 cases from the Pedestrian Injury Causation Study (PICS). Two coding procedures were used to determine the effects of quantity and quality of information on accident typing ac...

  13. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  14. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  15. Recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase of Aspergillus terreus immobilization in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel and its application in rutin derhamnosylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebroš, M.; Pilniková, A.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Weignerová, Lenka; Stloukal, R.; Křen, Vladimír; Rosenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2013), s. 329-334 ISSN 1024-2422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11010 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Immobilization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2013

  16. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  17. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Stief, Peter; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, Silvia; Kamp, Anja; Manohar, Cathrine-Sumathi; Houbraken, Jos; Boekhout, Teun; de Beer, Dirk; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Background A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report on the anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus terreus (isolate An-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea, a globally important site of oce...

  18. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana S.; Rojas, Florencia D.; Cattana, María E.; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A.; Giusiano, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  19. A Review of the Effective Factors for Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus Terreus Atcc 20542 in Liquid Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jaberi Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deposition of cholesterol in the arteries is the one of the main causes of cardiovascular disease. Lovastatin is a blood cholesterol-lowering drug that inhibits 3-Hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase enzyme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effective factors for lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542. METHODS: This study is a literature review, In order to gather information, articles containing one of the words in their text, including: Cardiovascular disease, Lovastatin, HMG-CoA reductase, Liquid submerged fermentation, Aspergillus terreus were searched between 1960 and 2016 in PUBMED, NATURE, SCIENCE DIRECT and WHO databases. FINDINGS: A total of 180 papers found that of these, 70 were diagnosed article suitable for this study. According to the results, lactose as the best carbon source, soya been and yeast extract as the nitrogen source, C/N ratio of 41.3, the 107 spores/ml, the pH equal to 6.5, Fe, Zn, Mn as mineral elements and inducer such as linoleic acid at a optimum concentration causes the highest amount of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: The study shows, the source of carbon and nitrogen, the C/N, the amount and type of inoculation, pH, minerals and inducer are the most important factors affecting the morphology and oxygen uptake by the, Aspergillus terreus and hence also affect the production of lovastatin

  20. Wrongful life: the problem of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J K

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the status of the wrongful life action particularly in the light of the recent acceptance of such actions in continental Europe. It is considered that the hurdle of causation is still not adequately overcome in these cases and, in a search for an answer to the difficulty, the author re-examines the Canadian case of Cherry v Borsman. This case was originally thought of as one of wrongful life associated with a negligently performed abortion and the paper attempts to overcome the problems of causation by comparing and contrasting the roles of the genetic counsellor and the abortionist. While the attempt is by no means wholly successful, it also serves to draw attention to some significant differences between wrongful life actions based on physical and mental disability in the neonate.

  1. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2017-04-17

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  2. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hashish, Yasmeen; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Goncalves-Serra, Eva; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  3. The Changes of Elements Composition in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus at Different Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ Concentrations Using X-rays Microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis in electron microscope allows simultaneous detection and quantitative analysis of several elements so it contributes to understand the role of ions in physiological processes. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis used to detect the changes in elements levels in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus when allowing to grow on Czapek's Dox liquid media amended with different Co 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ concentrations and these changes may play a role in fungal uptake for these heavy metal ions. Results showed that Ca, Zn and Cu levels in both fungal isolates significantly decreased (P<0.05) when concentrations of used metal ions increased, also O, Na, Cl and K levels for A. niger and C and P for A. terreus recorded significant reduction (P<0.05) in their percentages. Also, the results revealed that, C and P for A. niger and O, Na, Mg, Cl and K levels for A. terreus significantly increased (P<0.05) as a result of increasing metal ions concentrations. Lack of Cd and Pb peaks in X-ray spectrum for A. terreus led this work to conclude that, A. niger was more effective than A. terreus in Co, Cd, Pb uptake into fungal biomass. The increase or decrease of levels of detected elements could be related to the difference between two fungal isolates in uptake certain heavy metal ion (Co, Cd, Pb)

  4. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of feruloyl esterases from Aspergillus terreus MTCC 11096.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Kamle, Avijeet; Kamal, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus MTCC 11096 isolated from the soils of agricultural fields cultivating sweet sorghum was previously identified to produce feruloyl esterases (FAEs). The enzymes responsible for feruloyl esterase activity were purified to homogeneity and named as AtFAE-1, AtFAE-2, and AtFAE-3. The enzymes were monomeric having molecular masses of 74, 23 and 36 kDa, respectively. Active protein bands were identified by a developed pH-dependent zymogram on native PAGE. The three enzymes exhibited variation in pH tolerance ranging between pH 5-8 and thermostability of up to 55°C. Inhibition studies revealed that the serine residue was essential for feruloyl esterase activity; moreover aspartyl and glutamyl residues are not totally involved at the active site. Metal ions such as Ca(2+), K(+), and Mg(2+) stabilized the enzyme activity for all three FAEs. Kinetic data indicated that all three enzymes showed catalytic efficiencies (k(cat) /K(m)) against different synthesized alkyl and aryl esters indicating their broad substrate specificity. The peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI/TOF-MS analysis and enzyme affinity toward methoxy and hydroxy substituents on the benzene ring revealed that the AtFAE-1 belonged to type A while AtFAE-2 and AtFAE-3 were type C FAE. The FAEs could release 65 to 90% of ferulic acid from agrowaste substrates in the presence of xylanase. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Bioprospecting Chemical Diversity and Bioactivity in a Marine Derived Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adpressa, Donovon A; Loesgen, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    A comparative metabolomic study of a marine derived fungus (Aspergillus terreus) grown under various culture conditions is presented. The fungus was grown in eleven different culture conditions using solid agar, broth cultures, or grain based media (OSMAC). Multivariate analysis of LC/MS data from the organic extracts revealed drastic differences in the metabolic profiles and guided our subsequent isolation efforts. The compound 7-desmethylcitreoviridin was isolated and identified, and is fully described for the first time. In addition, 16 known fungal metabolites were also isolated and identified. All compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and tested for antibacterial activities against five human pathogens and tested for cytotoxicity. This study demonstrates that LC/MS based multivariate analysis provides a simple yet powerful tool to analyze the metabolome of a single fungal strain grown under various conditions. This approach allows environmentally-induced changes in metabolite expression to be rapidly visualized, and uses these differences to guide the discovery of new bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

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    Mitun Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The alcohol oxidase (AOx cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application.

  8. Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Nozomu; Sadakane, Takuya; Hayashi, Rika; Tsujimura, Seiya

    2017-03-10

    The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus . At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k ₂ values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones.

  9. Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu Tsuruoka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus. At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k2 values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones.

  10. Causation and Responsibility: A New Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Mortellaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In “Property, Causality, and Liability” and “Causation and Aggression,” Hans-Hermann Hoppe and Stephan Kinsella & Patrick Tinsley, respectively, argue against the Rothbardian position on criminal liability, especially with regard to the issue of incitement. This essay takes a critical look at the suggested approaches of both and attempts to defend the Rothbardian position on incitement from their criticisms. Further, this essay examines the views of Walter Block on incitement and attempts to correct inconsistencies in his position with regard to murder contracts and threats.

  11. Genômica comparativa de cepas de Aspergillus terreus visando a produção de lovastatina

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rodrigo Theodoro

    2017-01-01

    Metabólitos secundários (MS) são moléculas heterogêneas de baixo peso molecular e, alternativamente aos metabólitos primários, não estão diretamente envolvidas no crescimento do organismo que as produz. Entre os microrganismos produtores de MS destacam-se os fungos filamentosos do gênero Aspergillus, abrangendo diversas espécies com estilos de vida variados e produzindo inúmeros compostos de importância para os homens, animais e plantas. A espécie A. terreus é produtora de diversos MS, entre ...

  12. Hydrolysis of galacto-oligosaccharides in soy molasses by α -galactosidases and invertase from Aspergillus terreus

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    Angélica Pataro Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two α -galactosidase (P1 and P2 and one invertase present in the culture of Aspergillus terreus grown on wheat straw for 168 h at 28ºC were partially purified by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Optimum pH and temperatures for P1, P2 and invertase preparations were 4.5-5.0, 5.5 and 4.0 and 60, 55 and 65ºC, respectively. The K M app for Ï� -nitrophenyl-α -D-galactopyranoside were 1.32 mM and 0.72 mM for P1 and P2, respectively, while the K M app value for invertase, using sacarose as a substrate was 15.66 mM. Enzyme preparations P1 and P2 maintained their activities after pre-incubation for 3 h at 50ºC and invertase maintained about 90% after 6 h at 55 ºC. P1 and P2 presented different inhibition sensitivities by Ag+, D-galactose, and SDS. All enzyme preparations hydrolyzed galacto-ologosaccharides present in soymolasses.Duas α-galactosidases (P1 e P2 e uma invertase produzidas no sobrenadante da cultura do fungo Aspergillus terreus quando crescido por 168 h a 28ºC com farelo de trigo como fonte de carbono foram parcialmente purificadas por cromatografias de gel filtração e interação hidrofóbica. O pH e temperatura ótimos para as preparações P1, P2 e invertase foram entre 4,5-5,0, 5,5 e 4,0 e 60, 55 e 65ºC, respectivamente. O K M app para Ï�-nitrofenil-α-D-galactopiranosideo foi 1.32 mM e 0.72 mM para P1 e P2, respectivamente. O valor de K M app para invertase usando sacarose como substrato foi de 15,66 mM. As preparações enzimáticas P1 e P2 mantiveram suas atividades após 3 h de pré-incubação a 50 ºC e a invertase manteve cerca de 90% após 6 h a 55 ºC. P1 e P2 foram diferentemente sensíveis à inibição por Ag+, D-galactose e SDS. As preparações enzimáticas hidrolisaram os galactooligossacarídeos presentes em melaço de soja.

  13. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis.

  14. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10

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    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50 °C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60 °C for 1 h, and the optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time was 30 min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30 °C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn2+, followed by Mg2+ and Fe2+. Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1 mM and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation.

  15. REGULATION OF EXPRESSION OF MULTIPLE BETA- GLUCOSIDASES OF ASPERGILLUS TERREUS AND THEIR PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Nazir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the regulation and purification of -glucosidases from a thermotolerant Aspergillus terreus AN1 strain, previously reported for efficient deinking of composite paper waste. The differential expression of four -glucosidase isoforms, in response to carbon sources in production medium, was studied by electrophoretically resolving proteins by polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis analysis (PAGE and developing zymograms using methylum-belliferyl -D glucoside as substrate. Three -glucosidases (GI, GII & GIII were purified using chromatographic techniques. SDS-PAGE revealed the respective molecular masses of GI, GII, and GIII, as 29, 43, and 98 KDa, and isoelectric point (pI to be 2.8, 3.7, and 3.0. The -glucosidases exhibited diverse pH and temperature optima as well as stability. -Glucosidase I (GI specifically recog-nized pNP--glucopyranoside (pNPG as a substrate, whereas, -glucosidase II (GII and III (GIII also showed activities against cellobiose and salicin. In contrast to GII and GIII, the activity of GI was positively influenced in the presence of hexoses/pentoses and alcohols. Km and Vmax for hydrolysis of pNPG by GI, GII, andGIII were found to be 14.2 mM and 166.9 µmol -1mg protein -1, 4.37 mM, and 34.7 µmol -1mg proteins -1, and 11.1 mM and 378.7µ mol -1 mg protein -1, respectively.

  16. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: fermented rice straw extracts interferes with methane production and gene expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Chin, James

    2013-01-01

    Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl CoA) reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE) can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P < 0.01) the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg). In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants.

  17. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: Fermented Rice Straw Extracts Interferes with Methane Production and Gene Expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl CoA reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen. By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P<0.01 the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg. In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants.

  18. Single-step production of the simvastatin precursor monacolin J by engineering of an industrial strain of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Liang, Yajing; Yang, Yong; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    Monacolin J is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (Zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. Industrially, monacolin J is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by Aspergillus terreus. Multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. A biocatalysis process for monacolin J conversion to simvastatin has been developed. However, direct bioproduction of monacolin J has not yet been achieved. Here, we identified a lovastatin hydrolase from Penicillium chrysogenum, which displays a 232-fold higher catalytic efficiency for the in vitro hydrolysis of lovastatin compared to a previously patented hydrolase, but no activity for simvastatin. Furthermore, we showed that an industrial A. terreus strain heterologously expressing this lovastatin hydrolase can produce monacolin J through single-step fermentation with high efficiency, approximately 95% of the biosynthesized lovastatin was hydrolyzed to monacolin J. Our results demonstrate a simple and green technical route for the production of monacolin J, which makes complete bioproduction of the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin feasible and promising. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Capacity Of Aspergillus Niger And Aspergillus TERREUS For Co2+, Cd2+ And Pb2+ Uptake Using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OUDA, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial removal of various cations could be useful for removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated water. This study aims to investigate the uptake of metals in submerged culture of A. niger and A. terreus. The effect of Co 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ on the fungal growth was studied in Czapek's Dox media. Maximum growth for A. niger and A. terreus was obtained at 0.01 and 0.01 - 0.1 mM/L, respectively. The concentration higher than 5 and 10 mM/L inhibited the growth, respectively. The results showed the ability of both fungal isolates to remove the three tested metals from the cultural media with percentage of removal 96.4, 95.5 and 99.98% at 1mM/L for the three metals respectively for A. niger, and it was 99.2% at 5 mM/L for Co 2+ and 97.3 and 99.9% at 1mM/L for Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ for A. terreus. The EDX analysis showed that A. niger was effective than A. terreus in accumulating Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ while both recorded low Co 2+ uptake.

  20. Characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (NRPS-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent Tet-on system in Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Wen; Guo, Chun-Jun; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-04-01

    Genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. There are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like genes with the predicted A-T-TE domain architecture within the A. terreus genome. Among the five genes, only the product of pgnA remains unknown. The Tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression system originally developed for Aspergillus niger. Here we report the adoption of the Tet-on system as an effective gene activation tool in A. terreus. Application of this system in A. terreus allowed us to uncover the product of the cryptic NRPS-like gene, pgnA. Furthermore expression of pgnA in the heterologous Aspergillus nidulans host suggested that the pgnA gene alone is necessary for phenguignardic acid (1) biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fibrosis and carcinoid syndrome: from causation to future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn; Rockall, Andrea; Grossman, Ashley B

    2009-05-01

    Carcinoid tumors are part of a heterogeneous group of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors that are characterized by their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tachykinins and other mediators. These substances are thought to be responsible for the collection of symptoms, which include diarrhea, flushing and wheezing, that is known as carcinoid syndrome. Fibrosis that occurs either local to or distant from the primary tumor is one of the hallmarks of carcinoid tumors that originate from the midgut. The fibrotic process can occur in the mesentery as a desmoplastic response and may lead to obstruction of the small bowel, but it can also occur in the lungs, skin or retroperitoneum. Importantly, up to one-third of patients develop cardiac valvulopathy. One or more products that are secreted by the tumor and enter into the circulation are likely to have a role in this process. This Review discusses the incidence and prevalence of fibrosis in carcinoid syndrome and explores evidence to date for causative agents, in particular the roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine and elements of the downstream signaling pathway. Improved understanding of the etiology of carcinoid-tumor-related fibrosis may lead to better treatments for this condition than those we currently have.

  2. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  3. Mental causation and Searle's impossible conception of unconscious intentionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, A.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    In my article I evaluate Searle's account of mental causation, in particular his account of the causal efficacy of unconscious intentional states. I argue that top-down causation and overdetermination are unsolved problems in Searle's philosophy of mind, despite his assurances to the contrary. I

  4. A neural network model of causative actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLee-Hand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g. Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umilta et al., 2008; Hommel et al., 2013. In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John 'smashes' a cup, he brings about the event of 'the cup smashing'. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John 'grabs' a cup, this action does not cause the cup to 'do' anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organised into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognises arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the 'causative actions' circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specialising in 'functional' actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013.

  5. A neural network model of causative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013).

  6. Characterization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Chen, Sha; Nie, Xin-zheng; Qian, Li-chun

    2016-01-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0–8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters K m (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant) and V max (maximal reaction velocity) for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 1.73 mmol/L and 42.37 U/mg, respectively. The K m and V max for cellobiose were 4.11 mmol/L and 5.7 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme efficiently converted isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, with a hydrolysis rate of 95.8% for daidzin, 86.7% for genistin, and 72.1% for glycitin. Meanwhile, the productivities were 1.14 mmol/(L·h) for daidzein, 0.72 mmol/(L·h) for genistein, and 0.19 mmol/(L·h) for glycitein. This is the first report on the application of A. terreus β-glucosidase for converting isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones in soybean products. PMID:27256679

  7. Characterization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Sha; Nie, Xin-Zheng; Qian, Li-Chun

    2016-06-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0-8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters Km (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant) and Vmax (maximal reaction velocity) for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 1.73 mmol/L and 42.37 U/mg, respectively. The Km and Vmax for cellobiose were 4.11 mmol/L and 5.7 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme efficiently converted isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, with a hydrolysis rate of 95.8% for daidzin, 86.7% for genistin, and 72.1% for glycitin. Meanwhile, the productivities were 1.14 mmol/(L·h) for daidzein, 0.72 mmol/(L·h) for genistein, and 0.19 mmol/(L·h) for glycitein. This is the first report on the application of A. terreus β-glucosidase for converting isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones in soybean products.

  8. Perceived Role Of Dietary Factors In Cancer Causation And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Role Of Dietary Factors In Cancer Causation And Prevention Among ... The impact of cancer on patients, care givers and family could be ... as well as social support programmes including subsidized cancer-limiting feeding of ...

  9. Coarse-graining as a downward causation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Jessica C.

    2017-11-01

    Downward causation is the controversial idea that `higher' levels of organization can causally influence behaviour at `lower' levels of organization. Here I propose that we can gain traction on downward causation by being operational and examining how adaptive systems identify regularities in evolutionary or learning time and use these regularities to guide behaviour. I suggest that in many adaptive systems components collectively compute their macroscopic worlds through coarse-graining. I further suggest we move from simple feedback to downward causation when components tune behaviour in response to estimates of collectively computed macroscopic properties. I introduce a weak and strong notion of downward causation and discuss the role the strong form plays in the origins of new organizational levels. I illustrate these points with examples from the study of biological and social systems and deep neural networks. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  10. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sukarti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO; production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

  11. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  12. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified ‘levels’ of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily ‘local’ and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended—many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  13. Causative species and serotypes of shigellosis in mainland China: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhili; Lu, Shuting; Chen, Lihong; Jin, Qi; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of shigellosis, is a major global public health concern, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation. A comprehensive and current understanding of the prevalent species and serotypes of shigellosis is essential for both disease prevention and vaccine development. However, no current data are available on the causative species/serotypes of shigellosis in mainland China during the past decade. Relevant studies addressing the prevalent species of shigellosis in mainland China from January 2001 to December 2010 were identified from PubMed and the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (in Chinese) until April 2012. A total of 131 eligible articles (136 studies) were included in this review. Meta-analyses showed that the prevalences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei were 76.2% (95% CI, 73.7%-78.5%) and 21.3% (95% CI, 19.0%-23.7%), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated a decrease in the prevalence of S. flexneri cases and an increase in the prevalence of S. sonnei cases concurrent with the rapid economic growth experienced by China in recent years. Moreover, significantly higher rates of S. sonnei were observed in the East, North and Northeast regions of China, as compared to the rest of the country. These phenomena imply the possible association between the prevalent species of Shigella and regional economic status; however, additional factors also exist and require further investigations. Moreover, the two major serotypes S. flexneri 2a and 4c accounted for 21.5% (95% CI, 16.7%-27.4%) and 12.9% (95% CI 9.8%-16.9%) of S. flexneri infections, respectively, in the past decade. However, these results were found to be frequently heterogeneous (p for Q tests review of the causative agents of shigellosis in mainland China and focuses on the importance of strengthening prevention and research efforts on S. sonnei and the newly emerged S. flexneri serotype 4c.

  14. The effect of viscosity, friction, and sonication on the morphology and metabolite production from Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Hasan, Hanan; Harith, Hanis H; Abbas, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of viscosity, friction, and sonication on the morphology and the production of lovastatin, (+)-geodin, and sulochrin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542. Sodium alginate and gelatine were used to protect the fungal pellet from mechanical force by increasing the media viscosity. Sodium alginate stimulated the production of lovastatin by up to 329.0% and sulochrin by 128.7%, with inhibitory effect on (+)-geodin production at all concentrations used. However, the use of gelatine to increase viscosity significantly suppressed lovastatin, (+)-geodin, and sulochrin's production (maximum reduction at day 9 of 42.7, 60.8, and 68.3%, respectively), which indicated that the types of chemical play a major role in metabolite production. Higher viscosity increased both pellet biomass and size in all conditions. Friction significantly increased (+)-geodin's titre by 1527.5%, lovastatin by 511.1%, and sulochrin by 784.4% while reducing pellet biomass and size. Conversely, sonication produced disperse filamentous morphology with significantly lower metabolites. Sodium alginate-induced lovastatin and sulochrin production suggest that these metabolites are not affected by viscosity; rather, their production is affected by the specific action of certain chemicals. In contrast, low viscosity adversely affected (+)-geodin's production, while pellet disintegration can cause a significant production of (+)-geodin.

  15. Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus IF0 and Its Antibacterial Potential against Gram Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyadarshini, E.; Pradhan, N.; Sukla, L.B.; Panda, P.K.; Pradhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of monodispersed nanoparticles, along with determination of potential responsible biomolecules, is the major bottleneck in the area of bio nano technology research. The present study focuses on an eco friendly, ambient temperature protocol for size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles, using the fungus Aspergillus terreus IF0. Gold nanoparticles were formed immediately, with the addition of chloroauric acid to the aqueous fungal extract. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM-EDX, and XRD analysis. Particle diameter and dispersity of nanoparticles were controlled by varying the ph of the fungal extract. At ph 10, the average size of the synthesized particles was in the range of 10–19 nm. Dialysis to obtain high and low molecular weight fraction followed by FTIR analysis revealed that biomolecules larger than 12 kDa and having –CH, –NH, and –SH functional groups were responsible for bioreduction and stabilization. In addition, the synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be selectively bactericidal against the pathogenic gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli.

  16. Production of α-amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet and its structural characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIJAY KUMAR eSETHI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF and solid state (SSF fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM as substrate by SSF (19.19± 0.9 Ug-1 and also in presence of 1mM magnesium sulphate, 0.025% (w/v gibberellic acid and 30 mg/100ml (w/v of vitamin E (~ 60 fold higher production of amylase with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 ºC for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%, β-pleated sheet (23.6% and β-turn (27.4%. Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications.

  17. Causation of severe and fatal accidents in the manufacturing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan C; Onieva, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the manufacturing sector in Andalusia, Spain, to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions. Official accident investigation reports are analyzed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes of each of the different possible groups of causes. We found evidence of a differential causation between slight and nonslight accidents. We have also found significant differences in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident. These results can be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes of each accident mechanism. We have also done research on the associations of certain latent causes with specific active (immediate) causes. These relationships show how organizational and safety management can contribute to the prevention of active failures.

  18. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  19. The Concurrentism of Thomas Aquinas: Divine Causation and Human Freedom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2013), s. 617-634 ISSN 0048-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/0371 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : divine causation * free will * concurrentism * Thomas Aquinas Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. Concepts Concerning 'Disease\\' Causation, Control, and the current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ethical necessity that doctors understand the complex social, political, environmental and economic dynamics involved in infectious disease outbreaks. This article discusses some important concepts concerning 'disease' causation and control with specific reference to the current cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe ...

  1. Transitivity and the ontology of causation | Unwin | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that it is very hard to analyse causation in such a way that prevents everything from causing everything else. This is particularly true if we assume that the causal relation is transitive, for it all too often happens that causal chains that we wish to keep separate pass through common intermediate events. It is also ...

  2. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D; Mezuk, Briana R; Avula, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP...... attacks may play a causative role....

  4. Development of a methodology for accident causation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The obj ective of this study was to fully develop and apply a me thodology to : study accident causation, uhich was outlined in a previous study . " Causal" factors : are those pre-crash factors, which are statistically related to the accident rate :...

  5. Standard Javanese Causatives in online editorials and short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Malihah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the distinctive features of the standard Javanese causatives in on-line editorials and short stories. This research is based on written corpus. This written corpus was compiled from articles published in an online newspaper Solo Pos. To analyze the corpus, I have developed a system of manual annotation to identify the features of verb transitivity, the animacy and humanness of the verb, the presence of active, passive and ergative-like clauses and the number of other grammatical and semantic features using a system of tags. Using this annotation, I analyze the data based on dua anlaysis: genre analysis, functional analysis using a quantitative method. The findings show that genre influences the selection of causative types (markers. Also, there exists gawe used as a verb of causation in both editorials and short stories which contradicts to the canonical rule of the Javanese active verb and Malihah’s (2014 findings. The finding also shows that the standard Javanese causative in online editorials and short stories occurs with intransitive verbs. The last finding is that active clause is the relative prominent type of clause which occurs in all marker. In conclusion, the above findings have made contributions to knowledge to Javanese grammar.

  6. A geo-information system approach for forest fire likelihood based on causative and anti - causative factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Saran, Sameer; de By, R.A.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Innumerable forest fire spread models exist for taking a decision, but far less focus is on the real causative factors which initiate/ignite fire in an area. It has been observed that the majority of the forest fires in India are initiated due to anthropogenic factors. In this study, we develop a

  7. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, Silvia; Kamp, Anja; Manohar, Cathrine-Sumathi; Houbraken, Jos; Boekhout, Teun; de Beer, Dirk; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-02-11

    A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report on the anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus terreus (isolate An-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea, a globally important site of oceanic nitrogen loss and nitrous oxide emission. Axenic incubations of An-4 in the presence and absence of oxygen and nitrate revealed that this fungal isolate is capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium under anoxic conditions. A ¹⁵N-labeling experiment proved that An-4 produced and excreted ammonium through nitrate reduction at a rate of up to 175 nmol ¹⁵NH₄⁺ g⁻¹ protein h⁻¹. The products of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were ammonium (83%), nitrous oxide (15.5%), and nitrite (1.5%), while dinitrogen production was not observed. The process led to substantial cellular ATP production and biomass growth and also occurred when ammonium was added to suppress nitrate assimilation, stressing the dissimilatory nature of nitrate reduction. Interestingly, An-4 used intracellular nitrate stores (up to 6-8 μmol NO₃⁻ g⁻¹ protein) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Our findings expand the short list of microbial eukaryotes that store nitrate intracellularly and carry out dissimilatory nitrate reduction when oxygen is absent. In the currently spreading oxygen-deficient zones in the ocean, an as yet unexplored diversity of fungi may recycle nitrate to ammonium and nitrite, the substrates of the major nitrogen loss process anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

  8. [Causation in the court: the complex case of malignant mesothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lageard, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out an analysis of the legal evolution in Italy of the assessment of causation i.e. cause and effect, in oncological diseases, a question taken into consideration by the High Court almost exclusively with reference to pleural mesothelioma. The most debated question when defining the causal association between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma is the possible role that any multiple potentially causative exposures could assume in the induction and development of the disease, and in particular the role of any asbestos exposure over the successive employment periods. Indeed, this is a subject on which, to date, no agreement has yet been reached in scientific doctrine: these divergences bear important practical significance from a legal point of view, since sustaining one thesis or another may constitute determining factors when ascertaining responsibility for individuals who, in the past, had decisional statuses in the workplace. Jurisprudence in the High Court took on an oscillating position on this question as from the early 2000s, which was divided into those who sustained the thesis of the relevance of any asbestos exposure over the successive employment periods and those who were of a different opinion, i.e. only the first exposure period has relevant causative effect. The point under discussion concerns, in particular, the adequacy of a probabilistic law only governing such a question. An important turning point was made in the year 2010 when two sentences were announced in the High Court, reiterating, in strict compliance with the principles affirmed by the United Sections in 2002, that a judge cannot, and must not, be satisfied with a general causation, but must rather reach a judgment on the basis of an individual causation. In particular, not only did the second of these two sentences recognise the multifactorial nature of mesothelioma, something which had almost always been denied in jurisprudence in the past, but it also

  9. Public awareness of human papillomavirus as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael U; Carr, Michele M; Goldenberg, David

    2015-06-01

    To assess the public's awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three-item survey. Local shopping malls and Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. Respondents were randomly chosen to participate in 23-item survey at various local shopping malls and at Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. The χ(2) test was used in statistical analysis. The majority of respondents (n = 319) were civilians; 158 were military officer trainees (MOTs). All MOTs had a bachelor's degree or higher, while 37% of civilian respondents had a bachelor's degree or higher. Most MOTs (82%) were aware of oropharyngeal cancer, and 53% of civilians had not heard of oropharyngeal cancer (P aware of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. Conversely, 75% of civilian population and 49% of MOTs were not aware of the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer (P aware that HPV is a causative agent of cervical cancer. However, the majority were not aware of the association between oropharyngeal cancer and HPV. Furthermore, many respondents were not aware that HPV equally affects males and females and that the vaccine is available for both sexes. This underscores the need to educate the public on the availability of HPV vaccine and the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  11. Game of Objects: vicarious causation and multi-modal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Pedinotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies philosopher Graham Harman's object-oriented theory of "vicarious causation" to an analysis of the multi-modal media phenomenon known as "Game of Thrones." Examining the manner in which George R.R. Martin's best-selling series of fantasy novels has been adapted into a board game, a video game, and a hit HBO television series, it uses the changes entailed by these processes to trace the contours of vicariously generative relations. In the course of the resulting analysis, it provides new suggestions concerning the eidetic dimensions of Harman's causal model, particularly with regard to causation in linear networks and in differing types of game systems.

  12. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    connections transparent. These general commitments get confronted with two claims made by certain proponents of the mechanistic approach: William Bechtel often argues that within the mechanistic framework it is possible to balance between reducing higher levels and maintaining their autonomy at the same time...... their autonomy at the same time than standard reductive accounts are, and that what mechanistic explanations are able to do at best is showing that downward causation does not exist....

  13. Research advances in probability of causation calculation of radiogenic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jing; Yuan Yong; Xie Xiangdong; Yang Guoshan

    2009-01-01

    Probability of causation (PC) was used to facilitate the adjudication of compensation claims for cancers diagnosed following exposure to ionizing radiation. In this article, the excess cancer risk assessment models used for PC calculation are reviewed. Cancer risk transfer models between different populations, dependence of cancer risk on dose and dose rate, modification by epidemiological risk factors and application of PC are also discussed in brief. (authors)

  14. Medical negligence. An overview of legal theory and neurosurgical practice: causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas V

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the principles of the law in relation to legal causation as applied to neurosurgical practice. Causation is a causal link between a breach of duty of care and the final harm. The fundamental "but-for" test for causation will be discussed, together with Chester v Afshar modified causation, prospective and retrospective probabilities of harm, loss of a chance, causation following breach of duty of care by omission, breaking the chain of causation, material contribution and the law in relation to multiple defendants, with neurosurgical examples.

  15. Distribution territories and causative mechanisms of ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, A.; Grive, E.; Alvarez-Sabin, J. [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica, Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic stroke prognosis, risk of recurrence, clinical assessment, and treatment decisions are influenced by stroke subtype (anatomic distribution and causative mechanism of infarction). Stroke subtype diagnosis is better achieved in the early phase of acute ischemia with the use of multimodal MR imaging. The pattern of brain lesions as shown by brain MR imaging can be classified according to a modified Oxfordshire method, based on the anatomic distribution of the infarcts into six groups: (1) total anterior circulation infarcts, (2) partial anterior circulation infarcts, (3) posterior circulation infarcts, (4) watershed infarcts, (5) centrum ovale infarcts, and (6) lacunar infarcts. The subtype of stroke according to its causative mechanism is based on the TOAST method, which classifies stroke into five major etiologic groups: (1) large-vessel atherosclerotic disease, (2) small-vessel atherosclerotic disease, (3) cardioembolic source, (4) other determined etiologies, and (5) undetermined or multiple possible etiologies. The different MR imaging patterns of acute ischemic brain lesions visualized using diffusion-weighted imaging and the pattern of vessel involvement demonstrated with MR angiography are essential factors that can suggest the most likely causative mechanism of infarction. This information may have an impact on decisions regarding therapy and the performance of additional diagnostic tests. (orig.)

  16. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  17. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  18. ANALYTIC CAUSATIVES IN JAVANESE: A LEXICAL- FUNCTIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Subiyanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytic  causatives  are  the  type  of  causatives  formed  by  separate predicates  expressing the cause and the effect, that is, the causing notion  is  realized  by  a  word  separate  from  the  word  denoting  the caused activity. This paper aims to discuss the forms and syntactic structure  of  analytic  causatives  in  Javanese.  To  discuss  the syntactic structure, the theory of lexical functional grammar (LFG is  employed.  The  data  used  in  this  study  is  the  „ngoko‟  level  of Javanese of the Surakarta dialect. By using a negation marker and modals  as  the  syntactic  operators to test mono-  or bi-clausality  of analytic  causatives,  the  writer  found  that  analytic  causatives  in Javanese form biclausal constructions. These constructions have an X-COMP  structure,  in  that  the  SUBJ  of  the  second  verb  is controlled  by  the  OBJ  of  the  causative  verb  (Ngawe  „make‟.  In terms  of  the  constituent  structure,  analytic  causatives  have  two kinds of structures, which are V-cause OBJ X-COMP and V-cause X-COMP OBJ. Kausatif  analitik  adalah  tipe  kausatif  yang  dibentuk  oleh  dua predikat  atau  dua  kata  terpisah  untuk  mengungkapkan  makna sebab dan akibat, yakni makna sebab direalisasikan oleh kata yang berbeda  dengan  kata  yang  menyatakan  makna  akibat.  Tulisan  ini membahas  bentuk  dan  struktur  sintaksis  kausatif  analitik  dalam bahasa Jawa. Untuk menjelaskan struktur sintaksis digunakan teori Tata  Bahasa  Leksikal  Fungsional.  Data  yang  digunakan  dalam penelitian  ini  adalah  bahasa  Jawa  dialek  Surakarta  ragam  ngoko. Dengan  menggunakan  alat  uji  pemarkah  negasi  dan  penggunaaan modalitas,  penulis  menemukan  bahwa  kausatif  analitik  dalam bahasa Jawa membentuk struktur biklausa. Konstruksi ini memiliki struktur  X

  19. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  20. On the origin of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Kenneth D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is an unusual bacterial pathogen with elusive origins. While closely related to the aquatic dwelling M. marinum, M. ulcerans has evolved the ability to produce the immunosuppressive polyketide toxin mycolactone and cause the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. Other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria (MPM have been identified in fish and frogs and given distinct species designations (M. pseudoshottsii, M. shinshuense, M. liflandii and M. marinum, however the evolution of M. ulcerans and its relationship to other MPM has not been defined. Here we report the comparative analysis of whole genome sequences from 30 MPM and five M. marinum. Results A high-resolution phylogeny based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs showed that M. ulcerans and all other MPM represent a single clonal group that evolved from a common M. marinum progenitor. The emergence of the MPM was driven by the acquisition of the pMUM plasmid encoding genes for the biosynthesis of mycolactones. This change was accompanied by the loss of at least 185 genes, with a significant overrepresentation of genes associated with cell wall functions. Cell wall associated genes also showed evidence of substantial adaptive selection, suggesting cell wall remodeling has been critical for the survival of MPM. Fine-grain analysis of the MPM complex revealed at least three distinct lineages, one of which comprised a highly clonal group, responsible for Buruli ulcer in Africa and Australia. This indicates relatively recent transfer of M. ulcerans between these continents, which represent the vast majority of the global Buruli ulcer burden. Our data provide SNPs and gene sequences that can differentiate M. ulcerans lineages, suitable for use in the diagnosis and surveillance of Buruli ulcer. Conclusions M. ulcerans and all mycolactone-producing mycobacteria are specialized variants of a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor that have adapted to live in restricted environments. Examination of genes lost or retained and now under selective pressure suggests these environments might be aerobic, and extracellular, where slow growth, production of an immune suppressor, cell wall remodeling, loss or modification of cell wall antigens, and biofilm-forming ability provide a survival advantage. These insights will guide our efforts to find the elusive reservoir(s of M. ulcerans and to understand transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  1. [ON THE ORIGIN OF HYPERVIRULENCE OF THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PLAGUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, N V; Kislichkina, A A; Platonov, M E; Evseeva, V V; Kadnikova, L A; Lipatnikova, N A; Bogun, A G; Dentovskaya, S V; Anisimov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to combine Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis into one species has been unsupported by microbiologists due to the specific features of the epidemiology and clinical presentations of their induced diseases and to basic differences in their virulence. Pseudotuberculosis is predominantly a relatively mild human intestinal infection transmitted through contaminated food and plague is an acute generalized disease with high mortality, which is most frequently transmitted by the bites of infected fleas. Y. pestis hypervirulence, the ability of single bacteria to ensure the development of predagonal bacteriemia in rodents, which is sufficient to contaminate the fleas, is one of the main events during pathogen adaptation to a new ecological niche. By analyzing the data of molecular typing of the representative kits of naturally occurring Y. pestis isolates, the authois consider the issues of formation of intraspecies groups with universal hypervirulence, as well as biovars that are highly virulent only to their major host. A strategy for searching for selective virulence factors, the potential molecular targets for vaccination and etiotropic treatment of plague, is discussed.

  2. Genomic analysis of the causative agents of coccidiosis in domestic chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Adam J.; Blake, Damer P.; Ansari, Hifzur R.

    2014-01-01

    of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most important poultry diseases. Understanding the biology of Eimeria parasites underpins development of new drugs and vaccines needed to improve global food security. We have produced annotated genome sequences of all seven species of Eimeria that infect domestic chickens....... Analysis of Eimeria genes involved in basic biology and host-parasite interaction highlights adaptations to a relatively simple developmental life cycle and a complex array of co-expressed surface proteins involved in host cell binding....

  3. Emerging infectious diseases: a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beltz, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    "This important resource offers a comprehensive introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, including the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect...

  4. First dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic in the Americas, 1981: insights into the causative agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Hinojosa, Yoandri; Guzman, Maria G

    2014-12-01

    Historical records describe a disease in North America that clinically resembled dengue haemorrhagic fever during the latter part of the slave-trading period. However, the dengue epidemic that occurred in Cuba in 1981 was the first laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever in the Americas. At that time, the presumed source of the dengue type 2 strain isolated during this epidemic was considered controversial, partly because of the limited sequence data and partly because the origin of the virus appeared to be southern Asia. Here, we present a molecular characterisation at the whole-genome level of the original strains isolated at different time points during the epidemic. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian methods indicated that 1981 Cuban strains group within the Asian 2 genotype. In addition, the study revealed that viral evolution occurred during the epidemic - a fact that could be related to the increasing severity from month to month. Moreover, the Cuban strains exhibited particular amino acid substitutions that differentiate them from the New Guinea C prototype strain as well as from dengue type 2 strains isolated globally.

  5. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profiles in causative agents of sporotrichosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Cássia Pires, Débora; Brihante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio da Costa; Gadelha, Marcos Fabio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals, which is typically acquired by traumatic inoculation of plant material contaminated with Sporothrix propagules, or via animals, mainly felines. Sporothrix infections notably occur in outbreaks, with large epidemics

  6. [The morphology of the causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis in the Far East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Valovaia, M A; Piskunova, Iu A; Romanenko, N A; Khodakova, V I; Artamoshin, A S

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of types F, A, C plerocercoids, and mature Diphyllobothriidae of the Far Eastern populations (USSR) was studied by using scanning electron microscopy. New data were obtained on structure the skin muscular sac of plerocercoids type F (presence of tegumental microvilli, multi poly-layer of longitudinal subtegumental musculature, and variation of quantity of muscular filaments along strobila. The morphological identity of mature Diphyllobothriidae from the volunteer (self-infection of plerocercoid "type F"), infested men and seagulls from focuses of diphyllobothriasis in the Pacific Ocean regions in the Far East of the USSR was proved.

  7. Purification of a Recombinant Glutathione Transferase from the Causative Agent of Hydatidosis, "Echinococcus granulosus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitas, Andrea L.; Randall, Lía M.; Möller, Matías N.; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This practical class activity was designed to introduce students to recombinant protein expression and purification. The principal goal is to shed light on basic aspects concerning recombinant protein production, in particular protein expression, chromatography methods for protein purification, and enzyme activity as a tool to evaluate purity and…

  8. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the causative agent in spondylodiscitis and psoas abscess after rooster scratches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frédéric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-08-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved.

  9. Streptobacillus moniliformis as the Causative Agent in Spondylodiscitis and Psoas Abscess after Rooster Scratches▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Damien; Robin, Frédéric; Bouvier, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Bonnet, Richard; Lesens, Olivier; Hennequin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Streptobacillus moniliformis spondylodiscitis accompanied by a psoas abscess in an 80-year-old man scratched by a rooster. S. moniliformis was identified from abscess fluid by use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After 18 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the clinical condition of the patient improved. PMID:18562588

  10. Detection of single bacteria - causative agents of meningitis using raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikova, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Alushin, M. V.; Gonchukov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium.

  11. Schizophyllum commune a causative agent of fungal sinusitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premamalini, T; Ambujavalli, B T; Anitha, S; Somu, L; Kindo, Anupma J

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  12. Schizophyllum Commune a Causative Agent of Fungal Sinusitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Premamalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  13. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Eggs as a Suitable Tool for Species Diagnosis of Causative Agents of Human Diphyllobothriosis (Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leštinová, Kateřina; Soldánová, Miroslava; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2016), č. článku e0004721. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adenocephalus pacificus * helminth fauna * infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.834, year: 2016

  15. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  16. Postharvest control of anthracnose lesions and its causative agent, Colletotrichum musae by some oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwana, Humaira

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose of banana is incited by Colletotrichum  musae. It is recognized as one the most destructive diseases of mature and immature banana fruits, resulting in huge economic losses all over the world. Present research deals with screening some oils both in vitro and in vivo for their antifungal activity against C.musae. Clove oil (0.1µl/ml) completely arrested the conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. musae. Fenugreek and almond oil exhibited significant inhibition of mycelial growth, 61% and 57% at a concentration of 2µl/ml. However, olive oil was least inhibitory on the test fungi. Clove oil also a showed marked reduction in anthracnose lesions on banana fruits, thereby suggesting disease control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged mycelium and conidia. FTIR studies show the presence of important bands representing phenols, terpenes, aldehydes, and ketones. Based on our findings; clove, fenugreek and almond oil demonstrated fungicidal and fungistatic activities against anthracnose pathogen. Hence, these oils can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical treatments.

  17. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, M.E.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 1697-1703 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megaloblastic anemia * identification * populations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.994, year: 2015

  18. Genomic analysis of the causative agents of coccidiosis in domestic chickens

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam J.; Blake, Damer P.; Ansari, Hifzur R.; Billington, Karen; Browne, Hilary P.; Bryant, Josephine; Dunn, Matt; Hung, Stacy S.; Kawahara, Fumiya; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Malas, Tareq B.; Mourier, Tobias; Naghra, Hardeep; Nair, Mridul; Otto, Thomas D.; Rawlings, Neil D.; Rivailler, Pierre; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Sanders, Mandy; Subramaniam, Chandra; Tay, Yea-Ling; Woo, Yong; Wu, Xikun; Barrell, Bart; Dear, Paul H.; Doerig, Christian; Gruber, Arthur; Ivens, Alasdair C.; Parkinson, John; Rajandream, Marie-Adè le; Shirley, Martin W.; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Berriman, Matthew; Tomley, Fiona M.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Global production of chickens has trebled in the past two decades and they are now the most important source of dietary animal protein worldwide. Chickens are subject to many infectious diseases that reduce their performance and productivity. Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan protozoa of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most important poultry diseases. Understanding the biology of Eimeria parasites underpins development of new drugs and vaccines needed to improve global food security. We have produced annotated genome sequences of all seven species of Eimeria that infect domestic chickens, which reveal the full extent of previously described repeat-rich and repeat-poor regions and show that these parasites possess the most repeat-rich proteomes ever described. Furthermore, while no other apicomplexan has been found to possess retrotransposons, Eimeria is home to a family of chromoviruses. Analysis of Eimeria genes involved in basic biology and host-parasite interaction highlights adaptations to a relatively simple developmental life cycle and a complex array of co-expressed surface proteins involved in host cell binding.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi Genotype I as a Causative Agent of Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Oleg; Chrdle, A.; Sak, Bohumil; Chmelík, V.; Kubale, J.; Dyková, Iva; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2011), 2769-2771 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : AIDS PATIENT * MICROSPORIDIOSIS * ALBENDAZOLE * INFECTION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2011

  20. Incidence, CauSative Agents and Strategy of Control of Mastitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    little knowledge on dairy! husbandry and thus / the economic significance of mastitis 011 their. , dairy enterprises (Mchaui, 1995). Hence, the extent of mastitis as a problem in small holder dairy farms in: Tanzania'iis not well known. ,This 'is ironical, bearing in mind that small- holder dairy farmers own ~bout 60 % of the es-.

  1. H3N2 Virus as Causative Agent of ARDS Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Peris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1 2009 was associated with a higher risk of viral pneumonia in comparison with seasonal influenza viruses. The influenza season 2011-2012 was characterized by the prevalent circulation of influenza A(H3N2 viruses. Whereas most H3N2 patients experienced mild, self-limited influenza-like illness, some patients were at increased risk for influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions. Cases presented were patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of ECMO referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, Italy. Despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment (ECMO, one patient with H3N2-induced ARDS did not survive. Our experience suggests that viral aetiology is becoming more important and hospitals should be able to perform a fast differential diagnosis between bacterial and viral aetiology.

  2. Can a simple urinalysis predict the causative agent and the antibiotic sensitivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Chen, Justin; Paudel, Govinda; Sharma, Nirdesh; Castillo, Manuel; Ain, Yumna; Leber, Mark

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to determine the reliability of urinalysis (UA) for predicting urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children, (2) to determine whether UA findings can predict Escherichia coli versus non-E. coli urinary tract infection, and (3) to determine if empiric antibiotics should be selected based on E. coli versus non-E. coli infection predictions. This was a retrospective chart review of children from 2 months to 2 years of age who presented to the emergency department with fever (rectal temperature >100.4°F) and had a positive urine culture. This study was conducted between January 2004 and December 2007. Negative UA was defined as urine white blood cell count less than 5 per high-power field, negative leukocyte esterase, and negative nitrites. Urine cultures were classified into E. coli and non-E. coli groups. These groups were compared for sex, race, and UA findings. Multivariate forward logistic regression, using the Wald test, was performed to calculate the likelihood ratio (LR) of each variable (eg, sex, race, UA parameters) in predicting UTI. In addition, antibiotic sensitivities between both groups were compared. Of 749 medical records reviewed, 608 were included; negative UA(-) was present in 183 cases, and positive UA(+) was observed in 425 cases. Furthermore, 424 cases were caused by E. coli, and 184 were due to non-E. coli organisms. Among 425 UA(+) cases, E. coli was identified in 349 (82.1%), whereas non-E. coli organisms were present in 76 (17.9%); in contrast, in 183 UA(-) cases, 108 (59%) were due to non-E. coli organisms versus 75 (41%), which were caused by E. coli. Urinalysis results were shown to be associated with organism group (P Antibiotic sensitivity compared between UA groups demonstrated equivalent superiority of cefazolin (94.7% sensitive in UA(+) vs 84.0% in UA(-) group; P sensitivity to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82.2% vs 71.3% in UA(+); P = 0.008). Urinalysis is not an accurate predictor of UTI. A positive urine culture in the presence of negative UA most likely grew non-E. coli organisms, whereas most UA(+) results were associated with E. coli. This study also highlighted local patterns of antibiotic resistance between E. coli and non-E. coli groups. Negative UA results in the presence of strong suspicion of a UTI suggest a non-E. coli organism, which may be best treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Conversely, UA(+) results suggest E. coli, which calls for treatment with cefazolin or cefuroxime.

  3. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The etiological structure, biological properties of causative agents of peri-implant mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Faustova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the peri-implant mucositis microflora and sensitivity of dominant pathogens to antibiotics and antiseptics. Materials and methods. The study involved 43 patients with peri-implant mucositis. During the study 162 clinical strains of microorganisms were isolated and identified. Cultivation of clinical isolates was performed by the standard method, final identification was carried out with using bacteriological automatic analyzer Vitec – 2compact bioMérieux (France. Determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of pathogens was carried with disc-diffusion method; the study of sensitivity to antiseptics was carried by means of double serial dilutions method by the standard procedure approved by the Order № 167 of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine on “On Approval of Training Guidance “Assessment of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics”, dated by April, 5, 2007. Results. It is The microflora of peri-implant area of patients with mucositis was revealed to consist of opportunistic species. Representatives of Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were dominating among them, although Kocuria spp., Enterobacter spp. and yeast-like fungi Candida spp. were detected quite common. Investigated clinical strains of microorganisms had different sensitivity to antibiotics. All cultures were sensitive to fluoroquinolones, but very significant number of them showed resistance to penicillins, macrolides and lincosamides. In turn, horosten, dekasan and chlorhexidine had powerful antimicrobial effect on dominant pathogens of periimplant mucositis in patients. Moreover, the effect of decametoxine-based antiseptics on some of them significantly exceeded the activity of chlorhexidine. Conclusions. Microflora from peri-implant area of patients with peri-implant mucositis consists mainly of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, belonging to normal oral microflora. Most of pathogens of mucositis obtaine resistance to antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, lincosamides. Modern antiseptics horosten, decasan and chlorhexidine provide a strong antimicrobial activity against etiological pathogens of mucositis, that makes them promising for use in dental implantology.

  5. Genomic analysis of the causative agents of coccidiosis in domestic chickens

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    Global production of chickens has trebled in the past two decades and they are now the most important source of dietary animal protein worldwide. Chickens are subject to many infectious diseases that reduce their performance and productivity. Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan protozoa of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most important poultry diseases. Understanding the biology of Eimeria parasites underpins development of new drugs and vaccines needed to improve global food security. We have produced annotated genome sequences of all seven species of Eimeria that infect domestic chickens, which reveal the full extent of previously described repeat-rich and repeat-poor regions and show that these parasites possess the most repeat-rich proteomes ever described. Furthermore, while no other apicomplexan has been found to possess retrotransposons, Eimeria is home to a family of chromoviruses. Analysis of Eimeria genes involved in basic biology and host-parasite interaction highlights adaptations to a relatively simple developmental life cycle and a complex array of co-expressed surface proteins involved in host cell binding.

  6. Detection of single bacteria – causative agents of meningitis using Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikova, T V; Alushin, M V; Gonchukov, S A; Minaeva, S A; Bagratashvili, V N; Sundukov, A V; Svistunova, T S

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium

  7. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of medicinal plants against the causative agent of buruli ulcer: Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Keumoe

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results further strengthened the exploitation of these extracts as potent hits in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to fully characterize the bioactive compounds.

  9. Rapid Quantitative Serological Test for Detection of Infection with Mycobacterium leprae, the Causative Agent of Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagon, Marivic F.; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M.; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections. PMID:24478496

  10. The discovery and development of antiretroviral agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Joep M. A.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983/1984, remarkable progress has been made in finding antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) that are effective against it. A major breakthrough occurred in 1996 when it was found that triple drug therapy (HAART) could durably suppress viral

  11. 77 FR 5711 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... provide a technical review of a proposed amendment to the probability of causation guidelines.\\2\\ All of..., and hence had required DOL to assign a probability of causation value of ``zero.'' There were two...

  12. Regularity and counterfactuality in Hume's treatment of causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oscar de Almeida Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the several theories of causation current in our days, Hume is said to be the inspiration of two of the most influential and accepted: the regularity theory, first clearly formulated by Thomas Brown in 1822, and the counterfactual theory, proposed by David Lewis in 1973. After a brief outline of the comparative merits and difficulties of these two views, I proceed to examine whether Hume's own treatment of causation actually corresponds to any of them. I will show that his first definition of cause, coupled with his rules by which to judge about causes and effects, contains elements that, properly developed, allow us to address successfully some traditional difficulties of the regularity view of causation, without resorting to the conceptual resources employed in the counterfactual approach. Therefore, we can properly classify Hume as an advocate of the conception of causation as regularity, noting however that his primary goal in his research and definitions of the concept was to provide not so much an analysis of causation as such, but of causation as we apprehend it, in the form of our ability to make causal inferences and refine them to reach the more sophisticated causal reasonings that are required in the theoretical and practical issues of life.Das diversas teorias da causação existentes em nossos dias, Hume pode ser considerado o precursor de duas das mais influentes e aceitas: a teoria regularista, formulada claramente pela primeira vez por Thomas Brown, em 1822, e a teoria contrafatualista, proposta por David Lewis em 1973. Depois de um breve resumo dos méritos e dificuldades comparativos dessas duas perspectivas, passo a examinar se o tratamento de Hume da causação corresponde, na verdade a algum deles. Mostro que a sua primeira definição de causa, juntamente com suas regras para julgar sobre as causas e efeitos, contém elementos que, devidamente desenvolvidos, permitem-nos abordar com sucesso algumas dificuldades

  13. Bias and Causation Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Herbert I

    2010-01-01

    A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects. Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation pre

  14. Critical review of the probability of causation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.A. Jr.; Fiksel, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In a more controversial report than the others in the study, the authors use one scientific discipline to review the work of another discipline. Their proposal recognizes the imprecision that develops in moving from group to individual interpretations of causal effects by substituting the term assigned share for probability of causation. The authors conclude that the use of a formula will not provide reliable measures of risk attribution in individual cases. The gap between scientific certainty and assigning shares of responsibility must be filled by subjective value judgments supplied by the scientists. 22 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  15. Deletion Mutagenesis and Identification of Causative Mutations in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method for gamma-irradiation of mature maize seeds to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes. We also describe methods for mapping mutants and identifying causal gene mutations. Using this method, a population of 1788M2 families and 47 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes was developed. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we utilized a novel functional genomics platform that combines separate Bulked Segregant RNA and exome sequencing data sets (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. We also describe the use of exome capture sequencing of F2 mutant and normal pools to perform mapping and candidate gene identification without the need for separate RNA-seq (BSEx-seq). To exemplify the utility of the deletion mutants for functional genomics and provide proof-of-concept for the bioinformatics platform, we summarize the identification of the causative deletion in two mutants. Mutant 937, which was characterized by BSREx-seq, harbors a 6203-bp in-frame deletion covering six exons within the Opaque-1 gene on chromosome 4. Preliminary investigation of opaque mutant 1486 with BSEx-seq shows a tight mapping interval and associated deletion on chromosome 10.

  16. Communities, self-causation and the natural lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, E H

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various notions of community, and of the 'natural lottery' as well as investigating the role that 'self-causation' plays in communal obligations. In examining community, two opposing views are juxtaposed: (1) the view that community consists merely of persons united by duties of refraining from harm one to another, resulting in autonomy based justice which makes freedom an absolute condition of mortality; and (2) a broader view which sees the concept of community as entailing obligations of beneficence, resulting in beneficence based justice and which, therefore, sees freedom as a value to be cautiously traded with other values. In examining the 'natural lottery' in the light of community, the various consequences of viewing the lottery in various ways and the impact that our view of community has on these consequences, is explored. A third option, the option that the 'natural lottery' as the cause of illness and health is a shaky concept, is offered. Self-causation of illness and its linkage to concepts of community and of the 'natural lottery' is then briefly examined. It is concluded that (1) community implies a social contract which, in order to be conceived in the first place, necessitates more than a minimalist ethic: to come about, a degree of beneficence inspiring trust is presupposed; (2) conceiving community narrowly is neither what we ordinarily do when we think of the term nor, for that matter, workable in our world.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Acute appendicitis: most common clinical presentation and causative microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.Y.; Shukr, I.; Mahmood, M.A.; Qasmi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most common clinical presentation and causative microorganism for acute appendicitis. Study Design: Descriptive. Place and duration of study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Multan, from June 2002 to May 2004. Patients and Methods: Clinical features of all the patients, older than 5 years of age diagnosed with acute appendicitis were recorded. Patients presented with other pathology which mimic acute appendicitis were excluded from the study. Surgery was done under general anaesthesia. Appendices of all the patient as well as pus swabs from abdominal cavity were sent to the laboratory for histopathology and microbiological cultures to confirm the diagnoses of acute appendicitis and causative organism. Results: The mean age of 75 subjects was 32.56 +- 11.93 years. The most common symptom was pain in right iliac fossa (80 % cases) and the most common physical sign was tenderness (92% cases). Some of the patients(9.3%) had a histologically normal appendix. Maximum isolates on culture were E. coli. Conclusion: The most common presentation of acute appendicitis was pain in right iliac fossa while the most sensitive sign was tenderness. Proper history and sharp clinical examination is the key to diagnosis. The most frequent organism of appendicitis was Escherichia Coli. (author)

  18. Chronic multifocal osteomyelitis: Is infectious causation a moot point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevio Cimolai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chronic multifocal osteomyelitis (CMO is an uncommon disease entity with descriptions possibly emanating from the medical literature over one century ago, and there are numerous disease entities which have been historically detailed and which are probably synonymous. The illness is one of chronicity with exacerbating and remitting focal bony lesions. The differential diagnosis for a bony lesion which ultimately proves to be CMO is initially quite broad. There is no absolute pathognomonic clinical finding, and the diagnosis is highly dependent on clinical course, histopathology, and an absence of microbial infection. Recent studies have focused on immune dysfunction or dysregulation, and there are now many other diseases which are inflammatory in nature and which have been diagnosed among patients with CMO. Despite the aforementioned, the potential for direct infectious causation or indirect causation by infectious stimulation of immunity cannot be entirely excluded. Infection as a mechanism for pathogenesis must continue to be entertained. Multi-centre studies are key to future research. Key words: Osteomyelitis, Infection, SAPHO, Immunity

  19. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  1. Profiles in medical courage: causation and Austin Bradford Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Austin Bradford Hill was a British epidemiologist and statistician who is best remembered for two landmark pulmonary studies. He was the statistician on the Medical Research Council Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trial. This is regarded as the first randomized clinical trial. The second was the demonstration of the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. However, Hill’s most lasting contribution may be his establishment of a group of conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a consequence, widely known as the Bradford Hill Criteria of Causation. In this profile of medical courage we examine his remarkable background that led to the epidemiological equivalent of Koch’s postulates.

  2. Probability of causation for radiogenic cancer in Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, D.P.; Murthy, M.S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Health (NIH), USA has generated tables for probability of causation (PC) for various radiogenic cancers for the population of United States, (NIH 1985). These are based on cancer incidence rates derived from data on the Japanese survivors of atomic bomb, followed up to 1977 and T65D dosimetry system. In 1987, Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a cooperative Japan-United States research organisation published radiation induced risk estimates (absolute and relative) using revised system of dosimetry DS86 and extended follow up of 35 years (Yukiko et al., 1988). In this paper PC has been calculated for the Indian population: i) using absolute risk estimates of RERF and NIH methodology, and ii) using the constant relative risk coefficients (CRR) of RERF. Calculations with new risk coefficients have been extended to the American population and results compared with Indian population. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. Causation and the origin of life. Metabolism or replication first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2004-06-01

    The conceptual gulf that separates the 'metabolism first' and 'replication first' mechanisms for the emergence of life continues to cloud the origin of life debate. In the present paper we analyze this aspect of the origin of life problem and offer arguments in favor of the 'replication first' school. Utilizing Wicken's two-tier approach to causation we argue that a causal connection between replication and metabolism can only be demonstrated if replication would have preceded metabolism. In conjunction with existing empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning, our analysis concludes that there is no substantive evidence for a 'metabolism first' mechanism for life's emergence, while a coherent case can be made for the 'replication first' group of mechanisms. The analysis reaffirms our conviction that life is an extreme expression of kinetic control, and that the emergence of metabolic pathways can be understood by considering life as a manifestation of 'replicative chemistry'.

  4. Cumulative causation, market transition, and emigration from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2008-11-01

    This article reports findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian Province to the United States. Using the ethnosurvey approach developed in the Mexican Migration Project, the authors conducted surveys in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities in New York City. Hypotheses are derived from the international migration literature and the market transition debate. The results are generally consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration; however, geographical location creates some differences in migration patterns to the United States. In China as in Mexico, the existence of migration networks increases the propensity of migration for others in the community. In contrast to the Mexican case, among Chinese immigrants, having a previously migrated household member increases the propensity of other household members to migrate only after the debt for previous migration is paid off. In step with market transition theory, the authors also find that political power influences the migration experience from the coastal Fujian Province.

  5. Illness Causation and Interpretation in a Newar Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the core concerns of medical anthropology is to explore how people in different cultures and social groups explain the causes of ill health, the type of treatment they believe in, and to whom they turn if they do become ill. This article focuses on the understanding of illness causation by the Newars in Kirtipur and their concern about biological and socio-cultural aspects of healthy behavior, and particularly with the ways in which they have been coping in everyday life. The basic method of data collection for this study was formal and informal discussions with the elderly Newar males and females, followed by discussions with youths to explore the variations in their perceptions. The findings show that the understanding of illness etiology is multi-causal. The individual, natural, social, and supernatural causes are not mutually exclusive but are usually linked together in a particular case. In any specific case of illness, moreover, people’s explanatory model varies in how they explain its etiology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6358 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 101-120    

  6. Causative factors for formation of toxic islet amyloid polypeptide oligomer in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye Rin Jeong, Seong Soo A AnDepartment of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and cosecreted with insulin from insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Recently, h-IAPP was proposed to be the main component responsible for the cytotoxic pancreatic amyloid deposits in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Since the causative factors of IAPP (or amylin oligomer aggregation are not fully understood, this review will discuss the various forms of h-IAPP aggregation. Not all forms of IAPP aggregates trigger the destruction of β-cell function and loss of β-cell mass; however, toxic oligomers do trigger these events. Once these toxic oligomers form under abnormal metabolic conditions in T2DM, they can lead to cell disruption by inducing cell membrane destabilization. In this review, the various factors that have been shown to induce toxic IAPP oligomer formation will be presented, as well as the potential mechanism of oligomer and fibril formation from pro-IAPPs. Initially, pro-IAPPs undergo enzymatic reactions to produce the IAPP monomers, which can then develop into oligomers and fibrils. By this mechanism, toxic oligomers could be generated by diverse pathway components. Thus, the interconnections between factors that influence amyloid aggregation (eg, absence of PC2 enzyme, deamidation, reduction of disulfide bonds, environmental factors in the cell, genetic mutations, copper metal ions, and heparin will be presented. Hence, this review will aid in understanding the fundamental causative factors contributing to IAPP oligomer formation and support studies for investigating novel T2DM therapeutic approaches, such as the development of inhibitory agents for preventing oligomerization at the early stages of diabetic pathology.Keywords: amyloid aggregation, causative factor, IAPP, islet

  7. When Russians Learn English: How the Semantics of Causation May Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Ventura, Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    We examined how the semantics of causal expressions in Russian and English might differ and how these differences might lead to changes in the way second language learners understand causal expressions in their first language. According to the dynamics model of causation (Wolff, 2007), expressions of causation based on CAUSE verbs (make, force)…

  8. 76 FR 36891 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 81 [Docket Number NIOSH-0209] RIN 0920-AA39 Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...: HHS published a proposed rule entitled ``Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the...

  9. The Born Rule and Free Will: why Libertarian Agent-Causal Free Will is not "antiscientific"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    In the libertarian "agent causation" view of free will, free choices are attributable only to the choosing agent, as opposed to a specific cause or causes outside the agent. An often-repeated claim in the philosophical literature on free will is that agent causation necessarily implies lawlessness, and is therefore "antiscientific." That claim is critiqued and it is argued, on the contrary, that the volitional powers of a free agent need not be viewed as anomic, specifically with regard to the quantum statistical law (the Born Rule). Assumptions about the role and nature of causation, taken as bearing on volitional agency, are examined and found inadequate to the task. Finally, it is suggested that quantum theory may constitute precisely the sort of theory required for a nomic grounding of libertarian free will.

  10. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  11. use of mutagens in the improvement of itaconic acid production by local isolate of aspergillus terreus ref from raw starchy materials and refused banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A

    2004-01-01

    Itaconic acid (IA) production by local isolate o/Aspergillus terreus RBF from different acid hydrolyzed starchy materials such as corn starch, potato flour, sweet potato flour and market refused banana fruits extract (MRBFex) was investigated. Both production and yield were highest on corn starch with values of 12.9 g/l and 25.44%, respectively. MRBFex was explored as a good substrate for IA production with yield of '20.42%. The efficiency of IA production by this wild type strain was improved by ultraviolet, chemical and mixed mutagenic treatments. Three high IA yielding mutants, NA 2 , NAUV 2 4 and NASA 5 6 were obtained by gradient plating. One of these mutants (NAUV 2 4) was capable of producing about twice the yield of IA as the parent strain from acid hydrolyzed corn starch and/or MRBFex. Higher than 30 g/l of IA was produced by the mutant strain NAUV 2 4 in flask fermentation from medium containing of 120 g/l (as sugar) of MRBFex

  12. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  13. Growth of aspergillus terreus and the production of itaconic acid in batch and continuous cultures. The influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychtera, M.; Wase, J.D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus (NRRL 1960) was cultivated in batch and in continuous single-stage culture. The influence of pH on the growth of the organism, on the formation of itaconic acid and on the kinetics of fermentation was studied under phosphate limitation, both at controlled ph values and also when the pH was allowed to decrease in a natural way. In the pH range 1.7-3.5, the ratio of undissociated:half-dissociated acid varied from 190:1 to 1.5:1. The amount of completely dissociated acid may be regarded as negligible. In batch systems operated without pH control, an initial pH of 3.1 proved to be the most effective. Product formation under such conditions started at a point where the exponential growth phase commenced and was described by a zero-order equation. The maximum itaconic acid production rate was shifted behind maximum growth rate. The continuous single-stage system was first order with respect to product formation. At pH greater than 3.1, a number of aberrant and pellet forms of the mould occurred, resulting in decreased acid production. (Refs. 41).

  14. Daytime Thermal Anisotropy of Urban Neighbourhoods: Morphological Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scott Krayenhoff

    2016-01-01

    results allow first order estimation of the minimum effective anisotropy magnitude of urban neighbourhoods as a function of building-height-to-spacing ratio, building plan area density, and shortwave irradiance. Finally, four “local climate zones” are simulated at two latitudes. Removal of neighbourhood street orientation regularity for these zones decreases maximum anisotropy by 3%–31%. Furthermore, thermal and radiative material properties are a weaker predictor of anisotropy than neighbourhood morphology. This study is the first systematic evaluation of effective anisotropy magnitude and causation for urban landscapes.

  15. Causation of cancer by ionizing radiation and genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The causation of cancer by ionizing radiation has been shown in many epidemiological (with exposed humans) as well as experimental studies with mammals especially mice but also rats, dogs and monkeys. Risk values have been determined in medium radiation dose ranges (∼100 to 2,000 mSv). However, in the low dose range (<100 mSv) the situation is unclear and unsolved up to now. A better knowledge of the mechanisms for the development of cancer in humans over decades after low to medium radiation exposures is necessary for the understanding of the open questions. An increase of chromosomal aberrations and other genetic changes have been frequently observed directly after radiation exposures in many cell systems including human cells. However, in 1989 it was found that an increase of genomic instability occurred after irradiation of mouse zygotes in the fibroblasts of the neonates developing from the irradiated zygotes. That means genomic instability developed many cell generations later in cells which never had been exposed to various qualities of ionizing radiations in vivo and any treatment and secondary cancers developed in photon irradiated M.Hodgkin patients preferentially in those patients who showed a comparatively high genomic instability in their lymphocytes. Since several decades it has been experienced that certain cancer patients show an extremely high radio-sensitivity. This clinical observation has been confirmed by experimental investigations with cells of such patients. It has been proven that this increased radio-sensitivity is due to genetic mutations. A number of syndromes could be defined on such a genetic basis like ataxia telangiectasia, bloom's syndrome, fanconi anemia, retinoblasoma and others. In all these syndromes mutations occur in genes which are to regulation of the cell cycle or DNA repair (preferentially repair of DSBs). These patients with an increased radio-sensitivity frequently develop cancer - very often lymphoma - and they also

  16. Impact of the probability of causation on the radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Although the probability of causation approach is the only scientific basis on which a given cancer can be judged to be causally related to a given exposure, the impact of this concept on the radiation safety program could be counter-productive. As health physicists, the practices and the concepts we employ have been developed to protect the worker. Effective dose equivalent and committed dose equivalent are protective concepts but useless for probability of causation analysis. Perhaps extensive records will be the only way that good radiation protection and probability of causation analysis can coexist

  17. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  18. NEURO-VASCULAR CONFLICT AS CAUSATIVE FACTOR IN IDI-OPATHIC TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most unbearable pain syndromes in one or more branches of trigeminal nerve. The basic pathology is still poorly understood 1. Two divergent view points, central versus peripheral have been presented to explain the possible mechanism 2. In spite of numerous favorable reports, the neurovascular conflict theory remains contra-vertical 3. Nevertheless, whether or not, neurovascular compression is accessory or predominant in the mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia is not yet determined. Although neurovascular compression and global atrophy of the root, a focal arachnoid thickening and angulated root on crossing over the petrous ridge have been observed. Yet, neurovascular conflict has made responsible as the main cause of this neuralgia 4. This lead to focal demylination of the nerve due to its pulsatile compression. Demylination result in short circuiting of neuronal flow and hence trigeminal neuralgia 5.      Present study was therefore designed as to appreciate neurovascular conflict as causative agent in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Material and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in department of Neurosurgery Government Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar where microvascular decompression is performed as a primary procedure of choice for patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The duration of this study was from May 2003 – to June 2007. Total number of patients operated was 86. Drug resistant cases of trigeminal neuralgia that were   willing for operation was selected and proper clinical record was documented. MRI was done in all patients to exclude secondary causes of trigeminal Neuralgia. Under general Anesthesia in lateral position, small 2.5x2.5cm retro-mastoid craniotomy was performed. All these cases were operated by one surgeon with a team of associate’s doctors. Microscopic per-operative anatomical findings were recorded. Any possible per-operative complications

  19. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  20. Finding the best fit for direct and indirect causation: a typological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levshina Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contrast between direct and indirect causation is the most widely discussed semantic distinction in the literature on causative constructions. This distinction has been claimed to correlate with a number of formal parameters, such as formal distance, productivity and length, which are linked to different functional and diachronic explanations based on the principles of iconicity and economy. The present study tests these claims on a typologically representative sample of languages from 46 diverse families, examining four formal variables and their association with (indirectness of causation. According to the data, formal length displays the most pervasive association with the semantic distinction in question, which supports the economy-based explanation. In addition, the relative prominence of the other formal parameters depends on the type of causatives and their stage of grammaticalization.

  1. Towards an Account of Causation in a Multilingual Text Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Degand, Liesbeth; Seventh International Workshop on Natural Language Generation

    1994-01-01

    Causation is a very pervasive phenomenom in natural language which can be expressed by numerous linguistic alternatives. Any language user or natural language generation system is thus confronted with the problem of choosing one alternative over another. In this paper, I analyze the semantic constraints deterrnining the selection of analytic causatives in Dutch and how this can be accounted for in a systernic functional generation system.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of “Terrein” an Antimicrobial and Antitumor Compound from Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus terreus (JAS-2) Associated from Achyranthus aspera Varanasi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutam, Jyoti; Sharma, Gunjan; Tiwari, Vinod K.; Mishra, Amrita; Kharwar, Ravindra N.; Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing biological potentials of endophyte Aspergillus terreus JAS-2 isolated from Achyranthus aspera. Crude extracted from endophytic fungus JAS-2 was purified and chemically characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic studies respectively. Spectral assignment of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) data, 1H proton and 13C carbon analysis along with FTIR data elucidated the structure of compound as 4,5-Dihydroxy-3-(1-propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one. After purification and identification a set of experiment was conducted to explore efficacy of compound. Results revealed that on accessing the antifungal activity of compound, growth diameter of tested phytopathogenic fungi was reduced to 50% at higher concentration taken (10 μgμl−1). Compound exhibited in-vitro bacterial cell inhibition at 20 μgml−1 concentration along with moderate antioxidant behavior. Evaluation of anticancer activity against human lung cancer cell line (A-549) exhibited its IC50 value to be 121.9 ± 4.821 μgml−1. Further cell cycle phase distribution were analyzed on the basis of DNA content and evaluated by FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting) and it was revealed that at 150 μgml−1 of compound maximum cells were found in sub G1 phase which represents apoptotic dead cells. Terrein (4, 5-Dihydroxy-3-(1-propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one) a multi-potential was isolated from endophytic fungus JAS-2, from well recognized medicinal herb A. aspera. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report of “Terrein” from endophytic derived fungus. This compound had also exhibited anticancer and antifungal activity against human lung cancer cell line A-549 and Bipolaris sorokiniana respectively which is causal organism of many plants disease. Hence endophytes are serving as alternative sources of drug molecules. PMID:28790982

  3. Incorporation of causative quantitative trait nucleotides in single-step GBLUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, Breno O; Lourenco, Daniela A L; Masuda, Yutaka; Legarra, Andres; Misztal, Ignacy

    2017-07-26

    Much effort is put into identifying causative quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) in animal breeding, empowered by the availability of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information. Genomic selection using traditional SNP information is easily implemented for any number of genotyped individuals using single-step genomic best linear unbiased predictor (ssGBLUP) with the algorithm for proven and young (APY). Our aim was to investigate whether ssGBLUP is useful for genomic prediction when some or all QTN are known. Simulations included 180,000 animals across 11 generations. Phenotypes were available for all animals in generations 6 to 10. Genotypes for 60,000 SNPs across 10 chromosomes were available for 29,000 individuals. The genetic variance was fully accounted for by 100 or 1000 biallelic QTN. Raw genomic relationship matrices (GRM) were computed from (a) unweighted SNPs, (b) unweighted SNPs and causative QTN, (c) SNPs and causative QTN weighted with results obtained with genome-wide association studies, (d) unweighted SNPs and causative QTN with simulated weights, (e) only unweighted causative QTN, (f-h) as in (b-d) but using only the top 10% causative QTN, and (i) using only causative QTN with simulated weight. Predictions were computed by pedigree-based BLUP (PBLUP) and ssGBLUP. Raw GRM were blended with 1 or 5% of the numerator relationship matrix, or 1% of the identity matrix. Inverses of GRM were obtained directly or with APY. Accuracy of breeding values for 5000 genotyped animals in the last generation with PBLUP was 0.32, and for ssGBLUP it increased to 0.49 with an unweighted GRM, 0.53 after adding unweighted QTN, 0.63 when QTN weights were estimated, and 0.89 when QTN weights were based on true effects known from the simulation. When the GRM was constructed from causative QTN only, accuracy was 0.95 and 0.99 with blending at 5 and 1%, respectively. Accuracies simulating 1000 QTN were generally lower, with a similar trend. Accuracies using the

  4. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  5. Vitamin D in endometriosis: a causative or confounding factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Lamia; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj; Nassar, Anwar H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the evidence from studies that evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and endometriosis. Comprehensive review. Systematic literature search in Medline for relevant publications from 1946 until June 2013. Endometriosis risk may be influenced by dietary vitamin D intake and plasma hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, 24-hydroxylase and 1-α hydroxylase, are found in the normal cycling endometrium and also in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. The endometrium is a target of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D actions through regulation of specific genes and via immunomodulation. The endometrium in endometriosis expresses dysregulation of some vitamin D enzymes and receptors. If vitamin D and its metabolites are implicated in endometriosis-associated infertility, it is likely through interference with HOXA10 gene expression. The Gc2 phenotype of vitamin D binding protein is prevalent in women with endometriosis and may be implicated in its pathogenesis. In a mouse model, Elocalcitol, a VDR-agonist was shown to reduce the development of endometriotic lesions and recurrence. A biological plausibility for a role of vitamin D, as an immunomodulator and anti-inflammatory agent, in the pathogenesis and treatment of endometriosis is suggested in this article, but is difficult to illustrate due to sparse evidence from human studies limited primarily to case-control studies. A significant knowledge gap precludes the establishment of a clear cause-effect relationship. The intriguing leads presented herein need to be investigated further with placebo-controlled supplementation trials. © 2013.

  6. Trends in peptic ulcer disease and the identification of Helicobacter Pylori as a causative organism: Population-based estimates from the US nationwide inpatient sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Bashinskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease can lead to serious complications including massive hemorrhage or bowel perforation. The modern treatment of peptic ulcer disease has transitioned from the control of gastric acid secretion to include antibiotic therapy in light of the identification of Helicobacter pylori as a causative infectious organism. We sought to determine trends related to this discovery by using a national database. Materials and Methods: Patient discharges with peptic ulcer disease and associated sequelae were queried from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2007, under the auspices of a data user agreement. To account for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample weighting schema, design-adjusted analyses were used. Standard error was calculated using SUDAAN software (Research Triangle International, NC, USA. Results: Decreases in the incidences of gastrointestinal perforation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and surgical procedures most specific to peptic ulcer disease were statistically significant over the study period [range of P value (two tailed = 0.000 - 0.00353; significant at P < 0.001 to < 0.01]. The incidence of H. pylori rose dramatically, peaking at an estimated 97,823 cases in 1998 [SE = 3155; 95% CI = 6,184]. Since that time it has decreased and then stabilized. Conclusions: The identification of H. pylori as the causative agent in the majority of peptic ulcer disease has revolutionized the understanding and management of the disease. Medical conditions and surgical procedures associated with end-stage peptic ulcer disease have significantly decreased according to analysis of selected index categories. Resident physician education objectives may need to be modified in light of these trends. Review Criteria: We reviewed patients with peptic ulcer disease. The database used was the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2007. Message for the Clinic: Medical therapy has resulted in decreased morbidity from H. pylori infection as it

  7. Heterogenity of Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 - the main causative agent of cystic echinococcosis in Birjand, Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Fatemeh; Hemmati, Mina; Taylor, Walter Robert; Salehabadi, Alireza; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-15

    Little is known about the genotypes of Echinococcus spp. and their life cycles in eastern Iran. We analysed the partial sequences of the nad1 and cox1 genes from 17 isolates from hydatid cyst-infected patients (n=9), camels (n=5) and sheep (n=3) in Birjand, eastern Iran. A new primer pair was also used to amplify the long fragment (1180bp) of the cox1 gene. All camel and eight human isolates were G6 strains of Echinococcus canadensis while one human isolate and the three sheep isolates were G1 genotypes (sheep strain) of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.). Nad1 and cox1 sequence analyses showed high G6 genetic homogeneity, similar to previously reported G6 strains from southeast and central Iran, Sudan and Mauritania. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity similar to G6 strains from Russia (Altai republic) and Kazakhstan was also found, consistent with a bottleneck effect. In this study, G6 was the most common Echinococcus genotype. Genetic homogeneity of east, southeast and central Iranian G6 and its low genetic diversity may be due limited mobility and contact between humans and camels from other regions because of large, inhospitable deserts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Drinking water regulations in Ukraine and infectious morbidity rate with water pathway of transmission of causative agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I; Mikhienkova, A I; Nikonova, N A; Rosada, M A

    2013-01-01

    These are presented drinking water regulations in Ukraine on microbiological indices in the new state document "Hygienic Drinking water regulations intended for human consumption" (State sanitary regulations and standards (GsanPiN) 2.2.4-171-10). There is reported an analysis of both the open waterbodies water quality and water for centralized water supply in 2007-2011 and 1992-1996 also on sanitary-bacteriological indices for performance of comparative retrospective analysis. There has been shown water quality degradation for open waterbodies, the main sources of water supply for population. Against this background, a marked improvement of drinking water quality has been noted, the number of non-standard samples decreased to 3.6 % compared with 8.8% in the preceding 15 years. This index correlates with a decrease in the number of outbreaks of infections transmitted by water. There was noted unsatisfactory registration of viral infections with water pathway of transmission and the increase in morbidity rate of gastroenterocolitides of unknown etiology that may include acute viral intestinal infections. Expediency to keep "fermentation of glucose" test in bacteriological examination of water in the identification scheme of general coliforms has been substantiated.

  9. Screening, cloning and expression analysis of a cellulase derived from the causative agent of hypertrophy sorosis scleroteniosis, Ciboria shiraiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ruihua; Zhao, Aichun; Li, Jun; Liu, Changying; Wang, Chuanhong; Wang, Xiling; Wang, Xiaohong; Pei, Ruichao; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-07-10

    A cellulase gene (KJ700939, CsCelA) from Ciboria shiraiana that is highly expressed during the infection of mulberry fruit was screened by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Using cDNA isolated from infected mulberry fruits as template, the full-length 1170-bp sequence of CsCelA was obtained, which encodes a 390-amino acid protein with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids. The 998-bp fragment encoding the mature peptide of CsCelA was cloned into the multiple cloning site of the pPIC9K vector and overexpressed as an active protein of 55.3kDa in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The specific activity of induced supernatants of the recombinant cellulase (CsCelA) was 17.44U/ml and 135U/g for freeze-dried powder. The Kmax and Vmax of CsCelA for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were 4.6mg/ml and 107.2U/mg, respectively. The supernatant and freeze-dried powder of the recombinant cellulase exhibited stable activity from pH4.0 to 9.0, and at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 55°C. Finally, the activity of the recombinant cellulase was assessed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls of mulberry leaves. CsCelA showed an endo-cellulase mode of cleavage, as assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Mycobacterium leprae Br4923, a causative agent of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae is an intracellular obligate parasite that causes leprosy in humans, and it leads to the destruction of peripheral nerves and skin deformation. Here, we report an extensive analysis of the hypothetical proteins (HPs) from M. leprae strain Br4923, assigning their functions to better understand the mechanism of pathogenesis and to search for potential therapeutic interventions. The genome of M. leprae encodes 1604 proteins, of which the functions of 632 are not known (HPs). In this paper, we predicted the probable functions of 312 HPs. First, we classified all HPs into families and subfamilies on the basis of sequence similarity, followed by domain assignment, which provides many clues for their possible function. However, the functions of 320 proteins were not predicted because of low sequence similarity with proteins of known function. Annotated HPs were categorized into enzymes, binding proteins, transporters, and proteins involved in cellular processes. We found several novel proteins whose functions were unknown for M. leprae. These proteins have a requisite association with bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. Finally, our sequence-based analysis will be helpful for further validation and the search for potential drug targets while developing effective drugs to cure leprosy.

  11. Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus: Emergence of a primary pathogen, the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David

    2017-01-01

    Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, aff. Thelebolales) are closely related groups of globally occurring soil-associated fungi. Recently, these genera of fungi have received attention because a newly identified species, Pseudogymnoascus (initially classified as Geomyces) destructans, was discovered in association with significant and unusual mortality of hibernating bats in North America (Blehert et al. 2009; Gargas et al. 2009; Minnis and Linder 2013). This emergent disease called bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), has since caused drastic declines in populations of hibernating bats in the United States and Canada (Turner, Reeder, and Coleman 2011; Thogmartin et al. 2012) and threatens some species with regional extinction (Frick et al. 2010; Langwig et al. 2012; Thogmartin et al. 2013). As primary predators of insects and keystone species for cave ecosystems, the loss of bats due to WNS has important economic and ecological implications.

  12. Long-Term Persistence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome, in the Absence of Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Langwig, Kate E; Okoniewski, Joseph; Frick, Winifred F; Stone, Ward B; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife diseases have been implicated in the declines and extinctions of several species. The ability of a pathogen to persist outside its host, existing as an "environmental reservoir", can exacerbate the impact of a disease and increase the likelihood of host extinction. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal pathogen that causes white-nose syndrome in bats, has been found in cave soil during the summer when hibernating bats had likely been absent for several months. However, whether the pathogen can persist over multiple years in the absence of bats is unknown, and long-term persistence of the pathogen can influence whether hibernacula where bats have been locally extirpated due to disease can be subsequently recolonized. Here, we show that P. destructans is capable of long-term persistence in the laboratory in the absence of bats. We cultured P. destructans from dried agar plates that had been kept at 5°C and low humidity conditions (30-40% RH) for more than 5 years. This suggests that P. destructans can persist in the absence of bats for long periods which may prevent the recolonization of hibernation, sites where bat populations were extirpated. This increases the extinction risk of bats affected by this disease.

  13. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Sally; Dias, Itamar; Korn, Victoria L; Bennett, Joan W

    2018-04-10

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans . The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 °C. Here we report the efficacy of vapor phase mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol) for inhibiting mycelial and conidiospore growth of P. destructans at 0.4 and 0.8 µmol/mL and demonstrate that the R enantiomer of this compound is more effective than the S enantiomer, supporting the finding that biological systems can be sensitive to stereochemistry. Further, we report that vapor phase leaf aldehyde ( trans -2-hexenal), a common aroma compound associated with cut grass odors and also the major volatile compound in extra virgin olive oil, is more effective than mushroom alcohol. At 0.05 µmol/mL, trans -2-hexenal is fungicidal to both conidiospores and mycelia of P. destructans .

  14. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  15. Spitting Image: Tick Saliva Assists the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease in Evading Host Skin's Innate Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through ticks. Inhibition of host skin's innate immune response might be instrumental to both tick feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission. The article by Marchal et al. describes how tick saliva suppresses B.

  16. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Padhi; Itamar Dias; Victoria L. Korn; Joan W. Bennett

    2018-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans. The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at t...

  17. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Hoyt

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  18. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Padhi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans. The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 °C. Here we report the efficacy of vapor phase mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol for inhibiting mycelial and conidiospore growth of P. destructans at 0.4 and 0.8 µmol/mL and demonstrate that the R enantiomer of this compound is more effective than the S enantiomer, supporting the finding that biological systems can be sensitive to stereochemistry. Further, we report that vapor phase leaf aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal, a common aroma compound associated with cut grass odors and also the major volatile compound in extra virgin olive oil, is more effective than mushroom alcohol. At 0.05 µmol/mL, trans-2-hexenal is fungicidal to both conidiospores and mycelia of P. destructans.

  19. Triphenylmethane derivatives have high in vitro and in vivo activity against the main causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Celi Carvalho de Souza Pietra

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is organic antimonial compounds, but the administration of these compounds is complicated by a low therapeutic - toxic index, as well as parenteral administration. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new and inexpensive therapies for the treatment of CL. In this study, we evaluate the activity of the triphenylmethane (TPM class of compounds against three species of Leishmania which are pathogenic in humans. The TPM have a history of safe use in humans, dating back to the use of the original member of this class, gentian violet (GV, from the early 20(th century. Initially, the in vitro efficacy against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, L. (Leishmania amazonensis and L. (L. major of 9 newly synthesized TPM, in addition to GV, was tested. Inhibitory concentrations (IC IC(50 of 0.025 to 0.84 µM had been found in promastigotes in vitro assays. The four most effective compounds were then tested in amastigote intracellular assays, resulting in IC(50 of 0.10 to 1.59 µM. A high degree of selectivity of antiparasitic activity over toxicity to mammalian cells was observed. Afterwards, GV and TPM 6 were tested in a topical formulation in mice infected with L. (L. amazonensis leading to elimination of parasite burdens at the site of lesion/infection. These results demonstrated that TPM present significant anti-leishmanial activities and provide a rationale for human clinical trials of GV and other TPM. TPM are inexpensive and safe, thus using them for treatment of CL may have a major impact on public health.

  20. Immunomodulation and disease resistance in postyearling rainbow trout infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxosporean parasite that causes whirling disease, has a number of deleterious effects on its salmonid host. Although it is well established that juvenile salmonids in the active stages of whirling disease mount an immune response to the pathogen, the occurrence and longevity of any related immunomodulatory effects are unknown. In this study, postyearling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with M. cerebralis were examined for leukocyte functions and for resistance to Yersinia ruckeri, a bacterial pathogen of salmonids. Compared with uninfected controls, M. cerebralis-infected fish showed lower proliferative lymphocyte responses to four mitogens (concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide). Conversely, M. cerebralis-infected fish displayed greater bactericidal activity of anterior kidney macrophages than did uninfected fish. After bath challenges with K. ruckeri, M. cerebralis-infected fish had slightly lower survival and a more rapid onset of mortality than did the control fish. Renal tissue and fecal samples from M. cerebralis-infected and uninfected survivors were cultured for the presence of K. ruckeri, and no difference in prevalence was noted between the two groups. Because immunomodulatory changes in the M. cerebralis-infected fish involved functional enhancement and suppression of different leukocyte populations, disease resistance among M. cerebralis-infected fish in the later stages of whirling disease will probably vary with the secondary pathogen and the nature of immune response the pathogen evokes.

  1. New microbes as causative agents of Ibuprofen degradation capabilities in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, Cyrus; Posselt, Malte; Horn, Marcus A.

    2017-04-01

    Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain reliever and among pharmaceutical residues detected in aquatic environments. Widespread use of the drug and incomplete removal during waste water treatment results in its persistence in effluents and receiving waters. Potential total removal by microbial activity in the hyporheic zone (HZ) of rivers downstream of wastewater treatment plant discharge sites has been hypothesized. Ibuprofen degradation associated microbial communities in are essentially unknown. To address this hypothesis, two sets of oxic HZ sediment microcosms spiked with ibuprofen only (5, 40, 200 and 400 µM), or ibuprofen and 1 mM acetate were set up under laboratory conditions. Ibuprofen degradation in non-sterile relative to autoclaved sediments indicated removal by microbial degradation. Ibuprofen was completely consumed in the absence and presence of supplemental acetate after approximately 11 and 16 days, respectively. Refeeding of ibuprofen and acetate after the first depletion resulted in complete degradation within 24 hours in all treatments. Metabolites of ibuprofen included 1-, 2-, 3-hydroxy- and carboxyibuprofen. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in copy numbers of 16S rRNA gene or transcripts between non-spiked controls and treatments. Time resolved triplicate amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed increased relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes in treatments with compared to those without ibuprofen. Alpha-, Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria were most active as indicated by RNA based analyses. Enrichment and isolation yielded new Alphaproteobacteria utilizing ibuprofen as sole carbon and energy source. The collective results indicated that (i) HZ sediments sustain efficient biotic (micro-)pollutant removal and (ii) are a reservoir of hitherto unknown microbial diversity associated with such ecosystem services, including the genera Fodinicola, Hyphobacterium, and subgroup 6 Acidobacteria.

  2. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses....... The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... subjects. Therefore, a humid indoor climate could also represent a higher risk for persons already sensitized to one or more allergens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In epidemiological studies where the relationship between moisture in the indoor climate, respiratory symptoms and exposure to allergens...

  3. Acute suppurative appendicitis associated with Enterobius vermicularis: an incidental finding or a causative agent? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efared, Boubacar; Atsame-Ebang, Gabrielle; Soumana, Boubacar Marou; Tahiri, Layla; Hammas, Nawal; El Fatemi, Hinde; Chbani, Laila

    2017-10-06

    Histological acute appendicitis patterns associated with Enterobius vermicularis is an extremely rare finding. The exact role of this parasite in acute appendicitis is controversial as usually resected specimens show no evidence of histological inflammation. We present herein a case of a 21-year-old male Arabic patient who presented with clinical syndrome of acute appendicitis. Emergency appendectomy was performed and the histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed the presence of E. vermicularis as well as intense acute inflammatory patterns such as mucosal ulceration and suppurative necrosis. The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with appropriate anti-helmintic drug prescription. Acute appendicitis due to E. vermicularis is a very rare occurrence. The histopathological analysis of resected specimens should pay special attention to search for this parasite for adequate post-operative treatment of patients.

  4. Testing of inhibition activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae – the causative agent of American foulbrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kuzyšinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American foulbrood is a dangerous world-wide spread disease of honey bees caused by the Paenibacillus larvae bacterium. Antibiotic treatments are less effective and leave residues in bee products. It is therefore necessary to find an alternative, especially using natural ingredients such as plant essential oils, probiotics, fatty or organic acids. Two strains of P. larvae were used for this study: CCM 4488, a strain from the Czech collection of micro-organisms and a Slovak field strain which was isolated from infected bee combs and characterized on the basis of biochemical properties. Plant essential oils of sage (Salvia officinalis, anise (Pimpinella anisum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, caraway (Carum carvi, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinum officinalis, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, camomile (Chamomilla recutita and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare were used for the testing of the inhibitory activity against P. larvae. Essential oils at amounts of 5 µl and 10 µl were applied to sterile discs on MYPGP agar; inhibition zone diameters were measured after 24-h incubation at 37 °C. The strongest inhibitory activity against both P. larvae strains was noted in case of the essential oils from oregano, thyme and clove; essential oils from camomile, rosemary and fennel showed no or weak antibacterial activity. Medium strong inhibition activity was recorded in case of previously untested essential oil from Carum carvi. There was a difference in sensitivity of both tested strains to essential oils. Our study confirmed that some essential oils can be used in the prevention of American foulbrood but further experiments aimed at their influence on physiological intestinal microflora of honey bees must be performed.

  5. Migraine and the social selection vs causation hypotheses: a question larger than either/or?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, B Lee; Scher, Ann I

    2013-09-10

    For decades, the question of social selection vs social causation has been raised by public health researchers and social scientists to explain the association between socioeconomic factors and mood disorders.(1,2) The social selection or "downward drift" theory postulates that the disease itself limits an individual's educational and occupational achievements, leading to a lower socioeconomic status (SES). In contrast, the social causation hypothesis suggests that factors associated with low SES (e.g., stressful life events, poor health care access) increase the likelihood of disease onset or prolonged disease duration.(3,4) Simply stated, the end result of each hypothesis is as follows:

  6. Text-analytic Measurement of Effectuation and Causation Orientations among Small and Global Business Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Helmersson, Helge

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate how one can measure overall quality in texts gathered from interviews by means of PERTEX text analytic method. We compare text analytic measures and content for locally active Scandinavian small business managers and globally operating Indian IT managers when recapitulating......-components we are also able to display the degree of fragmentation, focus and integration in the text. We show how AFFI measures differ between managers with a causation or effectuation orientation irrespective of their role as small business manager or as an established global manager. Hence, we posit...... that effectuation and causation orientations may be generic characteristic of managers in general....

  7. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah; Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo; Achmadi Bambang Sulistiyono; Masao Furusho

    2017-01-01

    Causative chain (CC) is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA). This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF), an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA). MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is C...

  8. How can physics underlie the mind? top-down causation in the human context

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George

    2016-01-01

    Physics underlies all complexity, including our own existence: how is this possible? How can our own lives emerge from interactions of electrons, protons, and neutrons? This book considers the interaction of physical and non-physical causation in complex systems such as living beings, and in particular in the human brain, relating this to the emergence of higher levels of complexity with real causal powers. In particular it explores the idea of top-down causation, which is the key effect allowing the emergence of true complexity and also enables the causal efficacy of non-physical entities, including the value of money, social conventions, and ethical choices.

  9. Proof of causation through expert opinion evidence in low-level radiation cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideck, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tort law requires that the injured person prove that the injury was caused by a particular exposure to radiation for which the defendant is responsible. Heideck shows how expert evidence helps the court or jury resolve this question. The author analyzes a recent effort to bridge the gap between the legal requirement of proof of causation in individual cases and the conclusions that derive from group statistics. Some scientists argue that this approach is more technically sound than traditional tort law because it attempts to develop a probability of causation in individual cases

  10. The complete linkage disequilibrium test: a test that points to causative mutations underlying quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uleberg Eivind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically, SNP that are in complete linkage disequilibrium with the causative SNP cannot be distinguished from the causative SNP. The Complete Linkage Disequilibrium (CLD test presented here tests whether a SNP is in complete LD with the causative mutation or not. The performance of the CLD test is evaluated in 1000 simulated datasets. Methods The CLD test consists of two steps i.e. analysis I and analysis II. Analysis I consists of an association analysis of the investigated region. The log-likelihood values from analysis I are next ranked in descending order and in analysis II the CLD test evaluates differences in log-likelihood ratios between the best and second best markers. Under the null-hypothesis distribution, the best SNP is in greater LD with the QTL than the second best, while under the alternative-CLD-hypothesis, the best SNP is alike-in-state with the QTL. To find a significance threshold, the test was also performed on data excluding the causative SNP. The 5th, 10th and 50th highest TCLD value from 1000 replicated analyses were used to control the type-I-error rate of the test at p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively. Results In a situation where the QTL explained 48% of the phenotypic variance analysis I detected a QTL in 994 replicates (p = 0.001, where 972 were positioned in the correct QTL position. When the causative SNP was excluded from the analysis, 714 replicates detected evidence of a QTL (p = 0.001. In analysis II, the CLD test confirmed 280 causative SNP from 1000 simulations (p = 0.05, i.e. power was 28%. When the effect of the QTL was reduced by doubling the error variance, the power of the test reduced relatively little to 23%. When sequence data were used, the power of the test reduced to 16%. All SNP that were confirmed by the CLD test were positioned in the correct QTL position. Conclusions The CLD test can provide evidence for a causative SNP, but its power may be low in situations

  11. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  12. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  13. Proof of Causation in Medical Malpractice Cases in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 195-205 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2574 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * liability * medical malpractice cases Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. Contemporary Thinking about Causation in Evaluation: A Dialogue with Tom Cook and Michael Scriven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.; Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Evergreen, Stephanie D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Legitimate knowledge claims about causation have been a central concern among evaluators and applied researchers for several decades and often have been the subject of heated debates. In recent years these debates have resurfaced with a renewed intensity, due in part to the priority currently being given to randomized experiments by many funders…

  15. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  16. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  17. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Haider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As member of the International Labour Organization (ILO Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls, households, etc. through purposive sampling. The data were collected via a questionnaire which was completed by a sample of 547 working children. The findings of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA explored four factors from the research. Multilevel analyses were calculated to pinpoint the causative factors of child labour. The study results revealed that, due to family responsibilities, a lack of educational opportunities for children from low-income families, and increasing poverty, children develop an interest in working to earn their livelihood at the cost of their education. The children are involved in labour because their parents cannot meet their personal and educational requirements.

  18. Stress fractures of the ribs and upper extremities: causation, evaluation, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Harris, Joshua D; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2013-08-01

    Stress fractures are common troublesome injuries in athletes and non-athletes. Historically, stress fractures have been thought to predominate in the lower extremities secondary to the repetitive stresses of impact loading. Stress injuries of the ribs and upper extremities are much less common and often unrecognized. Consequently, these injuries are often omitted from the differential diagnosis of rib or upper extremity pain. Given the infrequency of this diagnosis, few case reports or case series have reported on their precipitating activities and common locations. Appropriate evaluation for these injuries requires a thorough history and physical examination. Radiographs may be negative early, requiring bone scintigraphy or MRI to confirm the diagnosis. Nonoperative and operative treatment recommendations are made based on location, injury classification, and causative activity. An understanding of the most common locations of upper extremity stress fractures and their associated causative activities is essential for prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment.

  19. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Li, Ke-Ping; Luo, Zi-Yan; Zhou, Jin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents.

  20. How emotion shapes behavior: feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D; DeWall, C Nathan; Zhang, Liqing

    2007-05-01

    Fear causes fleeing and thereby saves lives: this exemplifies a popular and common sense but increasingly untenable view that the direct causation of behavior is the primary function of emotion. Instead, the authors develop a theory of emotion as a feedback system whose influence on behavior is typically indirect. By providing feedback and stimulating retrospective appraisal of actions, conscious emotional states can promote learning and alter guidelines for future behavior. Behavior may also be chosen to pursue (or avoid) anticipated emotional outcomes. Rapid, automatic affective responses, in contrast to the full-blown conscious emotions, may inform cognition and behavioral choice and thereby help guide current behavior. The automatic affective responses may also remind the person of past emotional outcomes and provide useful guides as to what emotional outcomes may be anticipated in the present. To justify replacing the direct causation model with the feedback model, the authors review a large body of empirical findings.

  1. DeepPVP: phenotype-based prioritization of causative variants using deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2018-05-02

    Background: Prioritization of variants in personal genomic data is a major challenge. Recently, computational methods that rely on comparing phenotype similarity have shown to be useful to identify causative variants. In these methods, pathogenicity prediction is combined with a semantic similarity measure to prioritize not only variants that are likely to be dysfunctional but those that are likely involved in the pathogenesis of a patient\\'s phenotype. Results: We have developed DeepPVP, a variant prioritization method that combined automated inference with deep neural networks to identify the likely causative variants in whole exome or whole genome sequence data. We demonstrate that DeepPVP performs significantly better than existing methods, including phenotype-based methods that use similar features. DeepPVP is freely available at https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/phenomenet-vp Conclusions: DeepPVP further improves on existing variant prioritization methods both in terms of speed as well as accuracy.

  2. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xin; Li Ke-Ping; Luo Zi-Yan; Zhou Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Multiple Statistical Models Based Analysis of Causative Factors and Loess Landslides in Tianshui City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Meng, Xingmin; Ye, Weilin; Wu, Weijiang; Liu, Xingrong; Wei, Wanhong

    2018-03-01

    Tianshui City is one of the mountainous cities that are threatened by severe geo-hazards in Gansu Province, China. Statistical probability models have been widely used in analyzing and evaluating geo-hazards such as landslide. In this research, three approaches (Certainty Factor Method, Weight of Evidence Method and Information Quantity Method) were adopted to quantitively analyze the relationship between the causative factors and the landslides, respectively. The source data used in this study are including the SRTM DEM and local geological maps in the scale of 1:200,000. 12 causative factors (i.e., altitude, slope, aspect, curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, roughness, relief amplitude, and distance to rivers, distance to faults, distance to roads, and the stratum lithology) were selected to do correlation analysis after thorough investigation of geological conditions and historical landslides. The results indicate that the outcomes of the three models are fairly consistent.

  4. Causation and Effectuation Processes: Opportunity Discovery and Exploitation Logics of Habitual Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs (i.e. serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) discover and exploit opportunities, deal with risk and uncertainty, predict or control the future, and plan their businesses based on a causation and effectuation perspective. This study thereby uncovered...... the causation and effectuation logics applied by habitual entrepreneurs with regard to four dimensions of the venture creation: View of the future (VF), Opportunity Discovery (OD), Opportunity Exploitation (OE), and Dealing with Risk (DR). Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined...... criteria, where sampled and case studies performed. The findings clearly indicate that habitual entrepreneurs mainly apply an effectual logic with regards to the four dimensions examined. Some of the more inexperienced habitual entrepreneurs tend to apply both logics, but almost exclusively become...

  5. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Causative Microorganisms in Intensive Care Unit: A Two Year Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Palabıyık; Yaşar Toptaş; Aziz Öğütlü

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care units (ICUs). It causes prolonged hospital stay and increases mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the rate of VAP, causative microorganisms, and their antibiotic susceptibilities in anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU (ARICU). Material and Method: This retrospective study included patients who were admitted to 12-bed ARICU between January 2013 and December 2014. The ...

  6. New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, David W.; Caplan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that...

  7. UV causation of melanoma in Xiphophorus is dominated by melanin photosensitized oxidant production

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Simon R.; Berwick, Marianne; Ley, Ronald D.; Walter, Ronald B.; Setlow, Richard B.; Timmins, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Controversy continues both as to which wavelengths of sunlight cause melanoma and the mechanisms by which these different wavelengths act. Direct absorption of UVB by DNA is central in albino animal models, but melanin-pigmented models have shown major contributions by wavelengths longer than UVB that are thought to be mediated by photosensitized oxidant production. The only model for which the action spectrum of melanoma causation is known is a genetically melanoma-susceptible specific cross...

  8. Moxifloxacin susceptibility mediates the relationship between causative organism and clinical outcome in bacterial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Bharathi, M Jayahar; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Nardone, Natalie; Ray, Kathryn J; Glidden, David V; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M

    2013-02-28

    Bacterial keratitis is a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is one of the leading causes of blindness globally. In this report, we analyze the role of moxifloxacin susceptibility in the relationship between causative organisms and clinical outcome in bacteria keratitis. A mediation analysis is used to assess the role of moxifloxacin susceptibility in the relationship between causative organisms and clinical outcome in bacterial keratitis using data collected in a randomized, controlled trial. In the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT), 500 corneal infections were treated with topical moxifloxacin. The outcome of 3-week best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was significantly associated with an organism (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc., P = 0.008). An indirect effects mediation model suggests that MIC accounted for approximately 13% (95% confidence interval, 3%-24%, P = 0.015) of the effect of the organism on 3-week visual acuity. Moxifloxacin mediates the relationship between causative organisms and clinical outcome in bacterial keratitis, and is likely on the causal pathway between the organism and outcome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.).

  9. Decadal trends in beach morphology on the east coast of South Africa and likely causative factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy shorelines are dynamic with constant changes that can cause hazards in developed areas. The causes of change may be either natural or anthropogenic. This paper evaluates evidence for shoreline changes and their causative factors using a case study on the east coast of South Africa. Beach morphology trends were found to be location-specific, but overall the beaches show a receding trend. It was hypothesized that wave, tide, sea level and wind trends as well as anthropogenic influences are causative factors, and their contributions to shoreline changes were evaluated. Maximum significant wave heights, average wave direction, peak period and storm event frequencies all show weak increasing trends, but only the increases in peak period and wave direction are statistically significant. The chronic beach erosion cannot be attributed to wave climate changes since they are still too small to explain the observations. Instead, the impacts of sea level rise and reductions in the supply of beach sediments are suggested as the main causative factors. The analysis also identifies a trend in the frequency of severe erosion events due to storms that coincide with a 4.5-yr extreme tide cycle, which demonstrates the potential impact of future sea level rise.

  10. UV causation of melanoma in Xiphophorus is dominated by melanin photosensitized oxidant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon R.; Berwick, Marianne; Ley, Ronald D.; Walter, Ronald B.; Setlow, Richard B.; Timmins, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Controversy continues both as to which wavelengths of sunlight cause melanoma and the mechanisms by which these different wavelengths act. Direct absorption of UVB by DNA is central in albino animal models, but melanin-pigmented models have shown major contributions by wavelengths longer than UVB that are thought to be mediated by photosensitized oxidant production. The only model for which the action spectrum of melanoma causation is known is a genetically melanoma-susceptible specific cross of Xiphophorus fish. We used electron paramagnetic resonance to quantitatively detect the UV induction of reactive melanin radicals in situ in the melanin-containing cells in the skin of this model and derived the action spectrum for melanin-photosensitized oxidant production (Φox). This action spectrum was identical to that for melanoma induction (Φmel). These results confirm the hypothesis that melanin-photosensitized radical production is the major causative step of melanoma in this model and demonstrate that the wavelengths and mechanisms of melanoma causation in different models are dependent on the presence of melanin. This approach should be applicable to humans, thus providing an accurate surrogate for Φmel for prevention studies. PMID:16537493

  11. Fungal Agents as a Cause of Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nejadkazem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinonasal polyposis is the most common tumor of nasal cavity and sinuses. Its complications are but not limited to sinusitis, breathing difficulties, hyposmia, anosmia and bone erosion. Methods and materials: A total of 98 patients with sinonasal polyposis were examined for suspicious causative fungal agent. Results: Direct microscopy and culture confirmed fungal agent in 8 patients (8.1% from which 3 cases had Alternaria spp, 1 patient Aspergillus spp, 1 patient Bipolaris spp, and 3 patients yeast. Conclusion: Fungi may be considered as a potential cause of sinonasal polyposis.   Keywords: Sinonasal Polyposis, Rhinosinusitis, Fungi

  12. Head injury causation scenarios for belted, rear-seated children in frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Arbogast, Kristy B; Bostrom, Ola

    2011-02-01

    Head injuries are the most common serious injuries sustained by children in motor vehicle crashes and are of critical importance with regard to long-term disability. There is a lack of understanding of how seat belt-restrained children sustain head injuries in frontal impacts. The aim of the study was to identify the AIS2+ head injury causation scenarios for rear-seated, belt-restrained children in frontal impacts, including the set of parameters contributing to the injury. In-depth crash investigations from two National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) databases, the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS; 1997-2008) and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN; 1996-2009), were collected and analyzed in detail. Selection criteria were all frontal impacts with principal direction of force (PDOF) of 11, 12, and 1 o'clock involving rear-seated, three-point belt-restrained, with or without booster cushion, children from 3 to 13 years with an AIS2+ head injury. Cases were analyzed using the BioTab method of injury causation assessment in order to systematically analyze the injury causation scenario for each case. There were 27 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, 19 cases with MAIS2 head injuries and 8 cases with MAIS3+ head injuries, including 2 fatalities. Three major injury causation scenarios were identified, including head contact with seatback (10 cases), head contact with side interior (7 cases,) and no evidence of head contact (9 cases). Head injuries with seatback or side interior contact typically included a PDOF greater than 10 degree (similar to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS] and EuroNCAP offset frontal testing) and vehicle maneuvers. For seatback contact, the vehicle's movements contributed to occupant kinematics inboard the vehicle, causing a less than optimal restraint of the torso and/or torso roll out of the shoulder belt. For side interior contact, the PDOF and

  13. Causation in negligence: from anti-jurisprudence to principle--individual responsibility as the cornerstone for the attribution of liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaric, Mirko; Erbacher, Sharon

    2011-06-01

    Causation is one of the most esoteric and poorly defined legal principles. The common law standards of the "but for" test and common sense are, in reality, code for unconstrained judicial choice. This leads to a high degree of unpredictability in negligence cases. Changes to the causation standard following the torts reforms have done nothing to inject principle into this area of law: the concept of "appropriateness" is no more illuminating than common sense. Despite this, the trend of recent High Court decisions offers some prospect of clarifying the test for causation. Key themes to emerge are an increased emphasis on individual responsibility and the associated concept of coherency with other legal standards. This article examines the doctrinal reasons underpinning the increasingly important role of these ideals and suggests how they can be accommodated into the test for causation to inject greater coherence and predictability into this area of law.

  14. Clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: variety in causative fungi and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Kagiyama, Naho; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) has traditionally relied widely on Rosenberg's criteria, which emphasize immunologic responses while overlooking the investigation of mucous plugs as a primary criterion. Therefore, the characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM require further elucidation. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM and address whether full compliance with clinical criteria, such as the presence of asthma, and certain laboratory findings is necessary to establish a diagnosis of ABPM. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with biopsy-proven ABPM focusing on causative fungi and laboratory findings. Causative fungi included Aspergillus sp. in seven patients, Schizophyllum commune in four patients, Penicillium sp. in two patients and unknown in five patients. Bronchial asthma was observed in 10 patients, eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients and an increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E level was observed in 14 of the 17 patients. IgG for Aspergillus sp. was positive in six of the seven patients with ABPM due to Aspergillus and turned positive in the remaining patient during follow-up. Technological limitations prevented the measurement of specific IgE for S. commune and IgG for S. commune and Penicillium sp. in most patients. Computed tomography revealed central bronchiectasis, pulmonary infiltration and mucous plugs in all patients. Causative fungi other than Aspergillus sp. are not uncommon, and immunological tests for other fungi should be popularized. Asthma and characteristic laboratory findings, such as peripheral blood eosinophilia, increased serum IgE and precipitating antibodies, may not always be required to diagnose ABPM. The importance of typical pathologic findings of mucous plugs for diagnosing ABPM requires reevaluation. Further studies are needed to establish more elaborate diagnostic criteria for ABPM.

  15. Severe Enterovirus Infections in Hospitalized Children in the South of England: Clinical Phenotypes and Causative Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Hans; Pelosi, Emanuela; Cooper, Andrea; Pappachan, John; Sykes, Kim; MacIntosh, Iain; Gbesemete, Diane; Clark, Tristan W; Patel, Sanjay V; Faust, Saul N; Tebruegge, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Most enterovirus surveillance studies lack detailed clinical data, which limits their clinical usefulness. This study aimed to describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of severe enterovirus infections in children, and to determine whether there are associations between causative enterovirus genotypes and clinical phenotypes. Retrospective analysis of microbiological and clinical data from a tertiary children's hospital in the South of England over a 17-month period (2012-2013). In total, 30 patients were identified, comprising sepsis (n = 9), myocarditis (n = 8), meningitis (n = 8) and encephalitis (n = 5). Cases with sepsis or myocarditis were significantly younger than those with central nervous system disease (median age 21 and 15 days vs. 79 days; P = 0.0244 and P = 0.0310, respectively). There was considerable diversity in the causative genotypes in each of the clinical phenotypes, with some predominance of echoviruses in the meningitis group, and coxsackie B viruses in the myocarditis group. Thirteen cases required mechanical ventilation, 11 cases inotropic support, 3 cases dialysis and 3 cases extracorporal membrane oxygenation. The overall mortality was 10% (sepsis group, n = 1; myocarditis group, n = 2). Of the survivors, 5 (19%) had long-term sequelae (myocardial dysfunction, n = 2; neurological sequelae, n = 3). Patients with encephalitis had the longest hospital stay (median: 16 days), compared with 9, 6 and 3 days in patients with myocarditis, sepsis and meningitis, respectively (P = 0.005). Enterovirus infections, particularly enteroviral myocarditis and encephalitis, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The results show that there are currently no strong associations between clinical phenotypes and particular causative enterovirus genotypes in the South of England.

  16. Probability of causation tables and their possible implications for the practice of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with requirements in the Orphan Drug Act (97-414) of 1983, tables were recently constructed by an ad hoc committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in which the probabilities that certain specific cancers are caused by previous radiation exposure are estimated. The reports of the NIH committee and a National Academy of Science oversight committee may have broad implications for the future practice of diagnostic radiology. The basis on which the probability of causation tables were established and some of the possible implications for diagnostic radiology are discussed

  17. Scandinavian object shift, remnant VP-topicalisation, verb particles and causatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    constructions in Danish and Swedish, namely particle verb constructions and causative constructions with Danish "lade" and Swedish "låta" ‘let’. It is shown how differences in the VP-internal object position give rise to mirror image sequences concerning Object Shift in connection with verb second (Vº......On the basis of an examination of remnant VP-topicalisation constructions, this paper argues for an order preservation analysis of Scandinavian Object Shift. Extending the empirical database, we account for the phenomena in an Optimality Theoretic framework. The paper focusses on two particular...

  18. Limit of probability of causation in the compensation of radiation induced malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan

    1989-01-01

    Etiological relationship between previous radiation exposure and malignant diseases concerned could be estimated from NIH Epidemiological Tables expressed as Probability of Causation (PC). But the limit of PC in the compensation of radiation induced malignant diseases has not been decided definitely. In this paper PC calculations were made for populations of occupational exposure with typical distribution of individual doses and levels of exposure. The results show that it is feasible to choice PC ≥ 50% as a limit of compensation for leukemia and radon induced lung cancer. Some lenient limits may be taken for other radiation related solid carcinomas

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus: disease association versus causation in domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna; Stickney, Alison; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important infection in both domestic and nondomestic cats. Although many studies have provided insight into FIV pathophysiology and immunologic responses to infection in cats, questions remain regarding the association of FIV with specific disease syndromes. For many diseases, both association and causation of disease with FIV remain to be confirmed and clarified. The use of experimental infection models is unlikely to yield answers about naturally infected domestic cats and is not feasible in nondomestic felids, many of which are endangered species. Researches might consider further study of naturally occurring disease with an emphasis on confirming which diseases have a likely association with FIV.

  20. "Are we there yet?": Deciding when one has demonstrated specific genetic causation in complex diseases and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C; Page, Patricia Z; Allison, David B

    2003-10-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, "Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it." We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what "causation" means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called "causative."

  1. Septic Pulmonary Embolism Requiring Critical Care: Clinicoradiological Spectrum, Causative Pathogens and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chung, Kuo-Mou; Han, Shu-Chen; Cheung, Bruno Man-Hon

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%). The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%), peripheral nodules without cavities (80%) or with cavities (65%), and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%). The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%), followed by pneumonia (25%). The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50%) and Staphylococcus aureus (35%). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential. PMID:27759843

  2. Septic Pulmonary Embolism Requiring Critical Care: Clinicoradiological Spectrum, Causative Pathogens and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Wei Chou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%. The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%, peripheral nodules without cavities (80% or with cavities (65%, and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%. The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%, followed by pneumonia (25%. The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50% and Staphylococcus aureus (35%. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential.

  3. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  4. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  5. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Causative chain (CC is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA. This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF, an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA. MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is CF that happen dominantly to the accidents and what is a danger CC that characterize accidents in a certain place and certain period. By knowing the characteristics, the preventive action can be decided to decrease the number of accident in the next period. The aim of this paper is providing the development of MOP Model that has been upgraded and understanding the characteristics of each type accident. The data that is analyzed in this paper is Japanese accidents from 2008 until 2013, which is available on Japan Transportation Safety Board (JTSB’s website. The analysis shows that every type of accidents has a unique characteristic, shown by their CFs and CCs. However, Man Factor is still playing role to the system dominantly.

  6. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression; however, it is possible this link is bidirectional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Stressful life events, depression, and anxiety symptoms were measured twice five years apart. Cross-lagged panel analysis examined the mutual influences of stressful life events on depression and on anxiety over time. Life events predicted later depressive symptomatology (p = .01), but the depression predicting life events relationship was less strong (p = .06), whereas earlier anxiety predicted life events five years later (p = .001). There was evidence of sex differences in the extent to which life events predicted later anxiety. This study provides evidence of stress causation for depression and weaker evidence for stress generation. In contrast, there was strong evidence of stress generation for anxiety but weaker evidence for stress causation, and that differed for men and women.

  7. Causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, S.; Halid, A.; Nagapan, S.; Fattah, A.; Latif, I.; Ullah, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cost overrun is an increase of cost of project from approved budget which was signed by parties at the time of tender. Cost overrun in construction of highway projects is a common problem worldwide and construction industry of Pakistan is also facing this crucial problem of cost overrun in highway projects of Pakistan. The main objective of this research is to identify the causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan. A well designed questionnaire was developed based on 64 common factors of cost overrun from literature review. Developed questionnaire was distributed among selected 30 experts from owner/client, designer/consultant and contractor who have experience more than 20 years’ experience in highway projects. The collected data was statistical analyzed. After analysis results showed that delay process in payment by client, inadequate planning, client interference, poor contract management, delay of decision making, change of scope of project and financial problems faced by client were most causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects. This research will provide alertness to stakeholders of highway projects of Sindh province to avoid cost overrun in projects.

  8. Frequency of causative factors for pleural effusions: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.T.; Saeed, M.K.; Umar, M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of various causative factors of pleural effusion in adults. Combined Military Hospital, Attock and PAF hospital Faisal Karachi. One hundred and fifty patients of clinical signs of pleural effusion, were selected and then, further classified in to transudative and exudative variety by carrying out pleural fluid routine testing and using Light's criteria . Later the final etiological diagnosis was made with the help of appropriate laboratory tests. Out of total 150 patients who were studied, 123 patients were found to have exudative effusions whereas 27 cases had transudative effusion. A total of five 5 patients (3.33%) were lost to follow up. Three patients were out of exudative variety and 02 were from transudative variety. Out of 120 patient of exudative pleural effusion, 70(58.2%) had tuberculosis, 28(23.2%) had malignancy, 12(10%) had pneumonia, 5(6%) were uraemic, 2(1.6%) had pulmonary embolism, and rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosis and liver abscess were causative factors in 1(0.8%) each patient. Out of transudative effusions, 14(56%) had congestive cardiac failure, 5(20%) had cirrhosis liver, 4(16%) had nephrotic syndrome and 1(4%) each had cardiac tamponade and myxoedema. The most common cause of pleural effusion remains tuberculosis. (author)

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  10. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  11. Biocidal synthetic coatings based on high-molecular metaloorganic compounds. [Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus terreus; Penicillium funiculosum; penicillium cyclopium; Penicillium chrysogenum; Paecilomyces varioti; Chaetomium globosum; trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, V.F.; Zubov, V.A.; Eremenko, Yu.G.

    Long-term stays of man and animals in closed life-support systems lead to contamination of the space-craft by various microorganisms. Organotin compounds are considered promising biocidal agents for paints and varnishes with a broad spectrum of action against a variety of microorganisms. Several organotin polymers of the acrylate type were prepared and were found to be effective fungicides.

  12. [Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerli, Kenan; Ecemiş, Talat; Günhan, Kıvanç; Başkesen, Tolga; Kal, Elçin

    2012-01-01

    Otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in Turkey is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at Manisa region (located at western Anatolia of Turkey). A total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as otomycosis at Celal Bayar University Hospital, between February 1995 and July 2011, were included in the study. External ear swab samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis have been evaluated by routine mycological methods. Identification of mold-like fungi was based on colony morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure, whereas germ tube test, growth characteristics on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and API 20C AUX (bio-Mérieux, France) system were used for the identification of yeast-like fungi. Of the samples, 28% (638/2279) were found positive by direct microscopy and 24% (544/2279) by culture methods. Among culture-positive cases the isolation rates of mold-like and yeast-like fungi were 66% (359/544) and 34% (185/544), respectively. The number of distribution of the molds were as follows; Aspergillus niger (180), Aspergillus fumigatus (95), Aspergillus terreus (32), Aspergillus flavus (23), Aspergillus spp. (14), Penicillium spp. (13), Trichophyton spp. (T.rubrum 1, T.mentagrophytes 1); while this distribution was as follows for the yeasts; Candida tropicalis (97), Candida albicans (39), Candida parapsilosis (21), Candida glabrata (19), Candida kefyr (4), C.guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (1), Geotrichum candidum (1) and Trichosporon capitatum (1). It was notable that 96% (344/359) of mold-like fungi were Aspergillus spp., and 99% (183/185) of yeast-like fungi were Candida spp. The results of this study indicated that the most frequent agents of

  13. In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

    2012-12-01

    The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI.

  14. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  15. The evolution of the causation concept and its relation with statistical methods in Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical review places the first registers of Epidemiology in ancient Greece, with Hippocrates, who identified environmental causes of diseases. Along the centuries, the evolution of the causation concept started to be related to changes in scientific paradigms. In London, during the 17th century, the quantitative method was introduced in Epidemiology, but it was only by the end of the 19th century that the concept of the environment and a mathematical approach to understanding Public Health issues were well established. This was a very rich period to setting new concepts and systematizations in epidemiologic methodology. The beginning of the 20th century consolidated Epidemiology as a scientific discipline and the development of computers in the post-war years brought much advance in this field. Nowadays, Epidemiology plays an important role as it integrates scientific knowledge on the health/disease process to the professional area, participating in population healthcare efforts.

  16. Evidence, illness, and causation: an epidemiological perspective on the Russo-Williamson Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Alexander R; Dammann, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    According to the Russo-Williamson Thesis, causal claims in the health sciences need to be supported by both difference-making and mechanistic evidence. In this article, we attempt to determine whether Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) can be improved through the consideration of mechanistic evidence. We discuss the practical composition and function of each RWT evidence type and propose that exposure-outcome evidence (previously known as difference-making evidence) provides associations that can be explained through a hypothesis of causation, while mechanistic evidence provides finer-grained associations and knowledge of entities that ultimately explains a causal hypothesis. We suggest that mechanistic evidence holds untapped potential to add value to the assessment of evidence quality in EBM and propose initial recommendations for the integration of mechanistic and exposure-outcome evidence to improve EBM by robustly leveraging available evidence in support of good medical decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142

  19. Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor.

  20. THE ROLE OF ADVERSE LIFESTYLE CHANGES IN THE CAUSATION OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Lotfi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adverse lifestyle changes like rapid change in dietary habits coupled with decreased physical activity and increasing rates of alcohol and tobacco consumption can increase Coronary Artery Disease risk factors and its mortality even higher than the rates predicted. To evaluate the role of Adverse Lifestyle changes factors in the causation of CAD, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in an urban area of East Delhi from April 2002 to December 2003. A total of 500 subjects with age group 30-75 (250 cases and 250 controls, were included in this study. To obtain more validate comparisons, 250 controls also was selected from community of East Delhi. The tool of enquiry was a pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire. A confidence level of 95% and study power of 80% were considered for the interpretation of possible significant findings. Sexwise stratified analysis was separately done for male and female subjects using Multiple Logistic Regression. Comparison of male cases with their counterparts in both control groups indicated that milk consumption, using saturated oils for cooking medium, and tobacco consumption could account for as CAD independent predictors (P < 0.001. The comparison of female cases with their counterparts in both control groups also showed that majority of those significantly were nuts consumer (P < 0.01. Male cases compared to males in hospital group and female cases compared with females in community control group significantly were nuts consumer and used saturated oils in their cookings respectively (P < 0.01. Our study showed that dietary factors such as consumption of milk, nuts, saturated oils and smoking, as misbehavior factor, could play an important role in the causation of Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD in urban area of East Delhi, India.

  1. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Causative Microorganisms in Intensive Care Unit: A Two Year Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Palabıyık

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care units (ICUs. It causes prolonged hospital stay and increases mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the rate of VAP, causative microorganisms, and their antibiotic susceptibilities in anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU (ARICU. Material and Method: This retrospective study included patients who were admitted to 12-bed ARICU between January 2013 and December 2014. The detection of VAP was done according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. The rate of VAP, VAP ratio, and ventilator utilization ratio (VUR were calculated according to guidelines of Turkish National Infection Surveillance Control Group. Endotracheal aspiration samples were collected and cultivated. The identification of the isolates was performed by using VITEK-2 automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Results: VAP was determined in 16 of 359 patients who required invasive mechanic ventilation for longer than 48 hours and hospitalized in ARICU. VUR was 65%, VAP ratio was 4.5% and the rate of VAP was 3.3 per 1000 ventilator days. Seventeen microorganisms were isolated from endotracheal aspiration samples, including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=6, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=4, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. The most sensitive antibiotics for microorganisms are listed as follows; Acinetobacter baumannii: colistin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: amikacin, carbapenems; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole; Klebsiella and Enterobacteriaceae species: carbapenems, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin. Conclusion: Intermittent analyses and antibiotic susceptibilities of VAP

  2. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinothini Padmanathan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs. Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996–2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:725–734

  3. Does marriage inhibit antisocial behavior?: An examination of selection vs causation via a longitudinal twin design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Donnellan, M Brent; Humbad, Mikhila N; Hicks, Brian M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that marriage is negatively associated with male antisocial behavior. Although often interpreted as a causal association, marriage is not a random event. As such, the association may stem from selection processes, whereby men less inclined toward antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. To evaluate selection vs causation explanations of the association between marriage and desistence from antisocial behavior. Co-twin control analyses in a prospective twin study provided an analogue of the idealized counterfactual model of causation. The co-twin control design uses the unmarried co-twin of a married twin to estimate what the married twin would have looked like had he remained unmarried. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins are particularly informative because they share a common genotype and rearing environment. General community study. Two hundred eighty-nine male-male twin pairs (65.1% MZ) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study underwent assessment at 17, 20, 24, and 29 years of age. None of the participants were married at 17 years of age, and 2.6% were married at 20 years of age. By 29 years of age, 58.8% of the participants were or had been married. A tally of criterion C symptoms of DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder, as assessed via structured clinical interview. Mean differences in antisocial behavior across marital status at age 29 years were present even at 17 and 20 years of age, suggesting a selection process. However, the within-pair effect of marriage was significant for MZ twins, such that the married twin engaged in less antisocial behavior following marriage than his unmarried co-twin. Results were equivalent to those in dizygotic twins and persisted when controlling for prior antisocial behavior. Results indicate an initial selection effect, whereby men with lower levels of antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. However, this tendency to refrain from antisocial behavior appears to be accentuated by the

  4. Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients. The clinical settings were post-cataract surgery in 8/14 (57.1% and open globe injury in 6/14 (42.8%. Primary intervention for all patients included tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection. During subsequent follow-up, pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 6 patients and one patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Mean number of intravitreal antibiotic injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%, Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%, Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2% and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%. In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%, gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%, moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0%, cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%, cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%, ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2% and linezolid in 5/5 (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks–90 weeks. At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50% and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%. Conclusion and importance: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally had poor VA outcomes. Keywords: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Endophthalmitis

  5. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  6. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  7. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  8. Ankylosing spondylitis in Danish and Norwegian twins: occurrence and the relative importance of genetic vs. environmental effectors in disease causation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O B; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Ejstrup, L

    2008-01-01

    genetic effects account for 94% (95% CI 0.56-0.99) of the variance in the causation of AS. CONCLUSION: Self-reported AS needs careful validation. The occurrence of AS in a Danish twin population was 0.1% and accords well with previous studies on singletons in hospital settings. The present study adds...

  9. Decision making for business model development : A process study of effectuation and causation in new technology-based ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Berends, Hans; Oudehand, Rob; Stultiëns, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the decision-making logics used by new ventures to develop their business models. In particular, they focussed on the logics of effectuation and causation and how their dynamics shape the development of business models over time. They found that the effectual decision-making

  10. Reply to Matt Mortellaro on ‘Block’s Paradox’: Causation, Responsibility, Libertarian Law, Entrapment, Threats and Blackmail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Block

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Matt Mortellaro’s “Causation and Responsibility: A New Direction” is a brilliant Rothbardian analysis that makes numerous new and important points. It also critiques some of my own previous publications. In this piece I focus on Mortellaro’s rejoinders to me, and set forth a defense of my own positions.

  11. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... than those listed in Table B1 (Males) or Table B2 (Females) in Appendix B to this part for an...

  12. Can a Microwave Heat up Coffee? How English- and Japanese-Speaking Children Choose Subjects in Lexical Causative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2016-01-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or "causers," are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores…

  13. Understanding dynamics of strategic decision-making in venture creation: a process study of effectuation and causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Andries, P.; Berends, J.J.; Mauer, R.; Stephan, U.; van Burg, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study draws upon effectuation and causation as examples of planning-based and flexible decision-making logics and investigates dynamics in the use of both logics. The study applies a longitudinal process research approach to investigate strategic decision making in new venture creation over

  14. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, J.H., E-mail: jsaleh@gatech.ed [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Marais, K.B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University (United States); Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations

  15. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.B.; Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations: (1) that more fundamental

  16. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  17. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  18. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  19. Changing pattern of causative factors in development of umbilical infections (omphalitis) in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.Z.; Malik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the drastic decrease in the incidence of neonatal tetanus due to better aseptic techniques in cutting and tying of umbilical cord at birth, an increase in the prevalence of umbilical infections has been noticed. Objectives The objectives were to assess the ongoing practices in umbilical care, detect the prevailing causative factors responsible for umbilical infections in newborns and suggest measures for minimizing these infections. Design setting This descriptive study was a collaborative effort at CMH Nowshera, Mardan and Lahore from January 2007 through 2009. Patients and Methods Three hundred consecutive cases of umbilical sepsis ( omphalitis), infants less than 20 days old were included irrespective of place of delivery and severity of infection. Those with congenital anomalies of umbilicus were excluded. A detailed questionnaire was filled for every patient covering related aspects. Results Antisepsis (mainly spirit) was used in 91 % cases irrespective of place of delivery. Major tool for cutting the cord was surgical or new common blade (277 cases). Clamp was used in 138 cases. Cord was intentionally attended in subsequent weeks after birth in only 48 cases. Hand washing practice was found in only 62 parents in subsequent weeks after birth. Diapers were used in 261 cases, majority of these were found covering the umbilicus or umbilical stump when initially examined (81 %). 48% of infected unshed cords were more than 3 inches long. Use of unwarranted substances applied on cord was found in only 16 cases. (author)

  20. Venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography: Analysis of causative factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Jae; Lee, Eun Ja; Bae, Jong Myon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the causative factors of venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 150 patients with right-arm injections and 150 patients with left-arm injections. We included the age, gender, body mass index, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus in the evaluation of all patients. We measured the shortest width of the left or right brachiocephalic vein (BCV), the diameter of the aortic arch, and the distance between the sternum and vertebral body. The relationship between these factors and the venous reflux was analyzed. In patients with venous reflux, we performed qualitative image scoring for suboptimal images. In patients with venous reflux, the image quality of the left-arm injection group was significantly inferior to the image quality of the right-arm injection group. The mean age and the male-to-female ratio of patients with venous reflux were significantly higher than those of patients without venous reflux. In patients receiving the left-arm injection, the mean shortest width of the left BCV was significantly narrower in patients with venous reflux than in patients without venous reflux. A left-arm injection should be avoided, especially in elderly patients, to acquire an optimal image

  1. Venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography: Analysis of causative factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Jae; Lee, Eun Ja [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong Myon [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the causative factors of venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 150 patients with right-arm injections and 150 patients with left-arm injections. We included the age, gender, body mass index, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus in the evaluation of all patients. We measured the shortest width of the left or right brachiocephalic vein (BCV), the diameter of the aortic arch, and the distance between the sternum and vertebral body. The relationship between these factors and the venous reflux was analyzed. In patients with venous reflux, we performed qualitative image scoring for suboptimal images. In patients with venous reflux, the image quality of the left-arm injection group was significantly inferior to the image quality of the right-arm injection group. The mean age and the male-to-female ratio of patients with venous reflux were significantly higher than those of patients without venous reflux. In patients receiving the left-arm injection, the mean shortest width of the left BCV was significantly narrower in patients with venous reflux than in patients without venous reflux. A left-arm injection should be avoided, especially in elderly patients, to acquire an optimal image.

  2. The Treatment of Uncertainty in Compensation Schemes for Cancer Based on the Probability of Causation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.

    2014-01-01

    Since it is commonly accepted that exposure to ionizing radiation, even at the low levels encountered in the workplace, can cause malignant diseases, radiation workers are at some risk, although much is done to optimize radiation protection and reduce occupational exposure to levels a s low as reasonably achievable . However, the causal relationship between exposure to radiation and malignant diseases is difficult to establish, since cancer is such a frequent disease and many other factors may contribute to its development. Ideally, those workers who developed cancer as a result of occupational exposure to radiation should be compensated. Guidance on procedures and methodology to assess attributability of cancer to occupational exposure to radiation and to assist decision-making in compensating workers is provided in a recent joint IAEA/ILO/WHO publication.This guide also reviews compensation schemes in place in several countries, with an emphasis on those based on the probability of causation (POC), also known as assigned share (AS) methodology. The POC method provides a scientifically based framework to assess cancer attributability to occupational exposure and was extensively reviewed by Wakeford et al. This paper presents a comparison of two well-known compensation schemes based on the POC approach with regard to their treatment of uncertainty

  3. Cholesterol as a Causative Factor in Alzheimer Disease: A Debatable Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD. Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only APP and Aβ. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine the above-mentioned issues and discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, and the involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, such as isoprenoids and oxysterols, in AD. PMID:24329875

  4. Evidence of Biomass Smoke Exposure as a Causative Factor for the Development of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Capistrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema. These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD. Most common in developing countries, biomass fuels such as wood and coal are used for cooking and heating indoors on a daily basis. Women and children have the highest amounts of exposures and are therefore more likely to develop the disease. Despite epidemiological studies providing evidence of the causative relationship between biomass smoke and COPD, there are still limited mechanistic studies on how biomass smoke causes, and contributes to the progression of COPD. This review will focus upon why biomass fuels are used, and their relationship to COPD. It will also suggest methodological approaches to model biomass exposure in vitro and in vivo.

  5. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by Granger causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Gow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all nonredundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even early processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of language-specific localized processes.

  6. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China's 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization.

  7. The Complex Relationship of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Acute Kidney Injury: Causation or Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Daniel J; Shekar, Kiran; Fraser, John F

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit capable of providing prolonged cardiorespiratory support. Recent advancement in ECMO technology has resulted in increased utilisation and clinical application. It can be used as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-bridge, bridge-to-transplant, or bridge-to-decision. ECMO can restitute physiology in critically ill patients, which may minimise the risk of progressive multiorgan dysfunction. Alternatively, iatrogenic complications of ECMO clearly contribute to worse outcomes. These factors affect the risk : benefit ratio of ECMO which ultimately influence commencement/timing of ECMO. The complex interplay of pre-ECMO, ECMO, and post-ECMO pathophysiological processes are responsible for the substantial increased incidence of ECMO-associated acute kidney injury (EAKI). The development of EAKI significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality; however, there is a lack of evidence defining a potential benefit or causative link between ECMO and AKI. This area warrants investigation as further research will delineate the mechanisms involved and subsequent strategies to minimise the risk of EAKI. This review summarizes the current literature of ECMO and AKI, considers the possible benefits and risks of ECMO on renal function, outlines the related pathophysiology, highlights relevant investigative tools, and ultimately suggests an approach for future research into this under investigated area of critical care.

  8. The Complex Relationship of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Acute Kidney Injury: Causation or Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kilburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit capable of providing prolonged cardiorespiratory support. Recent advancement in ECMO technology has resulted in increased utilisation and clinical application. It can be used as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-bridge, bridge-to-transplant, or bridge-to-decision. ECMO can restitute physiology in critically ill patients, which may minimise the risk of progressive multiorgan dysfunction. Alternatively, iatrogenic complications of ECMO clearly contribute to worse outcomes. These factors affect the risk : benefit ratio of ECMO which ultimately influence commencement/timing of ECMO. The complex interplay of pre-ECMO, ECMO, and post-ECMO pathophysiological processes are responsible for the substantial increased incidence of ECMO-associated acute kidney injury (EAKI. The development of EAKI significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality; however, there is a lack of evidence defining a potential benefit or causative link between ECMO and AKI. This area warrants investigation as further research will delineate the mechanisms involved and subsequent strategies to minimise the risk of EAKI. This review summarizes the current literature of ECMO and AKI, considers the possible benefits and risks of ECMO on renal function, outlines the related pathophysiology, highlights relevant investigative tools, and ultimately suggests an approach for future research into this under investigated area of critical care.

  9. Causative pathogens and antibiotic resistance in children hospitalized for urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Mesut; Büyükkaragöz, Bahar; Çelebi Tayfur, Asli; Çaltik, Aysun; Köksoy, Adem Yasin; Çizmeci, Zeynep; Günbey, Sacit

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections in children and a major cause of hospitalization. In this study we investigated the clinical characteristics, causative uropathogens; their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance patterns, treatment modalities and efficacy in children hospitalized for UTI in a tertiary care setting. Patients hospitalized for an upper UTI between March 2009 and July 2014 were enrolled. The urine culture-antibiogram results and accompanying urinary tract abnormalities were recorded retrospectively. A total of 142 patients (104 girls, 73.2%; 38 boys, 26.8%) were enrolled. Mean patient age was 32.6 ± 4.1 months. History of recurrent UTI was present in 45.8% (n = 65), with prior hospitalization in 12.0% (n = 17). Frequency of vesicoureteral reflux was 18.3% (n = 26). Gram-negative enteric microorganisms yielded growth in all culture-positive UTI and the most common microorganism was Escherichia coli (n = 114, 80.3%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL (+)) bacterial strains were detected in 49.3% (n = 70), with third-generation cephalosporin resistance in all and increased duration of hospitalization. The prevalence of UTI with ESBL (+) bacterial strains with multi-drug resistance is increasing in the hospitalized pediatric population, therefore rational use of antibiotics is essential. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by granger causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Caplan, David N

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even "early" processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of "language-specific" localized processes.

  11. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  12. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  13. A novel homozygous mutation in the FSHR gene is causative for primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Xu, Xiaofei; Han, Ting; Yan, Lei; Cheng, Lei; Qin, Yingying; Liu, Wen; Zhao, Shidou; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-12-01

    To identify the potential FSHR mutation in a Chinese woman with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Genetic and functional studies. University-based reproductive medicine center. A POI patient, her family members, and another 192 control women with regular menstruation. Ovarian biopsy was performed in the patient. Sanger sequencing was carried out for the patient, her sister, and parents. The novel variant identified was further confirmed with the use of control subjects. Sanger sequencing and genotype analysis to identify the potential variant of the FSHR gene; hematoxylin and eosin staining of the ovarian section to observe the follicular development; Western blotting and immunofluorescence to detect FSH receptor (FSHR) expression; and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay to monitor FSH-induced signaling. Histologic examination of the ovaries in the patient revealed follicular development up to the early antral stage. Mutational screening and genotype analysis of the FSHR gene identified a novel homozygous mutation c.175C>T (p.R59X) in exon 2, which was inherited in the autosomal recessive mode from her heterozygous parents but was absent in her sister and the 192 control women. Functional studies demonstrated that in vitro the nonsense mutation caused the loss of full-length FSHR expression and that p.R59X mutant showed no response to FSH stimulation in the cAMP level. The mutation p.R59X in FSHR is causative for POI by means of arresting folliculogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GEOSTATISTICAL BASED SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING OF SOIL EROSION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS CAUSATIVE FACTORS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKADIR T. SHOLAGBERU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is the second biggest environmental challenges after population growth causing land degradation, desertification and water deterioration. Its impacts on watersheds include loss of soil nutrients, reduced reservoir capacity through siltation which may lead to flood risk, landslide, high water turbidity, etc. These problems become more pronounced in human altered mountainous areas through intensive agricultural activities, deforestation and increased urbanization among others. However, due to challenging nature of soil erosion management, there is great interest in assessing its spatial distribution and susceptibility levels. This study is thus intend to review the recent literatures and develop a novel framework for soil erosion susceptibility mapping using geostatistical based support vector machine (SVM, remote sensing and GIS techniques. The conceptual framework is to bridge the identified knowledge gaps in the area of causative factors’ (CFs selection. In this research, RUSLE model, field studies and the existing soil erosion maps for the study area will be integrated for the development of inventory map. Spatial data such as Landsat 8, digital soil and geological maps, digital elevation model and hydrological data shall be processed for the extraction of erosion CFs. GISbased SVM techniques will be adopted for the establishment of spatial relationships between soil erosion and its CFs, and subsequently for the development of erosion susceptibility maps. The results of this study include evaluation of predictive capability of GIS-based SVM in soil erosion mapping and identification of the most influential CFs for erosion susceptibility assessment. This study will serve as a guide to watershed planners and to alleviate soil erosion challenges and its related hazards.

  15. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Najar or Bhut-Evil eye or ghost affliction: Gujarati views about illness causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Alison M

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the supernatural beliefs of najar (evil eye) and bhut (ghost) and their roles in illness causation in Gujarati families in Britain today. The data arose unexpectedly in an ethnography of child rearing patterns carried out in Harrow, North West London and a short period of observation in Ahmedabad, India. I used anthropological methods of participant observation and unstructured interviews, which were transcribed using pseudonyms. The study group involved 70 Hindu and Jain Gujarati households with children and the fieldwork was conducted over a period of four years. Many of the individuals studied had migrated from India to East Africa before coming to the UK in the 1970s, but maintain links with both countries through kinship ties, marriage and rituals. I set out to study the continuity of women's roles in the transmission of religious and moral values, the rituals of childhood, views about infant feeding, and parenting relationships within joint families. The beliefs of najar and bhut in poor, rural settings in India have been described, but these Gujarati beliefs in Britain have not been well documented. This study indicates that najar and bhut continue to be a concern of women in most Gujarati families in Britain today and across all socio-economic groups, not confined to those on the 'bread-line', as have been previously suggested. These beliefs align themselves with Hindu ideas of the soul and reincarnation: powerful forces residing outside the body. An understanding of these beliefs could be informative to health professionals working with Gujarati communities in the UK.

  17. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  18. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  19. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  20. Consistent Treatment of Variables and Causation Poses a Challenge for Behavioral Research Methods: A Commentary on Nesselroade and Molenaar (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Nesselroade and Molenaar presented the ideographic filter as a proposal for analyzing lawful regularities in behavioral research. The proposal highlights an inconsistency that poses a challenge for behavioral research more generally. One can distinguish a broadly Humean approach from a broadly non-Humean approach as they relate to variables and to causation. Nesselroade and Molenaar rejected a Humean approach to latent variables that characterizes them as nothing more than summaries of their manifest indicators. By contrast, they tacitly accepted a Humean approach to causes characterized as nothing more than summaries of their manifest causal effects. A non-Humean treatment of variables coupled with a Humean treatment of causation creates a theoretical tension within their proposal. For example, one can interpret the same model elements as simultaneously representing both variables and causes. Future refinement of the ideographic filter proposal to address this tension could follow any of a number of strategies.

  1. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Diabetes and health". Challenges in the study of causation of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2009-01-01

    Use of the energy balance equation for understanding the causation of obesity is discussed. Its basis on the thermodynamic laws is expressed in mathematical models for body-weight changes. Only a very small net energy surplus per time unit constitutes the energy deposition during weight gain......, making measurements of its components difficult. The physical laws provide exact quantitative relationships between energy intake, energy expenditure and deposition of energy, but cannot disentangle the initiating and driving forces of the energy imbalance, which may also be an active storage of fat...... in adipose tissue. These and various other limitations of the energy balance model warrant cautiousness in using the model in studies of obesity causation. Weight gain may be self-promoting and mathematical feedback models allowing estimation of such effects show that they are realistic. Predisposition...

  2. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  4. Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, Tiziana; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2014-01-01

    Important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of tuberculosis and malaria, respectively, and plants, utilize the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP, 5) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (1) and dimethylallyl

  5. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and majoreffect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cherel, Pierre; Pires, José; Glénisson, Jérôme; Milan, Denis; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Herault, Frédéric; Damon, Marie; Le Roy, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effect...

  6. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  7. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy and its causative factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Lin; Zhang Youwang; Wu Yongru; Guo Xiaomao; Li Longgen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the incidence and causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 512 NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1990 and from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. According to Fuzhou' 92 NPC Staging Classification, there are 31 patients in stage I, 212 in stage II, 198 in stage III and 71 in stage IV. All patients were treated by 60 Co or 6 MV X-ray with faciocervical fields or pre-auricular fields to primary area. Some patients were boosted by post-auricular fields or cranial fields. The median dose to the nasopharyngeal region was 7130 cGy by external beam radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients were boosted by brachytherapy. The medial dose to cervical lymph nodes was 6410 cGy as definitive treatment and 5480 cGy as prophylactic treatment. 101 patients were treated with combined chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 6.7 years . Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsies occurred in 81 among the 512 patients. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences were 10.3%, 25.4%, respectively. The most common affected nerve was XII. On multivariates analysis, cranial nerve invasion before radiation, chemotherapy, dose to the nasopharyngeal region and age were the independent factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy on nerve I-VII, while the N stage and the radiation fields were independent factors on nerve IX-XII. The cumulative incidence of cranial nerve I-VII palsies increased in patients with cranial nerve invasion, chemotherapy and the dose to the nasopharyngeal region (>7000 cGy). The cumulative incidence of cranial nerve IX- XII palsies increased in patients with advanced N stage. Patients in the first group of treatment field had the highest risk to progress cranial nerve IX-XII palsies, followed by the second group, and the third group had the lowest risk. Only 1 in 34 patients with brachytherapy

  8. Clonal structure in Ichthyobacterium seriolicida, the causative agent of bacterial haemolytic jaundice in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, inferred from molecular epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, T; Fukuda, Y; Sakai, T; Tanimoto, N; Nakanishi, M; Nakamura, Y; Takano, T; Nakayasu, C

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial haemolytic jaundice caused by Ichthyobacterium seriolicida has been responsible for mortality in farmed yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in western Japan since the 1980s. In this study, polymorphic analysis of I. seriolicida was performed using three molecular methods: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Twenty-eight isolates were analysed using AFLP, while 31 isolates were examined by MLST and MLVA. No polymorphisms were identified by AFLP analysis using EcoRI and MseI, or by MLST of internal fragments of eight housekeeping genes. However, MLVA revealed variation in repeat numbers of three elements, allowing separation of the isolates into 16 sequence types. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis of the MLVA data identified four major clusters, and all isolates belonged to clonal complexes. It is likely that I. seriolicida populations share a common ancestor, which may be a recently introduced strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Muller, Laura K.; Russell, Robin E.; O'Connor, Michael; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David S.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by the recently described fungus Geomyces destructans. First isolated in 2008, the origins of this fungus in North America and its ability to persist in the environment remain undefined. To investigate the correlation between manifestation of WNS and distribution of G. destructans in the U.S., we analyzed sediment samples collected from 55 bat hibernacula (caves and mines) both within and outside the known range of WNS using a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Geomyces destructans was detected in 17 of 21 sites within the known range of WNS at the time the samples were collected; the fungus was not found in 28 sites beyond the known range of the disease at the time that environmental samples were collected. These data indicate that distribution of G. destructans is correlated with disease in hibernating bats and support the hypothesis that the fungus is likely an exotic species in North America. Additionally, we examined whether G. destructans persists in infested bat hibernacula when bats are absent. Sediment samples were collected from 14 WNS-positive hibernacula, and the samples were screened for viable fungus using a culture technique. Viable G. destructans was cultivated from 7 of the 14 sites sampled during late summer when bats were no longer in hibernation, suggesting the fungus can persist in the environment in the absence of bat hosts for long periods of time.

  10. Protein Translation Enzyme lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Presents a New Target for Drug Development against Causative Agents of Loiasis and Schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites are an assemblage of two major phyla of nematodes (also known as roundworms and platyhelminths (also called flatworms. These parasites are a major human health burden, and infections caused by helminths are considered under neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. These infections are typified by limited clinical treatment options and threat of drug resistance. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs are vital enzymes that decode genetic information and enable protein translation. The specific inhibition of pathogen aaRSs bores well for development of next generation anti-parasitics. Here, we have identified and annotated aaRSs and accessory proteins from Loa loa (nematode and Schistosoma mansoni (flatworm to provide a glimpse of these protein translation enzymes within these parasites. Using purified parasitic lysyl-tRNA synthetases (KRSs, we developed series of assays that address KRS enzymatic activity, oligomeric states, crystal structure and inhibition profiles. We show that L. loa and S. mansoni KRSs are potently inhibited by the fungal metabolite cladosporin. Our co-crystal structure of Loa loa KRS-cladosporin complex reveals key interacting residues and provides a platform for structure-based drug development. This work hence provides a new direction for both novel target discovery and inhibitor development against eukaryotic pathogens that include L. loa and S. mansoni.

  11. Identification of Raoultella terrigena as a Rare Causative Agent of Subungual Abscess Based on 16S rRNA and Housekeeping Gene Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital with severe subungual abscess. Bacteria were isolated from pus samples, and an inconsistent identification was shown by VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena, respectively. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that the isolate is R. terrigena, and this was further demonstrated by sequencing three housekeeping genes (rpoB, gyrA, and parC with phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subungual abscess caused by R. terrigena, a rare case of human infection due to soil bacterium. Our study highlights the technique importance on this pathogen identification.

  12. The Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Thyme, Eucalyptus, Chamomile and Fennel on Virulence Factors of Escherichia Coli, Causative Agent of Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dashti-Zadeh

    2017-11-01

    Results: The results showed that, the alcoholic extract of thyme in three concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/ml can prevent motility of the studied strain. Among the four plants studied, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of thyme had the most effect in inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Alcoholic extract of thyme at concentration of 218.75 µg/ml and the alcoholic eucalyptus Extract at Concentration of 54.6875 µg/ml had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacterium, also the thyme alcoholic extract at concentration of 3500 μg / ml had bactericidal effect. None of the extracts had an effect on hemolysin production. Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory effect of thyme and eucalyptus alcoholic extracts on bacterial growth and the ability of these extracts to prevent biofilm formation and bacterial motility, these two herbs can be considered as the first choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  13. Analysis of immune responses to recombinant proteins from strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Casal, Jose; Prysliak, Tracy; Maina, Teresa; Wang, Yejun; Townsend, Hugh; Berverov, Emil; Nkando, Isabel; Wesonga, Hezron; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Current contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccines are based on live-attenuated strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). These vaccines have shortcomings in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity and in some cases show severe side effects at the inoculation site; hence the need to develop new vaccines to combat the disease. Reverse vaccinology approaches were used and identified 66 candidate Mycoplasma proteins using available Mmm genome data. These proteins were ranked by their ability to be recognized by serum from CBPP-positive cattle and thereafter used to inoculate naïve cattle. We report here the inoculation of cattle with recombinant proteins and the subsequent humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to these proteins and conclude that a subset of these proteins are candidate molecules for recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines for CBPP control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxin-like genes in a plasmid of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F. J.; Tran, Loc H.; Lightner, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13-028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins. In V. parahaemolyticus, these Pir toxin-like proteins are encoded by 2 genes ( pirA- and pirB-like) located within a 3.5 kb fragment flanked with inverted repeats of a transposase-coding sequence (1 kb). The GC content of these 2 genes is only 38.2%, substantially lower than that of the rest of the plasmid, which suggests that these genes were recently acquired. Based on a proteomic analysis, the pirA-like (336 bp) and pirB-like (1317 bp) genes encode for 13 and 50 kDa proteins, respectively. In laboratory cultures of V. parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, both proteins were secreted into the culture medium. We developed a duplex PCR diagnostic method, with a detection limit of 105 CFU ml−1 and targeting pirA- and pirB-like genes in this strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This PCR protocol can reliably detect AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus and does not cross react with non-pathogenic strains or with other species of Vibrio isolated from shrimp ponds. PMID:25667334

  15. Use of Multiple Sequencing Technologies To Produce a High-Quality Genome of the Fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of Bat White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P; Palmer, Jonathan M; Sebra, Robert; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Chen, Cynthia; Wu, Cheng-Cang; Bok, Jin Woo; Keller, Nancy P; Blehert, David S; Cuomo, Christina A; Lindner, Daniel L; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-30

    White-nose syndrome has recently emerged as one of the most devastating wildlife diseases recorded, causing widespread mortality in numerous bat species throughout eastern North America. Here, we present an improved reference genome of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans for use in comparative genomic studies. Copyright © 2016 Drees et al.

  16. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-05

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [An oral chemical vaccine from the hypertoxigenic strains of the causative agent of cholera KM-76 Inaba and KM-68 Ogawa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhaparidze, M N; Naumov, A V; Nikitina, G P; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Zavorotnykh, V I; Gracheva, V P; Zakharova, T L

    1991-04-01

    The material on the development of chemical vaccine, prepared from two newly formed strains (KM-76 Inaba and KM-68 Ogawa) and intended for oral administration, is presented. The conditions for the submerged cultivation of these strains have been established, which makes it possible to increase the production of choleragen 8- to 10-fold and O-antigen 3- to 4-fold in comparison with V. cholerae natural strain 569B. The maximum accumulation of neuraminidase, protease, phospholipase, along with choleragen, has been registered in the logarithmic phase and that of O-antigen, in the stationary phase of growth. The use of strains KM-76 and KM-68 has led to the fourfold increase of the specific activity of the main immunogens, thus permitting the respective increase of the yield of the oral vaccine without changes in its high capacity for the formation of specific antibodies and its low residual toxigenicity.

  18. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae UTF1, the causative agent of fish nocardiosis: The first reference genome sequence of the fish pathogenic Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Shimahara, Yoshiko; Kamaishi, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Katoh, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is one of the major threats in the aquaculture of Seriola species (yellowtail; S. quinqueradiata, amberjack; S. dumerili and kingfish; S. lalandi) in Japan. Here, we report the complete nucleotide genome sequence of N. seriolae UTF1, isolated from a cultured yellowtail. The genome is a circular chromosome of 8,121,733 bp with a G+C content of 68.1% that encodes 7,697 predicted proteins. In the N. seriolae UTF1 predicted genes, we found orthologs of virulence factors of pathogenic mycobacteria and human clinical Nocardia isolates involved in host cell invasion, modulation of phagocyte function and survival inside the macrophages. The virulence factor candidates provide an essential basis for understanding their pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level by the fish nocardiosis research community in future studies. We also found many potential antibiotic resistance genes on the N. seriolae UTF1 chromosome. Comparative analysis with the four existing complete genomes, N. farcinica IFM 10152, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 and N. nova SH22a, revealed that 2,745 orthologous genes were present in all five Nocardia genomes (core genes) and 1,982 genes were unique to N. seriolae UTF1. In particular, the N. seriolae UTF1 genome contains a greater number of mobile elements and genes of unknown function that comprise the differences in structure and gene content from the other Nocardia genomes. In addition, a lot of the N. seriolae UTF1-specific genes were assigned to the ABC transport system. Because of limited resources in ocean environments, these N. seriolae UTF1 specific ABC transporters might facilitate adaptation strategies essential for marine environment survival. Thus, the availability of the complete N. seriolae UTF1 genome sequence will provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of N. seriolae isolates, as well as provide new insights into the ecological and functional diversity of the genus Nocardia.

  19. Identification and characterization of two novel toxins expressed by the lethal honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfhaus, Anne; Poppinga, Lena; Genersch, Elke

    2013-11-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen causing the epizootic American foulbrood in honey bee larvae. Four so-called enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) genotypes of P. larvae exist with P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and ERIC II being responsible for disease outbreaks all over the world. Very few molecular data on the pathogen, on pathogenesis or on virulence factors exist. We now identified two genomic loci in P. larvae ERIC I coding for two binary AB toxins, Plx1 and Plx2. In silico analyses revealed that Plx1 is the third member of an enigmatic family of AB toxins so far only comprising MTX1 of Lysinibacillus sphaericus and pierisin-like toxins expressed by several butterflies. Plx2 is also remarkable because the A-domain is highly similar to C3 exoenzymes, which normally are single domain proteins, while the B-domain is homologous to B-domains of C2-toxins. We constructed P. larvae mutants lacking expression of Plx1, Plx2 or both toxins and demonstrated that these toxins are important virulence factors for P. larvae ERIC I. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Use of multiple sequencing technologies to produce a high-quality genome of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of bat White-Nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Sebra, Robert; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Cynthia; Wu, ChengCang; Bok, Jin Woo; Keller, Nancy F.; Blehert, David; Cuomo, Christina A.; Linder, Daniel L.; Foster, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    White-Nose syndrome has recently emerged as one of the most devastating wildlife diseases recorded, causing widespread mortality in numerous bat species throughout eastern North America. Here, we present an improvised reference genome of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans for use in comparative genomic studies.

  1. Lactobacillus apis sp. nov., from the stomach of honeybees (Apis mellifera), having an in vitro inhibitory effect on the causative agents of American and European foulbrood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Dubná, S.; Sedláček, I.; Švec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 152-157 ISSN 1466-5026 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0183 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : honeybees Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  2. In vitro growth and cell wall degrading enzyme production by Argentinean isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causative agent of charcoal rot in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Araceli M; Gally, Marcela; Szapiro, Gala; Itzcovich, Tatiana; Carabajal, Maira; Levin, Laura

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a polyphagous phytopathogen, causing stalk rot on many commercially important species. Damages caused by this pathogen in soybean and maize crops in Argentina during drought and hot weather have increased due its ability to survive as sclerotia in soil and crop debris under non-till practices. In this work, we explored the in vitro production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes [pectinases (polygalacturonase and polymethylgalacturonase); cellulases (endoglucanase); hemicellulases (endoxylanase) and the ligninolytic enzyme laccase] by several Argentinean isolates of M. phaseolina, and assessed the pathogenicity of these isolates as a preliminary step to establish the role of these enzymes in M. phaseolina-maize interaction. The isolates were grown in liquid synthetic medium supplemented with glucose, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose or xylan as carbon sources and/or enzyme inducers and glutamic acid as nitrogen source. Pectinases were the first cell wall-degrading enzymes detected and the activities obtained (polygalacturonase activity was between 0.4 and 1.3U/ml and polymethylgalacturonase between 0.15 and 1.3U/ml) were higher than those of cellulases and xylanases, which appeared later and in a lesser magnitude. This sequence would promote initial tissue maceration followed by cell wall degradation. Laccase was detected in all the isolates evaluated (activity was between 36U/l and 63U/l). The aggressiveness of the isolates was tested in maize, sunflower and watermelon seeds, being high on all the plants assayed. This study reports for the first time the potential of different isolates of M. phaseolina to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in submerged fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Biofilm formation and cellulose expression by Bordetella avium 197N, the causative agent of bordetellosis in birds and an opportunistic respiratory pathogen in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kimberley; Folorunso, Ayorinde O; Deeni, Yusuf Y; Foster, Dona; Gorbatiuk, Oksana; Hapca, Simona M; Immoor, Corinna; Koza, Anna; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Moshynets, Olena; Rogalsky, Sergii; Zawadzki, Kamil; Spiers, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Although bacterial cellulose synthase (bcs) operons are widespread within the Proteobacteria phylum, subunits required for the partial-acetylation of the polymer appear to be restricted to a few γ-group soil, plant-associated and phytopathogenic pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. However, a bcs operon with acetylation subunits has also been annotated in the unrelated β-group respiratory pathogen, Bordetella avium 197N. Our comparison of subunit protein sequences and GC content analyses confirms the close similarity between the B. avium 197N and pseudomonad operons and suggests that, in both cases, the cellulose synthase and acetylation subunits were acquired as a single unit. Using static liquid microcosms, we can confirm that B. avium 197N expresses low levels of cellulose in air-liquid interface biofilms and that biofilm strength and attachment levels could be increased by elevating c-di-GMP levels like the pseudomonads, but cellulose was not required for biofilm formation itself. The finding that B. avium 197N is capable of producing cellulose from a highly-conserved, but relatively uncommon bcs operon raises the question of what functional role this modified polymer plays during the infection of the upper respiratory tract or survival between hosts, and what environmental signals control its production. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein Translation Enzyme lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Presents a New Target for Drug Development against Causative Agents of Loiasis and Schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Manmohan; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites are an assemblage of two major phyla of nematodes (also known as roundworms) and platyhelminths (also called flatworms). These parasites are a major human health burden, and infections caused by helminths are considered under neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These infections are typified by limited clinical treatment options and threat of drug resistance. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are vital enzymes that decode genetic information and enable protein translation. ...

  5. Protein Translation Enzyme lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Presents a New Target for Drug Development against Causative Agents of Loiasis and Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Manmohan; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Helminth parasites are an assemblage of two major phyla of nematodes (also known as roundworms) and platyhelminths (also called flatworms). These parasites are a major human health burden, and infections caused by helminths are considered under neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These infections are typified by limited clinical treatment options and threat of drug resistance. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are vital enzymes that decode genetic information and enable protein translation. The specific inhibition of pathogen aaRSs bores well for development of next generation anti-parasitics. Here, we have identified and annotated aaRSs and accessory proteins from Loa loa (nematode) and Schistosoma mansoni (flatworm) to provide a glimpse of these protein translation enzymes within these parasites. Using purified parasitic lysyl-tRNA synthetases (KRSs), we developed series of assays that address KRS enzymatic activity, oligomeric states, crystal structure and inhibition profiles. We show that L. loa and S. mansoni KRSs are potently inhibited by the fungal metabolite cladosporin. Our co-crystal structure of Loa loa KRS-cladosporin complex reveals key interacting residues and provides a platform for structure-based drug development. This work hence provides a new direction for both novel target discovery and inhibitor development against eukaryotic pathogens that include L. loa and S. mansoni.

  6. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  7. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  8. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  9. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  10. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  11. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  12. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  13. Correlation or causation: untangling the relationship between patent foramen ovale and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eric; Love, Barry; Giovannone, Steve; Volpicelli, Frank; Goldman, Martin E

    2007-03-01

    Observational evidence from the literature has shown an association between migraine headaches and patent foramen ovale (PFO). This observation has led to hypotheses that could explain the etiology of migraines in those with a PFO, including right-to-left shunting of venous agents such as serotonin that are normally broken down in the pulmonary circulation. Further evidence suggests that closure of a PFO may improve migraine symptoms and serve as an effective treatment modality for migraines. Several randomized controlled double-blinded studies are underway that will more definitively establish the role of specific devices in PFO closure in those suffering from migraines.

  14. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  15. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  16. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  17. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  18. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  19. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  20. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  1. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  2. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  3. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  4. Depressive disorder, coronary heart disease, and stroke: dose-response and reverse causation effects in the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Britton, Annie R; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Heuschmann, Peter U; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2014-03-01

    Systematic reviews examining associations of depressive disorder with coronary heart disease and stroke produce mixed results. Failure to consider reverse causation and dose-response patterns may have caused inconsistencies in evidence. This prospective cohort study on depressive disorder, coronary heart disease, and stroke analysed reverse causation and dose-response effects using four 5-year and three 10-year observation cycles (total follow up 24 years) based on multiple repeat measures of exposure. Participants in the Whitehall II study (n = 10,036, 31,395 person-observations, age at start 44.4 years) provided up to six repeat measures of depressive symptoms via the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and one measure via Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The cohort was followed up for major coronary events (coronary death/nonfatal myocardial infarction) and stroke (stroke death/morbidity) through the national mortality register Hospital Episode Statistics, ECG-screening, medical records, and self-report questionnaires. GHQ-30 caseness predicted stroke over 0-5 years (age-, sex- and ethnicity-adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) but not over 5-10 years (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.6-1.4). Using the last 5-year observation cycle, cumulative GHQ-30 caseness was associated with incident coronary heart disease in a dose-response manner (1-2 times a case: HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7; 3-4 times: HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.2-3.7), and CES-D caseness predicted coronary heart disease (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). There was evidence of a dose-response effect of depressive symptoms on risk of coronary heart disease. In contrast, prospective associations of depressive symptoms with stroke appeared to arise wholly or partly through reverse causation.

  5. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was u...

  7. Peritonitis before Peritoneal Dialysis Training: Analysis of Causative Organisms, Clinical Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Peritonitis before peritoneal dialysis (PD) training (pretraining peritonitis [PTP]) is an uncommon event. The study aim was to examine the causative organisms, clinical outcomes, risk factors, and long-term consequences of PTP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single–center, retrospective, observational study involving all incident patients on PD who developed PTP between 1998 and 2012, we examined the causative organisms, primary response rate, complete cure rate, risk factors, and associations of PTP with peritoneal equilibration test (PET) and patient survival. For each patient in the PTP group, the patients who underwent catheter insertion immediately before and after the index case were identified as controls. Results Among 1252 incident patients on PD, 52 (4.2%) patients developed PTP, and 104 patients were identified as controls. The two groups were similar in age, sex distribution, comorbidities, and residual renal function, but the PTP group had significantly lower hemoglobin and serum albumin. Patients were followed up for a median of 37.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 16.3–62.2 months). The most common causative organisms of PTP were Staphylococcus aureus (30.8%) and polymicrobial (21.2%); 25% had negative growth. The primary response and complete cure rates were 82.7% and 78.8%, respectively. In the PTP group, 7.7% of patients died, 9.6% of patients required catheter removal, and PD training was significantly delayed (median =42.0; IQR, 26.0–65.8 days versus 27.5; IQR, 23.0–35.0 days; P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin was the only predictor of PTP (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per 1-g/dl increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.97). There were no differences in PET results and dialysis adequacy (measured around 1 month after PD training). The PTP group had significantly worse patient survival (median =41.2; IQR, 21.8–60.5 months versus 55.8; IQR

  8. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  9. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  10. A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Cummer, S. A.; Marshall, R. A.

    2010-06-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) observations have formed the cornerstone of measurement and interpretation of effects of lightning discharges on the overlying upper atmospheric regions, as well as near-Earth space. ELF (0.3-3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz) wave energy released by lightning discharges is often the agent of modification of the lower ionospheric medium that results in the conductivity changes and the excitation of optical emissions that constitute transient luminous events (TLEs). In addition, the resultant ionospheric changes are best (and often uniquely) observable as perturbations of subionospherically propagating VLF signals. In fact, some of the earliest evidence for direct disturbances of the lower ionosphere in association with lightning discharges was obtained in the course of the study of such VLF perturbations. Measurements of the detailed ELF and VLF waveforms of parent lightning discharges that produce TLEs and terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) have also been very fruitful, often revealing properties of such discharges that maximize ionospheric effects, such as generation of intense electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) or removal of large quantities of charge. In this paper, we provide a review of the development of ELF and VLF measurements, both from a historical point of view and from the point of view of their relationship to optical and other observations of ionospheric effects of lightning discharges.

  11. The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Demyttenaere, Koen; Janka, Zoltan; Aarre, Trond; Bourin, Michel; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Stahl, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant advances in pharmacologic therapy of depression over the past two decades, a substantial proportion of patients fail to respond or experience only partial response to serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in chronic functional impairment. There appears to be a pattern of symptoms that are inadequately addressed by serotonergic antidepressants - loss of pleasure, loss of interest, fatigue and loss of energy. These symptoms are key to the maintenance of drive and motivation. Although these symptoms are variously defined, they are consistent with the concept of ;decreased positive affect'. Positive affect subsumes a broad range of positive mood states, including feelings of happiness (joy), interest, energy, enthusiasm, alertness and self-confidence. Although preliminary, there is evidence to suggest that antidepressants that enhance noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity may afford a therapeutic advantage over serotonergic antidepressants in the treatment of symptoms associated with a reduction in positive affect. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic agents, including the dual acting norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitors, have demonstrated antidepressant activity in the absence of serotonergic function, showing similar efficacy to both tricyclic and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants. Moreover, the norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor bupropion has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of energy, pleasure and interest in patients with depression with predominant baseline symptoms of decreased pleasure, interest and energy. Focusing treatment on the predominant or driving symptomatology for an individual patient with major depression could potentially improve rates of response and remission.

  12. Development and evaluation of a Naïve Bayesian model for coding causation of workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, S J; Meyers, A R; Wurzelbacher, S J; Bell, J; Lampl, M L; Robins, D

    2012-12-01

    Tracking and trending rates of injuries and illnesses classified as musculoskeletal disorders caused by ergonomic risk factors such as overexertion and repetitive motion (MSDs) and slips, trips, or falls (STFs) in different industry sectors is of high interest to many researchers. Unfortunately, identifying the cause of injuries and illnesses in large datasets such as workers' compensation systems often requires reading and coding the free form accident text narrative for potentially millions of records. To alleviate the need for manual coding, this paper describes and evaluates a computer auto-coding algorithm that demonstrated the ability to code millions of claims quickly and accurately by learning from a set of previously manually coded claims. The auto-coding program was able to code claims as a musculoskeletal disorders, STF or other with approximately 90% accuracy. The program developed and discussed in this paper provides an accurate and efficient method for identifying the causation of workers' compensation claims as a STF or MSD in a large database based on the unstructured text narrative and resulting injury diagnoses. The program coded thousands of claims in minutes. The method described in this paper can be used by researchers and practitioners to relieve the manual burden of reading and identifying the causation of claims as a STF or MSD. Furthermore, the method can be easily generalized to code/classify other unstructured text narratives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, Ethan J; Miller, Jill S; Rifkin, Joanna L

    2010-04-12

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use.

  14. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  15. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  16. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  17. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  18. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.M.; Subhani, A.; Hassan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  19. Comparative genetics: synergizing human and NOD mouse studies for identifying genetic causation of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, John P; Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E

    2012-01-01

    Although once widely anticipated to unlock how human type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops, extensive study of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse has failed to yield effective treatments for patients with the disease. This has led many to question the usefulness of this animal model. While criticism about the differences between NOD and human T1D is legitimate, in many cases disease in both species results from perturbations modulated by the same genes or different genes that function within the same biological pathways. Like in humans, unusual polymorphisms within an MHC class II molecule contributes the most T1D risk in NOD mice. This insight supports the validity of this model and suggests the NOD has been improperly utilized to study how to cure or prevent disease in patients. Indeed, clinical trials are far from administering T1D therapeutics to humans at the same concentration ranges and pathological states that inhibit disease in NOD mice. Until these obstacles are overcome it is premature to label the NOD mouse a poor surrogate to test agents that cure or prevent T1D. An additional criticism of the NOD mouse is the past difficulty in identifying genes underlying T1D using conventional mapping studies. However, most of the few diabetogenic alleles identified to date appear relevant to the human disorder. This suggests that rather than abandoning genetic studies in NOD mice, future efforts should focus on improving the efficiency with which diabetes susceptibility genes are detected. The current review highlights why the NOD mouse remains a relevant and valuable tool to understand the genes and their interactions that promote autoimmune diabetes and therapeutics that inhibit this disease. It also describes a new range of technologies that will likely transform how the NOD mouse is used to uncover the genetic causes of T1D for years to come.

  20. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  1. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleski, V.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  2. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  3. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  4. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  5. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  6. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  7. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  8. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  9. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  10. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the aetiological agents of white piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alba Regina; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de; Silva, Manuela da; Nishikawa, Marilia Martins

    2008-12-01

    The Trichosporon genus is constituted by many species, of which Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon inkin are the causative agents of white piedra. They can cause nodules in genital hair or on the scalp. At present, Brazilian laboratory routines generally do not include the identification of the species of Trichosporon genus, which, although morphologically and physiologically distinct, present many similarities, making the identification difficult. The aim of this study was to identify the aetiological agents at the species level of white piedra from clinical specimens. Therefore, both the macro and micro morphology were studied, and physiological tests were performed. Trichosporon spp. was isolated from 10 clinical samples; T. ovoides was predominant, as it was found in seven samples, while T. inkin was identified just in two samples. One isolate could not be identified at the species level. T. inkin was identified for the first time as a white piedra agent in the hair shaft on child under the age of 10.

  11. Agents and trends in health care workers' occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, G. I.; Moore, V. C.; McGrath, E. E.; Burge, P. S.; Henneberger, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a disproportionately high number of cases of work-related asthma occurring in health care occupations due to agents such as glutaraldehyde, latex and cleaning products. Aims To understand the causes and measure trends over time of occupational asthma (OA) in health care workers (HCWs). Methods We reviewed OA notifications from the Midland Thoracic Society's Surveillance Scheme of Occupational Asthma (SHIELD) database in the West Midlands, UK, from 1991 to 2011 and gathered data on occupation, causative agent and annual number of notifications. Results There were 182 cases of OA in HCWs (median annual notifications = 7; interquartile range [IQR] = 5–11), representing 5–19% of annual SHIELD notifications. The modal annual notification was 20 (in 1996); notifications have declined since then, in line with total SHIELD notifications. The majority of cases (136; 75%) occurred in nursing, operating theatre, endoscopy and radiology staff. The most frequently implicated agents were glutaraldehyde (n = 69), latex (n = 47) and cleaning products (n = 27), accounting for 79% of the 182 cases. Cleaning product-related OA was an emerging cause with 22 cases after 2001 and only 5 cases between 1991 and 2000. Conclusions Control measures within the UK National Health Service have seen a decline in OA in HCWs due to latex and glutaraldehyde, though OA remains a problem amongst HCWs exposed to cleaning products. Continuing efforts are required to limit the number of cases in this employment sector. PMID:23933593

  12. Agents and trends in health care workers' occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, G I; Moore, V C; McGrath, E E; Burge, P S; Henneberger, P K

    2013-10-01

    There is a disproportionately high number of cases of work-related asthma occurring in health care occupations due to agents such as glutaraldehyde, latex and cleaning products. To understand the causes and measure trends over time of occupational asthma (OA) in health care workers (HCWs). We reviewed OA notifications from the Midland Thoracic Society's Surveillance Scheme of Occupational Asthma (SHIELD) database in the West Midlands, UK, from 1991 to 2011 and gathered data on occupation, causative agent and annual number of notifications. There were 182 cases of OA in HCWs (median annual notifications = 7; interquartile range [IQR] = 5-11), representing 5-19% of annual SHIELD notifications. The modal annual notification was 20 (in 1996); notifications have declined since then, in line with total SHIELD notifications. The majority of cases (136; 75%) occurred in nursing, operating theatre, endoscopy and radiology staff. The most frequently implicated agents were glutaraldehyde (n = 69), latex (n = 47) and cleaning products (n = 27), accounting for 79% of the 182 cases. Cleaning product-related OA was an emerging cause with 22 cases after 2001 and only 5 cases between 1991 and 2000. Control measures within the UK National Health Service have seen a decline in OA in HCWs due to latex and glutaraldehyde, though OA remains a problem amongst HCWs exposed to cleaning products. Continuing efforts are required to limit the number of cases in this employment sector.

  13. Chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic Aspergillus: Comparison between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Araujo, Ricardo; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. However, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of Aspergillus conidia are unknown.With this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic Aspergillus species. Chronological aging was therefore evaluated in A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger conidia exposed to environmental and human body temperatures. The results showed that the aging process in Aspergillus conidia involves apoptosis,with metacaspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species production, associated with secondary necrosis. Distinct results were observed for the selected pathogenic species. At environmental conditions, A. niger was the species with the highest resistance to aging, indicating a higher adaption to environmental conditions, whereas A. flavus followed by A. terreus were the most sensitive species. At higher temperatures (37 °C), A. fumigatus presented the longest lifespan, in accordance with its good adaptation to the human body temperature. Altogether,with this work new insights regarding conidia aging are provided, which may be useful when designing treatments for aspergillosis.

  14. “Are We There Yet?”: Deciding When One Has Demonstrated Specific Genetic Causation in Complex Diseases and Quantitative Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P.; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C.; Page, Patricia Z.; Allison, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, “Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it.” We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what “causation” means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called “causative.” PMID:13680525

  15. Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and SJS-TEN overlap: A retrospective study of causative drugs and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and SJS-TEN overlap are serious adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Drugs are often implicated in these reactions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of inpatients′ data with these dermatological diagnoses were carried out for three years, to study the causative drugs, clinical outcome, and mortality in these conditions. Results: Thirty patients (15 TEN, nine SJS-TEN overlap, and six SJS were admitted. In 21 cases, multiple drugs were implicated whereas single drugs were responsible in nine. Anticonvulsants (35.08% were the most commonly implicated drugs followed by antibiotics (33.33% and NSAIDS (24.56%. Twenty-five patients recovered whereas five died (four TEN, one SJS-TEN overlap. Conclusion: Anticonvulsants, antibiotics and NSAIDs were the most frequently implicated drugs. TEN causes higher mortality than both SJS and SJS-TEN overlap.

  16. Study of Applying Cognitive Linguistic Theory into Japanese Grammar Teaching——Taking Causative Sentence as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu[1

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Japanese grammar teaching often only pays attention to the interpretation of syntax and the integrity of grammar structure. This violates the cultivation of communicative competence, and is not in conformity with the society’s requirements of applied foreign language talents. Cognitive linguistics theory, which links language form with semantic concept, reveals the internal relation of man’s thinking and language. If we can subtly apply cognitive linguistic theory into Japanese grammar teaching to explore the cognitive process in the speakers’ brain while expressing, we can get a good understanding of diffi cult points and “special case”. This paper explores the introductory methods and efficacy of the cognitive linguistics theory applied in Japanese grammar teaching method, by lecturing causative sentences an example.

  17. Does Fine Needle Aspiration Microbiology Offer Any Benefit Over Wound Swab in Detecting the Causative Organisms in Surgical Site Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi; Gs, Sreenath; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Sujatha, Sistla; Kate, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of ne needle aspiration microbiology (FNAM) in detecting the causative organisms of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) in comparison with the standard technique of surface swabbing. Ma- terials and Methods. In this study, 150 patients with SSIs following elective and emergency operations were included. In all patients, FNAM was performed along with conventional surface swabbing to identify the causative microorganism. Sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was calculated as the number of samples collected from the diagnosed case of SSI. A total of 115 positive cultures were obtained from the 150 patients with SSIs; surface swab was positive in 110 cases and FNAM was positive in 94 cases. The mean number of organisms isolated by surface swab, and FNAM was 0.95 and 0.8, respectively. The sensitivity of surface swab was 94.3% in elective cases and 96.25% in emergency cases. The sensitivity of FNAM was 82.8% in elective cases and 82.5% in emergency cases. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FNAM and surface swab did not signi cantly differ in clean elective cases. The overall sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was 95.65% and 81.7%, respectively. Comparing the antibiotic suscep- tibility pattern, no difference was observed when the same organ- ism was isolated by both methods, indicating that FNAM does not offer bene t over the conventional wound surface swab in detecting microorganisms in SSI in both elective and emergency surgeries. In certain cases with unexplained wound infections, FNAM can be used as an investigation to identify speci c pathogens not detected by conventional surface swab.

  18. Probability of causation of liver disease for radiation exposure: impact of interaction with hepatitis-C virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cologne, J. B.; Sharp, G. B.; Fujivara, S. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Pawel, D. J. [US Environmental Protecion Agency, New York (United States)

    2002-07-01

    From the point of view of probability of causation (POC), exposure to other risk factors is an important determinant of the role played by radiation in producing disease. Studies of atomic-bomb survivors provide suggestive evidence of a possible interaction between whole-body radiation exposure and chronic hepatitis-C viral (HCV) infection in the etiology of liver disease, but the precise mechanism of the joint effect is in doubt. Estimates of liver disease prevalence as a function of radiation dose and hence different estimates of POC, estimated by the radiation attributable proportion conditional on HCV status differ depending on whether one fits an additive or a multiplicative model to the odds of disease, but the data do not allow a clear discrimination between the two models. Among HCV-negative individuals, radiation exposure accounts for a fraction of liver-disease cases varying from 0% at 0 Gy to almost 40% at 4 Gy. Among HCV-positive individuals, only a few percent of diseased cases can be attributed to radiation at 4 Gy if the joint effect is additive, but if the joint effect is multiplicative, about 30% of the diseased cases exposed to 4 Gy can be attributed to radiation. We estimated the proportion of cases associated with radiation conditional on HCV status using a more general, mixture model that does not impose restrictions such as additivity or multiplicativity. Estimated POC based on the mixture model was similar for HCV negative and positive individuals. Although the mixture model may not reflect the true mechanism of joint effect, it avoids restrictive assumptions that cannot be tested using the available data. We consider such an empirical approach to be preferable to assuming a specific mechanistic model for estimating probability of causation in situations where the mechanism of the joint effect from epidemiological studies including unmeasured factors is in doubt.

  19. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A., E-mail: g.a.sattler@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vroomen, Patrick C. [Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim J. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schers, Henk J. [Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  20. International Comparison of Causative Bacteria and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Urinary Tract Infections between Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Alimsardjono, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Dadik; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Fujisawa, Masato

    2018-01-23

    Variation by country in urinary tract infection (UTI)-causative bacteria is partly due to the differences in the use of antibiotics. We compared their frequencies and antibiotic susceptibilities in the treatment of patients with UTI from 2 cities, Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia. We retrospectively analyzed 1,804 urine samples collected from patients with UTI in 2014 (1,251 collected in 11 months at Kobe University Hospital in Kobe and 544 collected in 2 months at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya). Surabaya data were divided into adult and pediatric patients because a substantial number of specimens from pediatric-patients had been collected. The results indicated that Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (24.1% in Kobe and 39.3% in Surabaya) and was significantly resistant to ampicillin and substantially to first- and third-generation cephalosporins in Surabaya adults but not in Kobe adults (p < 0.01). Enterococcus faecalis was often isolated in Kobe (14.0%), but not in Surabaya (5.3%). Klebsiella spp. were isolated at a higher rate in Surabaya pediatric patients (20.3%) than in Surabaya adults (13.6%) and Kobe adults (6.6%). The antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates form Surabaya isolates tended to be lower than the ones from Kobe. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria were detected at a significantly higher rate in Surabaya than in Kobe (p < 0.001). These results showed that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of UTI-causative bacteria are highly variable among 2 countries, and the continuous surveillance of trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens is necessary for the future revision of antibiotic use.

  1. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  2. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dou

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED was split into two subsets: (i 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI and logistic regression (LR models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC. The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC for the LR model (AUC = 0.817 is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801. Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner.

  3. Probability of causation of liver disease for radiation exposure: impact of interaction with hepatitis-C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J. B.; Sharp, G. B.; Fujivara, S.; Pawel, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    From the point of view of probability of causation (POC), exposure to other risk factors is an important determinant of the role played by radiation in producing disease. Studies of atomic-bomb survivors provide suggestive evidence of a possible interaction between whole-body radiation exposure and chronic hepatitis-C viral (HCV) infection in the etiology of liver disease, but the precise mechanism of the joint effect is in doubt. Estimates of liver disease prevalence as a function of radiation dose and hence different estimates of POC, estimated by the radiation attributable proportion conditional on HCV status differ depending on whether one fits an additive or a multiplicative model to the odds of disease, but the data do not allow a clear discrimination between the two models. Among HCV-negative individuals, radiation exposure accounts for a fraction of liver-disease cases varying from 0% at 0 Gy to almost 40% at 4 Gy. Among HCV-positive individuals, only a few percent of diseased cases can be attributed to radiation at 4 Gy if the joint effect is additive, but if the joint effect is multiplicative, about 30% of the diseased cases exposed to 4 Gy can be attributed to radiation. We estimated the proportion of cases associated with radiation conditional on HCV status using a more general, mixture model that does not impose restrictions such as additivity or multiplicativity. Estimated POC based on the mixture model was similar for HCV negative and positive individuals. Although the mixture model may not reflect the true mechanism of joint effect, it avoids restrictive assumptions that cannot be tested using the available data. We consider such an empirical approach to be preferable to assuming a specific mechanistic model for estimating probability of causation in situations where the mechanism of the joint effect from epidemiological studies including unmeasured factors is in doubt

  4. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; Yunus, Ali P; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner.

  5. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  6. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  7. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  8. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  9. Extraction and Study of Bacteriophages, Used against Agents of Potato Soft Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda D. Davitashvili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of specific bacteriophages and their complex mixtures against bacterial diseases is very effective. As for causative agent of potato soft rot Erwinia carotovora, specific phages (25 phages in total were extracted from diseased potato, soil and sewage. The study of their biological properties showed the diversity of phages in terms of lytic action, virion plaque and morphology, as well as in relation to different environmental factors. Phages showed explicit antibacterial activity in vitro in liquid and solid media, as well as during model tests of potato tubers artificial inoculation.

  10. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  11. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  12. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  13. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  14. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  15. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  16. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  17. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  18. From learning from accidents to teaching about accident causation and prevention: Multidisciplinary education and safety literacy for all engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Pendley, Cynthia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we argue that system accident literacy and safety competence should be an essential part of the intellectual toolkit of all engineering students. We discuss why such competence should be taught and nurtured in engineering students, and provide one example for how this can be done. We first define the class of adverse events of interest as system accidents, distinct from occupational accidents, through their (1) temporal depth of causality and (2) diversity of agency or groups and individuals who influence or contribute to the accident occurrence/prevention. We then address the question of why the interest in this class of events and their prevention, and we expand on the importance of system safety literacy and the contributions that engineering students can make in the long-term towards accident prevention. Finally, we offer one model for an introductory course on accident causation and system safety, discuss the course logistics, material and delivery, and our experience teaching this subject. The course starts with the anatomy of accidents and is grounded in various case studies; these help illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, and provide the students with the important concepts to describe the phenomenology of accidents (e.g., initiating events, accident precursor or lead indicator, and accident pathogen). More importantly, the case studies invite a deep reflection on the underlying failure mechanisms, their generalizability, and the various safety levers for accident prevention. The course then proceeds to an exposition of defense-in-depth, safety barriers and principles, essential elements for an education in accident prevention, and it concludes with a presentation of basic concepts and tools for uncertainty and risk analysis. Educators will recognize the difficulties in designing a new course on such a broad subject. It is hoped that this work will invite comments and contributions from the readers, and that the journal will

  19. Dissemination material template, Deliverable 2.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tros, M. & Houtenbos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  20. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  1. Students' Big Three Personality Traits, Perceptions of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior, and Mathematics Achievement: An Application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation (MRC) in examining the relationship between student personality (personal factors), student-perceived teacher interpersonal behavior (environment), and Mathematics achievement (behavior), with the simultaneous investigation of mediating effects…

  2. Single molecule real time sequencing in ADTKD-MUC1 allows complete assembly of the VNTR and exact positioning of causative mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, Andrea; Altmueller, Janine; Ekici, Arif B.; Popp, Bernt; Stueber, Kurt; Thiele, Holger; Pannes, Alois; Staubach, Simon; Salido, Eduardo; Nuernberg, Peter; Reinhardt, Richard; Reis, Andre; Rump, Patrick; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Wolf, Matthias T. F.; Wiesener, Michael; Huettel, Bruno; Beck, Bodo B.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the Mucin-1 (MUC1) gene has been identified as a causal gene of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD). Most causative mutations are buried within a GC-rich 60 basepair variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR), which escapes identification by massive parallel

  3. Definition of user needs and “hot topics”, Deliverable 2.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, L. Thomson, R. Skogsmo, I. Houtenbos, M. Durso, C. Thomas, P. Elvik, R. & Wismans, J.

    2016-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policymakers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  4. An Updated Typology of Causative Constructions: Form-Function Mappings in Hupa (California Athabaskan), Chungli Ao (Tibeto-Burman) and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Ramon Matthew, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Taking up analytical issues raised primarily in Dixon (2000) and Dixon & Aikhenvald (2000), this dissertation combines descriptive work with a medium-sized (50-language) typological study. Chapter 1 situates the dissertation against a concise survey of typological-functional work on causative constructions from the last few decades, and…

  5. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  6. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  7. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Gain-of-function mutations in the ALS8 causative gene VAPB have detrimental effects on neurons and muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sanhueza

    2013-12-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a motor neuron degenerative disease characterized by a progressive, and ultimately fatal, muscle paralysis. The human VAMP-Associated Protein B (hVAPB is the causative gene of ALS type 8. Previous studies have shown that a loss-of-function mechanism is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS. Recently, a novel mutation in hVAPB (V234I has been identified but its pathogenic potential has not been assessed. We found that neuronal expression of the V234I mutant allele in Drosophila (DVAP-V260I induces defects in synaptic structure and microtubule architecture that are opposite to those associated with DVAP mutants and transgenic expression of other ALS-linked alleles. Expression of DVAP-V260I also induces aggregate formation, reduced viability, wing postural defects, abnormal locomotion behavior, nuclear abnormalities, neurodegeneration and upregulation of the heat-shock-mediated stress response. Similar, albeit milder, phenotypes are associated with the overexpression of the wild-type protein. These data show that overexpressing the wild-type DVAP is sufficient to induce the disease and that DVAP-V260I is a pathogenic allele with increased wild-type activity. We propose that a combination of gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS.

  9. Systematic review of environmental risk factors for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A proposed roadmap from association to causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Gustaf; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Larsson, Henrik; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-06-01

    To synthesize the current knowledge on possible environmental risk factors for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. The Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched up until October 6, 2015, employing relevant keywords and MeSH terms. 128 studies met inclusion criteria. Potential environmental risk factors for OCD have been identified in the broad areas of perinatal complications, reproductive cycle, and stressful life events. There is limited evidence regarding other potential risk factors, such as parental age, season of birth, socioeconomic status, parental rearing practices, infections, traumatic brain injury, substance use or vitamin deficiency. In general, studies were of limited methodological quality. At present, no environmental risk factors have convincingly been associated with OCD. We propose a roadmap for future studies, consisting of longitudinal, population-based research, employing quasi-experimental family and twin designs to identify risk factors that are not only associated with the disorder but also contribute to its causation either directly or moderating the effect of genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaccination and Infection as Causative Factors in Japanese Patients With Rasmussen Syndrome: Molecular Mimicry and HLA Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitoshi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen syndrome is an intractable epilepsy with a putative causal relation with cellular and humoral autoimmunity. Almost half of the patients have some preceding causative factors, with infections found in 38.2%, vaccinations in 5.9% and head trauma in 8.9% of Japanese patients. In a patient with seizure onset after influenza A infections, cross-reaction of the patient's lymphocytes with GluRε2 and influenza vaccine components was demonstrated by lymphocyte stimulation test. Database analyses revealed that influenza A virus hemagglutinin and GluRε2 molecules contain peptides with the patient's HLA class I binding motif (HLA ࢤ A*0201. The relative risks of HLA class I genotypes for Rasmussen syndrome are 6.1 (A*2402, 6.4 (A*0201, 6.3 (A*2601 and 11.4 (B*4601. The relative risks of HLA class I-A and B haplotypes are infinity (A*2601+B*5401, 21.1 (A*2402+B*1501, 13.3 (A*2402+B*4801 and 5.1 (A*2402+B*5201. Some alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I may be the risk factors in Japanese patients. Cross-reactivity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes may contribute to the processes leading from infection to the involvement of CNS.

  11. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Triantafyllopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added.

  12. Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal-ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Agnihotri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent. The causative factors that lead to microfracture and, hence, failure of the luting agents are the stresses acting inside the oral cavity. Therefore, the present study was designed to develop an understanding of the relationship between stresses in the tooth and the failure potential of the luting agent. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The behavior of zinc-phosphate and glass-ionomer were studied under different crowns (metal-ceramic and metal crown and loading conditions (mechanical force of 450 N acting vertically over the occlusal surface, thermal loads of 60° and 0°C. It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown.

  13. From correlation to causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosato, Antonio; Tenori, Leonardo; Cascante, Marta; Atauri Carulla, De Pedro Ramon; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolomics is a well-established tool in systems biology, especially in the top–down approach. Metabolomics experiments often results in discovery studies that provide intriguing biological hypotheses but rarely offer mechanistic explanation of such findings. In this light, the

  14. Graded Causation and Defaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    are considered part of a cause; inessential elements are pruned . Without AC3, if dropping a lit match qualified as a cause of the forest fire, then...possession of a lethal poison, but has a last-minute change of heart and refrains from putting it in Victim’s coffee . Bodyguard puts antidote in the... coffee , which would have neutralized the poison had there been any. Victim drinks the coffee and survives. Is Bodyguard’s putting in the antidote a

  15. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  16. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  17. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  18. Evaluating bionanoparticle infused fungal metabolites as a novel antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartikeya Rajpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic properties of fungal metabolites and silver nanoparticles have been well documented. While fungal metabolites have been used for centuries as medicinal drugs, potential of biogenic silver nanoparticles has recently received attention. We have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus terreus crude extract, silver nanoparticles and an amalgamation of both against four pathogenic bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of the following was evaluated – A. terreus extract, biogenic silver nanoparticles, and a mixture containing extract and nanoparticles. Four pathogenic bacteria - Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were used as test organisms. Phenol, flavonoid, and alkaloid content of extract were determined to understand the chemical profile of the fungus. The extract contained significantly high amounts of phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The extract and biogenic silver nanoparticle exhibited significant antibacterial activity at concentrations of 10 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. When used in combination, the extract-nanoparticle mixture showed equally potent antibacterial activity at a much lower concentration of 2.5 μg/ml extract + 0.5 μg/ml nanoparticle. Given its high antibacterial potential, the fungal extract can be a promising source of novel drug lead compounds. The extract – silver nanoparticle mixture exhibited synergism in their antibacterial efficacy. This property can be further used to formulate new age drugs.

  19. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  20. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.