WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial water storage

  1. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  2. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  3. Global Terrestrial Water Storage Changes and Connections to ENSO Events

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    Ni, Shengnan; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.; Li, Jin; Hu, Xiaogong; Fu, Rong

    2018-01-01

    Improved data quality of extended record of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity solutions enables better understanding of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Connections of TWS and climate change are critical to investigate regional and global water cycles. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of global connections between interannual TWS changes and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, using multiple sources of data, including GRACE measurements, land surface model (LSM) predictions and precipitation observations. We use cross-correlation and coherence spectrum analysis to examine global connections between interannual TWS changes and the Niño 3.4 index, and select four river basins (Amazon, Orinoco, Colorado, and Lena) for more detailed analysis. The results indicate that interannual TWS changes are strongly correlated with ENSO over much of the globe, with maximum cross-correlation coefficients up to 0.70, well above the 95% significance level ( 0.29) derived by the Monte Carlo experiments. The strongest correlations are found in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in the Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. While both GRACE and LSM TWS estimates show reasonably good correlations with ENSO and generally consistent spatial correlation patterns, notably higher correlations are found between GRACE TWS and ENSO. The existence of significant correlations in middle-high latitudes shows the large-scale impact of ENSO on the global water cycle.

  4. Monitoring groundwater storage change through joint assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage and SMOS soil moisture observations

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    Tian, S.; Tregoning, P.; van Dijk, A.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring groundwater storage change is of considerable value to freshwater supply and irrigated agriculture. Quantifying groundwater storage change remains challenging at large scale owning to the lack of monitoring infrastructure. The groundwater depletion caused by water withdrawals from pumping wells is often unmonitored and unable to be modeled. Recent studies have demonstrated that combining auxiliary hydrological datasets with terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can offer improved groundwater storage change estimation albeit at a coarse scale ( 300 km resolution). However, accurate soil moisture, surface water and snow data are critical to isolate groundwater component from TWS. Near-surface soil moisture (SM) retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite provide opportunity to better disaggregate groundwater storage change from TWS. In this study, we assimilated GRACE TWS and SMOS SM into a water balance model to quantify groundwater change in Australia. Through the assimilation, the satellite observations updated the individual water storage components (from top-layer soil to groundwater stores) at daily time steps over a one-month assimilation window. Our results showed that combining TWS and SM observations together can achieved more accurate and realistic estimates of model simulated groundwater storage, SM profile and TWS. The assimilation resulted in improved modeled estimates of profile moisture (0-90 cm) for 80% of in situ monitoring sites, and groundwater storage for 70% of bore sites across the country compared to open-loop (unconstrained) model simulations. The temporal correlation with in-situ measurements and linear trend of model simulated groundwater storage were improved by up to 0.9 compared to model open-loop simulations. Our analysis of the temporal trend across Australia found a significant reduction in groundwater over the southeastern Australia

  5. Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE and Satellite Altimetry in the Okavango Delta (Botswana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-01-01

    New technology can for the first time enable the accurate retrieval of the global and regional water budgets from space-borne and ground-based gravity surveys. Water is mankind’s most critical natural resource, but it is being heavily used throughout the globe. The aim of this paper is to outline...... the HYDROGRAV project dealing with improving large scale hydrological model with time variable gravity observations. Also preliminary HYDROGRAV investigationsa of terrestrial water storage variations in the Okavango delta in Botswana are presented. Data from 4 years of satellite altimetry, GRACE derived TWS...

  6. Variability in Terrestrial Water Storage and its effect on polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Justyna; Nastula, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    Explaining the hydrological part of observed polar motion excitation has been a major challenge over a dozen years. The terrestrial water storage (TWS) excitation of polar motion - hydrological angular momentum (HAM), has been investigated widely using global hydrological models mainly at seasonal timescales. Unfortunately, the results from the models do not fully explain the role of hydrological signal in polar motion excitation. The determination of TWS from the Earth's gravity field observations represents an indirect approach for estimating land hydrology. Throughout the past decade, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has given an unprecedented view on global variations in Terrestrial Water Storage. Our investigations are focused on the influence of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) variations obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission on polar motion excitation functions at decadal and inter-annual timescales. The global and regional trend, seasonal cycle as well as some extremes in TWS variations are considered here. Here TWS are obtained from the monthly mass grids land GRACE Tellus data: GRACE CSR RL05, GRACE GFZ RL05 and GRACE JPL RL05. As a comparative dataset, we also use TWS estimates determined from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). GRACE data and state-of-the-art CMIP5 climate models allow us to show the variability of hydrological part of polar motion under climate changes. Our studies include two steps: first, the determination and comparisons of regional patterns of TWS obtained from GRACE data and climate models, and second, comparison of the regional and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion with a hydrological signal in the geodetic excitation functions of polar motion.

  7. Assimilation of GRACE derived terrestrial water storage data into Canadian land surface and hydrology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Goita, K.; Razavi, S.; Magagi, R.; Elshamy, M.; Haghnegahdar, A.; Davison, B.; Yassin, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    Over Northern Hemisphere, especially in the snow-dominated regions, accumulation and ablation of snow have a strong impact on terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In these areas, land surface hydrology is heavily influenced by snow mass variations, and therefore, acquiring accurate snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation is considered as an important issue of water supply management. Among satellite-based measurements, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), measures TWS anomaly distributions over land, which embeds SWE variations as a major component during cold seasons. This study is an attempt to assimilate the GRACE data into a land-surface hydrology model called MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire-Surface and Hydrology), which embeds the Canadian land surface scheme (CLASS) and simulates water storage changes with high spatial ( 15km) and temporal resolution (half-hourly). In this research work, MESH-GRACE data assimilation (DA) framework using ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) is implemented in order to improve SWE estimation beyond model estimations and satellite-based measurements. The performance of the MESH-GRACE DA approach is evaluated based on independent data sets. The developed framework is expected to significantly enhance the MESH model accuracy and simulated steamflows by improving accuracy in representing water storage across different components of the system.

  8. Assessing Terrestrial Water Storage and Flood Potential Using GRACE Data in the Yangtze River Basin, China

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    Zhangli Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods have caused tremendous economic, societal and ecological losses in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB of China. To reduce the impact of these disasters, it is important to understand the variables affecting the hydrological state of the basin. In this study, we used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite data, flood potential index (FPI, precipitation data (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, TRMM 3B43, and other meteorological data to generate monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA and to evaluate flood potential in the YRB. The results indicate that the basin contained increasing amounts of water from 2003 to 2014, with a slight increase of 3.04 mm/year in the TWSA. The TWSA and TRMM data exhibit marked seasonal characteristics with summer peaks and winter dips. Estimates of terrestrial water storage based on GRACE, measured as FPI, are critical for understanding and predicting flooding. The 2010 flood (FPI ~ 0.36 was identified as the most serious disaster during the study period, with discharge and precipitation values 37.95% and 19.44% higher, respectively, than multi-year average values for the same period. FPI can assess reliably hydrological extremes with high spatial and temporal resolution, but currently, it is not suitable for smaller and/or short-term flood events. Thus, we conclude that GRACE data can be effectively used for monitoring and examining large floods in the YRB and elsewhere, thus improving the current knowledge and presenting potentially important political and economic implications.

  9. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  10. Rivers and Floodplains as Key Components of Global Terrestrial Water Storage Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto; Kumar, Sujay; Girotto, Manuela; Rodell, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    This study quantifies the contribution of rivers and floodplains to terrestrial water storage (TWS) variability. We use state-of-the-art models to simulate land surface processes and river dynamics and to separate TWS into its main components. Based on a proposed impact index, we show that surface water storage (SWS) contributes 8% of TWS variability globally, but that contribution differs widely among climate zones. Changes in SWS are a principal component of TWS variability in the tropics, where major rivers flow over arid regions and at high latitudes. SWS accounts for 22-27% of TWS variability in both the Amazon and Nile Basins. Changes in SWS are negligible in the Western U.S., Northern Africa, Middle East, and central Asia. Based on comparisons with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment-based TWS, we conclude that accounting for SWS improves simulated TWS in most of South America, Africa, and Southern Asia, confirming that SWS is a key component of TWS variability.

  11. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

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    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  12. Drought analysis of the Haihe river basin based on GRACE terrestrial water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.

  13. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe river basin (HRB in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI, precipitation anomaly index (PAI, and vegetation anomaly index (AVI were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.

  14. Estimating terrestrial water storage changes in the Tarim River Basin using GRACE data

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    Zhao, Kefei; Li, Xia

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) plays a fundamental role in the arid Tarim River Basin, which is mainly fed by glacier and snow melt water. However, the significant scarcity of ground-based observations, especially in the high-altitude mountain areas, limits our understanding of TWS changes in this region. In this study, TWS variations in the Tarim River Basin were estimated using monthly GRACE Level 2 Release 5 (RL05) products from 2002 to August 2015. The GRACE results were validated against outputs of Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) including spatial and temporal correlation analysis. The correlation between the regional TWS time-series of GRACE and GLDAS is 0.7777. It was found that GRACE TWS shows a slightly decreasing trend of -1.4069 ± 0.5060 mm yr-1 in the entire Tarim River Basin during the study period and a significant spatial difference over the study area. An apparent decreasing trend in Tien Shan and the Taklamakan Desert, and a significant increasing trend in the Kunlun Mountains and eastern Pamirs Plateau were also detected. Moreover, seasonal analysis of regional TWS time-series, precipitation and the 0 °C isotherm height in summer showed that detrended TWS variations were consistent with precipitation while long-term trends of TWS were contrary to that of the 0 °C isotherm height in summer. It implied that the interannual TWS variations were dominated by precipitation and the long-term trend of TWS changes was affected by changes of the 0 °C isotherm height in summer. This information could enrich our knowledge about water storage changes, including glacier mass balance and groundwater, and its response to climate change in this vast but sparse in-situ measurements area.

  15. Assimilation of gridded terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE into a land surface model

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    Girotto, Manuela; De Lannoy, Gabriëlle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have a coarse resolution in time (monthly) and space (roughly 150,000 km2 at midlatitudes) and vertically integrate all water storage components over land, including soil moisture and groundwater. Data assimilation can be used to horizontally downscale and vertically partition GRACE-TWS observations. This work proposes a variant of existing ensemble-based GRACE-TWS data assimilation schemes. The new algorithm differs in how the analysis increments are computed and applied. Existing schemes correlate the uncertainty in the modeled monthly TWS estimates with errors in the soil moisture profile state variables at a single instant in the month and then apply the increment either at the end of the month or gradually throughout the month. The proposed new scheme first computes increments for each day of the month and then applies the average of those increments at the beginning of the month. The new scheme therefore better reflects submonthly variations in TWS errors. The new and existing schemes are investigated here using gridded GRACE-TWS observations. The assimilation results are validated at the monthly time scale, using in situ measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the U.S. The new assimilation scheme yields improved (although not in a statistically significant sense) skill metrics for groundwater compared to the open-loop (no assimilation) simulations and compared to the existing assimilation schemes. A smaller impact is seen for surface and root-zone soil moisture, which have a shorter memory and receive smaller increments from TWS assimilation than groundwater. These results motivate future efforts to combine GRACE-TWS observations with observations that are more sensitive to surface soil moisture, such as L-band brightness temperature observations from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) or Soil Moisture Active Passive

  16. Assimilation of Gridded Terrestrial Water Storage Observations from GRACE into a Land Surface Model

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    Girotto, Manuela; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have a coarse resolution in time (monthly) and space (roughly 150,000 km(sup 2) at midlatitudes) and vertically integrate all water storage components over land, including soil moisture and groundwater. Data assimilation can be used to horizontally downscale and vertically partition GRACE-TWS observations. This work proposes a variant of existing ensemble-based GRACE-TWS data assimilation schemes. The new algorithm differs in how the analysis increments are computed and applied. Existing schemes correlate the uncertainty in the modeled monthly TWS estimates with errors in the soil moisture profile state variables at a single instant in the month and then apply the increment either at the end of the month or gradually throughout the month. The proposed new scheme first computes increments for each day of the month and then applies the average of those increments at the beginning of the month. The new scheme therefore better reflects submonthly variations in TWS errors. The new and existing schemes are investigated here using gridded GRACE-TWS observations. The assimilation results are validated at the monthly time scale, using in situ measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the U.S. The new assimilation scheme yields improved (although not in a statistically significant sense) skill metrics for groundwater compared to the open-loop (no assimilation) simulations and compared to the existing assimilation schemes. A smaller impact is seen for surface and root-zone soil moisture, which have a shorter memory and receive smaller increments from TWS assimilation than groundwater. These results motivate future efforts to combine GRACE-TWS observations with observations that are more sensitive to surface soil moisture, such as L-band brightness temperature observations from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) or Soil Moisture Active

  17. Assimilation of Gridded GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates in the North American Land Data Assimilation System

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    Kumar, Sujay V.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Rodell, Matthew; Reichle, Rolf; Li, Bailing; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Getirana, Augusto; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to provide best available estimates of near-surface meteorological conditions and soil hydrological status for the continental United States. To support the ongoing efforts to develop data assimilation (DA) capabilities for NLDAS, the results of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) DA implemented in a manner consistent with NLDAS development are presented. Following previous work, GRACE terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly estimates are assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model using an ensemble smoother. In contrast to many earlier GRACE DA studies, a gridded GRACE TWS product is assimilated, spatially distributed GRACE error estimates are accounted for, and the impact that GRACE scaling factors have on assimilation is evaluated. Comparisons with quality-controlled in situ observations indicate that GRACE DA has a positive impact on the simulation of unconfined groundwater variability across the majority of the eastern United States and on the simulation of surface and root zone soil moisture across the country. Smaller improvements are seen in the simulation of snow depth, and the impact of GRACE DA on simulated river discharge and evapotranspiration is regionally variable. The use of GRACE scaling factors during assimilation improved DA results in the western United States but led to small degradations in the eastern United States. The study also found comparable performance between the use of gridded and basin averaged GRACE observations in assimilation. Finally, the evaluations presented in the paper indicate that GRACE DA can be helpful in improving the representation of droughts.

  18. Assessing uncertainties of GRACE-derived terrestrial water-storage fields

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    Fereria, Vagner; Montecino, Henry

    2017-04-01

    Space-borne sensors are producing many remotely sensed data and, consequently, different measurements of the same field are available to end users. Furthermore, different satellite processing centres are producing extensive products based on the data of only one mission. This is exactly the case with the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which has been monitoring terrestrial water storage (TWS) since April 2002, while the Centre for Space Research (CSR), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS), among others, provide individual monthly solutions in the form of Stokes's coefficients. The inverted TWS maps from Stokes's coefficients are being used in many applications and, therefore, as no ground truth data exist, the uncertainties are unknown. An assessment of the uncertainties associated with these different products is mandatory in order to guide data producers and support the users to choose the best dataset. However, the estimation of uncertainties of space-borne products often relies on ground truth data, and in the absence of such data, an assessment of their qualities is a challenge. A recent study (Ferreira et al. 2016) evaluates the quality of each processing centre (CSR, JPL, GFZ, and GRGS) by estimating their individual uncertainties using a generalised formulation of the three-cornered hat (TCH) method. It was found that the TCH results for the study period of August 2002 to June 2014 indicate that on a global scale, the CSR, GFZ, GRGS, and JPL present uncertainties of 9.4, 13.7, 14.8, and 13.2 mm, respectively. On a basin scale, the overall good performance of the CSR is observed at 91 river basins. The TCH-based results are confirmed by a comparison with an ensemble solution from the four GRACE processing centres. Reference Ferreira VG, Montecino HDC, Yakubu CI and Heck B (2016) Uncertainties of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment time

  19. GRACE Gravity Satellite Observations of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes for Drought Characterization in the Arid Land of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex natural hazard which can have negative effects on agriculture, economy, and human life. In this paper, the primary goal is to explore the application of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity satellite data for the quantitative investigation of the recent drought dynamic over the arid land of northwestern China, a region with scarce hydrological and meteorological observation datasets. The spatiotemporal characteristics of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC were first evaluated based on the GRACE satellite data, and then validated against hydrological model simulations and precipitation data. A drought index, the total storage deficit index (TSDI, was derived on the basis of GRACE-recovered TWSC. The spatiotemporal distributions of drought events from 2003 to 2012 in the study region were obtained using the GRACE-derived TSDI. Results derived from TSDI time series indicated that, apart from four short-term (three months drought events, the study region experienced a severe long-term drought from May 2008 to December 2009. As shown in the spatial distribution of TSDI-derived drought conditions, this long-term drought mainly concentrated in the northwestern area of the entire region, where the terrestrial water storage was in heavy deficit. These drought characteristics, which were detected by TSDI, were consistent with local news reports and other researchers’ results. Furthermore, a comparison between TSDI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI implied that GRACE TSDI was a more reliable integrated drought indicator (monitoring agricultural and hydrological drought in terms of considering total terrestrial water storages for large regions. The GRACE-derived TSDI can therefore be used to characterize and monitor large-scale droughts in the arid regions, being of special value for areas with scarce observations.

  20. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage depletion associated with the 2003 European heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Seneviratne, S.I.; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    water storage depletion observed from GRACE can be related to the record-breaking heat wave that occurred in central Europe in 2003. We validate the measurements from GRACE using two independent hydrological estimates and direct gravity observations from superconducting gravimeters in Europe. All...

  1. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

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    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  2. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

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    John T. Reager

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE. Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1 near-real time analysis; (2 a downscaling of GRACE’s coarse spatial resolution; and (3 state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  3. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

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    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  4. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products

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    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Jones, Darren; Longuevergne, Laurent; Owor, Michael; Tindimugaya, Callist

    2017-09-01

    GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS), providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage). Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE) using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin) of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons) to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data), explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS) from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS) modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8-4.9 cm) observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is disregarded in analyses of

  5. Past terrestrial water storage (1980–2008 in the Amazon Basin reconstructed from GRACE and in situ river gauging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Becker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial water storage (TWS composed of surface waters, soil moisture, groundwater and snow where appropriate, is a key element of global and continental water cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE space gravimetry mission provides a new tool to measure large-scale TWS variations. However, for the past few decades, direct estimate of TWS variability is accessible from hydrological modeling only. Here we propose a novel approach that combines GRACE-based TWS spatial patterns with multi-decadal-long in situ river level records, to reconstruct past 2-D TWS over a river basin. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin for the period 1980–2008, focusing on the interannual time scale. Results are compared with past TWS estimated by the global hydrological model ISBA-TRIP. Correlations between reconstructed past interannual TWS variability and known climate forcing modes over the region (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation are also estimated. This method offers new perspective for improving our knowledge of past interannual TWS in world river basins where natural climate variability (as opposed to direct anthropogenic forcing drives TWS variations.

  6. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural and human-induced terrestrial water storage change: A global analysis using hydrological models and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfelani, Farshid; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Pokhrel, Yadu N.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrological models and the data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have been widely used to study the variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) over large regions. However, both GRACE products and model results suffer from inherent uncertainties, calling for the need to make a combined use of GRACE and models to examine the variations in total TWS and their individual components, especially in relation to natural and human-induced changes in the terrestrial water cycle. In this study, we use the results from two state-of-the-art hydrological models and different GRACE spherical harmonic products to examine the variations in TWS and its individual components, and to attribute the changes to natural and human-induced factors over large global river basins. Analysis of the spatial patterns of the long-term trend in TWS from the two models and GRACE suggests that both models capture the GRACE-measured direction of change, but differ from GRACE as well as each other in terms of the magnitude over different regions. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of TWS variations over 30 river basins shows notable differences not only between models and GRACE but also among different GRACE products and between the two models. Further, it is found that while one model performs well in highly-managed river basins, it fails to reproduce the GRACE-observed signal in snow-dominated regions, and vice versa. The isolation of natural and human-induced changes in TWS in some of the managed basins reveals a consistently declining TWS trend during 2002-2010, however; significant differences are again obvious both between GRACE and models and among different GRACE products and models. Results from the decomposition of the TWS signal into the general trend and seasonality indicate that both models do not adequately capture both the trend and seasonality in the managed or snow-dominated basins implying that the TWS variations from a

  8. Comparison of Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE With In-Situ Soil Moisture and Groundwater Level Measurements in Semiarid Irrigated Systems: Case Study High Plains Aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassberg, G.; Scanlon, B. R.; Chambers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater storage in semiarid regions as a result of intensive irrigation is a critical water resource issue. Many of these systems are poorly monitored, such as the North China Plain and western India. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to quantify changes in groundwater storage using detailed monitoring records available for the High Plains aquifer (450,000 km2 area). This study presents a comparison of terrestrial water storage changes derived from GRACE gravity measurements between 2003 and 2006 with in-situ soil moisture and groundwater level measurements covering the High Plains aquifer. Soil moisture measurements from 80 shallow (~1 m depth) mesonet stations from Texas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska, were combined with data from deeper (up to 7 m) monitoring sites to estimate temporal and spatial variations in soil moisture over the High Plains. Anomalies in soil moisture were compared with soil moisture changes simulated by the Noah Land surface model. Groundwater storage variations over the aquifer were estimated by assimilating groundwater level measurements from multiple state and federal agencies. Good correspondence between soil moisture storage from the ground based networks and the Noah land surface model increased confidence in the soil moisture storage variations. Terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE compared favorably with TWS (approximated as changes in soil moisture + groundwater storage) from the monitoring networks. Results from this study demonstrate the potential for the GRACE satellites to monitor water storage variations in semiarid irrigated systems, where mining of groundwater resources is a critical issue.

  9. Long-term trends of terrestrial water storage in south-east Australia revealed by GRACE and superconducting gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; McQueen, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    South-east Australia is experiencing a severe multi-year drought in this decade. In particular, historic drought struck this area in 2006. Australian Bureau of Meteorology reported that the year 2006 was one of the driest years and agriculture suffered extensive damage from the drought. To understand the severity of current water crisis in south-east Australia, monitoring terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes is demanded. For this purpose, we investigated gravity changes associated with the drought in south-east Australia using data from GRACE satellite gravimeter and superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Mt. Stromlo, Canberra, over the period from 2003 to 2008. In 2006 and 2007, GRACE gravity solutions released from CNES/GRGS showed significant TWS decreases at south-east Australia. Areal extent of the TWS decreases showed good consistence with that of rainfall deficiencies. Therefore, it is clear that the TWS decreases estimated from GRACE data are attributed to the 2006 drought. SG data from Canberra also indicated gravity decreases during the 2006 drought period, after correcting for effects of atmosphere, tides, height variations and instrumental drift and steps. Comparison of GRACE and SG data showed good agreements in interannual variations, although some differences were found in seasonal components. Furthermore, both GRACE and SG data indicated that TWS in 2008 still remained at low levels, although annual precipitation returned to average before the drought. It implies TWS is possibly decreasing with longer time scale due to recent climate changes. Finally, the results from GRACE and SG observations were compared with TWS estimates from Noah land surface model, forced by output from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) developed by NASA. The model TWS estimates were the sum of soil moisture (2m column depth) and snow water equivalent. The comparison showed that the model underestimated the TWS decreases due to the 2006 drought. The differences

  10. Comparison and Assessment of Three Advanced Land Surface Models in Simulating Terrestrial Water Storage Components over the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Youlong [I. M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland; Mocko, David [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Li, Bailing [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland; Rodell, Matthew [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Mitchell, Kenneth E. [Prescient Weather Ltd., State College, Pennsylvania; Cai, Xitian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Ek, Michael B. [NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland

    2017-03-01

    In preparation for next generation North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), 3 three advanced land surface models (CLM4.0, Noah-MP, and CLSM-F2.5) were run from 1979 4 to 2014 within the NLDAS-based framework. Monthly total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and 5 its individual water storage components were evaluated against satellite-based and in situ 6 observations, and reference reanalysis products at basin-wide and statewide scales. In general, all 7 three models are able to reasonably capture the monthly and interannual variability and 8 magnitudes for TWSA. However, contributions of the anomalies of individual water 9 components to TWSA are very dependent on the model and basin. A major contributor to the 10 TWSA is the anomaly of total column soil moisture content (SMCA) for CLM4.0 and Noah-MP 11 or groundwater storage anomaly (GWSA) for CLSM-F2.5 although other components such as 12 the anomaly of snow water equivalent (SWEA) also play some role. For each individual water 13 storage component, the models are able to capture broad features such as monthly and 14 interannual variability. However, there are large inter-model differences and quantitative 15 uncertainties in this study. Therefore, it should be thought of as a preliminary synthesis and 16 analysis.

  11. Characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for various GRACE- and GLDAS-born estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Yu, Zhongbo; Xu, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Since the launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has provided us with a new method to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations by measuring earth gravity change with unprecedented accuracy. Thus far, a number of standardized GRACE-born TWS products are published by different international research teams. However, no characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for different GRACE hydrology products from the global perspective could be found. It is still a big challenge for the science community to identify the reliable global measurement of TWS anomalies due to our limited knowledge on the true value. Hence, it is urgently necessary to evaluate the uncertainty for various global estimates of the GRACE-born TWS changes by a number of international research organizations. Toward this end, this article presents an in-depth analysis for various GRACE-born and GLDAS-based estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage. The work characterizes the inter-annual and intra-annual variability, probability density variations, and spatial patterns among different GRACE-born TWS estimates over six major continents, and compares them with results from GLDAS simulations. The underlying causes of inconsistency between GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS estimates are thoroughly analyzed with an aim to improve our current knowledge in monitoring global TWS change. With a comprehensive consideration of the advantages and disadvantages among GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS anomalies, a summary is thereafter recommended as a rapid reference for scientists, end-users, and policy-makers in the practices of global TWS change research. To our best knowledge, this work is the first attempt to characterize difference and uncertainty among various GRACE-born terrestrial water storage changes over the major continents estimated by a number of international research organizations. The results can provide beneficial reference to usage of

  12. Study on the Variation of Terrestrial Water Storage and the Identification of Its Relationship with Hydrological Cycle Factors in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in the Tarim River Basin (TRB were investigated and the related factors of water variations in the mountain areas were analyzed based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data, in situ river discharge, and precipitation during the period of 2002–2015. The results showed that three obvious flood events in 2005, 2006, and 2010 resulted in significant water surplus, although TWSA decreased in the TRB during 2002–2015. However, while the significant water deficits in 2004, 2009, and 2011 were associated with obvious negative river discharge anomalies at the hydrological stations, the significant water deficits were not well consistent with the negative anomalies of precipitation. While the river discharge behaved with low correlations with TWSA, linear relationships between TWSA and climate indices were insignificant in the TRB from 2002 to 2015. The closest relationship was found between TWSA and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, with correlations of -0.56 and 0.58 during January 2010–December 2015 and during January 2006–December 2009, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation coefficient between TWSA and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index in the period of April 2002–December 2005 was -0.25, which reached the significant level (p<0.05.

  13. Terrestrial Water Storage in African Hydrological Regimes Derived from GRACE Mission Data: Intercomparison of Spherical Harmonics, Mass Concentration, and Scalar Slepian Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Ashraf; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Imani, Moslem; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Lan, Wen-Hau; Ching, Kuo-En; Tseng, Tzu-Pang

    2017-03-10

    Spherical harmonics (SH) and mascon solutions are the two most common types of solutions for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass flux observations. However, SH signals are degraded by measurement and leakage errors. Mascon solutions (the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) release, herein) exhibit weakened signals at submascon resolutions. Both solutions require a scale factor examined by the CLM4.0 model to obtain the actual water storage signal. The Slepian localization method can avoid the SH leakage errors when applied to the basin scale. In this study, we estimate SH errors and scale factors for African hydrological regimes. Then, terrestrial water storage (TWS) in Africa is determined based on Slepian localization and compared with JPL-mascon and SH solutions. The three TWS estimates show good agreement for the TWS of large-sized and humid regimes but present discrepancies for the TWS of medium and small-sized regimes. Slepian localization is an effective method for deriving the TWS of arid zones. The TWS behavior in African regimes and its spatiotemporal variations are then examined. The negative TWS trends in the lower Nile and Sahara at -1.08 and -6.92 Gt/year, respectively, are higher than those previously reported.

  14. Terrestrial Water Storage in African Hydrological Regimes Derived from GRACE Mission Data: Intercomparison of Spherical Harmonics, Mass Concentration, and Scalar Slepian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Rateb

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spherical harmonics (SH and mascon solutions are the two most common types of solutions for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass flux observations. However, SH signals are degraded by measurement and leakage errors. Mascon solutions (the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL release, herein exhibit weakened signals at submascon resolutions. Both solutions require a scale factor examined by the CLM4.0 model to obtain the actual water storage signal. The Slepian localization method can avoid the SH leakage errors when applied to the basin scale. In this study, we estimate SH errors and scale factors for African hydrological regimes. Then, terrestrial water storage (TWS in Africa is determined based on Slepian localization and compared with JPL-mascon and SH solutions. The three TWS estimates show good agreement for the TWS of large-sized and humid regimes but present discrepancies for the TWS of medium and small-sized regimes. Slepian localization is an effective method for deriving the TWS of arid zones. The TWS behavior in African regimes and its spatiotemporal variations are then examined. The negative TWS trends in the lower Nile and Sahara at −1.08 and −6.92 Gt/year, respectively, are higher than those previously reported.

  15. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  16. HYDROGRAV - Hydrological model calibration and terrestrial water storage monitoring from GRACE gravimetry and satellite altimetry, First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O.B.; Krogh, P.E.; Michailovsky, C.

    2008-01-01

    information in un-gauged regions. A system of GRACE custom designed Mass Concentration blocks (Mascons) have been designed to model time-variable gravity changes for the largest basins in Southern Africa (Zambezi, Okavango, Limpopo and Orange) covering an area of 9 mill km2 with a resolution of 1 by 1.......25 degree. Satellite altimetry have been used to derive high resolution point-wise river height in some of the un-gauged rivers in the region by using dedicated retracking to recovers nearly un-interrupted time series over these rivers. First result from the HYDROGRAV project analyzing GRACE derived mass...... change from 2002 to 2008 along with in-situ gravity time-lapse observations and radar altimetry monitoring of surface water for the southern Africa river basins will be presented....

  17. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  18. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  19. Towards understanding of the spatio-temporal composition of Terrestrial Water Storage variations in Northern Latitudes using a model-data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Tina; Koirala, Sujan; Carvalhais, Nuno; Niemann, Christoph; Fink, Manfred; Jung, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Understanding variations in the terrestrial water storage (TWS) and its components is essential to gain insights into the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, and to assess temporal and spatial variations of water availability under global changes. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns of TWS variations and their composition in the humid regions of northern mid-to-high latitudes during 2001-2014 by using a simple hydrological model with few effective parameters. Compared to traditional modelling studies, our simple model was informed and constrained by multiple state-of-the-art earth observation products including TWS from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites (Wiese 2015), Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) from GlobSnow project (Loujous et al. 2014), evapotranspiration fluxes from eddy covariance measurements (Tramontana et al. 2016), and gridded runoff estimates for Europe (Gudmundsson & Seneviratne 2016). Thorough evaluation of model demonstrates that the model reproduces the observed patterns of hydrological fluxes and states well. The validated model results are then used to assess the contributions of snow pack, soil moisture and groundwater on the integrated TWS across spatial (local grid scale, spatially integrated) and temporal (seasonal, inter-annual) scales. Interestingly, our results show that TWS variations on different scales are dominated by different components. On both, seasonal and inter-annual time scales, the spatially integrated TWS signal mainly originates from dynamics of snow pack. On the local grid scale, mean seasonal TWS variations are driven by snow dynamics as well, whereas inter-annual variations are found to originate from soil moisture availability. Thus, we show that the determinants of TWS variations are scale-dependent, while coincidently underline the potential of model-data fusion techniques to gain insights into the complex hydrological system. References: Gudmundsson, L. and S. I. Seneviratne (2016

  20. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... of their individual effects) rather than synergistic or antagonistic. We further show that (1) elevated CO2 , warming, N addition, P addition and increased rainfall, all exerted positive individual effects on plant C pools at both single-plant and plant-community levels; (2) plant C pool responses to individual...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  1. Annual Variations in Water Storage and Precipitation in the Amazon Basin: Bounding Sink Terms in the Terrestrial Hydrological Balance using GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2007-01-01

    We combine satellite gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center's (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), over the period from mid-2002 to mid-2006, to investigate the relative importance of sink (runoff and evaporation) and source (precipitation) terms in the hydrological balance of the Amazon Basin. When linear and quadratic terms are removed, the time series of land water storage variations estimated from GRACE exhibits a dominant annual signal of 250 mm peak-to-peak, which is equivalent to a water volume change of approximately 1800 cubic kilometers. A comparison of this trend with accumulated (i.e., integrated) precipitation shows excellent agreement and no evidence of basin saturation. The agreement indicates that the net runoff and evaporation contributes significantly less than precipitation to the annual hydrological mass balance. Indeed, raw residuals between the detrended water storage and precipitation anomalies range from plus or minus 40 mm. This range is consistent with streamflow measurements from the region, although the latter are characterized by a stronger annual signal than ow residuals, suggesting that runoff and evaporation may act to partially cancel each other.

  2. Effects of carbon turnover time on terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaner; Zhou, Xuhui; Jiang, Lifeng; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-12-01

    Carbon (C) turnover time is a key factor in determining C storage capacity in various plant and soil pools as well as terrestrial C sink in a changing climate. However, the effects of C turnover time on ecosystem C storage have not been well explored. In this study, we compared mean C turnover times (MTTs) of ecosystem and soil, examined their variability to climate, and then quantified the spatial variation in ecosystem C storage over time from changes in C turnover time and/or net primary production (NPP). Our results showed that mean ecosystem MTT based on gross primary production (GPP; MTTEC_GPP = Cpool/GPP, 25.0 ± 2.7 years) was shorter than soil MTT (MTTsoil = Csoil/NPP, 35.5 ± 1.2 years) and NPP-based ecosystem MTT (MTTEC_NPP = Cpool/NPP, 50.8 ± 3 years; Cpool and Csoil referred to ecosystem or soil C storage, respectively). On the biome scale, temperature is the best predictor for MTTEC (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001) and MTTsoil (R2 = 0.68, p < 0.001), while the inclusion of precipitation in the model did not improve the performance of MTTEC (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). Ecosystem MTT decreased by approximately 4 years from 1901 to 2011 when only temperature was considered, resulting in a large C release from terrestrial ecosystems. The resultant terrestrial C release caused by the decrease in MTT only accounted for about 13.5 % of that due to the change in NPP uptake (159.3 ± 1.45 vs. 1215.4 ± 11.0 Pg C). However, the larger uncertainties in the spatial variation of MTT than temporal changes could lead to a greater impact on ecosystem C storage, which deserves further study in the future.

  3. Effects of climate and terrestrial storage on temporal variability of actual evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanhao; Hu, Bill X.; Huang, Guoru; Zhang, Hang

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the temporal variability in actual evapotranspiration (E) is essential for a better understanding of the interaction and feedback between atmospheric and land surface hydrologic processes under various natural and anthropogenic conditions. Recently, Zeng and Cai (2015) proposed a decomposition framework of the E variance, based on water balance and the Budyko hypothesis. On the basis of a long-term (1960-2008) land surface dataset, this study applies the theoretical framework to assess the effects of climate and terrestrial storage factors on the interannual and intra-annual variance in E across China. An error decomposition framework is developed to quantify the key factors in the error of the predicted E variance. The results show that the prediction of the E variance is more accurate in arid climates than in humid climates, and the corresponding error is primarily controlled by the variability of precipitation (P) and runoff (R). Climate is the primary source for the E variance, and the dominant sources shift from potential evaporation (PET) in humid climates to P in arid climates. The interactions between P and PET tend to dampen the E interannual variance and enhance the E intra-annual variance, and this effect is especially significant in humid climates. Terrestrial storage change is more capable of accommodating climatic fluctuations at the intra-annual scale than at the interannual scale, and for some arid regions it is the dominant factor influencing the E variance. The response of terrestrial storage to P is more significant than its response to PET, especially for regions with strong human impact. Neglecting the effects of terrestrial storage would possibly underestimate or overestimate the E variance in both humid and arid climates, due to the interactions between climate and the change in the terrestrial storage.

  4. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  5. Streamflow sensitivity to water storage changes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter; Hartmann, Andreas; Woods, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage is the primary source of river flow. We introduce storage sensitivity of streamflow, which for a given flow rate indicates the relative change in streamflow per change in catchment water storage. Storage sensitivity of streamflow can be directly derived from streamflow observations. Analysis of 725 catchments in Europe reveals that storage sensitivity of streamflow is high in e.g. parts of Spain, England, Germany and Denmark, whereas flow regimes in parts of the Alps are more resilient (that is, less sensitive) to storage changes. A comparison of storage sensitivity of streamflow with observations suggests that storage sensitivity of streamflow is a significant control on the regional differences in variability of low, median, and high flow conditions. Streamflow sensitivity provides new guidance for a changing hydrosphere where groundwater abstraction and climatic changes are altering water storage and flow regimes.

  6. Large-scale vegetation responses to terrestrial moisture storage changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robert L.; Guan, Huade; Batelaan, Okke

    2017-09-01

    The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) is a useful tool for studying vegetation activity and ecosystem performance at a large spatial scale. In this study we use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) total water storage (TWS) estimates to examine temporal variability of the NDVI across Australia. We aim to demonstrate a new method that reveals the moisture dependence of vegetation cover at different temporal resolutions. Time series of monthly GRACE TWS anomalies are decomposed into different temporal frequencies using a discrete wavelet transform and analysed against time series of the NDVI anomalies in a stepwise regression. The results show that combinations of different frequencies of decomposed GRACE TWS data explain NDVI temporal variations better than raw GRACE TWS alone. Generally, the NDVI appears to be more sensitive to interannual changes in water storage than shorter changes, though grassland-dominated areas are sensitive to higher-frequencies of water-storage changes. Different types of vegetation, defined by areas of land use type, show distinct differences in how they respond to the changes in water storage, which is generally consistent with our physical understanding. This unique method provides useful insight into how the NDVI is affected by changes in water storage at different temporal scales across land use types.

  7. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The carbon and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, which are strongly coupled via water use efficiency (WUE), are influenced by global climate change. To explore the relationship between the carbon and water cycles and predict the effect of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to study the WUE in ...

  8. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  9. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water use efficiency; global terrestrial ecosystems; MODIS; net primary production; evapotranspiration;. Köppen–Geiger climate classification. ... Terrestrial plants fix or trap carbon dioxide via photosynthesis to produce the material ...... S W 2007 Evaluating water stress controls on primary production in biogeochemical and ...

  10. Assessing the terrestrial water balance in South America using multi-satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Moreira, Adriana; Ruhoff, Anderson; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Severo Correa, Dairan

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle components of the terrestrial water cycle have been estimated with increasingly accuracy through remotely-sensed data, from regional to continental scales and in different time intervals. In this paper, we evaluated the water balance closure using remote sensing data in 28 large basins in South America for the period from 2003 to 2014. We used observed discharge (Q) data, precipitation (P) data from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B43 version 7) with spatial resolution 0.25°, evapotranspiration (ET) data from MOD16, with spatial resolution of 0.05° and terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimations from the Gravity Recovery and climate Experiment (GRACE), with spatial resolution of 300 km. To evaluate the water budget closure, we used the simplified continuity equation (dS/dt=P-ET-Q) at monthly time-scales to analyse the water storage change in time (dS/dt), comparing the results to the TWS change from GRACE. Our results indicate that the water storage change dS/dt computed from remote sensing products showed significant correlations with the terrestrial water storage from GRACE. We found correlations higher than 0.70 in 14 basins, mostly in large basins located in the north of South America (with tropical wet and tropical dry climates), whilst lower correlations were found in Southern Brazil and in smaller basins (usually with subtropical climates). Lastly, we computed the correlation between dS/dt from GRACE and P, ET and Q. Precipitation was the hydrological component that showed better correlations, with 19 basins yielding a correlation higher than 0.70, suggesting that precipitation has a strong influence of the terrestrial water storage in those basins. Discharge measurements also yielded a very good agreement, with correlations higher than 0.63 in almost all basins. Despite the water balance closure based on remote sensing data still remains a challenge due to large biases and uncertainties in the precipitation

  11. A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alys C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    We present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volume of water required to return to normal water storage conditions. We combine storage deficits with event duration to calculate drought severity. Drought databases are referenced to identify meteorological drought events in the Amazon and Zambezi River basins and the southeastern United States and Texas regions. This storage deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end, and duration; quantifies instantaneous severity and peak drought magnitude; and compares well with the meteorological drought databases. It also reveals information about the hydrological effects of meteorological drought on regional water storage.

  12. 21st Century California Water Storage Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss4art1The goal of this paper is to analyze storage projects constructed and planned in California since 1980, in contrast with storage constructed before that date. As a result of California’s highly variable climate, storage is an essential tool for agricultural and urban water users. Today, the state regulates approximately 1,250 reservoirs, with a combined storage of 42 million acre-feet. Federal agencies regulate approximately 200 additional reservoirs. The vast majority of this surface storage was constructed before 1978, when New Melones Dam, the last large on-stream water supply reservoir in California, was completed. The role of storage in meeting future needs remains a high-profile issue in the California water debate. For example, funding for new storage was the largest item in Proposition 1, the most recent water bond voters approved. This analysis included a review of existing literature, such as the California Department of Water Resources Division of Dam Safety database, California Water Commission documents about new storage proposals, water agency documents, and interviews with water agency staff and others. Water managers face dramatically different conditions today, in comparison to conditions before 1980. These conditions have led to new approaches to water storage that represent a dramatic departure from past storage projects. During the past 37 years, a wide range of new water storage strategies have been planned and implemented. These facilities have created a combined new storage capacity greater than that of Lake Shasta, California’s largest reservoir. These new storage strategies suggest the need to revisit the fundamental definition of water storage. With limited potential for new storage drawing from the state’s rivers, California must choose storage projects wisely. By learning from successful strategies in recent decades, decision-makers can make better storage investment

  13. Improved methods for estimating local terrestrial water dynamics from GRACE in the Northern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen M.; Milewski, Adam M.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating terrestrial water cycle dynamics is vital for understanding the recent climatic variability and human impacts in the hydrologic cycle. In this study, a downscaling approach was developed and tested, to improve the applicability of terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission for understanding local terrestrial water cycle dynamics in the Northern High Plains region. A non-parametric, artificial neural network (ANN)-based model, was utilized to downscale GRACE data by integrating it with hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture) derived from satellite and land surface model data. The downscaling model, constructed through calibration and sensitivity analysis, was used to estimate TWS anomaly for watersheds ranging from 5000 to 20,000 km2 in the study area. The downscaled water storage anomaly data were evaluated using water storage data derived from an (1) integrated hydrologic model, (2) land surface model (e.g. Noah), and (3) storage anomalies calculated from in-situ groundwater level measurements. Results demonstrate the ANN predicts monthly TWS anomaly within the uncertainty (conservative error estimate = 34 mm) for most of the watersheds. Seasonal derived groundwater storage anomaly (GWSA) from the ANN correlated well (r = ∼0.85) with GWSAs calculated from in-situ groundwater level measurements for a watershed size as small as 6000 km2. ANN downscaled TWSA matches closely with Noah-based TWSA compared to standard GRACE extracted TWSA at a local scale. Moreover, the ANN-downscaled change in TWS replicated the water storage variability resulting from the combined effect of climatic and human impacts (e.g. abstraction). The implications of utilizing finer resolution GRACE data for improving local and regional water resources management decisions and applications are clear, particularly in areas lacking in-situ hydrologic monitoring networks.

  14. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...... to the large share in price the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage.The current report gives a survey of the most important established and planned designs from Denmark, Sweden and Germany....

  15. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  16. The Delivery of Water During Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David P.; Izidoro, Andre; Jacobson, Seth A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Rubie, David C.

    2018-02-01

    The planetary building blocks that formed in the terrestrial planet region were likely very dry, yet water is comparatively abundant on Earth. Here we review the various mechanisms proposed for the origin of water on the terrestrial planets. Various in-situ mechanisms have been suggested, which allow for the incorporation of water into the local planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region or into the planets themselves from local sources, although all of those mechanisms have difficulties. Comets have also been proposed as a source, although there may be problems fitting isotopic constraints, and the delivery efficiency is very low, such that it may be difficult to deliver even a single Earth ocean of water this way. The most promising route for water delivery is the accretion of material from beyond the snow line, similar to carbonaceous chondrites, that is scattered into the terrestrial planet region as the planets are growing. Two main scenarios are discussed in detail. First is the classical scenario in which the giant planets begin roughly in their final locations and the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region extends all the way into the outer asteroid belt region. Second is the Grand Tack scenario, where early inward and outward migration of the giant planets implants material from beyond the snow line into the asteroid belt and terrestrial planet region, where it can be accreted by the growing planets. Sufficient water is delivered to the terrestrial planets in both scenarios. While the Grand Tack scenario provides a better fit to most constraints, namely the small mass of Mars, planets may form too fast in the nominal case discussed here. This discrepancy may be reduced as a wider range of initial conditions is explored. Finally, we discuss several more recent models that may have important implications for water delivery to the terrestrial planets.

  17. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

    2013-06-01

    [1] A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ≤ Ef  ≤ 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

  18. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  19. Effects of climate variability on water storage in the Colorado river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Troch, P.A.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.; Durcik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the

  20. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS. These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than terrestrial soil moisture observations by GRACE observations and GLDAS model output.

  1. Quantifying the effects of climate and terrestrial storage on the interannual variability of actual evapotranspiration by a Budyko-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanhao; Hu, Bill X.; Wang, Peng; Xu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the temporal variability in actual evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between atmospheric and land surface hydrologic processes. On the basis of a long-term (1960-2012) land surface dataset, this study applies a variance decomposition framework to assess the effects of climate and terrestrial storage factors on the interannual variance of ET at 14 basins in China. The results show that climate is the primary source for ET interannual variance, and the dominant sources shift from potential evaporation (PET) in humid climates to precipitation (P) in arid climates. The interactions between P and PET tend to enhance the ET variance in arid climates and dampen it in humid climates. Terrestrial water storage change plays a role in enhancing ET variance in all 14 basins, especially in some areas of Xinjiang, the Southwest region, and the North China plain. The response of terrestrial storage to P is found to be more significant than its response to PET. Overall terrestrial storage and its responses to climate play a role in dampening ET variance in most basins, especially in those of the Huaihe, the Haihe, and the Yellow River.

  2. Diel biogeochemical processes in terrestrial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and Edited by Nimick, David A.; Gammons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Many biogeochemical processes in rivers and lakes respond to the solar photocycle and produce persistent patterns of measureable phenomena that exhibit a day-night, or 24-h, cycle. Despite a large body of recent literature, the mechanisms responsible for these diel fluctuations are widely debated, with a growing consensus that combinations of physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved. These processes include streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, plant assimilation, and reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Diel changes in streamflow and water properties such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration have been widely recognized, and recently, diel studies have focused more widely by considering other constituents such as dissolved and particulate trace metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, mercury, organic matter, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients. The details of many diel processes are being studied using stable isotopes, which also can exhibit diel cycles in response to microbial metabolism, photosynthesis and respiration, or changes in phase, speciation, or redox state. In addition, secondary effects that diel cycles might have, for example, on biota or in the hyporheic zone are beginning to be considered. This special issue is composed primarily of papers presented at the topical session "Diurnal Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers, Lakes, and Shallow Groundwater" held at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October 2009 in Portland, Oregon. This session was organized because many of the growing number of diel studies have addressed just a small part of the full range of diel cycling phenomena found in rivers and lakes. This limited focus is understandable because (1) fundamental aspects of many diel processes are poorly understood and require detailed study, (2) the interests and expertise of individual

  3. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Ditsche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth.

  4. Terrestrial water load and groundwater fluctuation in the Bengal Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, W.G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R.G.; Zahid, A.; Ahmed, K.M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bense, V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-level fluctuations represent hydraulic responses to changes in groundwater storage due to aquifer recharge and drainage as well as to changes in stress that include water mass loading and unloading above the aquifer surface. The latter 'poroelastic' response of confined aquifers is a

  5. Terrestrial Water Cycle and the Impact of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulu Tao; Erda Lin [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China). Agrometeorology Inst.; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yousay [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The terrestrial water cycle and the impact of climate change are critical for agricultural and natural ecosystems. In this paper, we assess both by running a macro-scale water balance model under a baseline condition and 2 General Circulation Model (GCM)-based climate change scenarios. The results show that in 2021-2030, water demand will increase worldwide due to climate change. Water shortage is expected to worsen in western Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, northern and southern Africa, northeastern Australia, southwestern North America, and central South America. A significant increase in surface runoff is expected in southern Asia and a significant decrease is expected in northern South America. These changes will have implications for regional environment and socio-economics.

  6. A Climate Data Record (CDR) for the global terrestrial water budget: 1984-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Siemann, Amanda L.; Fisher, Colby K.; Liang, Miaoling; Beck, Hylke E.; Wanders, Niko; MacCracken, Rosalyn F.; Houser, Paul R.; Zhou, Tian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Pinker, Rachel T.; Bytheway, Janice; Kummerow, Christian D.; Wood, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    Closing the terrestrial water budget is necessary to provide consistent estimates of budget components for understanding water resources and changes over time. Given the lack of in situ observations of budget components at anything but local scale, merging information from multiple data sources (e.g., in situ observation, satellite remote sensing, land surface model, and reanalysis) through data assimilation techniques that optimize the estimation of fluxes is a promising approach. Conditioned on the current limited data availability, a systematic method is developed to optimally combine multiple available data sources for precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the total water storage change (TWSC) at 0.5° spatial resolution globally and to obtain water budget closure (i.e., to enforce P - ET - R - TWSC = 0) through a constrained Kalman filter (CKF) data assimilation technique under the assumption that the deviation from the ensemble mean of all data sources for the same budget variable is used as a proxy of the uncertainty in individual water budget variables. The resulting long-term (1984-2010), monthly 0.5° resolution global terrestrial water cycle Climate Data Record (CDR) data set is developed under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) program. This data set serves to bridge the gap between sparsely gauged regions and the regions with sufficient in situ observations in investigating the temporal and spatial variability in the terrestrial hydrology at multiple scales. The CDR created in this study is validated against in situ measurements like river discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and ET from FLUXNET. The data set is shown to be reliable and can serve the scientific community in understanding historical climate variability in water cycle fluxes and stores, benchmarking the current climate, and

  7. A Climate Data Record (CDR) for the global terrestrial water budget: 1984–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Siemann, Amanda L.; Fisher, Colby K.; Liang, Miaoling; Beck, Hylke E.; Wanders, Niko; MacCracken, Rosalyn F.; Houser, Paul R.; Zhou, Tian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Pinker, Rachel T.; Bytheway, Janice; Kummerow, Christian D.; Wood, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    Closing the terrestrial water budget is necessary to provide consistent estimates of budget components for understanding water resources and changes over time. Given the lack of in situ observations of budget components at anything but local scale, merging information from multiple data sources (e.g., in situ observation, satellite remote sensing, land surface model, and reanalysis) through data assimilation techniques that optimize the estimation of fluxes is a promising approach. Conditioned on the current limited data availability, a systematic method is developed to optimally combine multiple available data sources for precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the total water storage change (TWSC) at 0.5° spatial resolution globally and to obtain water budget closure (i.e., to enforce P-ET-R-TWSC = 0) through a constrained Kalman filter (CKF) data assimilation technique under the assumption that the deviation from the ensemble mean of all data sources for the same budget variable is used as a proxy of the uncertainty in individual water budget variables. The resulting long-term (1984–2010), monthly 0.5° resolution global terrestrial water cycle Climate Data Record (CDR) data set is developed under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) program. This data set serves to bridge the gap between sparsely gauged regions and the regions with sufficient in situ observations in investigating the temporal and spatial variability in the terrestrial hydrology at multiple scales. The CDR created in this study is validated against in situ measurements like river discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and ET from FLUXNET. The data set is shown to be reliable and can serve the scientific community in understanding historical climate variability in water cycle fluxes and stores, benchmarking the

  8. Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the

  9. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  10. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  11. Formation of telluric planets and the origin of terrestrial water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of planet formation have failed to reproduce Mars’ small mass (compared with Earth for 20 years. Here I will present a solution to the Mars problem that invokes large-scale migration of Jupiter and Saturn while they were still embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward, then “tacked” and migrated back outward when Saturn caught up to it and became trapped in resonance. If this tack occurred when Jupiter was at 1.5 AU then the inner disk of rocky planetesimals and embryos is truncated and the masses and orbits of all four terrestrial planet are quantitatively reproduced. As the giant planets migrate back outward they re-populate the asteroid belt from two different source populations, matching the structure of the current belt. C-type material is also scattered inward to the terrestrial planet-forming zone, delivering about the right amount of water to Earth on 10-50 Myr timescales.

  12. An Overview on the Project to Develop Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Pan, M.; Gao, H.; Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Pinker, R.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    We aim to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components (storages and fluxes) of the terrestrial water cycle at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees (latitude-longitude) and for the period 1950 to near-present. The resulting ESDRs are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at the spatial scale of the major global river basins. The ESDRs to produce include a) surface meteorology (precipitation, air temperature, humidity and wind), b) surface downward radiation (solar and longwave) and c) derived and/or assimilated fluxes and storages such as surface soil moisture storage, total basin water storage, snow water equivalent, storage in large lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. We construct data records for all variables back to 1950, recognizing that the post-satellite data will be of higher quality than pre-satellite (a reasonable compromise given the need for long-term records to define interannual and interdecadal variability of key water cycle variables). A distinguishing feature will be inclusion of two variables that reflect the massive effects of anthropogenic manipulation of the terrestrial water cycle, specifically reservoir storage, and irrigation water use. The overall goal of the project is to develop long term, consistent ESDRs for terrestrial water cycle states and variables by updating and extending previously funded Pathfinder data set activities to the investigators, and by making available the data set to the scientific community and data users via a state-of-the-art internet web-portal. The ESDRs will utilize algorithms and methods that are well documented in the peer reviewed literature. The ESDRs will merge satellite-derived products with predictions of the same variables by LSMs driven by merged satellite and in situ forcing data sets (most notably precipitation), with the constraint that the

  13. The Contribution of Reservoirs to Global Land Surface Water Storage Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tian; Nijssen, Bart; Gao, Huilin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2016-12-21

    Man-made reservoirs play a key role in the terrestrial water system. They alter water fluxes at the land surface and impact surface water storage through water management regulations for diverse purposes such as irrigation, municipal water supply, hydropower generation, and flood control. Although most developed countries have established sophisticated observing systems for many variables in the land surface water cycle, long-term and consistent records of reservoir storage are much more limited and not always shared. Furthermore, most land surface hydrological models do not represent the effects of water management activities. Here, the contribution of reservoirs to seasonal water storage variations is investigated using a large-scale water management model to simulate the effects of reservoir management at basin and continental scales. The model was run from 1948 to 2010 at a spatial resolution of 0.258 latitude–longitude. A total of 166 of the largest reservoirs in the world with a total capacity of about 3900 km3 (nearly 60%of the globally integrated reservoir capacity) were simulated. The global reservoir storage time series reflects the massive expansion of global reservoir capacity; over 30 000 reservoirs have been constructed during the past half century, with a mean absolute interannual storage variation of 89 km3. The results indicate that the average reservoir-induced seasonal storage variation is nearly 700 km3 or about 10%of the global reservoir storage. For some river basins, such as the Yellow River, seasonal reservoir storage variations can be as large as 72%of combined snow water equivalent and soil moisture storage.

  14. Assessing total water storage and identifying flood events over Tonlé Sap basin in Cambodia using GRACE and MODIS satellite observations combined with hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangdamrongsub, N.; Ditmar, P.G.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Gunter, B.C.; Sutanudjaja, E.H.

    Abstract In this study, satellite observations including gravity (GRACE), terrestrial reflectance (MODIS), and global precipitation (TRMM) data, along with the output from the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model, are used to generate monthly and sub-monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates and

  15. Estimating Carbon Storage of a Temperate North American Forest with Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests in North America act as one of the largest active carbon sinks in the world, yet current estimates of forest biomass are widely varied when based on allometric equations alone. Remote sensing data such as LIDAR offers an excellent method of quantifying biomass, but information on structural heterogeneity is often lost, even with postings of approximately 0.5 meters. In order to inform estimates of biomass and carbon storage the use of a high-precision Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) can be employed and three-dimensional structure of the forest can be resolved with sub-centimeter accuracy, improving current allometric equations. This technology is utilized on 16 15-meter radius plots within the temperate forest of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute outside of Front Royal, VA with a Faro Focus 3D. A stem map of this forest has recently been created, allowing a direct comparison between manual measurement methods and TLS. Standard measurements such as DBH, tree height, and basal area can then quickly be calculated within the three-dimensional point cloud. A DEM at the plot scale is developed with the point cloud data and the structure of the forest can be resolved. Volumetric calculations can be used to determine biomass at the plot level, a fine-scale variable that is otherwise not obtainable without destruction of the sample. The calculation of biomass will inform current estimates of carbon storage that have been made with course 30 m resolution data (i.e. Landsat). Canopy and understory structure can be analyzed with these methods, helping inform current knowledge of habitat suitability and complexity.

  16. Intensified water storage loss by biomass burning in Kalimantan: Detection by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiancheng; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Hwang, Cheinway; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2017-03-01

    Biomass burning is the principal tool for land clearing and a primary driver of land use change in Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo island). Biomass burning here has consumed millions of hectares of peatland and swamp forests. It also degrades air quality in Southeast Asia, perturbs the global carbon cycle, threatens ecosystem health and biodiversity, and potentially affects the global water cycle. Here we present the optimal estimate of water storage changes over Kalimantan from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Over August 2002 to December 2014, our result shows a north-south dipole pattern in the long-term changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS). Both TWS and GWS increase in the northern part of Kalimantan, while they decrease in the southern part where fire events are the most severe. The loss rates in TWS and GWS in the southern part are 0.56 ± 0.11 cm yr-1 and 0.55 ± 0.10 cm yr-1, respectively. We use GRACE estimates, burned area, carbon emissions, and hydroclimatic data to study the relationship between biomass burning and water storage losses. The analysis shows that extensive biomass burning results in excessive evapotranspiration, which then increases long-term water storage losses in the fire-prone region of Kalimantan. Our results show the potentials of GRACE and its follow-on missions in assisting water storage and fire managements in a region with extensive biomass burning such as Kalimantan.

  17. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, E.F.; Roundy, J.K.; Troy, T.J.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Blyth, E.; Roo, A.A. de; Doll, P.; Ek, M.; Famiglietti, J.; Gochis, D.; Giesen, N. van de; Houser, P.; Jaffe, P.R.; Kollet, S.; Lehner, B.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Peters-Liedard, C.; Sivapalan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wade, A.; Whitehead, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth’s terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and

  18. Effect of storage on bacteriological quality of borehole water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total coliform count decreased by 99.18%, 82.35% and 91.36% in purple, blue and transparent buckets respectively from an initial 1100 MPN/100ml during the period of storage. The significance of storage as a means of enhancing water purification was discussed and suggestion provided on proper storage of water ...

  19. MEASURING LEAF WATER CONTENT USING MULTISPECTRAL TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junttila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS. LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2 in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  20. Artificial fertilisation in a terrestrial toadlet (Pseudophryne guentheri): effect of medium osmolality, sperm concentration and gamete storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Aimee J

    2013-01-01

    Anurans exhibit a greater reproductive diversity than any other vertebrate order. However, studies investigating the effects of the external fertilisation environment on fertilisation success are limited to aquatic-breeding species. This study investigated the effects of fertilisation medium osmolality, sperm concentration and short-term oocyte storage on fertilisation success in a terrestrial-breeding anuran, Pseudophryne guentheri. Split-clutch experimental designs were used to determine optimal fertilisation conditions. To determine the effect of short-term sperm storage, sperm viability was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and percentage sperm motility and velocity quantified with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Fertilisation success was highest in media ranging in osmolality from 25 mOsm kg⁻¹ to 100 mOsm kg⁻¹, representing a broader range and higher optimal osmolality than previously reported for aquatic breeders. High rates of fertilisation (>75%) were achieved in relatively low sperm concentrations (2.5×10⁴ mL⁻¹). Oocytes stored in isotonic solutions (200 mOsm kg⁻¹) retained fertilisation capacity (32%) after 8h of storage, while sperm suspensions maintained motility (≥26%) for 13 days. Additional studies on terrestrial-breeding anurans will be required to ascertain whether the optimal fertilisation conditions reported reflect adaptations to achieve fertilisation in a terrestrial environment.

  1. CanSISE Observation-Based Ensemble of Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Water Equivalent, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a daily gridded terrestrial snow water equivalent (SWE) dataset based on five component SWE products: GlobSnow combined SWE product (passive...

  2. CanSISE Observation-Based Ensemble of Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial Snow Water Equivalent, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a daily gridded terrestrial snow water equivalent (SWE) dataset based on five component SWE products: GlobSnow combined SWE product (passive...

  3. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity : implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life

  4. Rising Water Storage in the Niger River basin: Clues and Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, S.

    2016-12-01

    Heavily populated west African regions along the Niger River are affected by climate and land cover changes, altering the distribution of water resources. To maintain a reliable water supply in the region, water management authorities require knowledge of hydrological changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Local and regional studies reported rising water tables over the last decades as a consequence of complex responses on land use change in the Sahel zone. The spatial extend of this responses is not well understood, as of yet. Thus, this study provides an in-depth investigation of long-term changes in the water storages of Niger River basin and its sub-regions by analyzing more than a decade of satellite based gravity data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Change (GRACE) satellites. Soil moisture data from four global hydrological models serve to separate freshwater resources (WR) from GRACE-based terrestrial water storage variations. Surface water variations from a global water storage model and trends from altimetry data were applied to separate the groundwater component from WR trends. Errors of all datasets are taken into account. Trends in WR are positive, except for the tropical Upper Niger with negative trends. For the Niger basin, a rise in GW stocks was detected. On the subbasin scale, GW changes are positive for the Sahelian Middle Niger and the Benue. The findings confirm previous observations of water tables in the Sahel and tropical zones, indicating that reported effects of land use change are relevant on large, i.e. basin and subbasin, scales. Our results have implications for Niger water management strategies. While areas with rising water storage are stocking a comfortable backup to mitigate possible future droughts and to deliver water to remote areas with no access to rivers or reservoirs. Increasing groundwater recharges may be accompanied by a reduction in water quality. This study helps to inform authority's decision to address

  5. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder; Zettler; Stewart

    2000-07-28

    The use of endomycorrhizal fungi as an energy source (=mycotrophy) initiates seedling development and supplements or replaces photosynthesis in all orchids in nature. Fungus-infected and non-infected seeds of the monkey face orchid, Platanthera integrilabia, a US Federally-threatened terrestrial species, had a different set of water relations than seeds of the green fly orchid, Epidendrum conopseum, a subtropical epiphyte. Seeds of the terrestrial species had lower water loss rates, smaller activation energies for water loss and absorbed water from lower relative humidities. Thus, the epiphyte lacks the enhanced water retention capacity associated with the terrestrial species, implying that epiphytic orchids are capable of germinating quickly given an adequately moist substrate. After germination, water content of fungus-infected seeds was higher. These results provide first time fundamental information related to habitat preference by analyzing seed. Germination is considerably enhanced with mycorrhizal fungi that facilitate the absorption of free water by their orchid seed hosts.

  6. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  7. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  8. WaterMIP: A multi-model estimate of the terrestrial water cycle. Experimental setup and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Douglas B.; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Franssen, Wietse; Ludwig, Fulco; Voss, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Water Model Intercomparison Project (WaterMIP) aims to compare a variety of models of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, and to produce multi-model ensemble estimates of the state of the world’s water resources for the 20th and 21st centuries. WaterMIP is a joint activity between the EU Water and Global Change (WATCH) FP6 project and the Global Water System Project (GWSP).

  9. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  10. Age and residence time of terrestrial source water in the northwest Atlantic shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Todd, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal river mouths and bays are the junctions where terrestrial-source water meets and mixes with water from the open ocean. Once the riverine water reaches the coastal ocean, its eventual fate is largely unknown and difficult to trace. Rivers that flow into the ocean may contain high levels of nutrients and organic matter, so understanding the fate of terrestrial source water is important for a variety of biogeochemical processes that occur in the shelf seas. The fate of this terrestrial source water may be described in terms of its mean age (the time since it reached the ocean) and its residence time (the time it remains on the continental shelf). Using a high-resolution ocean model, we apply the constituent-oriented age and residence time (CART) theory to a large region encompassing the northwest Atlantic shelf seas to calculate the mean age of terrestrial source water and its residence time. For this application, 196 river mouths are used as sources of terrestrial water from South America to Nova Scotia. We investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of the water's mean age and compute the residence time within four different shelf regions: the Carribean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic Bight, and the Mid-Atlantic Bight/Gulf of Maine. From the estimates of mean age and residence time, we describe the impact of the coastal circulation on the eventual fate of terrestrial waters, and provide conjecture on how varying transport time scales may affect the general biogeochemical processes in the coastal ocean.

  11. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned Nikolova; Karl F. Zeller

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology....

  12. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  13. Water storage changes in North America retrieved from GRACE gravity and GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global warming continues, the monitoring of changes in terrestrial water storage becomes increasingly important since it plays a critical role in understanding global change and water resource management. In North America as elsewhere in the world, changes in water resources strongly impact agriculture and animal husbandry. From a combination of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS data, it is recently found that water storage from August, 2002 to March, 2011 recovered after the extreme Canadian Prairies drought between 1999 and 2005. In this paper, we use GRACE monthly gravity data of Release 5 to track the water storage change from August, 2002 to June, 2014. In Canadian Prairies and the Great Lakes areas, the total water storage is found to have increased during the last decade by a rate of 73.8 ± 14.5 Gt/a, which is larger than that found in the previous study due to the longer time span of GRACE observations used and the reduction of the leakage error. We also find a long term decrease of water storage at a rate of −12.0 ± 4.2 Gt/a in Ungava Peninsula, possibly due to permafrost degradation and less snow accumulation during the winter in the region. In addition, the effect of total mass gain in the surveyed area, on present-day sea level, amounts to −0.18 mm/a, and thus should be taken into account in studies of global sea level change.

  14. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  15. Effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water quality in rural Ghana with the aim of reducing the high demand for fuel wood in the household treatment of water. Well water was exposed for 6h to direct natural sunlight in aluminium, iron, and plastic receptacles and ...

  16. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.

    2016-01-01

    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  17. Watch: Current knowledge of the terrestrial Global Water Cycle"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, R.; Best, M.; Hagemann, S.; Kabat, P.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Warnaars, T.; Wiberg, D.; Weedon, G.P.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.

    2011-01-01

    Water-related impacts are among the most important consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Changes in the global water cycle will also impact the carbon and nutrient cycles and vegetation patterns. There is already some evidence of increasing severity of floods and droughts and

  18. Contrasting responses of water use efficiency to drought across global terrestrial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Batelaan, Okke; McVicar, Tim R.; Long, Di; Piao, Shilong; Liang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Jin, Zhao; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an intermittent disturbance of the water cycle that profoundly affects the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the response of the coupled water and carbon cycles to drought and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we provide the first global synthesis of the drought effect on ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE?=?gross primary production (GPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)). Using two observational WUE datasets (i.e., eddy-covariance measurements at 95 sites (526 site-years) an...

  19. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin

    2009-12-18

    Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

  20. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu, Yonggang [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hu, Yongyun, E-mail: junyang28@uchicago.edu [Laboratory for Climate and Atmosphere-Ocean Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  1. Water storage changes and balances in Africa observed by GRACE and hydrologic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continental water storage plays a major role in Earth's climate system. However, temporal and spatial variations of continental water are poorly known, particularly in Africa. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission provides an opportunity to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS variations at both continental and river-basin scales. In this paper, seasonal and secular variations of TWS within Africa for the period from January 2003 to July 2013 are assessed using monthly GRACE coefficients from three processing centers (Centre for Space Research, the German Research Centre for Geosciences, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Monthly grids from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-1 and from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-3B43 models are also used in order to understand the reasons of increasing or decreasing water storage. Results from GRACE processing centers show similar TWS estimates at seasonal timescales with some differences concerning inter-annual trend variations. The largest annual signals of GRACE TWS are observed in Zambezi and Okavango River basins and in Volta River Basin. An increasing trend of 11.60 mm/a is found in Zambezi River Basin and of 9 mm/a in Volta River Basin. A phase shift is found between rainfall and GRACE TWS (GRACE TWS is preceded by rainfall by 2–3 months in parts of south central Africa. Comparing GLDAS rainfall with TRMM model, it is found that GLDAS has a dry bias from TRMM model.

  2. Contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle: A joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Wei, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wagner, Sven; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Water resources management requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior of the regional hydrological cycle components, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge and soil water storage. Atmospheric models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provide a tool to evaluate these components. The main drawback of these atmospheric models, however, is that the terrestrial segment of the hydrological cycle is reduced to vertical infiltration, and that lateral terrestrial water flows are neglected. Recent model developments have focused on coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling systems, such as WRF-hydro, in order to take into account subsurface, overland and river flow. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle, with the help of a joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure. This procedure is the extended version of an existing atmospheric moisture tagging method developed in WRF and WRF-Hydro (Arnault et al. 2017). It is used to quantify the partitioning of precipitation into water stored in the soil, runoff, evapotranspiration, and potentially subsequent precipitation through regional recycling. An application to a high precipitation event on 23 June 2009 in the upper Danube river basin, Germany and Austria, is presented. Precipitating water during this day is tagged for the period 2009-2011. Its contribution to runoff and evapotranspiration decreases with time, but is still not negligible in the summer 2011. At the end of the study period, less than 5 % of the precipitating water on 23 June 2009 remains in the soil. The additionally resolved lateral terrestrial water flows in WRF-Hydro modify the partitioning between surface and underground runoff, in association with a slight increase of evapotranspiration and recycled precipitation. Reference: Arnault, J., R. Knoche, J. Wei, and H. Kunstmann (2016), Evaporation tagging and atmospheric

  3. Carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen; Hui Chen; Shiping Chen; Gang Dong

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude, spatial patterns, and controlling factors of the carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in China are not well understood due to the lack of ecosystem-level flux observations. We synthesized flux and micrometeorological observations from 22 eddy covariance flux sites across China,and examined the carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration (ET), and...

  4. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil water—storage versus pulse dynamics—explain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in

  5. Estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multibeam sonar and terrestrial lidar, Randy Poynter Lake, Rockdale County, Georgia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rockdale County Department of Water Resources, conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey of Randy Poynter Lake in northern Georgia in 2012. The Randy Poynter Lake watershed drains surface area from Rockdale, Gwinnett, and Walton Counties. The reservoir serves as the water supply for the Conyers-Rockdale Big Haynes Impoundment Authority. The Randy Poynter reservoir was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map and determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations. Topographic and bathymetric data were collected using a marine-based mobile mapping unit to estimate storage capacity. The marine-based mobile mapping unit operates with several components: multibeam echosounder, singlebeam echosounder, light detection and ranging system, navigation and motion-sensing system, and data acquisition computer. All data were processed and combined to develop a triangulated irregular network, a reservoir capacity table, and a bathymetric contour map.

  6. Human alterations of the terrestrial water cycle through land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rost

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies current and potential future changes in transpiration, evaporation, interception loss and river discharge in response to land use change, irrigation and climate change, by performing several distinct simulations within the consistent hydrology and biosphere modeling framework LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land. We distinguished two irrigation simulations: a water limited one in which irrigation was restricted by local renewable water resources (ILIM, and a potential one in which no such limitation was assumed but withdrawals from deep groundwater or remote rivers allowed (IPOT. We found that the effect of historical land use change as compared to potential natural vegetation was pronounced, including a reduction in interception loss and transpiration by 25.9% and 10.6%, respectively, whereas river discharge increased by 6.6% (climate conditions of 1991–2000. Furthermore, we estimated that about 1170 km3yr−1 of irrigation water could be withdrawn from local renewable water resources (in ILIM, which resulted in a reduction of river discharge by 1.5%. However, up to 1660 km3yr−1 of water withdrawals were required in addition under the assumption that optimal growth of irrigated crops was sustained (IPOT, which resulted in a slight net increase in global river discharge by 2.0% due to return flows. Under the HadCM3 A2 climate and emission scenario, climate change alone will decrease total evapotranspiration by 1.5% and river discharge by 0.9% in 2046–2055 compared to 1991–2000 average due to changes in precipitation patterns, a decrease in global precipitation amount, and the net effect of CO2 fertilization. A doubling of agricultural land in 2046–2055 compared to 1991–2000 average as proposed by the IMAGE land use change scenario will result in a decrease in total evapotranspiration by 2.5% and in an increase in river discharge by 3.9%. That is, the

  7. Age of Terrestrial Biomarkers in Fluvial Transit Across the Andes-Amazon Reveal Timescales of Carbon Storage and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Feakins, S. J.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental signatures carried by fluvially-exported terrestrial organic matter are shaped by storage, remineralization and replacement at various spatial and temporal scales. Uncertainties in the timescales of these processes are key caveats in the accurate interpretation of sedimentary records. As part of a multi-isotope leaf wax biomarker project, we report the age of biomarkers transported by rivers from mountain to floodplain across the Andes-Amazon transition in southern Peru. We tracked the age of organic carbon using the radiocarbon (14ΔC) composition of plant leaf waxes extracted from particulate organic carbon (POC) in river suspended sediments. Leaf waxes from POC are younger in mountain headwaters (1000 yrs). Downstream aging is associated with the greater storage potential and residence times in lowland mineral soils and sedimentary sequences that include Pleistocene age eroding river terraces. Given three key observations that 1) carbon loading in suspended sediment does not substantively change from Andes to Amazon, 2) ~80% of sediment is sourced in the Andes, and 3) age increases downstream (this study); we find proof of the decoupling of organic carbon from sediment, which we attribute to loss of Andean carbon and replacement during transport.

  8. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  9. CHANGES IN MEDIA WATER STATUS DURING PREPARATION AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, J.U.; Spomer, L. Art; Smith, M. A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Significant water loss from plant tissue culture media occurs during its preparation and storage. Because medium water status has a recognized influence on culture response, any water loss and resulting increase in gelling agent and other component concentrations should be allowed for or at least accounted for during media preparation, to ensure the final media composition is that specified or expected. Two formulations of gelled-agar plant tissue culture media were prepared according to stan...

  10. Improved water balance component estimates through joint assimilation of GRACE water storage and SMOS soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyuan; Tregoning, Paul; Renzullo, Luigi J.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Allgeyer, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of global water balance estimates is limited by the lack of observations at large scale and the uncertainties of model simulations. Global retrievals of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change and soil moisture (SM) from satellites provide an opportunity to improve model estimates through data assimilation. However, combining these two data sets is challenging due to the disparity in temporal and spatial resolution at both vertical and horizontal scale. For the first time, TWS observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and near-surface SM observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) were jointly assimilated into a water balance model using the Ensemble Kalman Smoother from January 2010 to December 2013 for the Australian continent. The performance of joint assimilation was assessed against open-loop model simulations and the assimilation of either GRACE TWS anomalies or SMOS SM alone. The SMOS-only assimilation improved SM estimates but reduced the accuracy of groundwater and TWS estimates. The GRACE-only assimilation improved groundwater estimates but did not always produce accurate estimates of SM. The joint assimilation typically led to more accurate water storage profile estimates with improved surface SM, root-zone SM, and groundwater estimates against in situ observations. The assimilation successfully downscaled GRACE-derived integrated water storage horizontally and vertically into individual water stores at the same spatial scale as the model and SMOS, and partitioned monthly averaged TWS into daily estimates. These results demonstrate that satellite TWS and SM measurements can be jointly assimilated to produce improved water balance component estimates.

  11. Seasonal low-degree changes in terrestrial water mass load from global GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrath, Thierry; van Dam, Tonie; Collilieux, Xavier; Rebischung, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial water storage (TWS) leads to changes in the low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's surface mass density field. Studying these low-degree fluctuations is an important task that contributes to our understanding of continental hydrology. In this study, we use global GNSS measurements of vertical and horizontal crustal displacements that we correct for atmospheric and oceanic effects, and use a set of modified basis functions similar to Clarke et al. (Geophys J Int 171:1-10, 2007) to perform an inversion of the corrected measurements in order to recover changes in the coefficients of degree-0 (hydrological mass change), degree-1 (centre of mass shift) and degree-2 (flattening of the Earth) caused by variations in the TWS over the period January 2003-January 2015. We infer from the GNSS-derived degree-0 estimate an annual variation in total continental water mass with an amplitude of (3.49 ± 0.19) × 103 Gt and a phase of 70° ± 3° (implying a peak in early March), in excellent agreement with corresponding values derived from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) water storage model that amount to (3.39 ± 0.10) × 103 Gt and 71° ± 2°, respectively. The degree-1 coefficients we recover from GNSS predict annual geocentre motion (i.e. the offset change between the centre of common mass and the centre of figure) caused by changes in TWS with amplitudes of 0.69 ± 0.07 mm for GX, 1.31 ± 0.08 mm for GY and 2.60 ± 0.13 mm for GZ. These values agree with GLDAS and estimates obtained from the combination of GRACE and the output of an ocean model using the approach of Swenson et al. (J Geophys Res 113(B8), 2008) at the level of about 0.5, 0.3 and 0.9 mm for GX, GY and GZ, respectively. Corresponding degree-1 coefficients from SLR, however, generally show higher variability and predict larger amplitudes for GX and GZ. The results we obtain for the degree-2 coefficients from GNSS are slightly

  12. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired....... The present study demonstrates that the internal oxygen pressure in the petioles of Rumex palustris plants under water is indeed well above the critical oxygen pressure for aerobic respiration, provided that the air-saturated water is not completely stagnant. The beneficial effect of shoot acclimation...

  13. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    At Ottrupgaard a pit water storage of 1,500 m3 and a lid area of about 700 m2 is built for seasonal storage of a solar collector field of 560 m2. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 57%, more precisely 1,163 Dkr./m2. Due to the large share in price...... the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage, as it seems that the development of solar collectors will not have a breakthrough in the near future.The Ottrupgaard lid design is basically a sandwich element construction of PUR-foam between two...... conditions floating on hot water. The test lids were examined for tightness by a number of means. The results showed critical construction errors of the first lid design. A redesigned lid showed acceptable results, but also some water penetration into the lid insulation. The entered water gathers...

  14. Assessing Spatio-temporal Variability of Karst Water Storage over Southwest China from GRACE and Reservoir Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Luo, Z.; Lo, M. H.; Li, Q.

    2016-12-01

    This study assesses spatio-temporal variability of terrestrial water storage (TWS) over the world's largest karst aquifer with continuous coverage in Southwest China (SWC) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), along with hydrological model outputs, precipitation and reservoir water level data. GRACE shows karst water increases for the period 2003/01-2014/06 with a total volume ranging from 29.0 to 49.1 km3, and observes an extremely wet condition in 2008/2009 caused by the increase in precipitation and Longtan Reservoir (LTR) storage. The subsequent two droughts in 2009/2010 and 2011 have resulted in significant aquifer water depletion, with abnormal karst water losses of 180.2±43.3 km3 and 269.8±34.6 km3 respectively. In particular, the sustained reduction in peaks of the LTR storage is associated with the long-term dry condition over the upper Pearl River. Nonseasonal karst TWS variations are considerably impacted by LTR impoundment in the post-dam period, especially for the impounding episode of autumn and the dry season of winter, with correlations of 0.71 and 0.93 between TWS and reservoir volume variations respectively. Additionally, the nonseasonal GRACE TWS deficit provides an alternative and valuable drought indicator for the study karst region since large differences exist in modeled soil moisture and drought indices. This study demonstrates that the combination of GRACE and other hydrological variables could be beneficial for studying karst hydrologic dynamics. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41174020, 41131067, 41174021), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant No. 2013CB733302), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2014214020203), the open fund of Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry of Education (Grant No. 14-02-011), the open fund of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Spatial Information

  15. Testing the water hypothesis: Quantitative morphological analysis of terrestrial and martian mid-latitude gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Paull, D. J.; Clarke, J. D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Although Martian gullies resemble terrestrial counterparts, two conflicting hypotheses exist for their formation still invoke fluvial processes on the one hand or lubricated CO2 flows on the other. In this work we compared the quantitative morphology of terrestrial gullies, known to have formed by liquid water, and mid-latitude Martian gullies in the Martian southern hemisphere. We also compared these results with measurements of Martian dry ravines adjacent to the gullies. Our results show a similarity between Martian and terrestrial gully formation, supporting the hypothesis that liquid water was involved in their erosion. Our results show dry ravines differ morphologically from gullies, further suggesting fluidised flows as a likely origin of the latter. Variations in the relationships across various terrestrial and Martian gullies indicate the significance of local environmental and geological conditions. Our work supports the idea that Martian gullies may not have been formed by just one single process but may have evolved through a more complex interaction of processes and environment.

  16. Estimating restorable wetland water storage at landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles Nathan; Evenson, Grey R.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Lang, Megan W.; McCarty, Greg W.; Golden, Heather E.; Lane, Charles R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    Globally, hydrologic modifications such as ditching and subsurface drainage have significantly reduced wetland water storage capacity (i.e., volume of surface water a wetland can retain) and consequent wetland functions. While wetland area has been well documented across many landscapes and used to guide restoration efforts, few studies have directly quantified the associated wetland storage capacity. Here, we present a novel raster-based approach to quantify both contemporary and potential (i.e., restorable) storage capacities of individual depressional basins across landscapes. We demonstrate the utility of this method by applying it to the Delmarva Peninsula, a region punctuated by both depressional wetlands and drainage ditches. Across the entire peninsula, we estimated that restoration (i.e., plugging ditches) could increase storage capacity by 80%. Focusing on an individual watershed, we found that over 59% of restorable storage capacity occurs within 20 m of the drainage network, and that 93% occurs within 1 m elevation of the drainage network. Our demonstration highlights widespread ditching in this landscape, spatial patterns of both contemporary and potential storage capacities, and clear opportunities for hydrologic restoration. In Delmarva and more broadly, our novel approach can inform targeted landscape-scale conservation and restoration efforts to optimize hydrologically mediated wetland functions.

  17. Quantifying regional changes in terrestrial carbon storage by extrapolation from local ecosystem models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A W

    1991-12-31

    A general procedure for quantifying regional carbon dynamics by spatial extrapolation of local ecosystem models is presented Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the expected value of one or more local models, explicitly integrating the spatial heterogeneity of variables that influence ecosystem carbon flux and storage. These variables are described by empirically derived probability distributions that are input to the Monte Carlo process. The procedure provides large-scale regional estimates based explicitly on information and understanding acquired at smaller and more accessible scales.Results are presented from an earlier application to seasonal atmosphere-biosphere CO{sub 2} exchange for circumpolar ``subarctic`` latitudes (64{degree}N-90{degree}N). Results suggest that, under certain climatic conditions, these high northern ecosystems could collectively release 0.2 Gt of carbon per year to the atmosphere. I interpret these results with respect to questions about global biospheric sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2} .

  18. IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY, WATER STORAGE, AND LONG RUN WATER CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Joel R.; Willis, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based simulation model is used to illustrate the complex relationships between irrigation efficiency, water banking and water conservation under the prior appropriation doctrine. Increases in irrigation efficiency and/or establishment of water banks do not guarantee water conservation. Conservation requires reduction in the quantity of water consumptively used by agriculture.

  19. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  20. Phenotypic differences in terrestrial frog embryos: effect of water potential and phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Mitchell, Nicola J; Frappell, Peter B

    2008-12-01

    The terrestrial embryos of many amphibians obtain water in two ways; in a liquid phase from the substrate on which eggs are deposited, and in a vapour phase from the surrounding atmosphere. We tested whether the mode of water flux (liquid or vapour) affected the morphology and metabolic traits of the terrestrial Victorian smooth froglet (Geocrinia victoriana) embryos by incubating eggs both with a liquid water source and at a range of vapour water potentials. We found that embryos incubated with a liquid water source (psi(pi)=0 kPa) were better hydrated than embryos incubated with a vapour water source (psi(v)=0 kPa), and grew to a larger size. Eggs incubated in atmospheres with lower psi(v) values showed significant declines in mass and in the thickness of the jelly capsule, while embryos primarily showed reductions in dry mass, total length, tail length and fin height. The most significant deviations from control (psi(v)=0 kPa) values were observed when the psi(v) of the incubation media was less than the osmotic water potential (psi(pi)) of the embryonic interstitial fluid (approximately -425 kPa). Despite the caveat that a psi(v) of 0 kPa is probably difficult to achieve under our experimental conditions, the findings indicate the importance for eggs under natural conditions of contacting liquid water in the nesting substrate to allow swelling of the capsule.

  1. Microbial Community Analysis in Water Storage Tank Sediment Exposed to Monochloramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment accumulation in water storage facilities causes water quality degradation, including enhanced biological growth and more rapid disinfectant decay. The current research evaluated the microbial community composition after a drinking water storage facility’s sediment was e...

  2. DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC SIZES FOR RC CYLINDRICAL WATER STORAGE TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş KOZLUCA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Water storage tanks are built in different shapes and sizes according to needs. Designs of water storage tanks with low costs are quite important for the national economy. Cylindrical and sphere tanks are the most economic types of tanks in terms of material cost. In this study several cylindrical tank designs are made. Then most economic tank radius – tank height ratio is searched by simply changing thickness, height and the radius of the tank considered. Storage capacity of these cylindrical tanks are all the same. All these reinforced tanks have cylindrical reinforced concrete walls fixed at the bottom and free top edge without roof. It is thought that tanks constructed with this optimal ratio will be beneficial.

  3. Water storage at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2011-01-01

    Storage is a major component of a catchment water balance particularly when the water balance components are evaluated on short time scales, that is, less than annual. We propose a method of determining the storage-discharge relation using an exponential function and daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and baseflow during the dormant season when evapotranspiration (ET) is low. The method was applied to the 22-year data series of the 0.41-ha forested Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. The relation of cumulative daily precipitation minus daily runoff and PET versus baseflow was highly significant (r2=0.92, pcatchment storage range was ~400mm, averaging 219mm annually, which is attributed to contributions of soil water and groundwater. The soil moisture of a catchment average 1-m soil depth was evaluated and suggests that there was an active (changes in soil storage during stormflow) and passive (a longer-term seasonal cycle) soil water storage with ranges of 40-70 and 100-120mm, respectively. The active soil water storage was short term on the order of days during and immediately after rainstorms, and the passive or seasonal soil storage was highest during winter when ET was lowest and lowest during summer when ET was highest. An estimate of ET from daily changes in soil moisture (ETSM) during recessions was comparable with PET during the dormant season (1.5mmday-1) but was much lower during the growing season (June through August); monthly average SMET and PET ranged from 2.8 to 4.0mmday-1 and from 4.5 to 5.5mmday-1, respectively. The growing season difference is attributed to the overestimation of PET. ETSM estimates were comparable with those derived from hillslope water balances during sprinkling experiments. Master recession curves derived from the storage-discharge relation adjusted seasonally for ET (1.5 and 4.0mmday-1 during the dormant and growing seasons, respectively) fit actual recessions extremely well. ?? 2011 John Wiley

  4. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  5. Water storage and evaporation as constituents of rainfall interception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; Bosveld, F; de Water, E

    1998-01-01

    Intercepted rainfall may be evaporated during or after the rain event. Intercepted rain is generally determined as the difference between rainfall measurements outside and inside the forest. Such measurements are often used to discriminate between water storage and evaporation during rain as well.

  6. THE SURFACE WATER STORAGE PROBLEM IN ARID REGIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Benfetta

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... This dam is located in an arid zone where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. It is situated 5 km from the ... /year), while dead storage accounts for 4.6 million m. 3 .... These data highlight a clear evaporation gradient: in the coastal zone (up to 50 km from the sea) annual evaporation is <0.5 ...

  7. Water vapour and hydrogen in the terrestrial-planet-forming region of a protoplanetary disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, J A

    2007-05-31

    Planetary systems (ours included) formed in disks of dust and gas around young stars. Disks are an integral part of the star and planet formation process, and knowledge of the distribution and temperature of inner-disk material is crucial for understanding terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and accretion onto the central star. Although the inner regions of protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions subtend only a few nano-radians, near-infrared interferometry has recently enabled the spatial resolution of these terrestrial zones. Most observations have probed only dust, which typically dominates the near-infrared emission. Here I report spectrally dispersed near-infrared interferometric observations that probe the gas (which dominates the mass and dynamics of the inner disk), in addition to the dust, within one astronomical unit (1 au, the Sun-Earth distance) of the young star MWC 480. I resolve gas, including water vapour and atomic hydrogen, interior to the edge of the dust disk; this contrasts with results of previous spectrally dispersed interferometry observations. Interactions of this accreting gas with migrating planets may lead to short-period exoplanets like those detected around main-sequence stars. The observed water vapour is probably produced by the sublimation of migrating icy bodies, and provides a potential reservoir of water for terrestrial planets.

  8. The Impact of Precipitation Deficit and Urbanization on Variations in Water Storage in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of water resources has threatened water security in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, China. However, the relative importance of precipitation and urbanization to water storage change has not been sufficiently studied. In this study, both terrestrial water storage (TWS and groundwater storage (GWS change in Jing-Jin-Ji from 1979 to the 2010s were investigated, based on the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS and the EartH2Observe (E2O outputs, and we used a night light index as an index of urbanization. The results showed that TWS anomaly varied in three stages: significant increase from 1981 to 1996, rapid decrease from 1996 to 2002 and increase from 2002 to the 2010s. Simultaneously, GWS has decreased with about 41.5 cm (500% of GWS in 1979. Both urbanization and precipitation change influenced urban water resource variability. Urbanization was a relatively important factor to the depletion of TWS (explains 83% and GWS (explains 94% since the 1980s and the precipitation deficit explains 72% and 64% of TWS and GWS variabilities. It indicates that urbanization coupled with precipitation deficit has been a more important factor that impacted depletion of both TWS and GWS than climate change only, in the Jing-Jin-Ji region. Moreover, we suggested that the cumulative effect should be considered when discussing the relationship between influence factors and water storage change.

  9. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  10. Assessment of the terrestrial water balance using the global water availability and use model WaterGAP - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the World's water resources has a long tradition and numerous methods for quantification exists. The resulting numbers vary significantly, leaving room for improvement. Since some decades, global hydrological models (GHMs) are being used for large scale water budget assessments. GHMs are designed to represent the macro-scale hydrological processes and many of those models include human water management, e.g. irrigation or reservoir operation, making them currently the first choice for global scale assessments of the terrestrial water balance within the Anthropocene. The Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) is a model framework that comprises both the natural and human water dimension and is in development and application since the 1990s. In recent years, efforts were made to assess the sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing input data and, e.g., how this sensitivity is affected by WaterGAP's calibration scheme. This presentation shows the current best estimate of terrestrial water balance components as simulated with WaterGAP by 1) assessing global and continental water balance components for the climate period 1971-2000 and the IPCC reference period 1986-2005 for the most current WaterGAP version using a homogenized climate forcing data, 2) investigating variations of water balance components for a number of state-of-the-art climate forcing data and 3) discussing the benefit of the calibration approach for a better observation-data constrained global water budget. For the most current WaterGAP version 2.2b and a homogenized combination of the two WATCH Forcing Datasets, global scale (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) river discharge into oceans and inland sinks (Q) is assessed to be 40 000 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000 and 39 200 km3 yr-1 for 1986-2005. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is close to each other with around 70 600 (70 700) km3 yr-1 as well as water consumption with 1000 (1100) km3 yr-1. The

  11. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guevara-Escobar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many hydrological studies of forested ecosystems focus on the study of the forest canopy and have partitioned gross precipitation into throughfall and stemflow. However, the presence of forest litter can alter the quantities of water available for soil infiltration and runoff. Little information exists regarding the value of storage and drainage parameters for litter layers. Vegetation parameters of this kind are required in physically-based and lumped conceptual models to quatify the availabilty and distribution of water. Using a rainfall simulator and laboratory conditions two main objectives were investigated using layers of recently seneced poplar leaves, fresh grass or woodchips:

    1 Effect of rain intensity on storage. With this respect we found that: maximum storage (Cmax, defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was up to 0.5 mm kg−1 m−2 between the lowest (9.8 mm h−1 and highest (70.9 mm h−1 rainfall intensities for poplar leaves. Minimum storage (Cmin, defined as the detention of water after drainage ceased, was not influenced by rainfall intensity. Repeated wetting-draining cycles or layer thickness have no effect on Cmax or Cmin.

    2 The evaluation of drainage coefficient for the Rutter model. This model was found accurate to predict storage and drainage in the case of poplar leaves, was less accurate for fresh grass and resulted in overestimations for woodchips.

    Additionally, the effect of an underlaying soil matrix on lateral movement of water and storage of poplar leaves was studied. Results indicated that the soil matrix have no effect on Cmax or Cmin of the litter layer. Lateral movement of water in the poplar layer was observed at intermediate rainfall

  12. Evaluating water storage variations in the MENA region using GRACE satellite data

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

  13. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  14. The efficacy of combining satellite water storage and soil moisture observations as constraints on water balance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyuan; van Dijk, Albert; Renzullo, Luigi; Tregoning, Paul; Walker, Jeffrey; Pauwels, Valentijn

    2016-04-01

    The ability to accurately estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) and its components (e.g. soil moisture, groundwater, surface water and snow) is of considerable value to water resources assessment. Due to the imperfection of both model predictions and observations, data assimilation methods have been widely applied to hydrological problems for optimal combination of model and observations. Recent studies on the assimilation of TWS data have shown its capability to improve simulated groundwater storages, but the assimilation of TWS only does not guarantee accurate estimation of surface soil moisture (SSM). We investigated the efficiency of data assimilation combining TWS change estimates, derived from temporal changes in Earth's gravity field measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), with SSM, retrieved from emitted microwave radiation at L-band observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The global World Wide Water (W3) water balance model was used. The specific satellite data products used were the SMOS CATDS level 3 daily SSM product and the JPL mascon monthly GRACE product. Both the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were implemented to determine the best option for the assimilation of SSM observations only and the joint assimilation of SSM and TWS. The observation models, which map model states into observation space, are the top-layer soil relative wetness and monthly average TWS (i.e. aggregated daily top-, shallow-, deep-layer soil water storage, ground- and surface water storages). Three assimilation experiments were conducted with each method: a) assimilation of SSM data only; b) assimilation of TWS data only; c) joint assimilation of SSM and TWS data. Results were compared against in-situ soil moisture and groundwater observations, and the performance assessed with respect to open-loop results. Results for the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia demonstrate that the assimilation of SSM data only

  15. The effectiveness of large household water storage tanks for protecting the quality of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; VanDerslice, James

    2007-06-01

    Many communities along the US-Mexico border remain without infrastructure for water and sewage. Residents in these communities often collect and store their water in open 55-gallon drums. This study evaluated changes in drinking water quality resulting from an intervention that provided large closed water storage tanks (2,500-gallons) to individual homes lacking a piped water supply. After the intervention, many of the households did not change the source of their drinking water to the large storage tanks. Therefore, water quality results were first compared based on the source of the household's drinking water: store or vending machine, large tank, or collected from a public supply and transported by the household. Of the households that used the large storage tank as their drinking water supply, drinking water quality was generally of poorer quality. Fifty-four percent of samples collected prior to intervention had detectable levels of total coliforms, while 82% of samples were positive nine months after the intervention (p water quality at different points between collection by water delivery trucks and delivery to the household's large storage tank. Thirty percent of the samples taken immediately after water was delivered to the home had high total coliforms (> 10 CFU/100 ml). Mean free chlorine levels dropped from 0.43 mg/l, where the trucks filled their tanks, to 0.20 mg/l inside the household's tank immediately after delivery. Results of this study have implications for interventions that focus on safe water treatment and storage in the home, and for guidelines regarding the level of free chlorine required in water delivered by water delivery trucks.

  16. Accurate Treatment of Collisions and Water-Delivery in Models of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas; Schaefer, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    It is widely accepted that collisions among solid bodies, ignited by their interactions with planetary embryos is the key process in the formation of terrestrial planets and transport of volatiles and chemical compounds to their accretion zones. Unfortunately, due to computational complexities, these collisions are often treated in a rudimentary way. Impacts are considered to be perfectly inelastic and volatiles are considered to be fully transferred from one object to the other. This perfect-merging assumption has profound effects on the mass and composition of final planetary bodies as it grossly overestimates the masses of these objects and the amounts of volatiles and chemical elements transferred to them. It also entirely neglects collisional-loss of volatiles (e.g., water) and draws an unrealistic connection between these properties and the chemical structure of the protoplanetary disk (i.e., the location of their original carriers). We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology to simulate growth of embryos to planetary bodies where we use a combination of SPH and N-body codes to accurately model collisions as well as the transport/transfer of chemical compounds. Our methodology accounts for the loss of volatiles (e.g., ice sublimation) during the orbital evolution of their careers and accurately tracks their transfer from one body to another. Results of our simulations show that traditional N-body modeling of terrestrial planet formation overestimates the amount of the mass and water contents of the final planets by over 60% implying that not only the amount of water they suggest is far from being realistic, small planets such as Mars can also form in these simulations when collisions are treated properly. We will present details of our methodology and discuss its implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery to Earth.

  17. Residential thermal storage by water encapsulation in stud wall cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.H.; Harris, G.P.; Kiley, M.N.; Cengel, Y.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Thermal storage in wall cavities of standard stick frame housing was investigated. Possible applications relate to electric utility time of use charging, or solar hot air charging. Various thermal storage methods were surveyed, and water stored in the stud cavities was selected. Air was used to charge the encapsulated water. Exterior and interior walls were investigated. Experimental tests were run on full size wall cavities, for both heating and cooling runs. Experimental results were compared and validated with a mathematical model predicting the system performance. Results show that the rate of heat lost by the system while charging is greater than while discharging. The exterior walls performed best in terms of speed of charging, and the maximum charge held. The best charging efficiency was achieved for the lowest air flow rate while charging. Universal curves that describe the basic system responses were developed.

  18. Optical Proxies for Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Osburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical proxies, especially DOM fluorescence, were used to track terrestrial DOM fluxes through estuaries and coastal waters by comparing models developed for several coastal ecosystems. Key to using optical properties is validating and calibrating them with chemical measurements, such as lignin-derived phenols - a proxy to quantify terrestrial DOM. Utilizing parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC, and comparing models statistically using the OpenFluor database (http://www.openfluor.org we have found common, ubiquitous fluorescing components which correlate most strongly with lignin phenol concentrations in several estuarine and coastal environments. Optical proxies for lignin were computed for the following regions: Mackenzie River Estuary, Atchafalaya River Estuary, Charleston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, and Neuse River Estuary. The slope of linear regression models relating CDOM absorption at 350 nm (a350 to DOC and to lignin, varied 5 to 10 fold among systems. Where seasonal observations were available from a region, there were distinct seasonal differences in equation parameters for these optical proxies. Despite variability, overall models using single linear regression were developed that related dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration to CDOM (DOC = 40×a350+138; R2 = 0.77; N = 130 and lignin (Σ8 to CDOM (Σ8 = 2.03×a350-0.5; R2 = 0.87; N = 130. This wide variability suggested that local or regional optical models should be developed for predicting terrestrial DOM flux into coastal oceans and taken into account when upscaling to remote sensing observations and calibrations.

  19. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: rwordsworth@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 60637 IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  20. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Water storage in the unsaturated zone is a major determinant of the hydrological behaviour of the soil, but methods to quantify soil water storage are limited. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil surface elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage

  1. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment...

  2. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Tekwani; Dr. Archana Bohra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2) draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V) and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil). Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empt...

  3. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Understanding the Influence of Terrestrial Water Anomalies on Summer Surface Air Temperature Variability over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding natural variability in the climate system is vital for the detection and attribution of anthropogenically induced change in General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCM predictions of winter surface air temperature (SAT) variability generally are skillful at midlatitudes due to a strong coupling with tropical variability through atmospheric teleconnections. When atmospheric circulation weakens during the summer, however, GCM predictions of SAT variability are less skillful than during the winter, particularly over North America. This study examines the extent that terrestrial water anomalies in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) equivalent water thickness product influence patterns of summer SAT variability over North America from 2002 to 2014. Analysis of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) CM2.1 10-member ensemble indicates there is a significant land surface feedback on summer SAT. The GRACE product provides a metric for evaluating spurious soil moisture signals, which likely enhance summer SAT variability in the AMIP ensemble. To further investigate spatial patterns in soil moisture, simulated (AMIP) and reanalysis (Climate Prediction Center) rainfall patterns are used to demonstrate a potential cause-effect relationship between precipitation and terrestrial water anomalies. Finally, we evaluate whether soil moisture is a useful diagnostic for enhancing predictions of anomalous summer heat waves over North America.

  5. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity: implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-02-01

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life on Earth inhabited high-salt environments, suggesting an ability to withstand low water-activity. The lower limit of water activity that enables cell division appears to be ∼ 0.605 which, until now, was only known to be exhibited by a single eukaryote, the sugar-tolerant, fungal xerophile Xeromyces bisporus. The first forms of life on Earth were, though, prokaryotic. Recent evidence now indicates that some halophilic Archaea and Bacteria have water-activity limits more or less equal to those of X. bisporus. We discuss water activity in relation to the limits of Earth's present-day biosphere; the possibility of microbial multiplication by utilizing water from thin, aqueous films or non-liquid sources; whether prokaryotes were the first organisms able to multiply close to the 0.605-aw limit; and whether extraterrestrial aqueous milieux of ≥ 0.605 aw can resemble fertile microbial habitats found on Earth. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  7. Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and Precipitation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Kim, Y.; Njoku, E. G.; Colliander, A.

    2016-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE and precipitation measurements from GPCP to delineate and characterize drought and water supply pattern and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply and have important implications for water resource management. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from different water components in relation to satellite based vegetation productivity metrics from MODIS, before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US during the past 13 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, and vegetation productivity. In Texas and surrounding semi-arid areas, we find that the spatial pattern of the vegetation-moisture relation follows the gradient in mean annual precipitation. In Texas, GRACE TWS and surface SM show strong coupling and similar characteristic time scale in relatively normal years, while during the 2011 onward hydrological drought, GRACE TWS manifests a longer time scale than that of surface SM, implying stronger drought persistence in deeper water storage. In the Missouri watershed, we find a spatially varying vegetation-moisture relationship where in the drier northwestern portion of the basin, the inter-annual variability in summer vegetation productivity is closely associated with changes in carry-on GRACE TWS from spring, whereas in the moist southeastern portion of the basin, summer precipitation is the dominant controlling factor on vegetation growth.

  8. Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

  9. Differences in estimating terrestrial water flux from three satellite-based Priestley-Taylor algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Shaohua; Lin, Yi; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Xianhong; Sun, Liang; Wang, Xuanyu; Zhang, Lilin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimates of terrestrial latent heat of evaporation (LE) for different biomes are essential to assess energy, water and carbon cycles. Different satellite- based Priestley-Taylor (PT) algorithms have been developed to estimate LE in different biomes. However, there are still large uncertainties in LE estimates for different PT algorithms. In this study, we evaluated differences in estimating terrestrial water flux in different biomes from three satellite-based PT algorithms using ground-observed data from eight eddy covariance (EC) flux towers of China. The results reveal that large differences in daily LE estimates exist based on EC measurements using three PT algorithms among eight ecosystem types. At the forest (CBS) site, all algorithms demonstrate high performance with low root mean square error (RMSE) (less than 16 W/m2) and high squared correlation coefficient (R2) (more than 0.9). At the village (HHV) site, the ATI-PT algorithm has the lowest RMSE (13.9 W/m2), with bias of 2.7 W/m2 and R2 of 0.66. At the irrigated crop (HHM) site, almost all models algorithms underestimate LE, indicating these algorithms may not capture wet soil evaporation by parameterization of the soil moisture. In contrast, the SM-PT algorithm shows high values of R2 (comparable to those of ATI-PT and VPD-PT) at most other (grass, wetland, desert and Gobi) biomes. There are no obvious differences in seasonal LE estimation using MODIS NDVI and LAI at most sites. However, all meteorological or satellite-based water-related parameters used in the PT algorithm have uncertainties for optimizing water constraints. This analysis highlights the need to improve PT algorithms with regard to water constraints.

  10. RELATIONS BETWEEN GRACE-DERIVED WATER STORAGE CHANGE WITH PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE OVER KAIDU RIVER BASIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for human survival and well-being, and important to virtually all sectors of the economy. In the aridzone of China’s west, water resource is the controlling factor on the distribution of human settlements. Water cycle variation is sensitive to temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by human activity and climate change. Satellite observations of Earth’s time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission, which enable direct measurement of changes of total terrestrial water storage, could be useful to aid this modelling. In this pilot study, TWS change from 2002 to 2013 obtained from GRACE satellite mission over the Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, China is presented. Precipitation and temperature data from in-situ station and National Satellite Meteorological Centre of China (NSMC are analysed to examine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between them.

  11. Water use efficiency of China’s terrestrial ecosystems and responses to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; Wang, Shaoqiang; Wu, Xiaocui

    2015-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss of terrestrial ecosystems, and better understanding its dynamics and controlling factors is essential for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. We assessed the magnitude, spatial patterns, and trends of WUE of China’s terrestrial ecosystems and its responses to drought using a process-based ecosystem model. During the period from 2000 to 2011, the national average annual WUE (net primary productivity (NPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)) of China was 0.79 g C kg−1 H2O. Annual WUE decreased in the southern regions because of the decrease in NPP and the increase in ET and increased in most northern regions mainly because of the increase in NPP. Droughts usually increased annual WUE in Northeast China and central Inner Mongolia but decreased annual WUE in central China. “Turning-points” were observed for southern China where moderate and extreme droughts reduced annual WUE and severe drought slightly increased annual WUE. The cumulative lagged effect of drought on monthly WUE varied by region. Our findings have implications for ecosystem management and climate policy making. WUE is expected to continue to change under future climate change particularly as drought is projected to increase in both frequency and severity. PMID:26347998

  12. Water use efficiency of China's terrestrial ecosystems and responses to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; Wang, Shaoqiang; Wu, Xiaocui

    2015-09-08

    Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss of terrestrial ecosystems, and better understanding its dynamics and controlling factors is essential for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. We assessed the magnitude, spatial patterns, and trends of WUE of China's terrestrial ecosystems and its responses to drought using a process-based ecosystem model. During the period from 2000 to 2011, the national average annual WUE (net primary productivity (NPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)) of China was 0.79 g C kg(-1) H2O. Annual WUE decreased in the southern regions because of the decrease in NPP and the increase in ET and increased in most northern regions mainly because of the increase in NPP. Droughts usually increased annual WUE in Northeast China and central Inner Mongolia but decreased annual WUE in central China. "Turning-points" were observed for southern China where moderate and extreme droughts reduced annual WUE and severe drought slightly increased annual WUE. The cumulative lagged effect of drought on monthly WUE varied by region. Our findings have implications for ecosystem management and climate policy making. WUE is expected to continue to change under future climate change particularly as drought is projected to increase in both frequency and severity.

  13. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  14. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  15. Retrieval of vertical leaf water content using terrestrial full-waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    The vertical distribution of leaf water content (LWC) within plant canopy plays an important role in light penetration and scattering, thus affecting reflectance simulation with radiative transfer models. Although passive remote sensing techniques have been widely applied to estimate LWC, they are unable to retrieve the LWC vertical distribution within canopy. By providing vertical information, terrestrial LiDAR can potentially overcome this limitation. In this paper we investigated the applicability of the terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR to estimate the LWC vertical profile within the canopy of individual plants. A standard radiometric calibration was applied to convert the amplitude and the echo width to a physically well-defined radiometric quantity, namely the backscatter coefficient. However, the backscatter coefficient is strongly affected by the incidence angle between the laser beam and the leaf normal. In order to compensate for incidence angle effects, reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to calibrated the backscatter coefficient. Our results showed that the backscatter coefficient had a strong correlation (R2 = 0.66) with LWC after correcting for the incidence angle effect. Good agreements were achieved between the predicted vertical profile of LWC and the measured vertical profile of LWC with a mean RMSE (root mean square error) value of 0.001 g/cm2 and a mean MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value of 4.46 %. Our study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of retrieving LWC vertical distribution within plant canopy from a terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR.

  16. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  17. Hydraulic Strategy of Cactus Trichome for Absorption and Storage of Water under Arid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwoong Kim; Hyejeong Kim; Sung Ho Park; Sang Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Being an essential component in various metabolic activities, water is important for the survival of plants and animals. Cacti grown in arid areas have developed intrinsic water management systems, such as water collection through spines, water absorption through trichome, and water storage using mucilage. The water collection method of cactus is well-documented, but its water absorption and storage strategies remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study analyzed the morphology and wettability o...

  18. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  19. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  20. Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, E.; Safari, A.; Mostafaie, A.; Schumacher, M.; Delavar, M.; Awange, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and Iran's six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs) over 2003-2013 is assessed in this study. Our investigation is performed based on the TWF that are estimated as temporal derivatives of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) products and those from the reanalysis products of ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land. An inversion approach is applied to consistently estimate the spatio-temporal changes of soil moisture and groundwater storage compartments of the seven basins during the study period from GRACE TWS, altimetry, and land surface model products. The influence of TWF trends on separated water storage compartments is then explored. Our results, estimated as basin averages, indicate negative trends in the maximums of TWF peaks that reach up to -5.2 and -2.6 (mm/month/year) over 2003-2013, respectively, for the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins, which are most likely due to the reported meteorological drought. Maximum amplitudes of the soil moisture compartment exhibit negative trends of -11.1, -6.6, -6.1, -4.8, -4.7, -3.8, and -1.2 (mm/year) for Urmia, Tigris-Euphrates, Khazar, Persian, Markazi, Sarakhs, and Hamun basins, respectively. Strong groundwater storage decrease is found, respectively, within the Khazar -8.6 (mm/year) and Sarakhs -7.0 (mm/year) basins. The magnitude of water storage decline in the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins is found to be bigger than the decrease in the monthly accumulated TWF indicating a contribution of human water use, as well as surface and groundwater flow to the storage decline over the study area.

  1. Experimental and theoretic investigations of thermal behavior of a seasonal water pit heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Chatzidiakos, Angelos

    Seasonal heat storages are considered essential for district heating systems because they offer flexibility for the system to integrate different fluctuating renewable energy sources. Water pit thermal storages (PTES) have been successfully implemented in solar district heating plants in Denmark...

  2. Climate Change Predominantly Caused U.S. Soil Water Storage Decline from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Ma, C.; Song, X.; Gao, L.; Liu, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The water storage in soils is a fundamental resource for natural ecosystems and human society, while it is highly variable due to its complicated controlling factors in a changing climate; therefore, understanding water storage variation and its controlling factors is essential for sustaining human society, which relies on water resources. Although we are confident for water availability at global scale, the regional-scale water storage and its controlling factors are not fully understood. A number of researchers have reported that water resources are expected to diminish as climate continues warming in the 21stcentury, which will further influence human and ecological systems. However, few studies to date have fully quantitatively examined the water balances and its individual controlling mechanisms in the conterminous US. In this study, we integrated the time-series data of water storage and evapotranspiration derived from satellite imageries, regional meteorological data, and social-economic water consumption, to quantify water storage dynamics and its controlling factors across the conterminous US from 2003 to 2014. The water storage decline was found in majority of conterminous US, with the largest decline in southwestern US. Net atmospheric water input, which is difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, could explain more than 50% of the inter-annual variation of water storage variation in majority of US with minor contributions from human water consumption. Climate change, expressed as precipitation decreases and warming, made dominant contribution to the water storage decline in the conterminous U.S. from 2003 to 2014.

  3. Seasonal water storage, stress modulation, and California seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W; Fu, Yuning; Bürgmann, Roland

    2017-06-16

    Establishing what controls the timing of earthquakes is fundamental to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle and critical to determining time-dependent earthquake hazard. Seasonal loading provides a natural laboratory to explore the crustal response to a quantifiable transient force. In California, water storage deforms the crust as snow and water accumulates during the wet winter months. We used 9 years of global positioning system (GPS) vertical deformation time series to constrain models of monthly hydrospheric loading and the resulting stress changes on fault planes of small earthquakes. The seasonal loading analysis reveals earthquakes occurring more frequently during stress conditions that favor earthquake rupture. We infer that California seismicity rates are modestly modulated by natural hydrological loading cycles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial...

  5. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Xian-Bo; Pan Liang; Wu, Wei; Pen Jia-Qing; Qi Yin-Wei; Ren Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. Aft...

  6. Contrasting responses of water use efficiency to drought across global terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Batelaan, Okke; McVicar, Tim R; Long, Di; Piao, Shilong; Liang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Jin, Zhao; Simmons, Craig T

    2016-03-17

    Drought is an intermittent disturbance of the water cycle that profoundly affects the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the response of the coupled water and carbon cycles to drought and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we provide the first global synthesis of the drought effect on ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE = gross primary production (GPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)). Using two observational WUE datasets (i.e., eddy-covariance measurements at 95 sites (526 site-years) and global gridded diagnostic modelling based on existing observation and a data-adaptive machine learning approach), we find a contrasting response of WUE to drought between arid (WUE increases with drought) and semi-arid/sub-humid ecosystems (WUE decreases with drought), which is attributed to different sensitivities of ecosystem processes to changes in hydro-climatic conditions. WUE variability in arid ecosystems is primarily controlled by physical processes (i.e., evaporation), whereas WUE variability in semi-arid/sub-humid regions is mostly regulated by biological processes (i.e., assimilation). We also find that shifts in hydro-climatic conditions over years would intensify the drought effect on WUE. Our findings suggest that future drought events, when coupled with an increase in climate variability, will bring further threats to semi-arid/sub-humid ecosystems and potentially result in biome reorganization, starting with low-productivity and high water-sensitivity grassland.

  7. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Water Storage Instead of Energy Storage for Desalination Powered by Renewable Energy—King Island Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tafech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we scrutinized the energy storage options used in mitigation of the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for desalination process. In off-grid islands and remote areas, renewable energy is often combined with appropriate energy storage technologies (ESTs to provide a consistent and reliable electric power source. We demonstrated that in developing a renewable energy scheme for desalination purposes, product (water storage is a more reliable and techno-economic solution. For a King Island (Southeast Australia case-study, electric power production from renewable energy sources was sized under transient conditions to meet the dynamic demand of freshwater throughout the year. Among four proposed scenarios, we found the most economic option by sizing a 13 MW solar photovoltaic (PV field to instantly run a proportional RO desalination plant and generate immediate freshwater in diurnal times without the need for energy storage. The excess generated water was stored in 4 × 50 ML (mega liter storage tanks to meet the load in those solar deficit times. It was also demonstrated that integrating well-sized solar PV with wind power production shows more consistent energy/water profiles that harmonize the transient nature of energy sources with the water consumption dynamics, but that would have trivial economic penalties caused by larger desalination and water storage capacities.

  9. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  10. Estimation of soil water storage change from clay shrinkage using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te Bram

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of soil water storage are hard to obtain on scales relevant for water management and policy making. Therefore, this research develops a new measurement methodology for soil water storage estimation in clay containing soils. The proposed methodology relies on the specific property of clay

  11. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation... and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Omaha District, intends to prepare an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report...

  12. Water for Two Worlds: Designing Terrestrial Applications for Exploration-class Sanitation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance; Andersson, Ingvar; Feighery, John

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September of 2000, the world leaders agreed on an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives: the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a list of issues they consider highly pernicious, threatening to human welfare and, thereby, to global security and prosperity. Among the eight goals are included fundamental human needs such as the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, the promotion of gender equality, the reduction of child mortality and improvement of maternal health, and ensuring the sustainability of our shared environment. In order to help focus the efforts to meet these goals, the United Nations (UN) has established a set of eighteen concrete targets, each with an associated schedule. Among these is Target 10: "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water." A closely related target of equal dignity was agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002): "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation." One of the greatest successes in the development of Exploration-class technologies for closed-loop, sustainable support of long-duration human space missions has been the work both ESA and NASA have done in bioregenerative water reclamation (WRS), and secondarily, in solid-waste management. Solid-waste and WRS systems tend to be combined in the commercial world into the field of sanitation, although as we will see, the most essential principles of sustainable terrestrial sanitation actually insist upon the separation of solid and liquid excreta. Seeing the potential synergy between the space program ALS technologies developed for Mars and the urgent needs of hundreds of millions of people for secure access to clean water here on Earth, we set out to organize the adaptation of these technologies to help the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) meet Target 10. In this paper, we will

  13. NCA-LDAS: A Terrestrial Water Analysis System Enabling Sustained Assessment and Dissemination of National Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, M. F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Bolten, J. D.; Borak, J.; Kempler, S.; Li, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Rodell, M.; Rui, H.; Silberstein, D. S.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B.

    2016-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System, or NCA-LDAS, is an integrated terrestrial water analysis system created as an end-to-end enabling tool for sustained assessment and dissemination of terrestrial hydrologic indicators in support of the NCA. The primary features are i) gridded, daily time series of over forty hydrologic variables including terrestrial water and energy balance stores, states and fluxes over the continental U.S. derived from land surface modeling with multivariate satellite data record assimilation (1979-2015), ii) estimated trends of the principal water balance components over a wide range of scales and locations, and iii) public dissemination of all NCA-LDAS model forcings, and input and output data products through dedicated NCA-LDAS and NASA GES-DISC websites. NCA-LDAS supports sustained assessment of our national terrestrial hydrologic climate for improved scientific understanding, and the adaptation and management of water resources and related energy sectors. This presentation provides an overview of the NCA-LDAS system together with an evaluation of the initial release of NCA-LDAS data products and trends using two land surface models; Noah Ver. 3.3 and Catchment Ver. Fortuna 2.5, and a listing of several available pathways for public access and visualization of NCA-LDAS background information and data products.

  14. Non-Equilibrium Plasma Applications for Water Purification Supporting Human Spaceflight and Terrestrial Point-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.; Foster, John E.; Adamovsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    2016 NASA Glenn Technology Day Panel Presentation on May 24, 2016. The panel description is: Environmental Impact: NASA Glenn Water Capabilities Both global water scarcity and water treatment concerns are two of the most predominant environmental issues of our time. Glenn researchers share insights on a snow sensing technique, hyper spectral imaging of Lake Erie algal blooms, and a discussion on non-equilibrium plasma applications for water purification supporting human spaceflight and terrestrial point-of-use. The panel moderator will be Bryan Stubbs, Executive Director of the Cleveland Water Alliance.

  15. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the

  16. Water storage in the lichen genus Usnea in Sweden and Norway : Can morphological and water storage traits explain the distribution and ecology of epiphytic species?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are poikilohydric and cannot control water uptake and loss, water relations could therefore impact their distribution. This study examines if morphological, anatomical, and water storage traits could explain distribution of epiphytic species in the lichen genus Usnea. Seven species from oceanic (Norway) and continental areas (Sweden) were studied. Total, internal, and external water holding capacity (WHC, mg H2O cm-2) along with relative water content (WC) were recorded by spraying th...

  17. Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Thomas; Primrose, Beryl; Chandrasekhar, R; Roy, Sheela; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2004-10-01

    Water contamination, at source and during household storage, is a major cause of enterically transmitted infections in developing countries. This study assessed contamination of the municipal water in a south Indian town, which obtains its water intermittently from a surface lake and by pumping subsurface water from a dry river bed, and monitored microbial contamination during household storage. All samples of the 'treated' municipal water were contaminated when freshly pumped, and on household storage, 25/37 (67%) showed increased contamination during storage periods from 1 to 9 days. Household storage in brass, but not in containers of other materials significantly decreased contamination of water (p = 0.04). This was confirmed in the laboratory by testing water seeded with 10(3) to 10(5) Escherichia coli per 100 ml stored in containers of different materials (p water in municipal areas, in practice the water supplied in Vellore is contaminated and current household storage practices increase the level of contamination in at least two-thirds of households. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-use disinfection and safe household storage practices in developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe, reliable year-round supply in areas where clean water is not available.

  18. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Kelsey Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) operations ultimately require injecting and storing CO2 into deep saline aquifers. Reservoir pressure typically rises as CO2 is injected increasing the cost and risk of CCUS and decreasing viable storage within the formation. Active management of the reservoir pressure through the extraction of brine can reduce the pressurization while providing a number of benefits including increased storage capacity for CO2, reduced risks linked to reservoir overpressure, and CO2 plume management. Through enhanced water recovery (EWR), brine within the saline aquifer can be extracted and treated through desalination technologies which could be used to offset the water requirements for thermoelectric power plants or local water needs such as agriculture, or produce a marketable such as lithium through mineral extraction. This paper discusses modeled scenarios of CO2 injection into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in Wyoming with EWR. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), was used to model CO2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding pressure tradeoffs. Scenarios were compared in order to analyze how pressure management through the quantity and location of brine extraction wells can increase CO2 storage capacity and brine extraction while reducing risks associated with over pressurization. Future research will couple a cost-benefit analysis to these simulations in order to determine if the benefit of subsurface pressure management and increase CO2 storage capacity can outweigh multiple extraction wells with increased cost of installation and maintenance as well as treatment and/or disposal of the extracted brine.

  19. Multiple observation types reduce uncertainty in Australia's terrestrial carbon and water cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Information about the carbon cycle potentially constrains the water cycle, and vice versa. This paper explores the utility of multiple observation sets to constrain a land surface model of Australian terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and the resulting mean carbon pools and fluxes, as well as their temporal and spatial variability. Observations include streamflow from 416 gauged catchments, measurements of evapotranspiration (ET and net ecosystem production (NEP from 12 eddy-flux sites, litterfall data, and data on carbon pools. By projecting residuals between observations and corresponding predictions onto uncertainty in model predictions at the continental scale, we find that eddy flux measurements provide a significantly tighter constraint on continental net primary production (NPP than the other data types. Nonetheless, simultaneous constraint by multiple data types is important for mitigating bias from any single type. Four significant results emerging from the multiply-constrained model are that, for the 1990–2011 period: (i on the Australian continent, a predominantly semi-arid region, over half the water loss through ET (0.64 ± 0.05 occurs through soil evaporation and bypasses plants entirely; (ii mean Australian NPP is quantified at 2.2 ± 0.4 (1σ Pg C yr−1; (iii annually cyclic ("grassy" vegetation and persistent ("woody" vegetation account for 0.67 ± 0.14 and 0.33 ± 0.14, respectively, of NPP across Australia; (iv the average interannual variability of Australia's NEP (±0.18 Pg C yr−1, 1σ is larger than Australia's total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 (0.149 Pg C equivalent yr–1, and is dominated by variability in desert and savanna regions.

  20. Remediation of nutrient-rich waters using the terrestrial plant, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ping; Kumar, Prakash; Ong, Bee-Lian

    2014-02-01

    Effective control of eutrophication is generally established through the reduction of nutrient loading into waterways and water bodies. An economically viable and ecologically sustainable approach to nutrient pollution control could involve the integration of retention ponds, wetlands and greenways into water management systems. Plants not only play an invaluable role in the assimilation and removal of nutrients, but they also support fauna richness and can be aesthetically pleasing. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a tropical terrestrial plant, was found to establish well in hydrophytic conditions and was highly effective in remediating high nutrient levels in an aquatic environment showing 100% removal of NO3(-)-N up to 200 mg/L in 14 days. Phosphate uptake by the plant was less efficient with 64% of the PO4(-)-P removed at the maximum concentration of 100 mg/L at the end of 6 weeks. With its high NO3(-)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal efficiency, P. amaryllifolius depleted the nutrient-rich media and markedly contained the natural colonization of algae. The impediment of algal growth led to improvements in the water quality with significant decreases in turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, the plants did not show stress symptoms when grown in high nutrient levels as shown by the changes in their biomass, total soluble proteins and chlorophyll accumulation as well as photochemical efficiency. Thus, P. amaryllifolius is a potential candidate for the mitigation of nutrient pollution in phytoremediation systems in the tropics as the plant requires low maintenance, is tolerant to the natural variability of weather conditions and fluctuating hydro-periods, and exhibit good nutrient removal capabilities.

  1. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Ramos-Salinas, M.; Hernandez-Delgado, G. D.

    2007-06-01

    Leaf litter overlying forested floors are important for erosion control and slope stability, but also reduces pasture growth in silvopastoral systems. Little information exists regarding the value of percolation and storage capacity parameters for litter layers. These estimates are needed for modelling better management practices for leaf litter. Therefore, this work measured the effect of four rainfall intensities: 9.8, 30.2, 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 on the hydrological response of layers of three materials: recently senesced poplar leaves, fresh grass and woodchips. Maximum storage (Cmax), defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was 0.2 mm between the lowest and highest rainfall intensities. Mean values of Cmax were: 1.27, 1.51, 1.67 and 1.65 mm for poplar leaves; 0.63 0.77, 0.73 and 0.76 for fresh grass and; 1.64, 2.23, 2.21 and 2.16 for woodchips. Drainage parameters were: 9.9, 8.8 and 2.2 mm-1 for poplar, grass and woodchips layers. An underlying soil matrix influenced the drainage flow from poplar leaf layers producing pseudo-Hortonian overland flow, but this occurred only when the rainfall intensity was 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 and accounted for 0.4 and 0.8‰ of total drainage. On the other hand, the presence of a poplar leaf layer had a damping effect on the drainage rate from the underlying soil matrix, particularly at intermediate rainfall intensities: 30.2 or 40.4 mm h-1.

  2. The Role of Comets as Possible Contributors of Water and Prebiotic Organics to Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Charnley, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    The question of exogenous delivery of organics and water to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth's water, and for assessing the prospects for existence of Earth-like exo-planets. Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen. Can comets have delivered Earth's water? The deuterium content of comets is key to ,assessing their role as contributors of water to Earth. Icy bodies today reside in two distinct reservoirs, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Disk (divided into the classical disk, the scattered disk, and the detached or extended disk populations). Orbital parameters can indicate the cosmic storage reservoir for a given comet. Knowledge of the diversity of comets within a reservoir assists in assessing their possible contribution to early Earth, but requires quantitative knowledge of their components - dust and ice. Strong gradients in temperature and chemistry in the proto-planetary disk, coupled with dynamical dispersion of an outer disk of icy planetesimals, imply that comets from KD and OC reservoirs should have diverse composition. The primary volatiles (native to the nucleus) provide the preferred metric for building a taxonomy for comets, and the number of comets so quantified is growing rapidly. Taxonomies based on native species (primary volatiles) are now beginning to emerge [1, 2, 3]. The measurement of cosmic parameters such as the nuclear spin temperatures for H2O, NH3 and CH4, and of enrichment factors for isotopologues (D/H in water and hydrogen cyanide, N-14/N-15 in CN and hydrogen cyanide) provide additional tests of the origin of cometary material. I will provide an overview of these aspects, and implications for the origin of Earth's water and prebiotic organics.

  3. ISLSCP II Total Plant-Available Soil Water Storage Capacity of the Rooting Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two estimates of the geographic distribution of the total plant-available soil water storage capacity of the rooting zone ("rooting zone water...

  4. Hydraulic Strategy of Cactus Trichome for Absorption and Storage of Water under Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoong Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being an essential component in various metabolic activities, water is important for the survival of plants and animals. Cacti grown in arid areas have developed intrinsic water management systems, such as water collection through spines, water absorption through trichome, and water storage using mucilage. The water collection method of cactus is well-documented, but its water absorption and storage strategies remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study analyzed the morphology and wettability of cactus trichomes by using advanced bio-imaging techniques and by performing in vitro experiments on an artificial system mimicking these structures, respectively. In addition, the in situ water absorption process through the trichome cluster was quantitatively visualized. This paper proposes a new bio-inspired technique for dew collection based on information about the water management strategies of cactus. This study discusses the underlying water absorption and storage strategies of cactus and provides the experimental database required to develop a biomimetic water management device.

  5. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  6. Effect of cold storage on stomatal functionality, water relations and flower performance in cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Ernst J.; Paillart, Maxence J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Symptoms of water stress are the most frequent cause for the “end of vase life” in prior stored roses. It was hypothesized that dark storage may alter the stomatal functionality and may cause water balance problems during the subsequent vase life period. The effect of short- and long-term storage

  7. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  8. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined...

  9. Analysis of the Development of Available Soil Water Storage in the Nitra River Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárník, Andrej; Leitmanová, Mária

    2017-10-01

    World is changing dramatically. Every sphere of our life is influenced by global climate changes, including agriculture sector. Rising air temperature and temporal variability of rainfall are crucial outcomes of climate changes for agricultural activities. Main impact of these outcomes on agriculture is the change of soil water amount. Soil water is an exclusive resource of water for plants. Changes of soil water storage are sensed very sensitively by farmers. Development of soil water storage was analysed in this paper. The Nitra River catchment is covered by nets of hydrological and meteorological stations of Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. Quantity of available soil water storage for plants was calculated every month in the years from 2013 to 2016. Calculations were done based on real measurements for soil horizon 0-30 cm. Ratio between a real available soil water storage and a potential available soil water storage was specified. Amount of potential available soil water storage was derived by retention curves of soil samples. Map of risk areas was created in GIS in pursuance of these calculations. We can see the negative trends of available soil water storage in years 2015 and 2016. Main addition of this paper is a selection of areas where soil moisture is a limiting factor of agriculture. In these areas, it is necessary to do the mitigation measures for sustainable development of agricultural activities.

  10. Study of terrestrial γ-ray background in presence of variable radioactivity from rain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Jain, A.; Mazumdar, I.; Raha, Sibaji

    2016-01-01

    A number of groups have reported significant reduction in the flux of low energy (0.1-3 MeV) γ-rays in observations carried out during the past total solar eclipses. However, the contribution of the radon induced radioactivity to the overall γ-ray background can become substantial, especially during episodes of rain. Depending upon the pattern of the rainfall radon induced γ-ray background may vary significantly on time scales of ∼10 min, making the interpretation of the data in terms of an extraterrestrial effect such as a total solar eclipse rather difficult. A reliable estimate of the low energy terrestrial γ-ray (TGR) background is necessary before attempting to measure the possible contribution of any extraterrestrial phenomenon. The knowledge of the precise energies and branching ratios of radon and other radio-isotope induced γ-rays was exploited to accurately reproduce the TGR background, even in the presence of a large and variable contribution from radon induced radioactivity from fresh rain water. The measurement of the TGR background has paved the way for studying the variation of the soft γ-ray flux during the long duration total solar eclipse that occurred on 22 July 2009 in the middle of the Monsoon season in India.

  11. Change in terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency over the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong; Sun, Yan; Ciais, Philippe; Cheng, Lei; Mao, Jiafu; Poulter, Ben; Shi, Xiaoying; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yingping

    2015-06-01

    facilitate mechanistic understanding of the carbon-water interactions over terrestrial ecosystems under global change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. From water to land: How an invasive clam may function as a resource pulse to terrestrial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Adriana; Souza, Allan T; Ilarri, Martina; Pascoal, Cláudia; Sousa, Ronaldo

    2015-12-15

    Resource pulses are episodes of low frequency, large magnitude and short duration that result in increased resource availability in space and time, with consequences for food web dynamics. Studies assessing the importance of resource pulses by invasive alien species in the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are rare, especially those in the direction from water to land. This study assessed the importance of massive die-offs of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) as a resource pulse to the terrestrial invertebrate community after an extreme climatic event using a manipulative experiment. We used 5 levels of C. fluminea density (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000ind·m(-2)), with terrestrial invertebrates being censused 7, 30 and 90days after C. fluminea addition. We also assessed the possible effect of plots position, where plots that delimited the experiment were assigned as edge plots and the remaining as core plots. Clear differences were detected in abundance, biomass, richness and diversity of terrestrial invertebrates depending on the C. fluminea density, time and position. Interestingly, the highest abundance of adult Diptera was observed 7days after C. fluminea addition, whereas that of the other terrestrial invertebrates was on day 30, both with C. fluminea densities higher than 500ind·m(-2) located on the edge of the experimental design. This study highlights the importance of major resource pulses after massive die-offs of invasive bivalves, contributing with remarkable amounts of carrion for adjacent terrestrial systems. Part of this carrion can be consumed directly by a great number of invertebrate species while the remainder can enter the detrital food web. Given the high density and biomass attained by several invasive bivalves worldwide and the predicted increase in the number, intensity and magnitude of extreme climatic events, the ecological importance of this phenomenon should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015

  13. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  14. 3D leaf water content mapping using terrestrial laser scanner backscatter intensity with radiometric correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Niemann, K. Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Leaf water content (LWC) plays an important role in agriculture and forestry management. It can be used to assess drought conditions and wildfire susceptibility. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data have been widely used in forested environments for retrieving geometrically-based biophysical parameters. Recent studies have also shown the potential of using radiometric information (backscatter intensity) for estimating LWC. However, the usefulness of backscatter intensity data has been limited by leaf surface characteristics, and incidence angle effects. To explore the idea of using LiDAR intensity data to assess LWC we normalized (for both angular effects and leaf surface properties) shortwave infrared TLS data (1550 nm). A reflectance model describing both diffuse and specular reflectance was applied to remove strong specular backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle. Leaves with different surface properties were collected from eight broadleaf plant species for modeling the relationship between LWC and backscatter intensity. Reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to compensate for incidence angle effects. Results showed that before removing the specular influences, there was no significant correlation (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05) between the backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle and LWC. After the removal of the specular influences, a significant correlation emerged (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.05). The agreement between measured and TLS-derived LWC demonstrated a significant reduction of RMSE (root mean square error, from 0.008 to 0.003 g/cm2) after correcting for the incidence angle effect. We show that it is possible to use TLS to estimate LWC for selected broadleaved plants with an R2 of 0.76 (significance level α = 0.05) at leaf level. Further investigations of leaf surface and internal structure will likely result in improvements of 3D LWC mapping for studying physiology and ecology in vegetation.

  15. Storage effects on quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen of lake water, leaf leachate and peat soil water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Marlen; Zak, Dominik

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of freezing and cold storage at 4 °C on bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentration and SEC fractions determined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), as well as on spectral properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) analyzed with fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to account for differences in DOM composition and source we analyzed storage effects for three different sample types, including a lake water sample representing freshwater DOM, a leaf litter leachate of Phragmites australis representing a terrestrial, 'fresh' DOM source and peatland porewater samples. According to our findings one week of cold storage can bias DOC and DON determination. Overall, the determination of DOC and DON concentration with SEC analysis for all three sample types were little susceptible to alterations due to freezing. The findings derived for the sampling locations investigated here may not apply for other sampling locations and/or sample types. However, DOC size fractions and DON concentration of formerly frozen samples should be interpreted with caution when sample concentrations are high. Alteration of some optical properties (HIX and SUVA 254 ) due to freezing were evident, and therefore we recommend immediate analysis of samples for spectral analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, M E

    2000-01-01

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  17. Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

  18. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko Gulch...

  19. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  20. Surface water storage capacity of twenty tree species in Davis, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory. McPherson

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage...

  1. Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical reagents and concentrations to take into account the characteristics of the sample matrix. The effects of matrix interference on the colorimetric analysis. The influence of variable rates of phospho-molybdenum blue colour formation. The differing responses of river waters to physical and chemical conditions of storage. The higher sensitivities of samples with low P concentrations to storage and analytical errors. Given high variability of river water characteristics in space and time, no single standardised methodology for sampling, storage and analysis of P in rivers can be offered. ‘Good Practice’ guidelines are suggested, which recommend that protocols for sampling, storage and analysis of river water for P is based on thorough site-specific method testing and assessment of P stability on storage. For wider sampling programmes at the regional/national scale where intensive site-specific method and stability testing are not feasible, ‘Precautionary Practice’ guidelines are suggested. The study highlights key areas requiring further investigation for improving methodological rigour. Keywords: phosphorus, orthophosphate, soluble reactive, particulate, colorimetry, stability, sensitivity, analytical error, storage, sampling, filtration, preservative, fractionation, digestion

  2. Soil-Water Storage Predictions for Cultivated Crops on the Záhorská Lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarabicová Miroslava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the soil-water regime of the Záhorská lowlands. The consequences of climate change on soil-water storage were analyzed for two crops: spring barley and maize. We analyzed the consequences of climate change on soil-water storage for two crops: spring barley and maize. The soil-water storage was simulated with the GLOBAL mathematical model. The data entered into the model as upper boundary conditions were established by the SRES A2 and SRES B1 climate scenarios and the KNMI regional climate model for the years from 2071 to 2100 (in the text called the time horizon 2085 which is in the middle this period. For the reference period the data from the years 1961-1990 was used. The results of this paper predict soil-water storage until the end of this century for the crops evaluated, as well as a comparison of the soil-water storage predictions with the course of the soil-water storage during the reference period.

  3. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  4. Biophysical properties and functional significance of stem water storage tissues in Neotropical savanna trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; F. Miralles-Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Biophysical characteristics of sapwood and outer parenchyma water storage compartments were studied in stems of eight dominant Brazilian Cerrado tree species to assess the impact of differences in tissue capacitance on whole-plant water relations. Both the sapwood and outer parenchyma tissues played an important role in regulation of internal water deficits of Cerrado...

  5. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  6. Changes of evapotranspiration and water yield in China's terrestrial ecosystems during the period from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Ju, W.; Chen, J.; Wang, S.; He, H.; Wang, H.; Guan, D.; Zhao, F.; Li, Y.; Hao, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon and water cycles are interactively linked at various spatial and temporal scales. Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a key role in the terrestrial water cycle and altering carbon sequestration of terrestrial ecosystems. The study of ET and its response to climate and vegetation changes is critical in China since water availability is a limiting factor for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems in vast arid and semiarid regions. In this study, the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed in conjunction with a newly developed leaf area index (LAI) dataset and other spatial data to simulate daily ET and water yield at a spatial resolution of 500 m over China for the period from 2000 to 2010. The spatial and temporal variations of ET and water yield and influences of temperature, precipitation, land cover types, and LAI on ET were analyzed. The validations with ET measured at 5 typical ChinaFLUX sites and inferred using statistical hydrological data in 10 basins showed that the BEPS model was able to simulate daily and annual ET well at site and basin scales. Simulated annual ET exhibited a distinguishable southeast to northwest decreasing gradient, corresponding to climate conditions and vegetation types. It increased with the increase of LAI in 74% of China's landmass and was positively correlated with temperature in most areas of southwest, south, east, and central China and with precipitation in the arid and semiarid areas of northwest and north China. In the Tibet Plateau and humid southeast China, the increase in precipitation might cause ET to decrease. The national mean annual ET varied from 345.5 mm yr-1 in 2001 to 387.8 mm yr-1 in 2005, with an average of 369.8 mm yr-1 during the study period. The overall increase rate of 1.7 mm yr-2 (r = 0.43 p = 0.19) was mainly driven by the increase of total ET in forests. During the period from 2006 to 2009, precipitation and LAI decreased widely and consequently

  7. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants

  8. Characteristics of soil stability and carbon sequestration under water storage and drainage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Han, J. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the influence of saline alkali soil on soil physical properties, stability and organic carbon storage under water storage and drainage, and to provide scientific basis for improving soil quality in Fuping County of Shaanxi Province, China. Saline alkali soil model test was conducted and the process was assessed with two different methods: i) traditional drainage and ecological water storage, measure and analyze 0-30 cm soil bulk density, porosity, field water capacity, mean mass diameter (MWD), geological mean diameter (GMD), stability of water stable aggregate (WASR), aggregate destruction rate (PAD), fractal dimension (D) and; ii) organic carbon storage, comprehensively analyze the relationship between stability index and soil organic carbon. The results show that: (1) compared with traditional drainage treatment, water treatment may effectively reduce the soil bulk density by 1.3%-4.2%, and improve soil porosity and field capacity at the same time; (2) under dry and wet screen treatment, soil stability, the water storing treatment is higher than the drainage treatment. Performance trend of soil MWD and GMD increases with the increase of soil depth. The stability of soil water stable aggregates increased 14.5%-53.4%. The average aggregate destruction rate was 3.2% lower than that of the drainage treatment and the difference is obvious (PSoil organic carbon content and organic carbon storage in 0-30 cm soil layer could be increased effectively by water storage. Both of them were 13.4%-27.9% and 9.9%-18.8% higher than the drainage treatment. (4) There is a negative correlation among average aggregate destruction rate, fractal dimension and soil organic carbon storage. The correlation coefficient is, respectively, R2=0.86 and R2=0.94, and the difference is obvious (Psoil quality, improve soil stability and soil organic carbon storage, which can be a good control of saline alkali soil.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  10. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biswas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA. A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

  11. Transient electromagnetic detection method in water-sealed underground storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the water sensitivity of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM, this study assesses the effectiveness of the water curtain system for underground LPG storage caverns during the excavation period. It also detects fracture water flow during the excavation process in light of the practice of two pilot large underground LPG storage caverns in China. Comparative maps of apparent resistivity derived from TEM measurements before and after water-filling during the excavation process have been discussed to improve the quality of the water curtain system. This is the first case to apply TEM to detect the quality of the water curtain system during the construction of underground LPG storage cavern projects, and it is found to be practical, more visualized and worth popularizing.

  12. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Beglou, Amirreza; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength.

  13. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  14. Performance of labyrinth-stratified water-storage system for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildin, M. W.

    The feasibility of storing heating or cooling capacity in thermally stratified water contained in rectangular concrete tanks was demonstrated. For the approximately cubical tanks, which were 4.6 meters deep, and for the flow rates which were employed in a diurnal charge-discharge cycle, thermoclines about three feet thick were routinely established during charging and discharging phases of an operating cycle. Linear diffusers were designed to introduce water into the tanks and remove it at low velocity and with a relatively uniform distribution. Thermal efficiency was evaluated. The efficiency realized from cooled storage was in the range from 80 to 90%, while that for heated storage was in the range from 65 to 81%. The higher efficiency of cooled storage is due to several factors, including lower temperature difference to produce energy flow across the boundaries, less internal mixing in storage when the partitions were present and shorter average residence times of energy in storage.

  15. Detecting the effects of deforestation as a driver of change to terrestrial water partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, John; Olin, Stefan; Chen, Deliang; Smith, Benjamin; Fang, Keyan; Uddling, Johan; Jaramillo, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic land use change is known to cause shifts to the partitioning of water between runoff, evapotranspiration (ET) and storage within catchments. Whilst deforestation is assumed to result in a decrease of ET, this has not been adequately examined across scales and between catchments of different regions and biomes. Further, recent research has presented differing effects on ET, with both increases and decreases to the fraction of rainfall returning to the atmosphere, resulting from deforestation. Using a hydroclimatic approach, here we attempt to assess the effects of deforestation on ET within boreal, temperate and tropical catchments of North and South America at meso-to-macro scales. Using remote sensing and model-derived quantifications of deforestation for 73 catchments experiencing varying degrees of forest loss, changes to the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and ET were identified for the period 1980-2010. Forty-two catchments experiencing a net forest loss greater than 5% of the total catchment area (loss catchments), and 31 catchments with a net loss smaller than 2% (control catchments), were selected. For each catchment, using the University of East Anglia - Climate Research Unit global data set, annual precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were derived, and annual runoff (Q) was obtained from the Global Runoff Data Centre discharge data. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) was then estimated from the available water balance components (P and Q). We studied the movements of these basins within the Budyko space, and the respective climate (∆Ψc) and landscape (∆Ψl) components of ∆Ψ. We found that tropical loss catchments of South America experienced an area weighted mean ∆Ψ of 0.005, with counteracting effects of ∆Ψc and ∆Ψl (0.073 and -0.078 respectively). This contrasts with the results seen within the control catchments of South America, which had ∆Ψ, ∆Ψc and ∆Ψl of -0.038, -0.048, and 0

  16. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  17. A Multi-Satellite Approach for Water Storage Monitoring in an Arid Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit T. Ghebreyesus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use satellite imagery to monitor the water budget of Al Ain region in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Inflows and outflows were estimated and the trend of water storage variation in the study area was examined from 2005 to 2014. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. Landsat images were used to determine the extent of agricultural and green areas. Time series of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE observations over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation from satellite data. The change of storage inferred from the Water Budget Equation showed a decreasing trend at an average rate of 2.57 Mm3 annually. Moreover, GRACE readings showed a decreasing trend at a rate of 0.35 cm of water depth annually. Mann-Kendal, a non-parametric trend test, proved the presence of significant negative trends in both time series at a 5% significance level. A two-month lag resulted in a better agreement (R2 = 0.55 between the change in water storage and GRACE anomalies within the study area. These results suggest that water storage in the study area is being depleted significantly. Moreover, the potential of remote sensing in water resource management, especially in remote and arid areas, was demonstrated.

  18. 3D DOCUMENTATION OF A HISTORICAL MONUMENT USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING CASE STUDY: BYZANTINE WATER CISTERN, ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Temizer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D modelling of architectural structures for monitoring, conservation and restoration alterations in heritage sites has special challenges for data acquisition and processing. The accuracy of created 3D model is very important. In general, because of the complexity of the structures, 3D modelling can be time consuming and may include some difficulties. 3D terrestrial laser scanning technique is a reliable and advantageous method for reconstruction and conservation of monuments. This technique is commonly acknowledged due to its accuracy, speed and flexibility. Terrestrial laser scanners can be used for documentation of the cultural heritage for the future. But it is also important to understand the capabilities and right conditions of use and limitations of this technology. Istanbul is a rich city with cultural monuments, buildings and cultural heritage. The presented study consists of documentation of a Byzantine water cistern situated underground the court of Sarnicli Han building. The cistern which represents a very good living example of its period has been modelled in 3D by using terrestrial laser scanning technology and the accuracy assessment of this modelling is examined.

  19. Comparative assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Aedes aegypti larvae and water from domestic water storage containers

    OpenAIRE

    Dada, Nsa; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Overgaard, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic water storage containers constitute major Aedes aegypti breeding sites. We present for the first time a comparative analysis of the bacterial communities associated with Ae. aegypti larvae and water from domestic water containers. Methods: The 16S rRNA-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to identify and compare bacterial communities in fourth-instar Ae. aegypti larvae and water from larvae positive and negative domestic containers in a rural ...

  20. Olfactory Memory Storage and/or Retrieval Requires the Presence of the Exact Tentacle Used During Memory Acquisition in the Terrestrial Slug Limax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yurika; Matsuo, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    Terrestrial pulmonates can form odor-aversion memories once a food odor is presented in combination with an aversive stimulus. Most of the olfactory information ascends via a tentacular ganglion located in the tip of the two pairs of tentacles, and is then transmitted to the higher olfactory center, the procerebrum. The procerebrum is the locus of memory storage and has been shown to be necessary for odor-aversion learning. However, it is unknown whether the procerebrum is the sole locus in which the memory engram resides. By exploiting the regenerative ability of tentacles, here we investigated whether tentacles function merely in transmitting olfactory information to the procerebrum, or constitute a part of the memory engram. We showed that after removal of the tentacles used during memory acquisition, slugs were unable to retrieve the memory, even if these tentacles were regenerated sufficiently to subserve memory function. Our results support the view that tentacles are more than conduits of odor information; they also participate in the formation of the memory engram.

  1. Development in myofibrillar water distribution of two pork qualities during 10-month freezer storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Andersen, Rikke Høll; Andersen, Henrik J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fresh meat quality (PSE versus DFD), freezing temperature (-20°C versus -80C°) and duration of freezer storage on changes in water mobility and distribution were followed at intervals of 1-2 months during 10-month freezer storage of pork using low-field NMR T(2) relaxometry. Fresh meat quality was found to have a strong significant effect (P100ms) also after freezing, which was reflected in a significantly lower cooking yield in PSE meat compared with DFD meat (Pfreezer storage, NMR T(2) relaxation measurements revealed a significant increase in the amount of loosely bound water in PSE meat with increasing length of freezer storage. This finding indicates that NMR T(2) relaxation measurements are quite sensitive to freezing-induced changes in the meat structure, causing a shift in the distribution of water and possibly capable of detecting these before they are reflected in a reduced cooking yield. In addition, an interaction between fresh meat quality and effect of length of freezer storage on the amount of very mobile water easily lost as drip was observed, implying that PSE meat is more susceptible to freezer storage-induced deteriorative changes in the meat structure, causing a shift in the distribution of water, than DFD meat.

  2. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  3. Air-Xe enrichments in Elk Hills oil field gases: role of water in migration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1999-04-01

    Hydrocarbons from the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR#1), Bakersfield, CA, are enriched in heavy noble gases. The 132Xe/ 36Ar ratios are as high as ˜576 times the ratio in air and represent the largest relative Xe-enrichments ever observed in terrestrial fluids. The Xe isotopic composition is indistinguishable from air. We show that these samples cannot be explained by equilibration of oil with air saturated water and secondary enrichment via a Rayleigh distillation gas stripping process. Based on laboratory studies of others with potential petroleum source rocks, we believe the source of this enriched heavy noble gas component was adsorbed air initially trapped in/on the source rocks that was expelled and mixed with the hydrocarbons during expulsion and primary migration. Kr and Xe enrichments decrease with increasing 36Ar concentration. We propose a model in which an initial Kr-Xe-enriched hydrocarbon becomes diluted with noble gases extracted from air saturated groundwater during expulsion, migration, and storage. The model generates an integrated water/hydrocarbon ratio for the production fluid which indicates a minimal role for water in hydrocarbon expulsion and migration. The results are interpreted to provide time/geometrical constraints on the mechanisms by which hydrocarbons can migrate as a separate phase.

  4. Water Storage, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  5. The mechanistic basis for storage-dependent age distributions of water discharged from an experimental hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; Kim, Minseok; Cardoso, Charlene; Lora, Marco; Meira Neto, Antonio A.; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Troch, Peter A.; Harman, Ciaran J.

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of water transit times (TTDs), and related storage-selection (SAS) distributions, are spatially integrated metrics of hydrological transport within landscapes. Recent works confirm that the form of TTDs and SAS distributions should be considered time variant—possibly depending, in predictable ways, on the dynamic storage of water within the landscape. We report on a 28 day periodic-steady-state-tracer experiment performed on a model hillslope contained within a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter. Using experimental data, we calibrate physically based, spatially distributed flow and transport models, and use the calibrated models to generate time-variable SAS distributions, which are subsequently compared to those directly observed from the actual experiment. The objective is to use the spatially distributed estimates of storage and flux from the model to characterize how temporal variation in water storage influences temporal variation in flow path configurations, and resulting SAS distributions. The simulated SAS distributions mimicked well the shape of observed distributions, once the model domain reflected the spatial heterogeneity of the lysimeter soil. The spatially distributed flux vectors illustrate how the magnitude and directionality of water flux changes as the water table surface rises and falls, yielding greater contributions of younger water when the water table surface rises nearer to the soil surface. The illustrated mechanism is compliant with conclusions drawn from other recent studies and supports the notion of an inverse-storage effect, whereby the probability of younger water exiting the system increases with storage. This mechanism may be prevalent in hillslopes and headwater catchments where discharge dynamics are controlled by vertical fluctuations in the water table surface of an unconfined aquifer.

  6. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  7. Modelling surface-water depression storage in a Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Norton, Parker A.; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Regan, R. Steven; Vanderhoof, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the Precipitation-Runoff Modelling System (PRMS) was used to simulate changes in surface-water depression storage in the 1,126-km2 Upper Pipestem Creek basin located within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA. The Prairie Pothole Region is characterized by millions of small water bodies (or surface-water depressions) that provide numerous ecosystem services and are considered an important contribution to the hydrologic cycle. The Upper Pipestem PRMS model was extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM), developed to support consistent hydrologic modelling across the conterminous United States. The Geospatial Fabric database, created for the USGS NHM, contains hydrologic model parameter values derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire conterminous United States for 109,951 hydrologic response units. Each hydrologic response unit in the Geospatial Fabric was parameterized using aggregated surface-water depression area derived from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus, an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets. This paper presents a calibration strategy for the Upper Pipestem PRMS model that uses normalized lake elevation measurements to calibrate the parameters influencing simulated fractional surface-water depression storage. Results indicate that inclusion of measurements that give an indication of the change in surface-water depression storage in the calibration procedure resulted in accurate changes in surface-water depression storage in the water balance. Regionalized parameterization of the USGS NHM will require a proxy for change in surface-storage to accurately parameterize surface-water depression storage within the USGS NHM.

  8. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Stalin Landázuri Paredes

    Full Text Available Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans. A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%. Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  9. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Beglou, Amirreza; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (?TS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For ?TS test, 20 dumbbe...

  10. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO2- transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. The Effects of Storage on Sachet Water Quality in Ogun State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of storage on the physicochemical status and bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. Ten brands of sachet water were collected within 24 hours of production and stored at ambient temperature. Sub-samples were drawn ...

  12. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  13. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d.

  14. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  15. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric... aging management programs (AMPs), aging management review (AMR) items, and definitions in NUREG- 1801...

  16. Comparative analysis of year-end water level determining methods for cascade carryover storage reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Huang, C. H.; Zeng, G. Z.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the analysis of the determining methods of year-end water level for the cascade carryover storage reservoir, two prediction methods have been used to study the year-end water level: Multi-objective decision model and statistical regression predictive function. The advantages and applicable conditions of each of them have been compared and discussed.

  17. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  18. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  19. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  20. Environmental and geometric optimisation of cylindrical drinking water storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan Delmás, David

    2015-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0963-y Purpose: Urban water cycle construction processes are an important element to consider when assessing the sustainability of urban areas. The present study focuses on a structural and environmental analysis of cylindrical water tanks. The goal is to optimise cylindrical water tanks from both an environmental (environmental impacts due of life cycle assessment (LCA)) and a geometric perspective (bu...

  1. Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

  2. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  3. Olivine and Carbonate Globules in ALH84001: A Terrestrial Analog, and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonate globules in ALH84001 are associated with small olivine grains an unexpected finding because the olivines equilibrated at high T while the carbonate is chemically zoned and unequilibrated. A possible explanation comes from a terrestrial analog on Spitsbergen (Norway), where some carbonate globules grew in cavities left by aqueous dissolution of olivine. For ALH84001, the same process may have acted, with larger olivines dissolved out and smaller ones shielded inside orthopyroxene. Carbonate would have been deposited in holes where the olivine had been. Later shocks crushed remaining void space, and mobilized feldspathic glass around the carbonates.

  4. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO

  5. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  6. Critical Masses for Various Terrestrial Planet Atmospheric Gases and Water in/on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-gun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower critical mass boundaries (CM for various atmospheric gas species on terrestrial planets are estimated. The CM is different for different gas molecules. Except for He, the observed atmospheric compositions of the terrestrial planets are consistent with these estimates. The lower CM boundary for gaseous H2O is calculated as 8.06 × 1026 g, which is significantly greater than the Martian mass (6.419 × 1026 g. Thus, Mars is not capable of retaining H2O in its atmosphere. If the speculated ocean on Mars and the claimed H2O ice in the Martian soil are true, both the ocean and ice had to be derived earlier from H2O degassed from the Martian interior after the surface temperature cooled much below 100°C. These watery bodies cannot be sustained for long durations because evaporation and sublimation would turn them into gaseous H2O, which would be lost to outer-space. It is concluded that H2O in/on Mars is inherent and that the primordial planetesimals that formed Mars must have contained appreciable amounts of hydrous minerals, if the oceans and/or H2O ice on Mars are true.

  7. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  8. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... uncertainty is investigated for three parameters: the well distance, the water production rate, and the permeability of the aquifer. One possible way of estimating statistical uncertainties and providing probabilities is performing numerical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The MC approach is computationally...

  9. Solid-water interaction in liquid storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Hutchinson, G. L.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is concerned with ground-supported cylindrical storage tanks vibrating in an axisymmetric manner. A study has been made of the significance of horizontal excitations on the dynamic pressure distributions associated with the sloshing and bulging modes. These pressures have been calculated by using a previously obtained functional. Steel, aluminium and concrete tanks are included to study the effect of these typical tank materials. Only linear, elastic behaviour of the tank materials has been considered. The principal conclusions of the study are that reinforced concrete tanks are more susceptible to higher dynamic pressures than steel or aluminium tanks, and that the maximum dynamic pressure developed in partially filled tanks may be more critical than those for the same tank at maximum capacity.

  10. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two 15-megawatt...

  11. Calculation of the temporal gravity variation from spatially variable water storage change in soils and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiriao, Silvia; He, Xin; Christiansen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Total water storage change in the subsurface is a key component of the global, regional and local water balances. It is partly responsible for temporal variations of the earth's gravity field in the micro-Gal (1 mu Gal = 10(-8) m s(-2)) range. Measurements of temporal gravity variations can thus......-induced temporal variations in gravity from any hydrological model, provided earth curvature effects can be neglected. The method allows for the routine assimilation of ground-based gravity data into hydrological models....... be used to determine the water storage change in the hydrological system. A numerical method for the calculation of temporal gravity changes from the output of hydrological models is developed. Gravity changes due to incremental prismatic mass storage in the hydrological model cells are determined to give...

  12. [Water access and storage: survey in a peri-urban area of Abidjan in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackou Kouakou, Julie Ghislaine; Oga, Serge; Claon, Stéphane; Bama, Martial; Mbrah Koua, Dominique; Houénou, Yveline; Kouadio, Luc Kouakou

    2012-01-01

    A health survey on access to water and a chemical and bacteriological analysis were conducted between May and October 2010 on 200 tanks of drinking water in 669 households in a peri-urban area of Abidjan. The results show that 70% of the population used piped water and that 64% of the population used approximately 20 litres of water per person per day. The study found that households that used alternative sources of water spent more than those that used piped water (p water. The survey showed that 81% of the samples contained coliforms and 42.5% contained Escherichia coli. The presence of bacteria can be explained by the large quantities of water stored in open containers (i.e. containers without lids). Basic water supply combined with health education and safe water storage containers are needed.

  13. Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

  14. Techno-economic appraisal of an integrated collector-storage solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Eames, P.C.; Norton, B. [University of Ulster, Newtownabbey (United Kingdom). School of the Built Environment

    2004-07-01

    Integrated collector/storage solar water heaters, due to their simple compact structure and inherent freeze protection, offer a promising approach for solar water heating in colder climates. Such a system, designed specifically for application at a Northern latitude, has been developed incorporating a heat retaining storage vessel mounted within a concentrating cusp reflector supported by a novel exo-skeleton framework. The performance was determined experimentally under real operational conditions in the Northern Irish climate. A detailed cost analysis is presented and payback periods, substituting different local fuel/power sources, determined. (author)

  15. Leaf area and water content changes after permanent and temporary storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevyn J Juneau

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity.

  16. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Oosterhaven, R.; Ouden, C. den

    1979-01-01

    A thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials has been studied as a component of a solar space heating system. The aim of this project is to decrease the storage volume in comparison with a rock-bed storage system by increasing the stored energy density.

  18. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids

  19. Migration of toxicants from plastics into drinking water during storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, migration of toxicants, such as, manufacturing additives and previously adsorbed materials into drinking water stored inside plastic containers was investigated. The study considered virgin containers as well as those previously used to store sulphuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and ...

  20. Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera as Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Mi’dad Arrizza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion is a condition of tooth displacement outside the socket due to the trauma. In a case of tooth avulsion case of per-manent teeth, the treatment of choice is replanting the tooth back to the socket. The main concern prior to tooth replanta-tion is to maintain the vitality of periodontal ligament (PDL cells. The vitality of PDL cells is crucial to form new perio-dontal ligament tissue to support the teeth in order to achieve the success of replantation treatment. Therefore the tooth storage media is needed to maintain the vitality of PDL cells. The aim of the present literature review was to discuss the use of coconut water as an alternative storage medium of the avulsed teeth. Coconut water is biologically pure and steril, rich in amino acid, proteins, vitamins and minerals. The electronic composition of coconut water resembles the intracellu-lar fluid. The ability of coconut water to maintain the vitality of PDL cells is due its nutrient component such as protein, amino acid, vitamin and minerals. Previous study showed the ability of coconut water to maintain the viability of PDL cells was comparable to Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS, storage media that is recommended by the American As-sociation of Endodontics. In conclusion, coconut water is an effective storage medium for avulsed teeth to maintain the vitality of PDL cells. The advantages of the use of coconut water are economical and easily obtained, and therefore ideal to be recommended as a storage medium for avulsed teeth.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.39

  1. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approximately 3.7 million km^2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approximately 40,200 cms annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3 degree x 3 degree regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 km^3, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research also highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  2. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...... is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment...

  3. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approx.3.7 million sq km), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approx.40,200 cu m/s annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3deg 3deg regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 cu km, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  4. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  5. A national perspective on paleoclimate streamflow and water storage infrastructure in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale water storage infrastructure in the Conterminous United States (CONUS) provides a means of regulating the temporal variability in water supply with storage capacities ranging from seasonal storage in the wetter east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. Regional differences in water availability across the CONUS provides opportunities for optimizing water dependent economic activities, such as food and energy production, through storage and transportation. However, the ability to sufficiently regulate water supplies into the future is compromised by inadequate monitoring of non-federally-owned dams that make up around 97% of all dams. Furthermore, many of these dams are reaching or have exceeded their economic design life. Understanding the role of dams in the current and future landscape of water requirements in the CONUS is needed to prioritize dam safety remediation or identify where redundant dams may be removed. A national water assessment and planning process is needed for addressing water requirements, accounting for regional differences in water supply and demand, and the role of dams in such a landscape. Most dams in the CONUS were designed without knowledge of devastating floods and prolonged droughts detected in multi-centennial paleoclimate records, consideration of projected climate change, nor consideration of optimal operation across large-scale regions. As a step towards informing water supply across the CONUS we present a paleoclimate reconstruction of annual streamflow across the CONUS over the past 555 years using a spatially and temporally complete paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS targeting a set of US Geological Survey streamflow sites. The spatial and temporal structures of national streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s

  6. Climate and land use controls over terrestrial water use efficiency in monsoon Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanqin Tian; Chaoqun Lu; Guangsheng Chen; Xiaofeng Xu; Mingliang Liu; et al

    2011-01-01

    Much concern has been raised regarding how and to what extent climate change and intensive human activities have altered water use efficiency (WUE, amount of carbon uptake per unit of water use) in monsoon Asia. By using a process-based ecosystem model [dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM)], we examined effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land...

  7. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  8. Non-stationary relationships between decadal water storage changes over Australia and climate variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; van Dijk, Albert; Awange, Joseph; Schumacher, Maike; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions are hypothesized as the main drivers of water variations over the Australian continent. This study examines the relative contributions of the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in different time-scale variations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) over Australia. The aim is to determine whether the role of main climatic phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on water resources as appears to be a stationary relationship. The main analyses were performed on three decades (1982-2012) of: (i) TWS changes over Australia from the World Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) hydrological model, and (ii) statistically reconstructed TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) products. Reconstructions were derived by applying low-degree autoregressive models to relate basin averaged TWS changes, over the nine major river drainage basins of Australia, to input values of precipitation minus evaporation as well as the ENSO and IOD indices. Our results indicate that both intra-annual and seasonal simulation and forecast of TWS water storage changes associated with ENSO cycles have increased during the last two decades of 1990 to 2010. The contribution of IOD to seasonal simulation and forecasts of TWS appears to have increased over the last decade. The long-term influence of IOD in TWS changes, however, appears to have decreased slightly. Our results demonstrate non-stationary behaviour of TWS in terms of variability and predictability due to the ENSO and IOD phenomena. Keywords: Australia; ENSO and IOD in Water Storage; Reconstruction; Non-stationary Impact

  9. Terrestrial Water Balances in the Face of Variable Climate over 49 years in Southern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    The difference between precipitation and stream discharge over annual periods provides an indication of the total water loss to evaporation and evapotranspiration. The response of evaporative water loss to climate variability and change affects groundwater recharge, stream flow, and lake levels, and is a topic of ongoing debate in the upper Midwest US region and elsewhere. This study examined the watershed water balance for Augusta Creek, which drains a 95-km2 glacial landscape in southwestern Michigan covered by cropland, grassland, forest, and wetlands. The climate is humid and temperate; between 1964-2012 the water-year precipitation averaged 947 mm and ranged from 695-1386 mm. Comparison of precipitation on the upland watershed to baseflow discharge (USGS data; baseflow estimation by WHAT model) across the 49-year record shows that total evaporative water loss averaged 562 +/- 104 mm and ranged from 385-897 mm, with no apparent trend over the record. The evaporative water loss accounts for a mean (s.d.) of 59 +/- 6% of precipitation (range, 48-70%). Evaporative water loss was positively related to total precipitation (r2 = 0.73), but the percentage of precipitation lost to evaporation was only weakly (r2 = 0.12) related to total precipitation. This water balance approach to infer evaporative water loss compares well with direct measurements in the same watershed since 2009 using eddy covariance (grasslands and crops) and soil moisture monitoring by time-domain reflectometry (grasslands, crops, and forest). Thus the evaporative water loss, which is predominantly by evapotranspiration, is linearly related to total precipitation, leaving a relatively consistent proportion for groundwater recharge and streamflow.

  10. Monitoring water storage variations with a superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Mikolaj, Michal; Reich, Marvin; Schröder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Water storage dynamics are notoriously difficult to monitor in a comprehensive way beyond the point scale. Superconducting gravimeters (SG) measure temporal variations of the Earth's acceleration of gravity with very high precision and temporal resolution. They have been shown to be sensitive to mass variations induced by hydrological processes in their surroundings, typically within a radius of few 100 meters around the instrument. Thus, in turn, SGs are unique instruments for monitoring water storage variations in the landscape in an integrative way, accounting for soil moisture, vadose zone and groundwater storage, snow, and surface water bodies if existent. Nevertheless, hydrological applications of SGs so far have usually been hindered by the instruments being located in observatory buildings. This infrastructure disturbs the local hydrology and causes many uncertainties due to the often poorly known geometry of the construction, non-natural flow paths of water, and unknown water storage variations below and/or on top of the infrastructure. By deploying the SG in a small enclosure, these disturbances and unknowns are minimized. We report on the first experiences with exposing a SG of the latest generation (iGrav) in a small housing of less than 1 m2 footprint to temperate hydro-meteorological conditions. The system has been set up on a grassland site at the Geodetic Observatory in Wettzell, Bavarian Forest, Germany, in early 2015. We present the technical layout and challenges in running the gravimeter system. Additionally, we report on the quality of data acquired so far and present comparisons to in-situ soil moisture monitoring with TDR and TOMST sensors, a lysimeter, and groundwater observations, and two SGs located in nearby observatory buildings. We discuss the value of SG observations for estimating water storage variations, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge beyond the point scale.

  11. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

    2010-09-14

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5(∘)C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at -195(∘)C, thawed at 30(∘) to 70(∘)C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30(∘)C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage.

  12. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  13. Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container.

  14. Influence of water storage on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Scheidel, Donal D; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine enamel and dentin bond durability after long-term water storage using self-etch adhesives. Two single step self-etch adhesives (SU, Scotchbond Universal and GB, G-ӕnial Bond) and a two-step self-etch adhesive (OX, OptiBond XTR) were used. The shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (FS) of the enamel and dentin were obtained with and without phosphoric acid pre-etching prior to application of the adhesives. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h, 6 months, and one year. A staircase method was used to determine the FS using a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. The SBS and FS of enamel bonds were significantly higher with pre-etching, when compared to no pre-etching for the same water storage period. The FS of dentin bonds with pre-etching tended to decrease relative to no pre-etching at the same storage period. For the one year storage period, SU and GB with pre-etching showed significantly lower FS values than the groups without pre-etching. The influence of water storage on FS of the self-etch adhesives was dependent on the adhesive material, storage period and phosphoric acid pre-etching of the bonding site. Phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the effectiveness of self-etch adhesive systems. Inadvertent contact of phosphoric acid on dentin appears to reduce the ability of self-etch adhesives to effectively bond resin composite materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Total Water Storage Change Over the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Basins Comparing GRACE and Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Swenson, S. C.; Anderson, K. J.; Syed, T. H.; Rosenberg, E. A.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the state of California has experienced drought conditions that have not significantly improved. Of particular concern are the major sources for California’s developed water system, the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins, which lie in the semi-arid Central Valley. Recent GRACE satellite data show a pronounced decrease in water storage in the basins over the past several years. The goal of this study is to use a combination of the most recent remote sensing products to calculate the water balance of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins in order to determine whether the GRACE data are accurate; and if so, the underlying causes for the decrease in water storage. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and streamflow data were assembled and compared to GRACE observations of storage change. Additionally, snow water equivalent data were compared to GRACE storage anomalies. Results show that the observed water balance (precipitation minus evapotranspiration and streamflow) agrees well with the storage changes observed from GRACE, giving confidence to the GRACE-based estimates of declining water storage. Additionally, results also indicate that the trend of decreasing water storage seen in the GRACE data may be due to decreasing groundwater supplies, which may well be the result of excessive groundwater pumping in the Central Valley. Further research will be required to better understand the forces driving decreasing water storage in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins.

  16. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage...... a sensitivity of 1μGal, corresponding to a layer of 0.024 m of water in an infinitely extended horizontal sheet. For gravity surveys using relative gravity meters, the precision is highly dependent on the methods used to operate the gravimeter in the field. Systematic errors, which are difficult to detect, can...

  17. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by

  18. Town Stems Major Water Losses With New Lines and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the help of EPA funding, the Town of Chapmanville in Logan County, WV, has a new drinking water storage tank and distribution lines to replace a system built in the late 1940s that was “leaking like a sieve” and posed a risk to public health.

  19. Combining phosphate and bacteria removal on chemically active filter membranes allows prolonged storage of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzetter, A C C; Kellenberger, C R; Schumacher, C M; Mora, C; Grass, R N; Loepfe, M; Luechinger, N A; Stark, W J

    2013-11-13

    A chemically active filtration membrane with incorporated lanthanum oxide nanoparticles enables the removal of bacteria and phosphate at the same time and thus provides a simple device for preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage without using any kind of disinfectants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The surface water storage problem in arid regions: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This dam is located in an arid zone where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. ... Our work has estimated total average losses of 25 million m3 /year for the period 1988–2015, made up of leakage (0.3 million m3 /year) and evaporation (18 million m3 /year), while dead storage accounts for 4.6 million m3 /year.

  1. Atomistic modeling of water infiltration in defective zeolite for thermal storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asinari, Pietro; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Bevilacqua, Alessio; Fasano, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the impact that zeolite materials may have in the near future in loss-free, more compact and efficient thermal storage systems is numerically investigated. Water infiltration within MFI zeolite presenting different concentrations of hydrophilic defects is studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Results show that the characteristic infiltration pressure of water in the considered zeolite framework is reduced with increased hydrophilicity. Dubinin-Astakhov model is then...

  2. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    compared with forests. Ecosystem respiration was weakly correlated with mean annual temperature across biomes, in spite of within site sensitivity over shorter temporal scales. Mean annual temperature and site water balance explained much of the variation in gross photosynthesis. Water availability limits......The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables...... associated with reduced temperature. The slope of the relation between monthly gross ecosystem production and evapotranspiration was similar between biomes. except for tundra vegetation, showing a strong linkage between carbon gain and water loss integrated over the year (slopes = 3.4 g CO2/kg H2O...

  3. Fate and Enumeration Problems of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Runoff Waters from Terrestrial Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    hr, 5 days/week, with a Figure 5. Greenhouse overland flow Model 2 showing the overhead sodium vapor light bank ionized (reverse osmosis ) 34 ,1 water... Sucrose -- + Rhamnose- - Melibiose + - + Arabinose + - + Mannitol - -- Sorbitol - - Inositol - - + Amygdalin - -- Identification Acceptable Very Good Very

  4. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  6. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  7. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl.

  8. Enhanced Input of Terrestrial Particulate Organic Matter Reduces the Resilience of the Clear-Water State of Shallow Lakes: A Model Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lischke, B.; Hilt, S.; Janse, J.H.; Kuiper, J.J.; Mehner, T.; Mooij, W.M.; Gaedke, U.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) entering lakes is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. This may especially alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems in small, shallow lakes which can rapidly shift from a clear-water, macrophyte-dominated into a

  9. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  10. Radioactive iodine capture and storage from water using magnetite nanoparticles encapsulated in polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijan, Dilip K L; Chandra, Vimlesh; Yoon, Taeseung; Kim, Kwang S

    2017-11-02

    The effective capture and storage of radioactive iodine is of importance for nuclear waste storage during nuclear power station accidents. Here we report Fe3O4@PPy powder containing ∼12nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles encapsulated in the polypyrrole (PPy) matrix. It shows 1627mg/g uptake of iodine dissolved in water, within 2h at room temperature. Fe3O4@PPy is ferromagnetic in nature and can be separated from water using external magnetic field. The nitrogen gas sweeping test at 30°C shows release of 2% iodine from iodine adsorbed Fe3O4@PPy, revealing stable storage of iodine for a moderate period. The iodine-adsorbed magnetic powder can be regenerated by washing with ethanol. The XPS spectrum of iodine adsorbed Fe3O4@PPy confirmed the presence of polyiodides (I3- and I5-) bound to the PPy surface. This excellent iodine capture and storage from iodine contaminated water is an environment friendly, inexpensive and large scale method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Concurrent calcium peroxide pretreatment and wet storage of water hyacinth for fermentable sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel concurrent process of pretreatment and wet storage was developed and investigated by applying calcium peroxide for preservation and conversion of fresh water hyacinth biomass to fermentable sugars. The effects of CaO2 loading concentration and moisture content on the lignin reduction, carbohydrate preservation and enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth biomass were evaluated by experimental design using a response surface methodology. The data showed that the concurrent process could conserve 70% carbohydrates and remove 40% lignin from biomass of water hyacinth at the best condition in this study. The enzymatic digestibility and reducing sugar yield from the best condition of concurrent process were around 93% and 325mg/g (dry weight) of fresh biomass, respectively. The result suggested that the concurrent process developed in this work could be a potential alternative to consolidate the pretreatment and storage of aquatic plant biomass for fermentable sugar production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility study of underground energy storage using high-pressure, high-temperature water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, J.L.; Frost, G.P.; Gore, L.A.; Hammond, R.P.; Rawson, D.L.; Ridgway, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technical, operational and economic feasibility study on the storage of energy as heated high pressure water in underground cavities that utilize the rock overburden for containment is presented. Handling peak load requirements of electric utility power networks is examined in some detail. The cavity is charged by heating water with surplus steaming capacity during periods of low power requirement. Later this hot water supplies steam to peaking turbines when high load demands must be met. This system can be applied to either new or existing power plants of nuclear or fossil fuel type. The round trip efficiency (into storage and back) is higher than any other system - over 90%. Capital costs are competitive and the environmental impact is quite benign. Detailed installation and design problems are studied and costs are estimated. The continental United States is examined for the most applicable geology. Formations favorable for these large cavities exist in widespread areas.

  13. How is water-use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems distributed and changing on Earth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xuguang; Li, Hengpeng; Desai, Ankur R.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) will help us improve ecosystem management for mitigation as well as adaption to global hydrological change. Here, long-term flux tower observations of productivity and evapotranspiration allow us to detect a consistent latitudinal tre...

  14. Suggestion on the safety classification of spent fuel dry storage in China’s pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Qu, Yunhuan; Meng, De; Zhang, Qiaoer; Lu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    China’s spent fuel storage in the pressurized water reactors(PWR) is stored with wet storage way. With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, China’s NPPs(NPPs) will not be able to meet the problem of the production of spent fuel. Currently the world’s major nuclear power countries use dry storage as a way of spent fuel storage, so in recent years, China study on additional spent fuel dry storage system mainly. Part of the PWR NPP is ready to apply for additional spent fuel dry storage system. It also need to safety classificate to spent fuel dry storage facilities in PWR, but there is no standard for safety classification of spent fuel dry storage facilities in China. Because the storage facilities of the spent fuel dry storage are not part of the NPP, the classification standard of China’s NPPs is not applicable. This paper proposes the safety classification suggestion of the spent fuel dry storage for China’s PWR NPP, through to the study on China’s safety classification principles of PWR NPP in “Classification for the items of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (GB/T 17569-2013)”, and safety classification about spent fuel dry storage system in NUREG/CR - 6407 in the United States.

  15. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Kelsey Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-03

    These are the slides from a presentation at the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Forum. The following topics are discussed: motivation, Saline Aquifer Storage, Subsurface Flow, Baseline No Brine Production, Ongoing Work, and the accompanying data visualizations.

  16. Cyanobacteria and their toxins in treated-water storage reservoirs in Abha city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Al Shehri, Abdulrahman M

    2007-07-01

    Occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational waters poses human health at risk as they can release potent toxins into the water. In the present study, open and covered treated-water storage reservoirs as well as their relevant tap waters in Abha city, Saudi Arabia, were surveyed for the presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins. The results revealed the contamination of most open reservoir and tap waters by algae and cyanobacteria, with an abundance of toxigenic species of cyanobacteria. Depending on the results of the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), endotoxins and microcystins (MCYSTs) were found in most open reservoir and tap waters at concentrations up to 32 EU ml(-1) and 0.3 microg ml(-1), respectively. The extracts of axenic cultures of most cyanobacterial species isolated from these reservoirs showed activity to LAL assay, with large endotoxin amounts obtained in Calothrix parietina (490 EU g(-1)) and Phormidium tenue (210 EU g(-1)). Based on ELISA and HPLC analysis for these extracts, only C. parietina can produce MCYSTs (202 microg g(-1)) with a profile consisting of MCYST-RR and -LR. This study suggests that open treated-water storage reservoirs should be covered to prevent the presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in such drinking and recreational waters.

  17. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2012-11-01

    Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time.

  18. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  19. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. te Brake

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0–60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV–ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5 and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5 and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616. Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV–ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  20. Reduction of low return temperature and hot water flow rate. Storage systems for warm up of drinking water; Reduzierung von Ruecklauftemperatur und Heizwassermenge. Speichersysteme fuer die Trinkwassererwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, B.; Cousin, R. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    2008-07-15

    Numeric simulation systems are indispensable for the optimal planning of storage systems for domestic hot water. For example, there is no other way to calculate thermal losses from heating water or the degree of decontamination of different systems and circuits under operating conditions. The authors present the results of simulations of different storage configurations.

  1. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  2. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  3. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  4. Estimation of water storage changes in small endorheic lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia); the effect of climate change and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapiyev, Vadim; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Verhoef, Anne; Samarkhanov, Kanat; Jumassultanova, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. It has been observed in recent decades that water-limited steppe regions of Central Asia are among ecosystems found to exhibit enhanced responses to climate variability. In fact, the largest share of worldwide net loss of permanent water extent is geographically concentrated in the Central Asia and Middle East regions attributed to both climate variability/change and human activities impacts. We used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and high resolution Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia, for the period 2000-2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, hydrometeorological network observations as well as regional climate model projections we evaluate the impacts of past thirty years and future climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. The anthropogenic water consumption was estimated based on data collected at a local water supply company and regulation authorities. One the one hand historical in-situ observations and future climate projections do not show a significant change in precipitation in BNNP. On the other hand both observations and the model demonstrate steadily rising air temperatures in the area. It is concluded that the long-term decline in water levels for most of these lakes can be largely attributed to climate change (but only via changes in air temperature, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation) and not to direct anthropogenic influences such as increased water withdrawals. In addition, the two largest lakes, showing the highest historical water level decline, do not have sufficient water drainage basin area to sustain water levels under increased evaporation rates.

  5. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  6. Water storage in a changing environment: The impact of allocation institutions on value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Alexander; Dozier, Andre; Manning, Dale T.; Goemans, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    As populations increase in arid regions of the world, investment in water infrastructure improves resource management by increasing control over the location and timing of water allocation. Many studies have explored freer trade as a substitute for additional infrastructure investment. We instead quantify how water allocation institutions, reservoir management objectives, and storage capacity influence the value derived from a reservoir system. We develop a stochastic dynamic programming model of a reservoir system that faces within-year variation in weather-dependent water demand as well as stochastic semiannual inflows. We parameterize the model using the Colorado-Big Thompson system, which transports stored water from the West Slope of the Rocky Mountains to the East Slope. We then evaluate the performance of the system under five institutional settings. Our results suggest that rigid allocation mechanisms and inefficient management objectives result in a decrease of up to 13% in the value generated from stored water when compared to a free trade scenario, an impact on par with predicted losses associated with climate-change-induced inflow reductions. We also find that under biased management objectives, increasing storage capacity can decrease the social value obtained from stored water.

  7. Modeling surface water storage from space altimetry, remote sensing and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jean-Paul; Loomis, Bryant; Luthcke, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2002, the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) is recording Earth gravity field variations with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions, mainly due to global circulation of surface geophysical fluids. Continental water storage variations estimated with GRACE are classically compared to global hydrology models such as GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) or MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis) hydrology models. However most of these models do not take into account both the groundwater and the surface water (lakes and rivers) components of the hydrological cycle. We derive surface water storage in several large river basins, characterized by various climates, using a simple routing scheme, forced by runoff outputs of GLDAS and MERRA-land hydrology models. We adjust the flow velocity, i.e. the only free parameter in our modeling by fitting the modeled equivalent water height to the observed water elevation from radar altimetry measurements. The conversion of the observed geometric heights into the modeled equivalent water heights requires the knowledge of the variations of the river widths, which can be derived from MODIS observations. We validate river models by comparing the estimated discharge to independent in-situ measurements. We finally add to the soil-moisture and snow components of the GLDAS and MERRA-land models our estimates of surface water variations and show that they are in better agreement with GRACE. We also compare these estimates to WGHM, which includes both groundwater and surface components.

  8. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  9. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  10. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas.

  11. Integration of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery and HACCP for Ensuring Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. I.; Ji, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of ASTR (Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is being attempted to ensure drinking water quality in a delta area. ASTR is a water supply system in which surface water is injected into a well for storage and recovered from a different well. During the process natural water treatment is achieved in the aquifer. ASTR has advantages over surface reservoirs in that the water is protected from external contaminants and free from water loss by evaporation. HACCP, originated from the food industry, can efficiently manage hazards and reduce risks when it is introduced to the drinking water production. The study area is the located in the Nakdong River Delta, South Korea. Water quality of this region has been deteriorated due to the increased pollution loads from the upstream cities and industrial complexes. ASTR equipped with HACCP system is suggested as a means to heighten the public trust in drinking water. After the drinking water supply system using ASTR was decomposed into ten processes, principles of HACCP were applied. Hazardous event analysis was conducted for 114 hazardous events and nine major hazardous events were identified based on the likelihood and the severity assessment. Potential risk of chemical hazards, as a function of amounts, travel distance and toxicity, was evaluated and the result shows the relative threat a city poses to the drinking water supply facility. Next, critical control points were determined using decision tree analysis. Critical limits, maximum and/or minimum values to which biological, chemical or physical parameters must be controlled, were established. Other procedures such as monitoring, corrective actions and will be presented.

  12. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  13. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  14. Assimilating remote sensing observations across the terrestrial water cycle in a drought forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Fisher, J. B.; Granger, S. L.; Landerer, F. W.; Painter, T. H.; Turk, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multi-variable data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of the flexible RHEAS framework is the VIC hydrology model, while a number of satellite data products are used to drive or constrain RHEAS that correspond to different components of the water cycle. Precipitation is obtained from TRMM, CMORPH, NRLgeo, REFAME, and PERSIANN-CCS; ET from PT-JPL and PM-MOD16; snow covered area and dust radiative forcing in snow from MODSCAG and MODDRFS, respectively; soil moisture (where possible) from AMSR-E and SMOS; and groundwater change derived from GRACE. The initial study area includes two basins: the Sacramento-San Joaqin and the Upper Colorado River basins. The benefit of implementing RHEAS in these basins is the existence of in-situ measurements of rainfall, soil moisture and streamflow. The experiment starts with a baseline simulation using only in-situ measurements to drive the model, while a hindcast experiment is performed by predicting the hydrologic fluxes with a model driven by an ensemble of meteorological forcings. Additionally, initial results are presented from a hindcast experiment of the summer 2012 drought over the Midwest United States.

  15. Anthropogenic and climate‐driven water depletion in Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yi, Shuang; Sun, Wenke; Feng, Wei; Chen, Jianli

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be alleviated in wet years and intensified in dry years, and this wet/dry pattern spanning seasons to years is termed climate variability...

  16. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  17. Preparation of Waste GFRP Fiber Reinforced Gypsum Block with Water-resistant and Energy Storage Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Meng-Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum block possesses good performances such as volume stability, lightweight and thermal insulation, is recognized as typical eco-friendly building material. However, its poor water resistance characteristics restrict the application. The semi-hydrated desulphurization gypsum is modified with steel slag, granulated blast-furnace and carbide slag (SGC composite powder as well as waste glass-reinforced plastic (GFRP fiber, aiming at producing water-resistant gypsum block. The proper mass proportioning of the modified gypsum block is obtained: semi-hydrated desulphurization gypsum 75%, SGC 25% and waste GFRP fiber 1.0%. The product is of softening coefficient of 0.84 and thermal flexural strength of 8.6 MPa. Phase change energy storage material (PCM is used to increase the energy saving characteristics of the block. Compared with ordinary gypsum walls, the modified gypsum block with CA-SA exhibits good energy storage property.

  18. Seasonal carbon storage and growth in Mediterranean tree seedlings under different water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Joffre, Richard

    2009-09-01

    In all Mediterranean-type ecosystems, evergreen and deciduous trees differing in wood anatomy, growth pattern and leaf habit coexist, suggesting distinct adaptative responses to environmental constraints. This study examined the effects of summer water stress on carbon (C) storage and growth in seedlings of three coexisting Mediterranean trees that differed in phenology and wood anatomy characteristics: Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., Quercus faginea Lam. and Pinus halepensis L. Seedlings were subjected to two levels of watering during two consecutive summers and achieved a minimum of -0.5 and -2.5 MPa of predawn water potential in the control and water stress treatment, respectively. Both Quercus species concentrated their growth in the early growing season, demanding higher C in early spring but replenishing C-stores in autumn. These species allocated more biomass to roots, having larger belowground starch and lipid reserves. Quercus species differed in seasonal storage dynamics from P. halepensis. This species allocated most of its C to aboveground growth, which occurred gradually during the growing season, leading to fewer C-reserves. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations sharply declined in August in P. halepensis, probably because reserves support respiration demands as this species closed stomata earlier under water stress. Drought reduced growth of the three species, mainly in Q. faginea and P. halepensis, but not C-reserves, suggesting that growth under water stress conditions is not limited by C-availability.

  19. Sanitary impact evaluation of drinking water in storage reservoirs in Moroccan rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faissal; Parrado Rubio, Juan; Ouazzani, Naaila; Dary, Mohammed; Manyani, Hamid; Rodríguez Morgado, Bruno; Mandi, Laila

    2017-05-01

    In Morocco, storage reservoirs are particular systems of water supply in rural areas. These reservoirs are fed with rainwater and/or directly from the river, which are very contaminated by several pathogenic bacteria. They are used without any treatment as a drinking water by the surrounding population. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of consuming contaminated water stored in reservoirs on health status for six rural communities located in Assif El Mal, Southern East of Marrakech. This was investigated using a classical methodology based on population survey and by molecular approach using PCR-DGGE technique to determine the intestinal bacterial diversity of consumers. The survey showed that, the residents of the studied area suffered from numerous health problems (diarrheal diseases, vomiting or hepatitis A) due to the lack of waste management infrastructures. The consumer's stool analysis by molecular approach revealed that numbers of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila and Clostridia, were significantly higher in the diarrheal feces. In addition, PCR-DGGE study of the prevalence and distribution of bacteria causing human diseases, confirmed that, there is a relationship between water bacterial contaminations of storage reservoirs and microbial disease related health status. Therefore, water reservoir consumption is assumed to be the mean way of exposure for this population. It's clear that this approach gives a very helpful tool to confirm without any doubt the relationship between water bacterial contamination and health status.

  20. Structural water engaged disordered vanadium oxide nanosheets for high capacity aqueous potassium-ion storage

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Daniel Scott; Feygenson, Mikhail; Page, Katharine; Neuefeind, Joerg; Xu, Wenqian; Teng, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous electrochemical energy storage devices using potassium-ions as charge carriers are attractive due to their superior safety, lower cost and excellent transport properties compared to other alkali ions. However, the accommodation of potassium-ions with satisfactory capacity and cyclability is difficult because the large ionic radius of potassium-ions causes structural distortion and instabilities even in layered electrodes. Here we report that water induces structural rearrangements of ...

  1. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Attenuation effect on seasonal basin-scale water storage changes from GRACE time-variable gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, JL; Wilson, CR; Famiglietti, JS; Rodell, M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively recover surface mass or geoid height changes from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity models, spatial smoothing is required to minimize errors from noise. Spatial smoothing, such as Gaussian smoothing, not only reduces the noise but also attenuates the real signals. Here we investigate possible amplitude attenuations and phase changes of seasonal water storage variations in four drainage basins (Amazon, Mississippi, Ganges and Zamb...

  3. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  4. Thin terrestrial sediment deposits on intertidal sandflats: effects on pore-water solutes and juvenile bivalve burial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaia, A.; Vopel, K.; Pilditch, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nearshore zones experience increased sedimentation due to coastal development and enhanced loads of fine terrestrial sediment (hereafter, TS) in river waters. Deposition of TS can alter seabed biogeochemical processes but the effects on benthic ecosystem functioning are unknown. The results of a past experiment with defaunated, intertidal sediment suggest that a decrease in the oxygenation of this sediment by a thin (mm) TS deposit causes substrate rejection (refusal to bury) by post-settlement juvenile recruits of the tellinid bivalve Macomona liliana. We further examined this behaviour, asking if such deposits negatively affect burial when applied to intertidal sediment that is oxygenated by bioturbation (C) or depleted of dead and living organic matter (D). We observed recruits on the surface of four treatments: C, D, and the same sediments to which we added a 1.7-1.9 mm layer of TS (CTS, DTS). The TS deposit decreased the oxygenation and the pH of the underlying intertidal sediment (CTS) confirming previous results, but significantly increased but not decreased the probability of burial, irrespectively of treatment. Juveniles more likely buried into C than into D. The mechanism that caused previously observed substrate rejection by post-settlement juvenile M. liliana remains unclear but our results suggest that contact of the recruits with the TS deposit does not cause substrate rejection. We now hypothesise that conditioning of sediment by bioturbation can mediate negative effects of TS deposits on the recruits' burial behaviour.

  5. Modelling carbon and water flows in terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone - examples from Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlberg, Louise [Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm (Sweden); Gu stafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon budgets and mean residence times were estimated in four hypothetical ecosystems. The greatest uncertainties in the estimations lie in the calculation of fluxes to and from the field layer. A parametrisation method based on multiple criteria, synthesising a wide range of empirical knowledge on ecosystem behaviour, proved to be useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, to demonstrate model sensitivity, and to identify processes where our current knowledge is limited. The parameterizations derived from the study of the hypothetical systems were used to estimate site-specific carbon and water budgets for four ecosystems located within the Oskarshamn study-area. Measured soil respiration was used to calibrate the simulations. An analysis of the simulated carbon fluxes indicated that two of the ecosystems, namely the grassland and the spruce forest, were net sources of carbon dioxide, while the alder and the pine forest were net sinks of CO{sub 2}. In the former case, this was interpreted as a result of recent drainage of the organogenic soils and the concurrent increase in decomposition. The results from the study conformed rather well with results from a previous study on carbon budgets from the Oskarshamn study area.

  6. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory tests of a 230 l seasonal heat storage module with a sodium acetate water mixture have been carried out. The aim of the tests is to elucidate how best to design a seasonal heat storage based on the salt water mixture, which supercools in a stable way. The module can be a part...... of a seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods...... to transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests...

  7. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects inCassia excelsa Schrad seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeller H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curvein Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distillad water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20ºC. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distillad water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20ºC, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5ºC. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5ºC, but were reverted by seed drying.

  8. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-07

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

  9. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  10. Effect of a Phenolic Extract from Olive Vegetation Water on Fresh Salmon Steak Quality during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Dino; Esposto, Sonia; Branciari, Raffaella; Urbani, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Perucci, Simona; Ranucci, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A), 3 g/L (B), and water only as a control (CTR), packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen) and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system), phenolic composition, atocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere. PMID:28058250

  11. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  12. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects inCassia excelsa Schrad seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Jeller,H.; Perez,S. C. J. G. A.; Raizer,J.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curvein Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distillad water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20ºC. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distillad wate...

  13. Nitrogen Availability Dampens the Positive Impacts of CO2 Fertilization on Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon and Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Gonsamo, Alemu; Luo, Xiangzhong; Liu, Jane; Zheng, Ting; Liu, Ronggao; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude and variability of the terrestrial CO2 sink remain uncertain, partly due to limited global information on ecosystem nitrogen (N) and its cycle. Without N constraint in ecosystem models, the simulated benefits from CO2 fertilization and CO2-induced increases in water use efficiency (WUE) may be overestimated. In this study, satellite observations of a relative measure of chlorophyll content are used as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic N content globally for 2003-2011. Global gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration are estimated under elevated CO2 and N-constrained model scenarios. Results suggest that the rate of global GPP increase is overestimated by 85% during 2000-2015 without N limitation. This limitation is found to occur in many tropical and boreal forests, where a negative leaf N trend indicates a reduction in photosynthetic capacity, thereby suppressing the positive vegetation response to enhanced CO2 fertilization. Based on our carbon-water coupled simulations, enhanced CO2 concentration decreased stomatal conductance and hence increased WUE by 10% globally over the 1982 to 2015 time frame. Due to increased anthropogenic N application, GPP in croplands continues to grow and offset the weak negative trend in forests due to N limitation. Our results also show that the improved WUE is unlikely to ease regional droughts in croplands because of increases in evapotranspiration, which are associated with the enhanced GPP. Although the N limitation on GPP increase is large, its associated confidence interval is still wide, suggesting an urgent need for better understanding and quantification of N limitation from satellite observations.

  14. Effect of cement type and water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Spyrides, George Miguel; Oliveira, Jonas Alves de; Jnoub, Alexandre Abrão; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; Bonfantes, Gerson

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the cement type and the water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post. Glass fiber posts (Fibrekor, Jeneric Pentron) were luted to post spaces using a self-cured resin cement (C&B Cement [CB]), a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem [KC]) or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC FujiCEM [FC]) according to the manufacturers' instructions. For each luting agent, the specimens were exposed to one of the following water storage times (n=5): 1 day (T1), 7 days (T7), 90 days (T90) and 180 days (T180). Push-out tests were performed after the storage times. Control specimens were not exposed to water storage, but subjected to the push-out test 10 min after post cementation. Data (in MPa) were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn`s test (α=0.05). Cement type and water storage time had a significant effect (pfiber posts luted to post spaces with the self-cured resin cement exhibited the best bonding performance throughout the 180-day water storage period. All cements exhibited a tendency to increase the bond strength after 7 and 90 days of water storage, decreasing thereafter.

  15. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  16. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  17. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge

  18. Sensitivity of global and regional terrestrial carbon storage to the direct CO2 effect and climate change based on the CMIP5 model intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04 PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics.

  19. How Do Terrestrial Determinants Impact the Response of Water Quality to Climate Drivers?—An Elasticity Perspective on the Water–Land–Climate Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afed U. Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigating water–land–climate interactions is critical for urban development and watershed management. This study examined this nexus by elasticity and statistical approaches through the lens of three watersheds: The Yukon, Mekong and Murray. Here, this study reports the fundamental characteristics, explanations and ecological and management implications of terrestrial determinant influence on the response of water quality to climate drivers. The stability of the response, measured by climate elasticity of water quality (CEWQ, is highly dependent on terrestrial determinants, with strong impacts from anthropogenic biomes and low impacts from surficial geology. Compared to temperature elasticity, precipitation elasticity of water quality is more unstable due to its possible linkages with many terrestrial determinants. Correlation and linear models were developed for the interaction system, which uncovered many interesting scenarios. The results implied that watersheds with a higher ratio of rangeland biomes have a lower risk of instability as compared to watersheds with a higher proportion of dense settlement, cropland and forested biomes. This study discusses some of the most essential pathways where instability might adversely affect CEWQ parameters and recommends suggestions for policy makers to alleviate the instability impacts to bring sustainability to the water environment.

  20. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  1. Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-08-08

    This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature.

  2. Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream: comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam S. Ward; Robert A. Payn; Michael N. Gooseff; Brian L. McGlynn; Kenneth E. Bencala; Christa A. Kellecher; Steven M. Wondzell; Thorsten. Wagener

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We...

  3. Repeat Microgravity Surveys for Estimating Ground-Water Storage Change, Recharge, and Specific Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Repeat microgravity surveys are being used in arid and semiarid regions to better define ground-water budgets and estimate specific yield. Repeated measurements at single stations or networks of stations are differenced to determine gravity change. Gravity change across a network of stations is integrated to estimate change in total mass and ground-water storage. Calculations are based on the assumption that there are no significant non-ground-water sources of mass change, such as movement of magma. Specific yield values can be estimated at observation-well sites where water-level and gravity changes are correlated. Ground-water budget components of inflow (recharge), outflow, and storage change are commonly uncertain. Rarely is any one component completely defined by measurement. Only outflow at discrete locations, such as wells and streams, can readily be measured. Inflow is difficult to measure because it is normally dispersed across large areas and occurs episodically. Storage change is normally calculated as a residual of outflow and inflow, and includes all of the uncertainties the other components. Ground-water budgets in heavily developed arid and semiarid basins are commonly dominated by storage change. Gravity methods can be used to estimate change, often leaving a single unknown, recharge, that can be estimated as a residual of measured or estimated outflow and storage change. Four types of gravity instruments are currently being used to measure changes in the distribution of mass on the Earth including: absolute meters, relative meters, super-conducting meters, and satellites. Modern absolute meters use lasers and precise clocks to measure the rate of fall of a mass in a vacuum. Relative meters use a very sensitive spring to measure differences in the force of gravity among sites. Super-conducting meters monitor the strength of a magnetic field necessary to levitate a mass against the changing gravity field. Variations in satellite orbits are also a

  4. Soil water storage, mixing dynamics and resulting travel times through the critical zone in northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Weiler, Markus; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Water partitioning in the unsaturated zone into groundwater recharge, plant transpiration, and evaporation is fundamental for estimating storages and travel times. How water is mixed and routed through the soil is of broad interest to understand plant available water, contamination transport and weathering rates in the critical zone. Earlier work has shown how seasonal changes in hydroclimate influence the time variant character of travel times. A strong seasonality characterizes the northern latitudes which are particularly sensitive to climate and land use changes. It is crucial to understand how variation and change in hydroclimate and vegetation phenology impact time variant storage dynamics and flow path partitioning in the unsaturated zone. To better understand the influence of these ecohydrological processes on travel times of evaporative, transpiration and recharge fluxes in northern latitudes, we characterized soil physical properties, hydrometric conditions and soil water isotopic composition in the upper soil profile in two different land scape units in the long term experimental catchment, Bruntland Burn in the Scottish Highlands. Our two sampling locations are characterized by podzol soils with high organic matter content but they differ with regard to their vegetation cover with either Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) or heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp). To assess storage and mixing dynamics in the vadose zone, we parameterized a numerical 1-D flow model using the soil textural information along with soil moisture and soil water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O). The water flow and transport were simulated based on the Richards and the advection dispersion equation. Differences between water flows of mobile and tightly bound soil waters and the mixing between the two pore spaces were considered. Isotopic fractionation due to evaporation from soil and interception storage was taken into account, while plant water uptake did not alter the isotopic

  5. Comparison of Total Water Storage Anomalies from Global Hydrologic and Land Surface Models and New GRACE Satellite Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, A.; Save, H.; Mueller Schmied, H.; Wada, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Eisner, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is Increasing interest in global hydrology based on modeling and remote sensing, highlighting the need to compare output from modeling and remote sensing approaches. Here we evaluate simulated terrestrial Total Water Storage anomalies (TWSA) from global hydrologic models (GHMs: WGHM and PRC-GLOBWB) and global land surface models (LSMs, such as GLDAS NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC, and CLM) using newly released GRACE mascons solutions from the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research. The comparisons are based on monthly TWS anomalies over 13 years (April 2002 - April 2015) for 176 basins globally. Performance metrics include scatter plots of simulated and GRACE observed TWSA by basin with median slopes for different models indicating bias, correlations (shape and timing of TWS time series), and variability ratio (standard deviation of model TWSA/std. dev. GRACE observed TWSA), with optimal values of 1 indicating perfect agreement. The GRACE data were also disaggregated into long-term trends and seasonal amplitudes. Modeled TWS anomalies are biased low by 20 - 30% relative to GRACE TWSA with similar bias levels for basins in different size classes but greater bias with increasing basin aridity. Discrepancies between models and GRACE TWSA are greatest for long-term trends in TWSA with 60 - 95% underestimation of GRACE TWSA by models. There is good agreement in seasonal amplitudes from models and GRACE ( 0.9 for models with little impact of basin size or climate for most models. These comparisons highlight reliable model performance in terms of seasonal amplitudes in TWSA and underestimation of long-term trends in TWSA and in arid basins.

  6. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  7. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  8. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  9. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  10. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  11. Comparative assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Aedes aegypti larvae and water from domestic water storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Nsa; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2014-08-24

    Domestic water storage containers constitute major Aedes aegypti breeding sites. We present for the first time a comparative analysis of the bacterial communities associated with Ae. aegypti larvae and water from domestic water containers. The 16S rRNA-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to identify and compare bacterial communities in fourth-instar Ae. aegypti larvae and water from larvae positive and negative domestic containers in a rural village in northeastern Thailand. Water samples were cultured for enteric bacteria in addition to TTGE. Sequences obtained from TTGE and bacterial cultures were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for analyses. Significantly lower OTU abundance was found in fourth-instar Ae. aegypti larvae compared to mosquito positive water samples. There was no significant difference in OTU abundance between larvae and mosquito negative water samples or between mosquito positive and negative water samples. Larval samples had significantly different OTU diversity compared to mosquito positive and negative water samples, with no significant difference between mosquito positive and negative water samples. The TTGE identified 24 bacterial taxa, belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and TM7 (candidate phylum). Seven of these taxa were identified in larval samples, 16 in mosquito positive and 13 in mosquito negative water samples. Only two taxa, belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, were common to both larvae and water samples. Bacilli was the most abundant bacterial class identified from Ae. aegypti larvae, Gammaproteobacteria from mosquito positive water samples, and Flavobacteria from mosquito negative water samples. Enteric bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were sparsely represented in TTGE, but were isolated from both mosquito positive and negative water samples by selective culture. Few bacteria from water samples were

  12. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  13. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Surface Water Storage Capacity of Twenty Tree Species in Davis, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator. The measurement system included a rainfall simulator, digital balance, digital camera, and computer. Eight samples were randomly collected from each tree species. Twelve rainfall intensities (3.5-139.5 mm h) were simulated. Leaf-on and leaf-off simulations were conducted for deciduous species. Stem and foliar surface areas were estimated using an image analysis method. Results indicated that surface storage capacities varied threefold among tree species, 0.59 mm for crape myrtle ( L.) and 1.81 mm for blue spruce ( Engelm.). The mean value across all species was 0.86 mm (0.11 mm SD). To illustrate application of the storage values, interception was simulated and compared across species for a 40-yr period with different rainfall intensities and durations. By quantifying the potential for different tree species to intercept rainfall under a variety of meteorological conditions, this study provides new knowledge that is fundamental to validating the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry as a green infrastructure strategy and designing functional plantings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2011 and 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States--Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development began (generally before 1950, and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2011 and from 2009-11. The report also presents total water in storage, 2011, and change in water in storage in the aquifer from predevelopment to 2011. The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in water in storage; and total water in storage for this report used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of about 62 acres. These methods were modified from methods used in previous reports in an attempt to improve estimates of water-level changes and change in water in storage.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2011, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 242 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 14.2 feet from predevelopment to 2011, and a decline of 0.1 foot from 2009-11. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2011 was about 2.96 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 246 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

  16. Chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for Ralstonia solanacearum control in water, storage and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot or bacterial wilt caused by bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is the main limiting factor in potato production. Quarantine measures are necessary to avoid spread of disease to disease-free areas. R. solanacearum has been shown to contaminate watercourses from which crop irrigation is then prohibited causing further potential losses in yield and quality. The bacteria also spread via surfaces that diseased seed potatoes come into contact with. This study showed bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide (CIO2 on R. solanacearum for disinfection of water, surface and equipment. The results showed that CIO2 solution at concentration of 2 ppm at 30 minutes of exposure time had bactericidal effect for disinfection of water. For surface and equipment disinfection, concentration of 50 ppm showed total efficacy at 30 min and 5 sec exposure time, respectively. Results suggest that use of CIO2 as a disinfectant has a potential for control of brown rot pathogen in water, storage and equipment.

  17. Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-08-01

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores of five fern species: Pteris vittata, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Polystichum setiferum. The analyses suggested that these fern spores contained between 26% and 39% TAG, and were comprised of mostly oleic (P. vittata) or linoleic acid (other species) depending on species. The water contents at which water melting events were first observable ranged from 0.06 (P. vittata) to 0.12 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, and were highly correlated with water affinity parameters. In spores containing more than 0.09 (P. vittata) to 0.25 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, some water partitioned into a near pure water fraction that melted at about 0 degrees C. These sharp peaks near 0 degrees C were associated with lethal freezing treatments. The enthalpy of water melting transitions was similar in fern spores, pollen and seeds; however, the unfrozen water content was much lower in fern spores compared to other forms of germplasm. Though there is a narrow range of water contents appropriate for low temperature storage of fern spores, water content can be precisely manipulated to avoid both desiccation and freezing damage.

  18. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  19. Evaluating terrestrial water storage variations from regionally constrained GRACE mascon data and hydrological models over Southern Africa – Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    2010-01-01

    ). In this paper we explore an experimental set of regionally constrained mascon blocks over Southern Africa where a system of 1.25° × 1.5° and 1.5° × 1.5° blocks has been designed. The blocks are divided into hydrological regions based on drainage patterns of the largest river basins, and are constrained...

  20. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Lysimeter vs. superconducting gravimeter: Measuring the influence of local water storage changes on temporal gravity observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Güntner, Andreas; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    Temporal gravimeter observations, which are used in geodesy and geophysics to study changes in the Earth's gravity field like tidal or mass transfer effects, are influenced by local water storage change (WSC). This study presents the first comparison of lysimeter measurements with temporal gravimeter observations made by a superconducting gravimeter (SG). Lysimeter measurements in combination with complementary hydrological observations and a rigid hydrological 1D model give the unique opportunity to estimate WSC from the snow down to the groundwater at the field scale. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (Germany), water storage changes in the snow pack, top soil, unsaturated saprolite and fractured aquifer are all important terms for the local water budget. The hydrological influence on SG measurements is estimated by calculating the gravity response of local WSC. We find a high correlation of local WSC and SG residuals on the event and seasonal scale. Lysimeter measurements significantly improve the estimation of WSC on the field scale and consequently provide a better reduction of local hydrological influence on temporal gravimeter measurements. Hence, at temporal gravity observation sites a lysimeter installation is recommended in case that the gravity signal should be reduced from local WSC.

  2. Effects of materials surface preparation for use in spacecraft potable water storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Wallace, Sarah L.; Loh, Leslie J.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Hudson, Edgar K.; Marlar, Tyler J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of utmost importance when preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, with the minimization of microbial growth being one major aspect. While biocides, such as ionic silver, historically have been used for microbial control in spaceflight, their effectiveness is sometimes limited due to surface reactions with the materials of the storage containers that reduce their concentrations below the effective range. For the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the primary wetted materials of the water storage system are stainless steel and a titanium alloy, and ionic silver has been chosen to serve as the biocide. As an attempt to understand what processes might reduce the known losses of silver, different treatment processes were attempted and samples of the wetted materials were tested, individually and together, to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios. The results of testing presented here showed that the materials could be treated by a nitric acid rinse or a high-concentration silver spike to reduce the loss of silver and bacterial growth. It was also found that the minimum biocidal concentration could be maintained for over 28 days. These results have pointed to approaches that could be used to successfully maintain silver in spacecraft water systems for long-duration missions.

  3. Effect of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths formed by different bonding approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP, two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB; two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD; and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP. Following the adhesive application (n = 6, resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30 or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30. Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa and [6M] (40.27 MPa. Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa. Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.

  4. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  5. Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2013-12-01

    The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54  for 3 min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10  was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50  treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50  significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54  treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50  for 3 min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin.

  6. Effects of different water storage procedures on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically contrasted waters from the Amazon River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel S; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo R

    2015-11-15

    Although recent studies have investigated the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases from continental and oceanic natural waters, few efforts have been made to evaluate whether water sample storage and the separation of different pore-size fractions through filtration can cause any change to the Fe isotopic compositions. The present study investigates the possible biases introduced by different water storage conditions on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically different waters. Water samples were collected from an organic-rich river and from mineral particulate-rich rivers. Filtered and unfiltered water samples were stored either at room temperature or frozen at -18°C in order to assess possible biases due to (i) different water storage temperature, and (ii) storage of bulk (unfiltered) vs filtered water. Iron isotope measurements were performed by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Thermo Electron Neptune instrument, after Fe purification using anion-exchange resins. Our data reveal that bulk water storage at room temperature without filtration produces minor changes in the dissolved Fe isotopic composition of mineral particulate-rich waters, but significant isotopic composition changes in organic-rich waters. In both cases, however, the impact of the different procedures on the Fe concentrations was strong. On the other hand, the bulk water stored frozen without filtration produced more limited changes in the dissolved Fe concentrations, and also on isotopic compositions, relative to the samples filtered in the field. The largest effect was again observed for the organic-rich waters. These findings suggest that a time lag between water collection and filtration may cause isotopic exchanges between the dissolved and particulate Fe fractions. When it is not possible to filter the samples in the field immediately after collection, the less detrimental approach is to

  7. Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhui Dai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform.

  8. Satellite-observed changes in vegetation sensitivities to surface soil moisture and total water storage variations since the 2011 Texas drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Geruo; Velicogna, Isabella; Kimball, John S.; Du, Jinyang; Kim, Youngwook; Colliander, Andreas; Njoku, Eni

    2017-05-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E and AMSR-2, and changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) from time-variable gravity data from GRACE to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE-derived TWS provides spatially continuous observations of changes in overall water supply and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite-derived SM provides enhanced delineation of shallow-depth soil water supply. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depths in relation to satellite-based enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) from MODIS and solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from GOME-2, during and following major drought events observed in the state of Texas, USA and its surrounding semiarid area for the past decade. We find that in normal years the spatial pattern of the vegetation-moisture relationship follows the gradient in mean annual precipitation. However since the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation growth shows enhanced sensitivity to surface SM variations in the grassland area located in central Texas, implying that the grassland, although susceptible to drought, has the capacity for a speedy recovery. Vegetation dependency on TWS weakens in the shrub-dominated west and strengthens in the grassland and forest area spanning from central to eastern Texas, consistent with changes in water supply pattern. We find that in normal years GRACE TWS shows strong coupling and similar characteristic time scale to surface SM, while in drier years GRACE TWS manifests stronger persistence, implying longer recovery time and prolonged water supply constraint on vegetation growth. The synergistic combination of GRACE TWS and surface SM, along with remote-sensing vegetation observations provides new insights into drought impact on

  9. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lead-contaminated drinking water in bulk-water storage tanks--Arizona and California, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-21

    Lead poisoning is a major environmental health problem for children in the United States (1,2): during 1988-1991, approximately 1.7 million U.S. children aged 1-5 years had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) (> or = 10 micrograms/dL) (3). To determine the source of lead exposure for children with BLLs > or = 20 micrograms/dL, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) conducts environmental investigations. In 1993, as a result of investigations of increased BLLs in two children in southwestern Arizona, ADHS detected lead levels approximately 30 times the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) action level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) in bulk-delivered drinking water in the homes of these children. Because two of the three companies that supplied bulk water to southwestern Arizona were based in California, ADHS notified the California State Department of Health Services (CSDHS) about the problem. As a result, CSDHS conducted a separate investigation and identified one child with an elevated BLL whose drinking water sources included bulk-delivered water with lead levels exceeding EPA standards. This report summarizes the investigations of elevated BLLs in these three children and high lead levels in bulk-delivered drinking water in Arizona and California.

  11. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4 · 2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O with no FeSO4 · 2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions.

  12. Estimating water storage changes and sink terms in Volta Basin from satellite missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The insufficiency of distributed in situ hydrological measurements is a major challenge for hydrological studies in many regions of the world. Satellite missions such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM can be used to improve our understanding of water resources beyond surface water in poorly gauged basins. In this study we combined GRACE and TRMM to investigate monthly estimates of evaporation plus runoff (sink terms using the water balance equation for the period from January 2005 to December 2010 within the Volta Basin. These estimates have been validated by comparison with time series of sink terms (evaporation plus surface and subsurface runoff from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS. The results, for the period under consideration, show strong agreement between both time series, with a root mean square error (RMSE of 20.2 mm/month (0.67 mm/d and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. This illustrates the ability of GRACE to predict hydrological quantities, e.g. evaporation, in the Volta Basin. The water storage change data from GRACE and precipitation data from TRMM all show qualitative agreement, with evidence of basin saturation at approximately 73 mm in the equivalent water column at the annual and semi-annual time scales.

  13. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  14. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  15. On The Recovery of Total Water Storage in Iran Using GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaram, A.; Naeimi, M.; Nikkhoo, M.

    2009-05-01

    Iran has a dry climate with limited water resources and different parts of which suffer lack of seasonal and annual precipitation. Therefore, management of water resources is indeed, of a challenge in this region. Thanks to successful launch of GRACE mission in March 2002, which has provided us with a set of reliable data source for studying hydrological cycles in the earth fluid envelope up to now. Temporal changes in total water storage in the regional and global scales are the predominant reason of monthly and annual variations of the Earth gravity field which could be observed and detected by GRACE satellites. current hydrological models which are now being constructed using several data set (i.e. soil moisture data, in-situ measurements, raining and snowing record and so on) still seem to need more concentration and improvements. However GRACE data could be regarded as an external evidence to evaluate and modify these models; and even in some regions, as the only available information about the water storage. In this study, in-situ measurements of all existing piezometric wells in Iran have been used. The wells are not distributed homogeneously over the land and are not available every where. The data have been combined with soil moisture and snow cover information provided by GLDAS model in a monthly resolution and finally have been compared with GRACE observations in the period of time from October 2003 to September 2008. Results explicitly reveal an acceptable agreement between two sources of information and most likely it should be possible to fill the gaps in the land where in-situ measurements are not applicable.

  16. Infiltration and water storage in forest soils at the plot and the micro- catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimm, Eva-Maria; Lange, Benjamin; Lüscher, Peter; Germann, Peter; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Tree roots generate and conserve hydrologically active macropores. We explored the influence of root density on infiltration and water storage at six 1-m2 plots along an 8-m transect between two mature trees (spruce). The soil is a Flysch-based stagnic Cambisol with a flow-impeding horizon at a depth of about 60 cm. At a plot the experimental set up consisted of a 1m x 1m sprinkler and five Decagon HS-10 soil-moisture probes that were horizontally mounted from a trench into the centre of each horizon. We irrigated each plot three times at 24-hour intervals during one hour with a rate of 70 mm h-1. Data logging was at 60-seconds intervals that produced time series of water contents due to irrigation and drainage. After irrigation, soil cores of 10 cm diameter were sampled. Roots were extracted from the cores and their densities were optically analysed with the program "whinRIZO". The application of a rivulet approach to the time series of water contents produced the thickness F (μm) and the specific contact length L (m m-2) per cross-sectional area of the water films that represent Stokes-flow. The procedure leads to estimates of storage capacity and hydraulic connectivity in the vertical and lateral directions along the transect. Extrapolation from the transect to the micro-catchment scale is based on maps showing the spatial arrangements of trees, shrubs and soil properties like thickness and hydrological parameters of horizons.

  17. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  19. Performances of the Electrical Spectroscopy employing a RESPER Probe for measuring the Salinity and Water Content of Concretes and Terrestrial Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Settimi, A; Zirizzotti, A; Marchetti, M; Sapia, V

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to discuss the performances of the electrical spectroscopy employing a RESPER probe to measure the salinity s and volumetric content {\\theta}W of water in concretes and terrestrial soils. The RESPER probe is an induction device for spectroscopy which performs simultaneous and non invasive measurements on the electrical RESistivity 1/{\\sigma} and relative dielectric PERmittivity {\\epsilon}r of a subjacent medium. The RESPER measures {\\sigma} and {\\epsilon} with inaccuracies below a prefixed limit (10%) in the band of middle and high frequencies (MF-HF). The conductivity is related to salinity and the dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content by suitable refined theoretical models which are consistent with the predictions of two empirical laws, respectively Archie's and Topp's. The better agreement, the lower the hygroscopic water content and the higher s; so a better agreement occurs for concretes, containing almost no bound water molecules, provided that are characterized by an h...

  20. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  1. Analysing the space-time distribution of soil water storage of a forest ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, G.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Papritz, A.

    2005-01-01

    In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition. For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in infiltration. To analyse the influence of tree species

  2. Basin-scale water-balance dataset (BSWB): an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents an update of a basin-scale diagnostic dataset of monthly variations in terrestrial water storage for large river basins worldwide (BSWB v2016; Hirschi et al., in review). Terrestrial water storage comprises all forms of water storage on land surfaces, and its seasonal and inter-annual variations are mostly determined by soil moisture, groundwater, snow cover, and surface water. The presented dataset is derived using a combined atmospheric and terrestrial water-balance approach with conventional streamflow measurements and re-analysis data of atmospheric moisture flux convergence and water vapor content. It extends a previous existing version of the dataset (Mueller et al., 2011) temporally and spatially. Comparison of BSWB v2016 to independent estimates of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) show good agreement. Hirschi, M., and Seneviratne, S. I.: Basin-scale water-balance dataset (BSWB): an update. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., doi:10.5194/essd-2016-33, in review, 2016. Mueller, B., Hirschi, M., and Seneviratne, S. I.: New diagnostic estimates of variations in terrestrial water storage based on ERA-Interim data. Hydrol. Process., 25, 996-1008, doi:10.1002/hyp.7652, 2011.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  4. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  5. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  6. Water storage and mixing in a Californian mountain catchment during a multiyear drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Ype; Visser, Ate; Thaw, Melissa; Safeeq, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    From 2012 to 2016, a five year period of intensive drought hit the Californian Sierra Nevada. We use this drought period as an opportunity to investigate how catchment water storage and mixing differs between prolonged wet and dry conditions using long term datasets of river discharge, evapotranspiration, water quality, and isotopes. Characteristic features of our test catchment include a thick (>5m) unsaturated zone in deeply weathered granite mountain soils, snow melt and events of high intensity rainfall, dry summers and numerous wetland meadows along the stream. Our data and model analysis suggest that under the driest conditions, river flow predominantly consist of deep groundwater tapped by deeply incised sections of the stream, while the wetlands store their water just below the root system of its shallow rooting vegetation. In contrast, during wet periods, most runoff is generated on the flat wetland meadows, while the regional groundwater system slowly refills itself as water trickles through the thick unsaturated zone, creating a delayed response. These contrasting response timescales of the catchment-wide groundwater system and the local wetland systems seem to weaken as the drought progresses and connectivity between groundwater flow and wetlands decreases. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-717438

  7. Seasonal Water Storage, the Resulting Deformation and Stress, and Occurrence of Earthquakes in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Burgmann, R.; Fu, Y.; Dutilleul, P.

    2015-12-01

    In California the accumulated winter snow pack in the Sierra Nevada, reservoirs and groundwater water storage in the Central Valley follow an annual periodic cycle and each contribute to the resulting surface deformation, which can be observed using GPS time series. The ongoing drought conditions in the western U.S. amplify the observed uplift signal as the Earth's crust responds to the mass changes associated with the water loss. The near surface hydrological mass loss can result in annual stress changes of ~1kPa at seismogenic depths. Similarly, small static stress perturbations have previously been associated with changes in earthquake activity. Periodicity analysis of earthquake catalog time series suggest that periods of 4-, 6-, 12-, and 14.24-months are statistically significant in regions of California, and provide documentation for the modulation of earthquake populations at periods of natural loading cycles. Knowledge of what governs the timing of earthquakes is essential to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle. If small static stress changes influence the timing of earthquakes, then one could expect that events will occur more rapidly during periods of greater external load increases. To test this hypothesis we develop a loading model using GPS derived surface water storage for California and calculate the stress change at seismogenic depths for different faulting geometries. We then evaluate the degree of correlation between the stress models and the seismicity taking into consideration the variable amplitude of stress cycles, the orientation of transient load stress with respect to the background stress field, and the geometry of active faults revealed by focal mechanisms.

  8. Does the uncertainty in the representation of terrestrial water flows affect precipitation predictability? A WRF-Hydro ensemble analysis for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Baur, Florian; Lerch, Sebastian; Wagner, Sven; Fersch, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kerandi, Noah; Keil, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation predictability can be assessed by the spread within an ensemble of atmospheric simulations being perturbed in the initial, lateral boundary conditions and/or modeled processes within a range of uncertainty. Surface-related processes are more likely to change precipitation when synoptic forcing is weak. This study investigates the effect of uncertainty in the representation of terrestrial water flows on precipitation predictability. The tools used for this investigation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its hydrologically-enhanced version WRF-Hydro, applied over Central Europe during April-October 2008. The WRF grid is that of COSMO-DE, with a resolution of 2.8 km. In WRF-Hydro, the WRF grid is coupled with a sub-grid at 280 m resolution to resolve lateral terrestrial water flows. Vertical flow uncertainty is considered by modifying the parameter controlling the partitioning between surface runoff and infiltration in WRF, and horizontal flow uncertainty is considered by comparing WRF with WRF-Hydro. Precipitation predictability is deduced from the spread of an ensemble based on three turbulence parameterizations. Model results are validated with E-OBS precipitation and surface temperature, ESA-CCI soil moisture, FLUXNET-MTE surface evaporation and GRDC discharge. It is found that the uncertainty in the representation of terrestrial water flows is more likely to significantly affect precipitation predictability when surface flux spatial variability is high. In comparison to the WRF ensemble, WRF-Hydro slightly improves the adjusted continuous ranked probability score of daily precipitation. The reproduction of observed daily discharge with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients up to 0.91 demonstrates the potential of WRF-Hydro for flood forecasting.

  9. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilek Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  10. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on the reduction of nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Huiying; Wan, Yangfang; Liu, Haijie

    2015-03-01

    Leafy vegetables are the major source of nitrite intake in the human diet, and technological processing to control nitrite levels in harvested vegetables is necessary. In the current work, the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage was studied. EOW treatment, including slightly acidic electrolyzed water and acidic electrolyzed water, was found to effectively reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage; levels in the late period were 30 to 40% lower than that of the control. However, the nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage were not influenced by EOW treatment. The reduction of nitrite levels in EOW-treated fresh spinach during storage can be attributed to the inactivation of nitrate reductase directly and to the reduction of bacterial populations. Our results suggest that treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water may be a better choice to control nitrite levels in fresh vegetables during storage. This study provided a useful method to reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach.

  11. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m3) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine was

  12. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  13. Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the

  14. Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge

  15. Real time monitoring of water level and temperature in storage fuel pools through optical fibre sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, S; Périsse, J; Boukenter, A; Ouerdane, Y; Marin, E; Macé, J-R; Cannas, M; Girard, S

    2017-08-18

    We present an innovative architecture of a Rayleigh-based optical fibre sensor for the monitoring of water level and temperature inside storage nuclear fuel pools. This sensor, able to withstand the harsh constraints encountered under accidental conditions such as those pointed-out during the Fukushima-Daiichi event (temperature up to 100 °C and radiation dose level up to ~20 kGy), exploits the Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique to remotely monitor a radiation resistant silica-based optical fibre i.e. its sensing probe. We validate the efficiency and the robustness of water level measurements, which are extrapolated from the temperature profile along the fibre length, in a dedicated test bench allowing the simulation of the environmental operating and accidental conditions. The conceived prototype ensures an easy, practical and no invasive integration into existing nuclear facilities. The obtained results represent a significant breakthrough and comfort the ability of the developed system to overcome both operating and accidental constraints providing the distributed profiles of the water level (0-to-5 m) and temperature (20-to-100 °C) with a resolution that in accidental condition is better than 3 cm and of ~0.5 °C respectively. These new sensors will be able, as safeguards, to contribute and reinforce the safety in existing and future nuclear power plants.

  16. Hillslope scale temporal stability of soil water storage in diverse soil layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yunqiang

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of the soil water storage (SWS) of soil profiles on the scale of a hillslope is important for the optimal management of soil water and revegetation on sloping land in semi-arid areas. This study aimed to investigate the temporal stability of SWS profiles (0-1.0, 1.0-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 m) and to identify representative sites for reliably estimating the mean SWS on two adjacent hillslopes of the Loess Plateau in China. We used two indices: the standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD) and the mean absolute bias error (MABE). We also endeavored to identify any correlations between temporal stability and soil, topography, or properties of the vegetation. The SWS of the soil layers was measured using neutron probes on 15 occasions at 59 locations arranged on two hillslopes (31 and 28 locations for hillslope A (HA) and hillslope B (HB), respectively) from 2009 to 2011. The time-averaged mean SWS for the three layers differed significantly (P management of soil water on sloping land on the Loess Plateau.

  17. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO 2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO 2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO 2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin -1 . For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO 2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO 2 injection. CO 2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO 2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO 2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO 2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  20. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  1. How Much for Water? Economic Assessment and Mapping of Floodplain Water Storage as a Catchment-Scale Ecosystem Service of Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Chrzanowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of water management goals in protected wetland areas agriculturally managed in an intensive manner recalls the comparison of apples (ecological values and oranges (economic dimension of agriculture. Sustainable wetland management frequently fails if environmental features are not referred to as ecosystem services and quantified in economic terms. In our hydrological-economical study on floodplain wetlands located in the Lower Basin of the Biebrza Valley, we attempt to quantify the monetary value of water storage in the floodplain during flood phenomena as an important ecosystem service. The unit monetary value of water storage in the catchment of Biebrza Valley was assessed on the basis of small artificial water reservoirs, constructed in recent years and located in the area of research, and reached 0.53 EUR·m−3·year−1. In a GIS-based study on hydrological floodplain processes in the years 1995–2011, we assessed the average annual volume of active water storage in the floodplain which reached 10.36 M m3 year−1, giving a monetary value of EUR 5.49 million per annum. We propose that the methodology presented in our analysis could be applied as water storage subsidies in valuable floodplains, to prevent their deterioration originating from agriculture intensification.

  2. Ion-Specific Nutrient Management in Closed Systems: The Necessity for Ion-Selective Sensors in Terrestrial and Space-Based Agriculture and Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Graham, Thomas; Thompson, Cody; Berinstain, Alain; Scott, Alan; Dixon, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control plant nutrient ions in fertigation solutions, on an ion-specific basis, is critical to the future of controlled environment agriculture crop production, be it in traditional terrestrial settings (e.g., greenhouse crop production) or as a component of bioregenerative life support systems for long duration space exploration. Several technologies are currently available that can provide the required measurement of ion-specific activities in solution. The greenhouse sector has invested in research examining the potential of a number of these technologies to meet the industry's demanding requirements, and although no ideal solution yet exists for on-line measurement, growers do utilize technologies such as high-performance liquid chromatography to provide off-line measurements. An analogous situation exists on the International Space Station where, technological solutions are sought, but currently on-orbit water quality monitoring is considerably restricted. This paper examines the specific advantages that on-line ion-selective sensors could provide to plant production systems both terrestrially and when utilized in space-based biological life support systems and how similar technologies could be applied to nominal on-orbit water quality monitoring. A historical development and technical review of the various ion-selective monitoring technologies is provided. PMID:23201999

  3. Ion-Specific Nutrient Management in Closed Systems: The Necessity for Ion-Selective Sensors in Terrestrial and Space-Based Agriculture and Water Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Berinstain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to monitor and control plant nutrient ions in fertigation solutions, on an ion-specific basis, is critical to the future of controlled environment agriculture crop production, be it in traditional terrestrial settings (e.g., greenhouse crop production or as a component of bioregenerative life support systems for long duration space exploration. Several technologies are currently available that can provide the required measurement of ion-specific activities in solution. The greenhouse sector has invested in research examining the potential of a number of these technologies to meet the industry’s demanding requirements, and although no ideal solution yet exists for on-line measurement, growers do utilize technologies such as high-performance liquid chromatography to provide off-line measurements. An analogous situation exists on the International Space Station where, technological solutions are sought, but currently on-orbit water quality monitoring is considerably restricted. This paper examines the specific advantages that on-line ion-selective sensors could provide to plant production systems both terrestrially and when utilized in space-based biological life support systems and how similar technologies could be applied to nominal on-orbit water quality monitoring. A historical development and technical review of the various ion-selective monitoring technologies is provided.

  4. Experimental study of soil water storage capacity on rocky slopes in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikel, Harald; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    - February) were analyzed. Based on experiments, analysis of rainfall records, soil properties and infiltration rates, it was possible to estimate the recurrence interval of events generating sufficient runoff to wet soil patches to a degree that is suitable for plant growth. The preliminary results indicate that a minimum effective rainfall amount of 2.5 mm in the soil patch contribution area is required to saturate soil patches with water. Such low rainfall events are relatively frequent in this region of the Negev, indicating that there is potential to frequently fill soil pore volume. The storage capacity of the soil is particularly relevant for plant water supply during periods without rain. Our results therefore show that the impact of climate change in drylands can only be predicted by taking the soil water storage capacity into account. The study also illustrates how rainfall simulation experiments and the analysis of meteorological records can be combined as a tool for the assessment of environmental change.

  5. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  6. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  7. A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Todini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge (MC flood routing approach, together with several variants proposed in the literature, does not fully preserve the mass balance, particularly when dealing with very mild slopes (<10−3. This paper revisits the derivation of the MC and demonstrates (i that the loss of mass balance in MC is caused by the use of time variant parameters which violate the implicit assumption embedded in the original derivation of the Muskingum scheme, which implies constant parameters and at the same time (ii that the parameters estimated by means of the Cunge approach violate the two basic equations of the Muskingum formulation. The paper also derives the modifications needed to allow the MC to fully preserve the mass balance and, at the same time, to comply with the original Muskingum formulation in terms of water storage. The properties of the proposed algorithm have been assessed by varying the cross section, the slope, the roughness, the space and the time integration steps. The results of all the tests also show that the new algorithm is always mass conservative. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approach closely approaches the full de Saint Venant equation solution, both in terms of water levels and discharge, when the parabolic approximation holds.

  8. Recent wind-driven change in Subantarctic Mode Water and its impact on ocean heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libao; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Yu, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    The subduction and export of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) supplies the upper limb of the overturning circulation and makes an important contribution to global heat, freshwater, carbon and nutrient budgets1-5. Upper ocean heat content has increased since 2006, helping to explain the so-called global warming hiatus between 1998 and 2014, with much of the ocean warming concentrated in extratropical latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in close association with SAMW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW)6,7. Here we use Argo observations to assess changes in the thickness, depth and heat content of the SAMW layer. Between 2005 and 2015, SAMW has thickened (3.6 ± 0.3 m yr-1), deepened (2.4 ± 0.2 m yr-1) and warmed (3.9 ± 0.3 W m-2). Wind forcing, rather than buoyancy forcing, is largely responsible for the observed trends in SAMW. Most (84%) of the increase in SAMW heat content is the result of changes in thickness; warming by buoyancy forcing (increased heat flux to the ocean) accounts for the remaining 16%. Projected increases in wind stress curl would drive further deepening of SAMW and increase in heat storage in the Southern Hemisphere oceans.

  9. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  10. Microorganism viability influences internal phase droplet size changes during storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGheynst, Jean S; Guo, Hong-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert

    2013-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions provide an alternative for long-term stabilization of microorganisms. Maintaining physical stability of the emulsion and cell viability is critical for large-scale application. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were prepared with the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Physical stability was measured via light scattering measurements of the internal phase droplets and cell viability was measured by plating and enumerating colony forming units. Emulsions were demonstrated to stabilize L. giganteum and C. vulgaris for more than 4 months without refrigeration. Introducing nutrients into the internal phase of W/O emulsions without cells had no significant effect on changes in aqueous phase droplet size dynamics. Internal phase droplet size changes that occurred over time were greater in the presence of cells. Increases in droplet size were correlated with cell death indicating measurement of internal phase droplet size changes may be an approach for monitoring declines in cell viability during storage.

  11. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  12. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri

    2002-01-01

    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pak...

  13. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: water transportation and storage of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Sedell; W.S. Duval

    1985-01-01

    Environmental effects of water transportation of logs in western North America include the historical driving of logs in rivers and streams, and the current dumping, sorting, transportation, and storage of logs in rivers and estuaries in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. The historical discussion focuses on habitat losses and volumes of...

  14. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  15. Storage stability of hen egg white powders in three protein/water dough model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in the intermediate-moisture food (IMF) market, such as high protein nutrition bars (HPNB), has significantly increased. Currently, no reported study is related to the storage stability of dried hen egg white (DEW) and its hydrolysates (HEW) in an IMF matrix. Therefore, three DEW/HEW dough model systems (100%HEW+0%DEW, 75%HEW+25%DEW and 50%HEW+50%DEW) were established using two commercial spray-dried egg white powders to study the effect of temperature and fraction of HEW on these IMF models (water activity (a(w)): ∼0.8). During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 45°C) for 70 days, the selected physicochemical properties of the dough systems were compared. Overall, kinetic analysis showed an apparent zero-order model fit for the change in the colour (L(∗)), fluorescence intensity (FI) and hardness, as a function of time, for different dough model systems. As expected, the L(∗), FI and hardness increased as a function of time mainly due to the Maillard reaction. The amount of free amino groups decreased, with an increase in rate of loss, as temperature increased in the 100%HEW+0%DEW model. When DEW was substituted for some HEW, the regeneration of the free amino groups after loss was observed as a function of time. Furthermore, when the percentage of HEW was decreased, the incidence of mouldy samples occurred sooner, which indicates that HEW has some antimicrobial ability, especially in the 100%HEW+0%DEW system where mould growth did not occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Feedbacks between water and energy balances, storage development, and aquatic ecosystems on the export of silicate weathering products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Santini, T.; Dere, A. L. D.; Jarihani, B.

    2016-12-01

    The controls on solute export from catchments are often difficult to isolate, given large variations in geology, climate, vegetation, and hydrology between catchments. Here, we evaluate the controls on solute export in two adjacent catchments with similar catchment sizes, climate, topography, and geology. Despite these similarities, slight differences in aspect result in distinct energy balances, which in turn impact seasonal and annual water balances, vegetation, and storage. As a result, different concentration - discharge relationships emerge for almost all major ions, which for one catchment is dominated almost entirely by silicate weathering, and the other with silicate weathering modified at lower flow by base cation enrichment. This is related to the greater development of water storage and release as discharge in the case of the former, while in the latter the greater evapotranspiration demand limits the water available for storage and discharge release. Despite the influence of silicate weathering on most major ions, concentration - discharge relationships for Si itself, as well as the Si concentration relationships with other ions, are not consistent with weathering, and instead appear to be heavily modified by aquatic ecosystem uptake (biofilms), highlighting the potential misuse of Si concentrations in rivers as a conservative tracer of silicate weathering. However, despite the differences in the influence of silicate weathering on the major ion concentrations, potential feedbacks between the water and energy balance partitioning, storage, and catchment respiration may conspire to export total loads with a consistent partitioning of weathering products, including Si. This work highlights the important role of water and energy balances, and related evolution of catchment storage, vegetation, and aquatic ecosystems, in determining riverine solute export.

  18. Efficiency of temporary storage of geothermal waters in a lake system: Monitoring the changes of water quality and bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirányi, Barbara; Krett, Gergely; Kosáros, Tünde; Janurik, Endre; Pekár, Ferenc; Márialigeti, Károly; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2017-12-01

    Disposal of used geothermal waters in Hungary often means temporary storage in reservoir lakes to reduce temperature and improve water quality. In this study, the physical and chemical properties and changes in the bacterial community structure of a reservoir lake system in southeast region of Hungary were monitored and compared through 2 years, respectively. The values of biological oxygen demand, concentrations of ammonium ion, total inorganic nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total phenol decreased, whereas oxygen saturation, total organic nitrogen, pH, and conductivity increased during the storage period. Bacterial community structure of water and sediment samples was compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) following the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. According to the DGGE patterns, greater seasonal than spatial differences of bacterial communities were revealed in both water and sediment of the lakes. Representatives of the genera Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis (cyanobacteria) were identified as permanent and dominant members of the bacterial communities.

  19. Influence of cement shade and water storage on the final color of leucite-reinforced ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagaclioglu, Lale; Yilmaz, Burak

    2008-01-01

    Leucite-reinforced ceramics have a translucent structure, which may have an advantage when fabricating esthetic restorations. However, the different shades of cement and water storage may adversely affect the final color of translucent restorations. Over time, the final color of a restoration may be significantly affected by the shade of the cement. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different cement shades (Vita A1 and A3) and water storage on the final color of leucite-reinforced ceramics over time. Twenty disks of standardized thickness (0.8 mm), diameter (5 mm) and color (shade 110, Chromascope) were prepared from leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (IPS Empress). Ten freshly extracted human molars were used as the underlying structure, and both the buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were prepared with a diamond rotary cutting instrument and flat surfaces were created. Initially, all of the disks were bonded to the flat surfaces of the teeth with a thin layer of bonding agent (Single Bond, 3M Dental Products) to ensure immobilization of the specimens (baseline). The teeth and ceramic specimens were not etched and silanated for easy removal of the specimens. The color of the ceramic specimens was measured with a colorimeter. All disks were gently removed from the tooth surfaces, and 10 specimens (Group A1) were luted to the buccal surfaces of teeth using a dual-polymerizing resin composite cement (Vita A1, Rely X ARC), while the remaining 10 specimens (Group A3) were luted to the lingual surfaces of the teeth with a different shade (Vita A3, Rely X ARC) of the same cement. The final color of the specimens was measured immediately after cementation and at 3-, 30- and 90-day intervals after cementation. Color coordinates L*, a*, b* were recorded. The teeth were stored in 37 degrees C saline solution during measurement intervals. The Mann-Whitney U-test (post-hoc test) was performed to compare the results (alpha=0.05). The color difference of

  20. Effects of air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit on storage of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the optimum air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for the storage of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, 3-day-old mated females were stored at air temperatures of 0, 5, 10, or 15 °C and VPDs of 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kPa for 10, 20, or 30 days. At 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, 83 % of females survived after 30 days of storage; this percentage was the highest among all conditions. VPDs of 0.3 and 0.5 kPa regardless of air temperature, and an air temperature of 0 °C regardless of VPD were detrimental to the survival of the females during storage. Since the highest survival was observed at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, the effect of the storage duration on the post-storage quality of the stored females and their progeny was investigated at 25 °C to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage condition. The oviposition ability of the stored females, hatchability, and sex ratio of their progeny were not affected even when the storage duration was extended to 30 days. Although a slight decrease in the survival during the immature stages of progeny was observed when the storage duration was ≥20 days, the population growth of N. californicus may not be affected when individuals stored in these conditions are applied to greenhouses and agricultural fields. The results indicate that mated N. californicus females can be stored at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa VPD for at least 30 days.

  1. Water storages and fluxes within the small watershed in continuous permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Makarieva, Olga; Nesterova, Nataliya; Meyer, Hanno; Efremov, Vladimir; Ogonerov, Vasiliy

    2017-04-01

    values between -19‰ and -24‰, δD values between -150‰ and -175‰. Isotopic concentrations of groundwater are stable through the year. Field surveys and the analysis of isotopic concentrations showed that some surface flow occurs only in bogs. Subsurface flow forms in larch forests in seasonally thawing layer in July and August. Dry sandy deposits at some slopes in pine forests do not produce surface or shallow subsurface flow but could contain deeper groundwater in taliks. The results of simple two-component mixing model application has shown that in 2015 snowmelt water contributed only 54-70% of streamflow while 30-46% of freshet was supplied by pre-event water. In our opinion suprapermafrost talik water is the most feasible source of the pre-event water. The presence of groundwater in streamflow is indirectly confirmed by the fact that the correlation of total river runoff with last-year precipitation is stronger than with this-year precipitation. It suggests that large and slow water storages in the basins are important chain of hydrological cycle. Taliks could potentially be a significant source for the small rivers in permafrost environments that is not reflected in current process understanding and modelling approaches. The study is partially supported by Russian foundation of basic research, projects No 15-05-08144 and No 16-35-50151.

  2. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  4. Forced intrusion of water and aqueous solutions in microporous materials: from fundamental thermodynamics to energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H

    2017-12-07

    We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles. Several microporous hydrophobic zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) also happen to be quite stable and resistant towards hydrolysis and thus seem very promising for energy storage applications. Replacing pure water by electrolyte aqueous solutions enables to increase the stored energy by a factor close to 3, on account of the high pressure shift of the intrusion transition. In addition to the fact that aqueous solutions and microporous silica materials are environmental friendly, these systems are thus becoming increasingly interesting for the design of new energy storage devices. This review also addresses the theoretical approaches and molecular simulations performed in order to better understand the experimental behavior of nano-confined water. Molecular simulation studies showed that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional and sufficiently open. In an extreme confinement situations such as in ferrierite zeosil, condensation seem to take place through a continuous supercritical crossing from a diluted to a dense fluid, on account of the fact that the first-order transition line is shifted to higher pressure, and the confined water critical point is correlatively shifted to lower temperature. These molecular simulation studies suggest that the most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium

  5. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2017-12-01

    all numbers from interval. Resulted course of management was compared with course, which was obtained from using GE + real flow series. Comparing results showed that fuzzy model with forecasted values has been able to manage main malfunction and artificially disorders made by model were founded essential, after values of water volume during management were evaluated. Forecasting model in combination with fuzzy model provide very good results in management of water reservoir with storage function and can be recommended for this purpose.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Cheng

    Full Text Available The product organ (storage organ; corm of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut.

  7. Model estimates of net primary productivity, evaportranspiration, and water use efficiency in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanqin Tian; Guangsheng Chen; Mingliang Liu; Chi Zhang; Ge Sun; Chaoqun Lu; Xiaofeng Xu; Wei Ren; Shufen Pan; Arthur. Chappelka

    2010-01-01

    The effects of global change on ecosystem productivity and water resources in the southern United States (SUS), a traditionally ‘water-rich’ region and the ‘timber basket’ of the country, are not well quantified. We carried out several simulation experiments to quantify ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET)...

  8. Effect of thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage on retentive strengths of luting cements for zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Vicky; Kampf, Gabriel; Stender, Elmar; Willershausen, Brita; Ernst, Claus-Peter

    2015-06-01

    Bond stability between zirconia crowns and luting cement and between cement and dentin is a main concern; however, only limited evidence is available as to its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the retentive strengths of 7 self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, RelyX Unicem Clicker, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, iCEM, Maxcem Elite, Bifix SE, SpeedCem), 2 adhesive cements with self-etch primers (Panavia 21, SEcure), 1 glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), 1 resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Meron Plus), and 1 zinc phosphate cement for luting zirconia crowns (LAVA) to extracted teeth after thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage. Two-hundred-forty extracted human molars (2 treatments; n=10 per cement) were prepared in a standardized manner. All cements were used according to the manufacturers' recommendations. The intaglios of the crowns were treated with airborne-particle abrasion. After thermocycling (×5000, 5°C/55°C) with or without 1 year of water storage, the cemented ceramic crowns were removed by using a Zwick universal testing device. Statistical analyses were done with the Wilcoxon rank sum and the 2-independent-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Median retentive strengths [MPa] for specimens thermocycled only/thermocycled with 1 year of water storage were as follows: Panavia 21: 1.7/2.5, SEcure: 3.0/3.0, RelyX Unicem Aplicap: 3.1/3.4, RelyX Unicem Clicker: 4.1/4.2, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix: 3.8/3.1, iCEM: 2.3/2.7, Maxcem Elite: 3.0/3.2, Bifix SE: 1.7/1.7, SpeedCem: 1.3/1.6, Meron Plus: 3.1/2.7, Ketac Cem: 1.4/1.4, and zinc phosphate cement: 1.1/1.6. Statistically significant differences were found only among specimens thermocycled only or thermocycled with 1-year water storage (P<.001). Significant differences in retentive strengths were observed among cements after thermocycling only or thermocycling with 1 year of water storage, but not for the effect of the additional 1 year of water storage. Copyright © 2015

  9. [Influence of long-term water storage on the physical and chemical properties of four different dental cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the physical and chemical properties of four different dental cements under long-term water storage. A glass-ionomer cement (A:Fuji I), a resin reinforced glass-ionomer (B: Fuji Plus), a self-adhesive resin cement (C:G-Cem), and an etch & rinse resin cement (D: Duolink) were taken as samples. According to ISO 4049, water sorption and solubility of four resin cements under different storage times (1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months) were calculated (n = 5), meanwhile their surface Knoop micro hardness values were measured. Surface cracks were detected on sample B and C after 12 months. Sample A was fragmentized after 6 months. Sample B showed significantly lower surface hardness after 12 months than it did after the first 24 hours of water storage (P cements did at all exam time point. The highest water sorption values were observed in Sample D after 1 month [(40.8±2.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample B after 3 months [(551.3±22.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample C after 12 months [(147.5±8.3) µg/mm(3)]. The highest solubility values were detected in Sample B after 3 months [(105.3±10.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample C after 12 months [(79.3 ± 6.2) µg/mm(3)], and in Sample D after 12 months [(23.9 ± 6.9) µg/mm(3)]. Among the four types of cements, the etch & rinse resin cement showed the best stability of physical and chemical properties under long-term water storage.

  10. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high-resolution isotope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C; Birkel, C; Geris, J; Dick, J; Tunaley, C; Tetzlaff, D

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time-variant stream water ages, we used a new long-term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments.

  11. Multivariate Prediction of Total Water Storage Changes Over West Africa from Multi-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Loth, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Awange, Joseph; Longuevergne, Laurent; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, C. K.

    2014-07-01

    West African countries have been exposed to changes in rainfall patterns over the last decades, including a significant negative trend. This causes adverse effects on water resources of the region, for instance, reduced freshwater availability. Assessing and predicting large-scale total water storage (TWS) variations are necessary for West Africa, due to its environmental, social, and economical impacts. Hydrological models, however, may perform poorly over West Africa due to data scarcity. This study describes a new statistical, data-driven approach for predicting West African TWS changes from (past) gravity data obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE), and (concurrent) rainfall data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The proposed method, therefore, capitalizes on the availability of remotely sensed observations for predicting monthly TWS, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for measuring regional energy balance, as well as for agricultural, and water resource management. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified using independent component analysis and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework. After a learning phase of 72 months, our approach predicted TWS from rainfall and SST data alone that fitted to the observed GRACE-TWS better than that from a global hydrological model. Our results indicated a fit of 79 % and 67 % for the first-year prediction of the two dominant annual and inter-annual modes of TWS variations. This fit reduces to 62 % and 57 % for the second year of projection. The proposed approach, therefore, represents strong potential to predict the TWS over West Africa up to 2 years. It also has the potential to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of 1 month about each 162 days as well as a—hopefully—limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE

  12. Enhanced Identification of hydrologic models using streamflow and satellite water storage data: a multi-objective calibration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, F. A.; Razavi, S.; Sapriza, G.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional procedure for parameter identification of hydrological processes through conditioning only to streamflow data is challenging in physically based distributed hydrologic modelling. The challenge increases for modeling the landscapes where vertical processes dominate horizontal processes, leading to high uncertainties in modelled state variables, vertical fluxes and hence parameter estimates. Such behavior is common in modeling the prairie region of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB, our case study), Canada, where hydrologic connectivity and vertical fluxes are mainly controlled by surface and sub-surface water storage. To address this challenge, we developed a novel multi-criteria framework that utilizes total column water storage derived from the GRACE satellite, in addition to streamflows. We used a multi-objective optimization algorithm (Borg) and a recently-developed global sensitivity analysis approach (VARS) to effectively identify the model parameters and characterize their significance in model performance. We applied this framework in the calibration of a Land Surface Scheme-Hydrology model, MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology) to a sub-watershed of SaskRB. Results showed that the developed framework is superior to the conventional approach of calibration to streamflows. The new framework allowed us to find optimal solutions that effectively constrain the posterior parameter space and are representative of storage and streamflow performance criteria, yielding more credible prediction with reduced uncertainty of modeled storage and evaporation.

  13. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  14. Water-level changes and change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2013 and 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (generally before 1950) to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013. The report also presents change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013.

  15. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage Changes from New GRACE Mascons Solutions and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Faunt, C. C.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Dettinger, M. D.; Longuevergne, L.; Margulis, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the impacts of the current five year drought in California on water resources. Here we use recently released GRACE mascons solutions from Univ. Texas Center for Space Research and NASA Jet Propulsion Lab and output from a regional groundwater model developed by the U.S Geological Survey to assess changes in water storage in response to the current and past droughts. Marked declines in Total Water Storage (TWS) from GRACE are recorded during the current drought from mid-2011 - mid-2015 with slight recovery after this time. TWS declines during the current drought exceed those recorded during the previous 2007 - 2009 drought. Contributors to TWS depletion include snow water storage (very low during 2013 and 2014), reservoir storage (decline mid 2011 - late 2015, with slight recovery in spring 2016), soil moisture storage from land surface models (greater decline during early years of drought and recent slight recovery) and groundwater storage estimated as a residual. There is general consistency between GRACE derived groundwater storage decline during the drought and simulated groundwater storage depletion from the regional groundwater model. Combining remote sensing estimation of TWS trends with global and regional modeling allows estimation of the contribution of different components to TWS anomalies, and assessment of the reliability of the groundwater storage changes.

  16. Study on the application of NASA energy management techniques for control of a terrestrial solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.; Ollendorf, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for enhanced solar system performance through sophisticated control of the collector loop flow rate. Computer simulations utilizing the TRNSYS solar energy program were performed to study the relative effect on system performance of eight specific control algorithms. Six of these control algorithms are of the proportional type: two are concave exponentials, two are simple linear functions, and two are convex exponentials. These six functions are typical of what might be expected from future, more advanced, controllers. The other two algorithms are of the on/off type and are thus typical of existing control devices. Results of extensive computer simulations utilizing actual weather data indicate that proportional control does not significantly improve system performance. However, it is shown that thermal stratification in the liquid storage tank may significantly improve performance.

  17. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  18. Satellite-derived surface and sub-surface water storage in the Ganges–Brahmaputra River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Papa

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights: Basin-scale monthly SWS variations for the period 2003–2007 show a mean annual amplitude of ∼410 km3, contributing to about 45% of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE-derived total water storage variations (TWS. During the drought-like conditions in 2006, we estimate that the SWS deficit over the entire GB basin in July–August–September was about 30% as compared to other years. The SWS variations are then used to decompose the GB GRACE-derived TWS and isolate the variations of SSWS whose mean annual amplitude is estimated to be ∼550 km3. This new dataset of water storage variations represent an unprecedented source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the ISC.

  19. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Niazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater depletion while providing water for expanded agricultural activities, can be achieved through aquifer storage and recovery (ASR implemented in conjunction with water storage in an ephemeral river. A regional development modeling framework, including both ASR and a dam design developed through system dynamics modeling, was validated using a case study for the Sirik region of Iran. The system dynamics model of groundwater flow and the comprehensive system dynamics model developed in this study showed that ASR was a beneficial strategy for the region’s farmers and the groundwater system, since the rate of groundwater depletion declined significantly (from 14.5 meters per 40 years to three meters over the same period. Furthermore, evaporation from the reservoir decreased by 50 million cubic meters over the simulation period. It was concluded that the proposed system dynamics model is an effective tool in helping to conserve water resources and reduce depletion in arid regions and semi-arid areas.

  20. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment and access to multiple water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Sack, Lawren; Evans, John R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Ball, Marilyn C

    2017-08-01

    Leaf structure and water relations were studied in a temperate population of Avicennia marina subsp. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. australasica but under different climates: subsp. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. marina (salinity 46 ppt, arid tropics). Leaf thickness, leaf dry mass per area and water content increased with salinity and aridity. Turgor loss point declined with increase in soil salinity, driven mainly by differences in osmotic potential at full turgor. Nevertheless, a high modulus of elasticity (ε) contributed to maintenance of high cell hydration at turgor loss point. Despite similarity among leaves in leaf water storage capacitance, total leaf water storage increased with increasing salinity and aridity. The time that stored water alone could sustain an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m -2  s -1 ranged from 77 to 126 min from subspecies eucalyptifolia to ssp. marina, respectively. Achieving full leaf hydration or turgor would require water from sources other than the roots, emphasizing the importance of multiple water sources to growth and survival of Avicennia marina across gradients in salinity and aridity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Water partitioning and storage via preferential pathways on the hillslope scale observed using time-lapse ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotikian, M.; Parsekian, A.; Paige, G. B.; Carey, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water in the west is primarily sourced from snowmelt in the mountainous alpine zone providing freshwater for rivers and recharge for groundwater aquifers. Subsurface water flow often moves through the soil and fractured rock although its storage, residence time, and partitioning have not been well documented at the hillslope scale. In this study we investigate water partitioning and preferential flow pathways using geophysical methods to complete the water balance. We hypothesize that preferential flow paths will indicate where water is partitioning into groundwater stores and will differ based on the vegetation cover and soil depth. We use daily time-lapse electric resistivity tomography (TL-ERT) to estimate moisture content on seasonal and annual time-scales. Water content is assumed to be the only variable to change over the duration of the measurement after temperature corrections. The ERT measurement is combined with other geophysical measurements including seismic refraction tomography for locating the weathering front, time-lapse borehole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to directly measure changes in water content over the season, and 3D ERT as a control for out-of-plane effects of the 2D TL-ERT measurement. The results show that during snowmelt, the wetting front is heterogeneous and moves down at a rate up to 25 mm/day within the top 5m. A preferential flow path is observed to be moving water to at least 5m depth in one area. This preferential flow anomaly only occurred during snowmelt and was not observed during rainfall-driven infiltration. Heterogeneities in vegetation cover and soil depth result in different water flow behaviors. These results indicate that water storage increases during the snowmelt season and partitioning pathways differ seasonally and with precipitation type.

  2. Effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Cleci de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three acrylic resins (Dencor-De, Duralay-Du, and Vipi Cor-VC were selected and one composite resin (Opallis-Op was used as a parameter for comparison. The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed in stainless steel moulds (20 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick. Thirty samples of each resin were made and divided into three groups (n = 10 according to the moment of Vickers hardness (VHN and roughness (Ra analyses: C (control group: immediately after specimen preparation; Sw: after storage in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours; Tc: after thermocycling (3000 cycles; 5-55 °C, 30 seconds dwell time. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Op resin had higher surface hardness values (p 0.05 in roughness among materials (De = 0.31 ± 0.07; Du = 0.51 ± 0.20; VC = 0.41 ± 0.15; Op = 0.42 ± 0.18. Storage in water did not change hardness and roughness of the tested materials (p > 0.05. There was a significant increase in roughness after thermocycling (p < 0.05, except for material Du, which showed no significant change in roughness in any evaluated period (p = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Thermocycling increased the roughness in most tested materials without affecting hardness, while storage in water had no significant effect in the evaluated properties.

  3. Effects of Water Levels and Hydrology on Fisheries in Hydropower Storage, Hydropower Mainstream and Flood Control Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    AD-Ai46 239 EFFECTS OF WATER LEVELS AND HYDROLOGY ON FISHERIES IN t/ . HYDROPONER STORAGE..(U) ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS...Consequently, the recommendations in this re- port designed to enhance reservoir fisheries can be most effectively used by taking advantage of suitable...sum- mer area (Table 4). An average number of 90-mm bluegills in the spring of their second year have an enormous survival advantage over the YOY

  4. How does rapidly changing discharge during storm events affect transient storage and channel water balance in a headwater mountain stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam S. Ward; Michael N. Gooseff; Thomas J. Voltz; Michael Fitzgerald; Kamini Singha; Jay P. Zarnetske

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of transient storage in coupled surface-water and groundwater systems are widely made during base flow periods and rarely made during storm flow periods. We completed 24 sets of slug injections in three contiguous study reaches during a 1.25 year return interval storm event (discharge ranging from 21.5 to 434 L s1 ) in a net gaining headwater stream within...

  5. Effect of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Tong, Qunyi; Zhang, Zipei; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage were investigated by low field-nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and texture profile analysis (TPA). The addition of pullulan reduced the transversal relaxation time of rice starch gels during cold storage. The microstructure of rice starch gel with 0.5% pullulan was denser and more uniform compared with that of rice starch without pullulan in each period of storage time. With regard to textural properties, 0.01% pullulan addition did not significantly change the texture of rice starch gels, while 0.5% pullulan addition appeared to reduce the hardness and retain the springiness of rice starch gels (P⩽0.05). The restriction effects of pullulan on water mobility and starch retrogradation were hypothesized to be mainly responsible for the water retention, gel structure maintenance, and modification of the textural attributes of rice starch gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Interfacial integrity of bonded restorations with self-etching adhesives: Water storage and thermo-mechanical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gislaine Cristine; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC) on the microleakage (μL) and axial gap width (AG) of Class V bonded restorations in premolars using self-etching adhesive systems. The bond strength of composite restorations to dentin (μTBS) using the same adhesives was also evaluated in third molars after water storage: 24 h and 6 months. The research hypotheses were tested for the results of two self-etching adhesives in comparison when a conventional two-step adhesive was used: (1) the μL and AG would be lower, regardless of TMC; (2) the μTBS of self-etching adhesives would be higher, irrespective of evaluation times. Sixty Class V composite restorations were made in 30 premolars and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB2), AdheSE (ASE), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL-P) (n=20). Dentin μL and AG were immediately measured for half of the sample. The other half was evaluated after TMC. Eighteen third molars were also selected and bonded using the same adhesives to test the μTBS to dentin. Specimens were evaluated after 24 h and 6 months of water storage. No differences in μL and AG were found among the groups (P>.05). The μTBS mean values were: ASB2>ASE>APL-P (Pconventional, two-step adhesive remains high after 6 months of water storage.

  8. Effect of ultrasonic excitation on the microtensile bond strength of glass ionomer cements to dentin after different water storage times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Elcilaine Rizzato; Coldebella, Cármen Regina; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense

    2011-12-01

    The application of ultrasound waves on glass ionomer cement (GIC) surface can accelerate the early setting reaction and improve the mechanical properties of the material, resulting in higher resistance to masticatory forces within a short period of time and thus increasing the clinical longevity of the GIC restoration. In this study, the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of two high-viscosity GICs (Fuji IX GP and Ketac Molar Easymix) and one resin-modified GIC (RMGIC-Vitremer) to dentin was tested after ultrasonic excitation and water storage. GIC blocks were built up on coronal dentin either receiving or not receiving a 30-s ultrasound application during the material initial setting. After storage in water for either 24 h or 30 d, beam-shaped specimens with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1.0 mm(2) were cut perpendicular to GIC/dentin interface and tested to failure. At 24 h, the ultrasonically set Ketac Molar had significantly higher (p Ketac Molar presented significantly higher μTBS after the longer water storage (p Ketac Molar improved its adhesion to dentin, particularly within the first 24 h after setting. Clinically, it seems that ultrasonic excitation can contribute to prevent retention loss of restoration at early stages of GIC setting reaction. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Storage and Non-Payment: Persistent Informalities within the Formal Water Supply of Hubli-Dharwad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Burt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems in Asia and Africa mostly provide intermittent rather than continuous water supplies; such systems compromise water quality and inconvenience the user. Starting in 2008, an upgrade to continuous (24/7 water services was provided for 10% of the twin cities of Hubli-Dharwad, India, through a process of privatisation and formalisation. The goals were to improve water quality, free consumers from collecting and storing water, and reduce non-revenue (i.e. unpaid for water. Drawing on household surveys (n = 1986 conducted in 2010-2011 in the 24/7 zones, as well as on a range of interviews, we find that, even with 'formal' 24/7 water service, most consumers continue the supposedly 'informal' practices of in-home storage and water use without payment of bills. We argue that multiple unaccounted-for factors – including a history of distrust between the consumer and the utility, seemingly small infrastructural details, resistance to higher tariffs, and valuing convenience above water quality – have kept these informal practices embedded within the formalised delivery system. Our research contributes to understanding why formalisation may only partially supplant informal practices even when the formal system is functional and reliable.

  10. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the key parameters controlling ecological and hydrological activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams separately and simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurements, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both data streams LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 14.9% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 8.5% for assimilating LHF only, and 6.1% for assimilating FAPAR only. The set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction for all three cases is found for a parameter quantifying maximum plant-available soil moisture. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  11. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  12. Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.N.; Hoovler, G.S.; Eng, R.L.; Welfare, F.G.

    1979-07-01

    Close-packed storage of LWR fuel assemblies is needed in order to expand the capacity of existing underwater storage pools. This increased capacity is required to accommodate the large volume of spent fuel produced by prolonged onsite storage. To provide benchmark criticality data in support of this effort, 20 critical assemblies were constructed that simulated a variety of close-packed LWR fuel storage configurations. Criticality calculations using the Monte Carlo KENO-IV code were performed to provide an analytical basis for comparison with the experimental data. Each critical configuration is documented in sufficient detail to permit the use of these data in validating calculational methods according to ANSI Standard N16.9-1975.

  13. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal

  14. The effect of paraformaldehyde fixation and PBS storage on the water content of the human lens

    OpenAIRE

    Augusteyn, Robert C; Vrensen, Gijs; Willekens, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Fixation and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) storage are frequently used before studies of the morphological, biochemical, and optical properties of the human lens begin. It is assumed that this does not alter the properties being examined. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of fixation and PBS storage on the human lens wet weight. Methods Human donor lenses were incubated in a buffered paraformaldehyde (PF) solution or in PBS and their wet weights were monitore...

  15. Increased container-breeding mosquito risk owing to drought-induced changes in water harvesting and storage in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Brendan J; Kay, Brian H; Darbro, Jonathan M; Hurst, Tim P

    2013-12-01

    Extended drought conditions in south-east Queensland during the early 2000s have resulted in a culture of water harvesting and legislated water restrictions. Aedes notoscriptus is a container-breeding mosquito vector of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses. From 2008-2009, the larval habitats and seasonal abundance of domestic container-breeding mosquitoes were recorded from three suburbs of Brisbane. A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was administered to householders. A low-cost, desktop methodology was used to predict the proportion of shaded premises compared with front-of-property estimates. We highlight changes in the frequency of container categories for A. notoscriptus as a response to human behavioural changes to drought. Garden accoutrements, discarded household items and water storage containers accounted for 66.2% (525/793) of positive containers and 77.5% (73 441/94 731) of all immature mosquitoes. Of all household premises surveyed, 52.6% (550/1046) contained rainwater tanks and 29.4% (308/1046) harvested water in other containers, contrasting with a previous 1995 survey where neither category was observed. Both Premise Condition Index and shade directly correlated with positive premises. Human response to drought has resulted in new habitats for domestic container-breeding mosquitoes. This recent trend of prolific water storage is similar to earlier years (1904-1943) in Brisbane when Aedes aegypti was present and dengue epidemics occurred.

  16. Numerical analysis of a coupled solar collector latent heat storage unit using various phase change materials for heating the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Qarnia, Hamid [Universite Cadi Ayyad, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Departement de Physique, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' energetique, B.P., 2390 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-02-15

    A theoretical model based on the energy equations was developed to predict the thermal behaviour and performance of a solar latent heat storage unit (LHSU) consisting of a series of identical tubes embedded in the phase change material (PCM). During charging mode, a heat transfer fluid (hot water) from the solar collector passes through the tubes and transfers the collecting heat of solar radiation to the PCM. The heat stored in the liquid PCM is next transferred to water during discharging mode to produce heating water. A simulation program based on the finite volume approach was also developed to numerically evaluate the thermal performance of the LHSU. The model was first validated by comparing the results of numerical simulations to the experimental data. A series of numerical simulations were conducted for three kinds of PCM (n-octadecane, Paraffin wax and Stearic acid) to find the optimum design for a given summer climatic conditions of Marrakech city: solar radiation and ambient temperature. Optimization of the LHSU involves determination of the mass of the PCM, the number of tubes, and the flow rate water in solar collector that maximise the thermal storage efficiency. Several simulations were also made to study the effect of the flow rate water on its outlet temperature, during the discharging mode. (author)

  17. Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  18. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  19. Combined effect of storage temperature and water activity on the antiglycoxidative properties and color of dehydrated apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera

    2009-12-23

    Phytochemical contents, color, and inhibition efficacy toward oxidative and glycoxidative reactions were studied in dehydrated apples following storage in the water activity range from 0.1 to 0.7 at 20, 30, and 40 degrees C, which can be considered as room conditions. Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different temperatures and time intervals, and nonenzymatic browning was modeled according to pseudo-zero-order kinetics. The effect of temperature on the browning rate followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy of 64000 J/mol, which was not affected by the water activity level. The phytochemical contents, inhibition efficacy of protein glycation, and antioxidant properties were then analyzed in the products stored under selected "equivalent" conditions in terms of browning effects, namely, 120 days/20 degrees C, 50 days/30 degrees C, and 22 days/40 degrees C. After storage for 120 days/20 degrees C, the retention percentages of hydroxycinnamic acids, phloridzin, and epicatechin were >86%, but ascorbic acid, catechin, and procyanidins were less stable; concurrently dehydrated apples retained about 80% of the radical scavenging activity and 70% of the ability to inhibit protein glycation. Following storage at higher temperatures the expected browning effect occurred in a shorter time scale; however, the patterns of product degradation were different. A sharp increase in the degradation rates of all antioxidants, relative to browning rate, was observed at temperatures >or=30 degrees C, and this trend was accelerated with concurrent increase in water activity at >0.3 levels. The application of low-temperature/long-time conditions for storage of dehydrated apples corresponded to maximum retention of their efficacy to counteract oxidative and glycoxidative reactions, which have been linked to human chronic diseases.

  20. Opportunistic Pathogens and Microbial Communities and Their Associations with Sediment Physical Parameters in Drinking Water Storage Tank Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Struewing, Ian; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Lytle, Darren; Lu, Jingrang

    2017-10-26

    The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp.) were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays. Microbial community analysis was performed using next generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. Mycobacterium spp. were most frequently detected in the sediments and water samples (88% and 88%), followed by Legionella spp. (50% and 50%), Acanthamoeba spp. (63% and 13%), V. vermiformis (50% and 25%), and P. aeruginosa (0 and 50%) by qPCR method. Comamonadaceae (22.8%), Sphingomonadaceae (10.3%), and Oxalobacteraceae (10.1%) were the most dominant families by sequencing method. Microbial communities in water samples were mostly separated with those in sediment samples, suggesting differences of communities between two matrices even in the same location. There were associations of OPs with microbial communities. Both OPs and microbial community structures were positively associated with some elements (Al and K) in sediments mainly from pipe material corrosions. Opportunistic pathogens presented in both water and sediments, and the latter could act as a reservoir of microbial contamination. There appears to be an association between potential opportunistic pathogens and microbial community structures. These microbial communities may be influenced by constituents within storage tank sediments. The results imply that compositions of microbial community and elements may influence and indicate microbial water quality and pipeline corrosion, and that these constituents may be important for optimal storage tank management

  1. Opportunistic Pathogens and Microbial Communities and Their Associations with Sediment Physical Parameters in Drinking Water Storage Tank Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs, the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp. were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays. Microbial community analysis was performed using next generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. Mycobacterium spp. were most frequently detected in the sediments and water samples (88% and 88%, followed by Legionella spp. (50% and 50%, Acanthamoeba spp. (63% and 13%, V. vermiformis (50% and 25%, and P. aeruginosa (0 and 50% by qPCR method. Comamonadaceae (22.8%, Sphingomonadaceae (10.3%, and Oxalobacteraceae (10.1% were the most dominant families by sequencing method. Microbial communities in water samples were mostly separated with those in sediment samples, suggesting differences of communities between two matrices even in the same location. There were associations of OPs with microbial communities. Both OPs and microbial community structures were positively associated with some elements (Al and K in sediments mainly from pipe material corrosions. Opportunistic pathogens presented in both water and sediments, and the latter could act as a reservoir of microbial contamination. There appears to be an association between potential opportunistic pathogens and microbial community structures. These microbial communities may be influenced by constituents within storage tank sediments. The results imply that compositions of microbial community and elements may influence and indicate microbial water quality and pipeline corrosion, and that these constituents may be important for optimal storage tank

  2. Geophysics in the Critical Zone: Constraints on Deep Weathering and Water Storage Potential in the Southern Sierra CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Hayes, J. L.; Reeder, K.; Harry, D. L.; Malazian, A. I.; Dosseto, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the depth and degree of subsurface weathering in landscapes is crucial for quantitative understanding of the biogeochemistry of weathering, the mechanics of hillslope sediment transport, and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon over both short and long timescales. Although the degree of weathering can be readily measured from geochemical and physical properties of regolith and rock, many distributed samples are needed to measure it over broad spatial scales. Moreover, quantifying the thickness of subsurface weathering has remained challenging, in part because the interface between altered and unaltered rock is often buried at difficult to access depths. To overcome these challenges, we combined seismic refraction and resistivity surveys to estimate regolith thickness and generate representative hillslope-scale images of subsurface weathering and water storage at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Inferred seismic velocities and electrical resistivities of the subsurface provide evidence for a weathering zone with thickness ranging from 10 to 35 m (average = 23 m) along one intensively studied transect. This weathering zone consists of roughly equal thicknesses of saprolite (P-velocity < 2 km/s) and moderately weathered bedrock (P-velocity < 4 km/s). We use a rock physics model of seismic velocities, based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory, to estimate lateral and vertical variations in porosity as a metric of water storage potential along the transect. Inferred porosities are as high as 55% near the surface and decrease to zero at the base of weathered rock. Model-predicted porosities are broadly consistent with values measured from physical properties of saprolite, suggesting that our analysis of the geophysical data provides realistic estimates of subsurface water storage potential. A major advantage of our geophysical approach is that it quickly and non-invasively quantifies porosity over broad vertical and lateral scales

  3. Global Terrestrial Water Cycle Mapping and Science Results from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; You, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015 and started science data acquisition at the beginning of April, 2015. The science data acquisition with the radiometer now covers nearly a one-year-and-half period. The coincident active L-band and passive L-band measurements cover only two months in Summer 2015 due to the radar instrument malfunction. In this presentation we report on the SMAP global L-band radiometry, the capability to detect and, where possible, mitigate Radio-Frequency Interference, and exploit the radiometer over-sampling to enhance data resolution. The global surface soil moisture inferred from the L-band brightness temperature fields are used to estimate water cycle characteristics over land surfaces. The focus of the data analyses has been on finding the linkages between the water, energy and carbon cycles over land. The data are also used to infer vegetation characteristics, ocean surface salinity, ocean surface winds, and sea ice thickness. The model value-added data products are used to estimate root-zone soil moisture and land surface water, energy and carbon fluxes.

  4. Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

  5. [Parasite fauna of the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) and its nests in the south of Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'kova, M G; Bogdanov, I I

    2004-01-01

    Fauna of parasitic and free-living arthropods associated the water vole Arvicola terestris and its nests in various landscape zones and subzones of the south of Western Siberia has been studied. Total abundance of gamasid mites and ticks (Gamasoidea, Ixodidae), fleas and nidicolous arthropods in nests is high, and the set of nidicolous and parasite species is quite diverse, but everywhere the parasite fauna is characterized by a small amount of species reaching a high abundance: Laelaps muris on the voles, Haemogamasus ambulans in nests, Ixodes apronophorus and Megpbotris walkeri both on the voles and nests. Parasitic arthropods living on the voles or in their nests are characterized by higher and stables indices of infection, while these parameters for free-living arthropods were variable. The list of mesostigmatic mites parasitizing the water vole and its nests in the south of Western Siberia (Adamovich, Krylov, 2001) has been considerably supplemented. In total, the fauna of parsitiform mites (Acari: Mesostigmata and Ixodiddes) and fleas (Siphonaptera) associated with the water vole in the south of Western Siberia is represented by 97 arthropod species of 19 families, including 74 species of mesostigmatic mites (Gamasoidea), 6 species of ticks (Ixodidae) and 17 species of fleas.