WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial vegetation survey

  1. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  2. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  3. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  4. Terrestrial vegetation dynamics and global climate controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Boriah, Shyam; Steinbach, Michael; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Klooster, Steven [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Monthly data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and its predecessor satellite sensors was used to reconstruct vegetation dynamics in response to climate patterns over the period 1983-2005. Results suggest that plant growth over extensive land areas of southern Africa and Central Asia were the most closely coupled of any major land area to El Nino-southern oscillation (ENSO) effects on regional climate. Others land areas strongly tied to recent ENSO climate effects were in northern Canada, Alaska, western US, northern Mexico, northern Argentina, and Australia. Localized variations in precipitation were the most common controllers of monthly values for the fraction absorbed of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) over these regions. In addition to the areas cited above, seasonal FPAR values from MODIS were closely coupled to rainfall patterns in grassland and cropland areas of the northern and central US. Historical associations between global vegetation FPAR and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) anomalies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere can contribute major fluxes of CO{sub 2} during major drought events, such as those triggered by 1997-1998 El Nino event. (orig.)

  5. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Plant Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the terrestrial plant observations survey is to document vegetation species presence/absence and distribution on the island unit of the refuge. The...

  6. Remote sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Wade T. Tinkham; Alan F. Talhelm; John D. Marshall; Andrew T. Hudak; Luigi Boschetti; Michael J. Falkowski; Jonathan A. Greenberg; John W. Anderson; Andrew Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Robert F. Keefe; James R. Gosz

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the species composition, structure, and function of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems. These changes can also impact the essential ecosystem goods and services derived from these ecosystems. Following disturbances, remote-sensing datasets have been used to monitor the disturbance and describe antecedent conditions as a means of...

  7. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  8. Guidelines for Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    34Two Methods for Estimating Populations of Mammals From Trapping Records," J. Mammal., Vol 30 (1949), pp 399-411. Hesse , P. R., A Textbook of Soil...Missouri Quail and Quail Hunting, 1939-1948, Missouri Conservation Commission, Technical Bulletin 2 Bennitt, Rudolf and Werner 0. Nagel, "A Survey of

  9. Soil and vegetation parameter uncertainty on future terrestrial carbon sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavala, Z.; Felzer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle in a changing climate at the centennial scale using an intermediate complexity Earth system climate model that includes the effects of dynamic vegetation and the global carbon cycle. We present a series of ensemble simulations to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated terrestrial carbon sinks to three key model parameters: (a) The temperature dependence of soil carbon decomposition, (b) the upper temperature limits on the rate of photosynthesis, and (c) the nitrogen limitation of the maximum rate of carboxylation of Rubisco. We integrated the model in fully coupled mode for a 1200-year spin-up period, followed by a 300-year transient simulation starting at year 1800. Ensemble simulations were conducted varying each parameter individually and in combination with other variables. The results of the transient simulations show that terrestrial carbon uptake is very sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Changes in net primary productivity were most sensitive to the upper temperature limit on the rate of photosynthesis, which also had a dominant effect on overall land carbon trends; this is consistent with previous research that has shown the importance of climatic suppression of photosynthesis as a driver of carbon-climate feedbacks. Soil carbon generally decreased with increasing temperature, though the magnitude of this trend depends on both the net primary productivity changes and the temperature dependence of soil carbon decomposition. Vegetation carbon increased in some simulations, but this was not consistent across all configurations of model parameters. Comparing to global carbon budget observations, we identify the subset of model parameters which are consistent with observed carbon sinks; this serves to narrow considerably the future model projections of terrestrial carbon sink changes in comparison with the full model ensemble.

  10. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Arthropods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purposes of the terrestrial arthropod surveys are to: develop a species list of native and non-native terrestrial arthropods on land portions of the refuge;...

  11. Quantifying Vegetation Structure with Lightweight, Rapid-Scanning Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Genest, D.; Saenz, E. J.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Peri, F.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is proving a competent technology for observing vegetation structure. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are ground-based instruments which utilize hundreds of thousands to millions of lidar observations to provide detailed structural and reflective information of their surroundings. TLS has enjoyed initial success as a validation tool for satellite and airborne estimates of vegetation structure, and are producing independent estimates with increasing accuracy. Reconstruction techniques for TLS observations of vegetation have also improved rapidly, especially for trees. However, uncertainties and challenges still remain in TLS modelling of vegetation structure, especially in geometrically complex ecosystems such as tropical forests (where observation extent and density is hampered by occlusion) and highly temporally dynamic coastal ecosystems (such as saltmarshes and mangroves), where observations may be restricted to narrow microstates. Some of these uncertainties can be mitigated, and challenges met, through the use of lidar instruments optimized for favorable deployment logistics through low weight, rapid scanning, and improved durability. We have conducted studies of vegetation structure in temperate and tropical forests, saltmarshes and mangroves, utilizing a highly portable TLS with considerable deployment flexibility, the Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL). We show results from studies in the temperate Long Term Ecological Research site of Harvard Forest (MA, USA); the tropical forested long-term Carbono sites of La Selva Biological Station (Sarapiqui, Costa Rica); and the saltmarsh LTER of Plum Island (MA, USA). These results demonstrate the improvements to observations in these ecosystems which are facilitated by the specifications of the CBL (and similar TLS) which are optimized for favorable deployment logistics and flexibility. We show the benefits of increased numbers of scanning positions, and specialized deployment

  12. COMPARISON OF DISCRETE RETURN AND WAVEFORM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING FOR DENSE VEGETATION FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guarnieri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the comparison between two terrestrial laser scanners (TLS, a discrete return system (Riegl LMS-Z620 and an echo-digitizing system (Riegl VZ-400, employed for the survey of a dense forested area, in the italian Alps. The site is actually undergoing a strong debate among the inhabitants and local government authorities about the exploitation of the area as a huge quarry to produce building material. The dispute originates from the uncertainty about the instability of the underlying mountain slope, which was interested in 1966 by a landslide. The whole area was surveyed with the two laser scanners on February 2011 during the vegetation dormant period. A slight different processing workflow was applied to the collected datasets: the VZ-400 scans were pre-filtered by exploiting the "calibrated relative reflectance" readings and the multi-target capability provided by this laser scanning system. Next, two different spatial filters were applied to both the resulting georeferenced 3D models, in order to eliminate as much vegetation as possible: iterative filter and a custom morphological filter, developed by the authors. Achieved results show that for both datasets, the iterative and the morphological filters perform quite well for eliminating the vegetation, though some manual editing is still required since vegetation does not feature a prevalent growing direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the number of points left in the final DTMs shows that the VZ-400 provided a one order of magnitude denser point cloud wrt. the LMS-Z620. This demonstrates that a TLS with multi-target capability can potentially provide a more detailed DTM even in presence of dense vegetation.

  13. Direct and terrestrial vegetation-mediated effects of environmental change on aquatic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky A. Ball; John S. Kominoski; Heather E. Adams; Stuart E. Jones; Evan S. Kane; Terrance D. Loecke; Wendy M. Mahaney; Jason P. Martina; Chelse M. Prather; Todd M.P. Robinson; Christopher T. Solomon

    2010-01-01

    Global environmental changes have direct effects on aquatic ecosystems, as well as indirect effects through alterations of adjacent terrestrial ecosystem structure and functioning. For example, shifts in terrestrial vegetation communities resulting from global changes can affect the quantity and quality of water, organic matter, and nutrient inputs to aquatic...

  14. Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Ben-David; T.A. Hanley; D.M. Schell

    1998-01-01

    Spawning Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus) transport marine-derived nutrients into streams and rivers. Subsequently, these marine-derived nutrients are incorporated into freshwater and terrestrial food webs through decomposition and predation. In this study, we investigated the influence of spawning Pacific salmon on terrestrial vegetation using...

  15. Assesment of Vegetation Cover Status in Dry Lands of The Sudan Using Social and Terrestrial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hamed Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted in 2015 in Bara Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan. The study area has experienced recurrent drought spells since 1970s of the past century. The main objective of this study was to assess and map the vegetation cover in the area using social, terrestrial and remotely sensed data. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, the study was based on qualitative and quantitative data. In qualitative data, household survey was conducted in which 100 respondents were randomly interviewed. Quantitative data was collected using terrestrial inventory and satellite imageries. In terrestrial inventory, 22 ground control points (GCPs were randomly registered using GPS in order to get general overview of the land cover of the study area. In each GCP, tree species by number was inventoried within an area of 1 ha. Remote sensing data, covering the target study area, were acquainted using LANDSAT5 imageries (2014 with spatial resolution of 30×30 m. Results of the household survey revealed that only 13 shrub/tree species mentioned by 45% of the respondents, while only 9 woody species were identified, belonging to 8 families from terrestrial inventory. The results of the household survey, 45% of the respondents, indicated that vegetation cover was very good 20 years ago. The study categorized the present land cover as woody vegetation (19%, Acacia senegal stands (5%, shrubs i.e. Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Acacia nubica (18%, small scale farms and grasses (19% and sandy soil and dunes (39%. The results of the land cover distribution indicated that vegetation cover decreased by 24% while sand/sand dunes was increased by 21% from 1985 to 2015. The study concluded that the study area is under threat of land degradation that may lead to depletion of vegetation cover and decline land productivity. Keywords: Acacia senegal, land cover, remote sensing, sand dune, Sudan.   Pengukuran Status Penutupan Vegetasi di Lahan Kering

  16. Large-scale vegetation responses to terrestrial moisture storage changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robert L.; Guan, Huade; Batelaan, Okke

    2017-09-01

    The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) is a useful tool for studying vegetation activity and ecosystem performance at a large spatial scale. In this study we use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) total water storage (TWS) estimates to examine temporal variability of the NDVI across Australia. We aim to demonstrate a new method that reveals the moisture dependence of vegetation cover at different temporal resolutions. Time series of monthly GRACE TWS anomalies are decomposed into different temporal frequencies using a discrete wavelet transform and analysed against time series of the NDVI anomalies in a stepwise regression. The results show that combinations of different frequencies of decomposed GRACE TWS data explain NDVI temporal variations better than raw GRACE TWS alone. Generally, the NDVI appears to be more sensitive to interannual changes in water storage than shorter changes, though grassland-dominated areas are sensitive to higher-frequencies of water-storage changes. Different types of vegetation, defined by areas of land use type, show distinct differences in how they respond to the changes in water storage, which is generally consistent with our physical understanding. This unique method provides useful insight into how the NDVI is affected by changes in water storage at different temporal scales across land use types.

  17. MOVE : MOdel for terrestrial VEgetation version 4.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Wortelboer, F.G.; Wamelink, G.W.W.

    2010-01-01

    The model MOVE4 predicts the probability of occurrence for over 900 plant species based on the Ellenberg indicator values for acidity, moisture, nutrient availability and salinity, the geophysical region and the vegetation type. The model was developed as a follow up of MOVE3.2. Although extensively

  18. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to characterize vegetation-induced flow resistance in a controlled channel

    CERN Document Server

    Vinatier, Fabrice; Belaud, Gilles; Combemale, David

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation characteristics providing spatial heterogeneity at the channel reach scale can produce complex flow patterns and the relationship between plant patterns morphology and flow resistance is still an open question (Nepf 2012). Unlike experiments in laboratory, measuring the vegetation characteristics related to flow resistance on open channel in situ is difficult. Thanks to its high resolution and light weight, scanner lasers allow now to collect in situ 3D vegetation characteristics. In this study we used a 1064 nm usual Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) located 5 meters at nadir above a 8 meters long equipped channel in order to both i) characterize the vegetation structure heterogeneity within the channel form a single scan (blockage factor, canopy height) and ii) to measure the 2D water level all over the channel during steady flow within a few seconds scan. This latter measuring system was possible thanks to an additive dispersive product sprinkled at the water surface. Vegetation characteristics an...

  19. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  20. 30-year Dynamics of Terrestrial Vegetation Activity and the Relationship with Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.; Furrer, R.; de Bruin, S.; Verburg, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The climate governs the seasonal activity of terrestrial vegetation while humankind influences it. The relative role of these drivers in changing vegetation activity is crucial information for accurate modeling of vegetation and climate dynamics and for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Disentangling the two, however, is an ongoing scientific challenge, because of limited data availability, mainly regarding non-climatic drivers, and complex biosphere-atmosphere feedback mechanisms. Here, we contribute to this quest by modeling the spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity (de Jong et al., 2013a). Vegetation activity is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time series of such indices can be found in literature, including the detection of shifts (de Jong et al., 2013b), which may be related to climate (e.g. Zhao & Running, 2010). However, little remains known about the exact processes underlying vegetation change at large spatial scales. Depending on eco-region, three climatologies potentially constrain plant growth (Churkina and Running, 1998). In the humid mid-latitudes, for example, temperature is the largest influencing factor; in (semi) arid regions it is the availability of water and in the tropics incident solar radiation. Based on this logic, we developed a mixed-effect model to relate changes in these climatologies to changes in vegetation activity and to quantify the spatial process underlying the other drivers, including human land use. Little over 50% of the spatial variation in vegetation change could be attributed to changes in climatologies; conspicuously, many of the global ';greening' trends and the ';browning' hotspots in Argentina and Australia. Browning hotspots in the non-climatic component were especially located in subequatorial Africa (e.g. parts of Zimbabwe and Tanzania), where human drivers may be

  1. Evaluation of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Formation and Diversity in a Modified Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Shao, P.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem formation and diversity have great impact on the stability and frangibility of ecosystem. It is important that Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) can capture these essential properties so that they can correctly simulate the succession and transition of terrestrial ecosystem in company with the global climate change. Previous studies have shown that DGVMs can roughly reproduce the spatial distributions of different vegetation types as well as the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, however, the capability of DGVMs to reproduce the global vegetation distribution and ecosystem formation has not been fully evaluated. This study is based on our modified DGVM coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM-DGVM). The modified CLM-DGVM can simulate 12 plant functional types (PFTs) besides the bare soil. It allows two or more PFTs coexisting in a grid cell, in contrast to the DGVMs which tend to generate the ecosystem with single dominant plant functional type and hence lose the functional diversity of ecosystem. Our results show that the density distributions of fractional coverage (DDFC) of three vegetation categories (e.g., forest, grassland, and shrubland) and PFTs are different with the observation. In particular, the model overestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage larger than 70%, but underestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage less than 40%. Furthermore, the functional diversity of PFTs in each gridcell is generally lower than that in the observation. Sensitivity tests show that substantial changes in the terrestrial ecosystem usually occur within the areas where two or more PFTs coexist with comparable fractions, i.e., and the functional diversity is high. These results imply that current CLM-DGVM may not be able to appropriately produce the averaged amplitude and spatial pattern of the transition in global ecosystem. Therefore, we suggest that extensive studies are required to improve

  2. Nitrogen feedbacks increase future terrestrial ecosystem carbon uptake in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wårlind, D.; Smith, B.; Hickler, T.; Arneth, A.

    2014-11-01

    Recently a considerable amount of effort has been put into quantifying how interactions of the carbon and nitrogen cycle affect future terrestrial carbon sinks. Dynamic vegetation models, representing the nitrogen cycle with varying degree of complexity, have shown diverging constraints of nitrogen dynamics on future carbon sequestration. In this study, we use LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic vegetation model employing a detailed individual- and patch-based representation of vegetation dynamics, to evaluate how population dynamics and resource competition between plant functional types, combined with nitrogen dynamics, have influenced the terrestrial carbon storage in the past and to investigate how terrestrial carbon and nitrogen dynamics might change in the future (1850 to 2100; one representative "business-as-usual" climate scenario). Single-factor model experiments of CO2 fertilisation and climate change show generally similar directions of the responses of C-N interactions, compared to the C-only version of the model as documented in previous studies using other global models. Under an RCP 8.5 scenario, nitrogen limitation suppresses potential CO2 fertilisation, reducing the cumulative net ecosystem carbon uptake between 1850 and 2100 by 61%, and soil warming-induced increase in nitrogen mineralisation reduces terrestrial carbon loss by 31%. When environmental changes are considered conjointly, carbon sequestration is limited by nitrogen dynamics up to the present. However, during the 21st century, nitrogen dynamics induce a net increase in carbon sequestration, resulting in an overall larger carbon uptake of 17% over the full period. This contrasts with previous results with other global models that have shown an 8 to 37% decrease in carbon uptake relative to modern baseline conditions. Implications for the plausibility of earlier projections of future terrestrial C dynamics based on C-only models are discussed.

  3. Comparison between remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model for estimating terrestrial primary production of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    Africa is an important part of the global carbon cycle. It is also a continent facing potential problems due to increasing resource demand in combination with climate change-induced changes in resource supply. Quantifying the pools and fluxes constituting the terrestrial African carbon cycle is a challenge, because of uncertainties in meteorological driver data, lack of validation data, and potentially uncertain representation of important processes in major ecosystems. In this paper, terrestrial primary production estimates derived from remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model are compared and quantified for major African land cover types. Continental gross primary production estimates derived from remote sensing were higher than corresponding estimates derived from a dynamic vegetation model. However, estimates of continental net primary production from remote sensing were lower than corresponding estimates from the dynamic vegetation model. Variation was found among land cover classes, and the largest differences in gross primary production were found in the evergreen broadleaf forest. Average carbon use efficiency (NPP/GPP) was 0.58 for the vegetation model and 0.46 for the remote sensing method. Validation versus in situ data of aboveground net primary production revealed significant positive relationships for both methods. A combination of the remote sensing method with the dynamic vegetation model did not strongly affect this relationship. Observed significant differences in estimated vegetation productivity may have several causes, including model design and temperature sensitivity. Differences in carbon use efficiency reflect underlying model assumptions. Integrating the realistic process representation of dynamic vegetation models with the high resolution observational strength of remote sensing may support realistic estimation of components of the carbon cycle and enhance resource monitoring, providing suitable validation data is available.

  4. Exploring the control of land-atmospheric oscillations over terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Mathieu; Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Liu, Yi; van Eck, Christel; Regnier, Pierre; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Miralles, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics play an important role in the climate system due to their control on the carbon, energy and water cycles. The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation is regulated by internal climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms, including fires, land use, volcano eruptions or greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean-atmospheric oscillations, affect the fluxes of heat and water over continents, leading to anomalies in radiation, precipitation or temperature at widely separated locations (i.e. teleconnections); an effect of ocean-atmospheric oscillations on terrestrial primary productivity can therefore be expected. While different studies have shown the general importance of internal climate variability for global vegetation dynamics, the control by particular teleconnections over the regional growth and decay of vegetation is still poorly understood. At continental to global scales, satellite remote sensing offers a feasible approach to enhance our understanding of the main drivers of vegetation variability. Traditional studies of the multi-decadal variability of global vegetation have been usually based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which extends back to the early '80s. There are, however, some limitations to NDVI observations; arguably the most important of these limitations is that from the plant physiology perspective the index does not have a well-defined meaning, appearing poorly correlated to vegetation productivity. On the other hand, recently developed records from other remotely-sensed properties of vegetation, like fluorescence or microwave vegetation optical depth, have proven a significantly better correspondence to above-ground biomass. To enhance our understanding of the controls of ocean-atmosphere oscillations over vegetation, we propose to explore the link between climate oscillation extremes and net primary productivity

  5. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  6. VLBI telescopes' gravitational deformations investigated with terrestrial surveying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P.; Abbondanza, C.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2008-09-01

    Large VLBI telescopes undergo gravitational deformations which affect both geodetic and astronomic observations. In order to assess the extent and magnitude of such deformations and to evaluate their effect on telescopes' performances, terrestrial surveying methods can be applied to monitor the telescopes' structure at different pointing elevations. Finite Element Model analysis, laser scanner surveying, trilateration and triangulation have been applied on the telescope in Medicina to estimate i) the deformations of the primary mirror and to monitor ii) the position of the feed horn located at the primary focus and iii) the position of the vertex of the paraboloid. If detectable, these deformations modify the position of the primary focus and the signal path length and may therefore reduce the antenna gain and bias the phase of the incoming signal. We are presenting the investigations performed on the Medicina VLBI telescope, quantifying the magnitude of the deformations of the primary dish, the quadrupode and the vertex and we are also presenting an elevation dependent model for signal path corrections.

  7. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  8. Ground-Based Statewide Vegetation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Locations of the field sites used to help create the Kansas Gap Analysis Land Cover map. The field sites, consisting of 40 different vegetation alliances and other...

  9. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report shows the results of vegetation transect survey done by refuge staff of the North Marsh at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in September of 1982. There...

  10. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the findings of the first wetland vegetation transect survey that was done at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge since 1973 when the refuge was...

  11. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the results of a vegetation transect line survey done in 1971 at the North Marsh of Prequile National Wildlife Refuge. No management had been...

  12. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a hand-written report outlining the results of a vegetation transect survey done in the North Marsh of Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in August of 1978.

  13. Vegetation Survey for Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the findings of vegetation survey work done in September of 1969 at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. This work was done on the same five...

  14. Surveying Perceptions and Practices of Philippine Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study established potential pesticide exposures and pesticide safety practices among vegetable growers in Benguet, Philippines. The study found that pesticide use was prevalent. Common work practices found a number of deficiencies, including leaking backpacks, improper labeling of pesticide ...

  15. Deriving Vegetation Dynamics of Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems from MODIS NDVI/EVI Data over Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Gulbeyaz, Onder

    2008-09-01

    The 16-day composite MODIS vegetation indices (VIs) at 500-m resolution for the period between 2000 to 2007 were seasonally averaged on the basis of the estimated distribution of 16 potential natural terrestrial ecosystems (NTEs) across Turkey. Graphical and statistical analyses of the time-series VIs for the NTEs spatially disaggregated in terms of biogeoclimate zones and land cover types included descriptive statistics, correlations, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), time-series decomposition, and simple linear regression (SLR) models. Our spatio-temporal analyses revealed that both MODIS VIs, on average, depicted similar seasonal variations for the NTEs, with the NDVI values having higher mean and SD values. The seasonal VIs were most correlated in decreasing order for: barren/sparsely vegetated land > grassland > shrubland/woodland > forest; (sub)nival > warm temperate > alpine > cool temperate > boreal = Mediterranean; and summer > spring > autumn > winter. Most pronounced differences between the MODIS VI responses over Turkey occurred in boreal and Mediterranean climate zones and forests, and in winter (the senescence phase of the growing season). Our results showed the potential of the time-series MODIS VI datasets in the estimation and monitoring of seasonal and interannual ecosystem dynamics over Turkey that needs to be further improved and refined through systematic and extensive field measurements and validations across various biomes.

  16. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  17. Considerations of an air-quality standard to protect terrestrial vegetation from acidic precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acidic precipitation which is here defined as wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/, are reviewed. At the present time there is an inadequate amount of information that shows decreases in crop growth except for one field study. Most studies with plants (crops and forests) are inadequate for standard setting because they are not conducted in the field with adequate randomization of plots coupled with rigorous statistical analyses. Although visible injury to foliage has been documented in a variety of greenhouse studies, no experimental evidence demonstrates loss of field crop value or reduction in plant productivity due to visible foliar injury. Acidic precipitation can contribute nutrients to vegetation and could also influence leaching rates of nutrients from vegetation. Although these processes occur, there are no data that show changes in nutrient levels in foliage that relate to crop or natural ecosystem productivity. Experimental results show that fertilization of ferns is inhibited by current levels of acidic precipitation in the northeastern United States. However, the overall impacts of inhibited fertilization on perpetuation of the species or ecosystem productivity have not been evaluated. Simulated acidic precipitation has been shown to effect plant pathogens in greenhouse and field experiments. Simulated acidic precipitation inhibited pathogen activities under some circumstances and promoted pathogen activities under other circumstances. No conclusion can be drawn about the effects of current levels of precipitation acidity on plant pathogen-host interactions. From these data it must be concluded that research on the effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation is too meager to draw any conclusions with regard to an air quality standard.

  18. Terrestrial Plant Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments: Records of Abrupt Tropical Vegetation Response to Rapid Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.; Makou, M.; Xu, L.; Sylva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, preserve high concentrations of biomarkers for reconstruction of terrestrial environmental conditions. Molecular-level investigations of organic compounds provide a valuable tool for extracting terrestrial signals from these annually laminated marine sediments. Differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation between C16-18 and C24-30 n-alkanoic acids suggest a marine source for the shorter chain lengths and a terrestrial source for the longer chains. Records of carbon and hydrogen isotopes, as well as average carbon chain length (ACL), from long-chain n-alkanoic acids parallel millennial-scale changes in vegetation and climate between the late Glacial and Preboreal periods, 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. Data from all terrestrial chain lengths were combined to produce single δ D and δ 13C indices through deglaciation, exhibiting enrichment during the late Glacial and Younger Dryas and depletion during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal periods. δ D reflects the hydrogen isotopic composition of environmental water used for plant growth, combined with evaporative enrichment within leaf spaces, and as such may act as a proxy for local aridity. Leaf wax δ 13C, which is a proxy for C3 versus C4 metabolic pathways, indicates that C3 plants predominated in the Cariaco watershed during warm/wet Bolling-Allerod and Holocene periods, and C4 plant biomass proliferated during cool/dry Glacial and Younger Dryas intervals. Coupled carbon and hydrogen isotopic measurements together clearly distinguish deglacial climatic periods as wetter with C3 vegetation versus drier with C4 vegetation. High resolution biomarker records reveal the rapidity of vegetation changes in northern South America during the last deglaciation. The leaf wax data reveal that local vegetation biomass, although not necessarily entire assemblages, shifted between arid grassland and wetter forest taxa on timescales of decades. Comparison of ACL

  19. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation in global land surface schemes: implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2 coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6. In the composite (single-tile approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc. that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959–2005 show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959–2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC effects differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same

  20. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  1. Methodological considerations of terrestrial laser scanning for vegetation monitoring in the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle E.; Glenn, Nancy; Spaete, Lucas; Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; McIlroy, Susan; Derryberry, DeWayne R.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides fast collection of high-definition structural information, making it a valuable field instrument to many monitoring applications. A weakness of TLS collections, especially in vegetation, is the occurrence of unsampled regions in point clouds where the sensor’s line-of-sight is blocked by intervening material. This problem, referred to as occlusion, may be mitigated by scanning target areas from several positions, increasing the chance that any given area will fall within the scanner’s line-of-sight from at least one position. Because TLS collections are often employed in remote regions where the scope of sampling is limited by logistical factors such as time and battery power, it is important to design field protocols which maximize efficiency and support increased quantity and quality of the data collected. This study informs researchers and practitioners seeking to optimize TLS sampling methods for vegetation monitoring in dryland ecosystems through three analyses. First, we quantify the 2D extent of occluded regions based on the range from single scan positions. Second, we measure the efficacy of additional scan positions on the reduction of 2D occluded regions (area) using progressive configurations of scan positions in 1 ha plots. Third, we test the reproducibility of 3D sampling yielded by a 5-scan/ha sampling methodology using redundant sets of scans. Analyses were performed using measurements at analysis scales of 5 to 50 cm across the 1-ha plots, and we considered plots in grass and shrub-dominated communities separately. In grass-dominated plots, a center-scan configuration and 5 cm pixel size sampled at least 90% of the area up to 18 m away from the scanner. In shrub-dominated plots, sampling at least 90% of the area was only achieved within a distance of 12 m. We found that 3 and 5 scans/ha are needed to sample at least ~ 70% of the total area (1 ha) in the grass and shrub-dominated plots

  2. A study on integrating surveys of terrestrial natural resources: The Oregon Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Jeffery Goebel; Hans T. Schreuder; Carol C. House; Paul H. Geissler; Anthony R. Olsen; William Williams

    1998-01-01

    An interagency project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating Federal surveys of terrestrial natural resources and offers a vision for that integration. At locations selected from forest inventory and analysis, National forest system Region 6, and national resources inventory surveys in a six-county area in Northern Oregon, experienced teams interpreted and made...

  3. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change

  4. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  5. Comparison of low-altitude UAV photogrammetry with terrestrial laser scanning as data-source methods for terrain covered in low vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Matwij, Wojciech; Ćwiąkała, Paweł

    2017-04-01

    This article juxtaposes results from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey conducted to determine land relief. The determination of terrain relief is a task that requires precision in order to, for example, map natural and anthropogenic uplifts and subsidences of the land surface. One of the problems encountered when using either method to determine relief is the impact of any vegetation covering the given site on the determination of the height of the site's surface. In the discussed case, the site was covered mostly in low vegetation (grass). In one part, it had been mowed, whereas in the other it was 30-40 cm high. An attempt was made to filter point clouds in such a way as to leave only those points that represented the land surface and to eliminate those whose height was substantially affected by the surrounding vegetation. The reference land surface was determined from dense measurements obtained by means of a tacheometer and a rod-mounted reflector. This method ensures that the impact of vegetation is minimized. A comparison of the obtained accuracy levels, costs and effort related to each method leads to the conclusion that it is more efficient to use UAV than to use TLS for dense land relief modeling.

  6. Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Allison M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attributes of the biotic and abiotic environment contribute to spatial and temporal variation in production of mosquito vectors, characterizing the relationship between terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry and Culex abundance in Chicago, Illinois. Larvae were sampled from 60 catch basins from June 14 to October 3, 2009. Density of shrubs and 14 tree genera surrounding the basins were quantified, as well as aquatic chemistry content of each basin. Results We demonstrate that the spatial pattern of Culex abundance in catch basins is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics, resulting in significant variation across the urban landscape. Using regression and machine learning techniques, we described landscape features and microhabitat characteristics of four Chicago neighborhoods and examined the implications of these measures for larval abundance in adjacent catch basins. The important positive predictors of high larval abundance were aquatic ammonia, nitrates, and area of shrubs of height Culex during the fruit-bearing periods and early senescent periods in August and September. Conclusions This study identifies environmental predictors of mosquito production in urban environments. Because an abundance of adult Culex is integral to efficient WNV transmission and mosquitoes are found in especially high densities near larval habitats, identifying aquatic sites for Culex and landscape features that promote

  7. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  8. Collection, Processing and Accuracy of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Survey Data in the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    survey is logged as the raw L1/L2 signal and is post-processed to achieve centimeter accuracy. This method provides higher accuracy position information ...or terrestrial lidar surveys or single point measurements collected with high-precision (Trimble 2014) RTK-GPS surveying instruments (Fowler and...OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  9. Vegetation survey of knapweed on the Yakima Training Center - 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Cadoret, N.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes and discusses the results of a vegetation survey conducted in 1992 on a portion of the Yakima Training Center (YTC). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this survey and a similar survey in 1991 for the U.S. Department of the Army. The objectives of the survey were to evaluate the impact of the herbicide picloram on forbs where aerial applications of picloram were made in 1988, 1989, and 1991 to control knapweed infestations. Forbs are of special interest because they are an important part of the spring and summer diet of the western sage grouse, which is a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service candidate species for the threatened and endangered list. We also conducted a limited evaluation of the effectiveness of the spray program in controlling the spread of knapweed. Percent plant canopy cover and number of forbs were measured on 120 transacts on the herbicide-treated and untreated control areas. Herbicide treatment in 1991 resulted in a significant reduction in knapweed based on percent cover and density. The treatment areas also all had lower percent canopy cover of perennial forbs and fewer perennial forbs compared to control areas. Canopy cover of shrubs and annual, biennial, and perennial forbs measured on the YTC increased between the 1991 and 1992 survey, which may indicate a recovery of these vegetation types after disturbance. These increases also could reflect the mild 1992 winter and superior growing conditions in the spring of 1992. We recommend that these vegetation transacts continue to be monitored for an additional growing season to evaluate (1) whether knapweed increases to its previous abundance in the 1991 herbicide-treated area, (2) the efficacy of herbicide application on transacts along roadways, and (3) the increase in invasive annuals in herbicide-treated areas and the possible effects on community vegetation structure and sage grouse habitat.

  10. Analysis of postfire vegetation dynamics of Mediterranean shrub species based on terrestrial and NDVI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Cerrillo, R M Navarro; Hernández-Bermejo, J E; Royo, S Escuin; Kasimis, N A

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  11. Analysis of Postfire Vegetation Dynamics of Mediterranean Shrub Species Based on Terrestrial and NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.; Hernández-Bermejo, J. E.; Escuin Royo, S.; Kasimis, N. A.

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  12. Simultaneous Assimilation of FAPAR and Atmospheric CO2 into a Terrestrial Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, T.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Gobron, N.; Pinty, B.; Giering, R.; Mathieu, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    Tackling the possible severe impacts of climate change on the carbon cycle and land water resources requires further development of simulation models and monitoring capabilities. Carbon cycle impacts can lead to further climate change through releases of CO2, and impacts on water resources are critical for human survival. A rapidly increasing monitoring capability is Earth Observation (EO) by satellites. Usually, EO by its very nature focuses on diagnosing the current state of the planet. However, it is possible to use EO products in data assimilation systems to improve not only the diagnostics of the current state, but also the accuracy of future predictions. This study investigates the simultaneous assimilation of ground-based atmospheric CO2 concentration data and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from measurements made by the MERIS sensor on-board ENVISAT and to what extent these data can be used to improve models of terrestrial ecosystems, carbon cycling and hydrology. Further development of the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS, see http://CCDAS.org) for the purpose of simultaneous assimilation of FAPAR and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements showed that the design of the ecosystem model is critical for successful implementation of highly efficient variational data assimilation schemes. This is important, because each newly added data stream will typically require a separate observational operator. In the case of this study, it was the leaf development (phenology) sub-model that needed to be developed. As a variational data assimilation scheme, CCDAS relies on first and second derivatives of the underlying model for estimating process parameters with uncertainty ranges. In a subsequent step these parameter uncertainties are mapped forward onto uncertainty ranges for predicted carbon and water fluxes. We present assimilation experiments of MERIS FAPAR at the global scale together with in situ observations

  13. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colsher, C.S.; Robison, W.L.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1977-01-21

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 241/Am.

  14. Measuring Complete 3D Vegetation Structure With Airborne Waveform Lidar: A Calibration and Validation With Terrestrial Lidar Derived Voxels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, S.; Anderson, K.; Disney, M.; Gaston, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of vegetation are vital to understand habitats and their provision of ecosystem services as well as having applications in satellite calibration, weather modelling and forestry. The majority of humans now live in urban areas and so understanding vegetation structure in these very heterogeneous areas is of importance. A number of previous studies have used airborne lidar (ALS) to characterise canopy height and canopy cover, but very few have fully characterised 3D vegetation, including understorey. Those that have either relied on leaf-off scans to allow unattenuated measurement of understorey or else did not validate. A method for creating a detailed voxel map of urban vegetation, in which the surface area of vegetation within a grid of cuboids (1.5m by 1.5m by 25 cm) is defined, from full-waveform ALS is presented. The ALS was processed with deconvolution and attenuation correction methods. The signal processing was calibrated and validated against synthetic waveforms generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, taken as "truth". The TLS data was corrected for partial hits and attenuation using a voxel approach and these steps were validated and found to be accurate. The ALS results were benchmarked against the more common discrete return ALS products (produced automatically by the lidar manufacturer's algorithms) and Gaussian decomposition of full-waveform ALS. The true vegetation profile was accurately recreated by deconvolution. Far more detail was captured by the deconvolved waveform than either the discrete return or Gaussian decomposed ALS, particularly detail within the canopy; vital information for understanding habitats. In the paper, we will present the results with a focus on the methodological steps towards generating the voxel model, and the subsequent quantitative calibration and validation of the modelling approach using TLS. We will discuss the implications of the work for complete vegetation canopy descriptions in

  15. Estimating vegetation biomass and cover across large plots in shrub and grass dominated drylands using terrestrial lidar and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle E.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Spaete, Lucas P.; Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; McIlroy, Susan; Derryberry, DeWayne R.

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been shown to enable an efficient, precise, and non-destructive inventory of vegetation structure at ranges up to hundreds of meters. We developed a method that leverages TLS collections with machine learning techniques to model and map canopy cover and biomass of several classes of short-stature vegetation across large plots. We collected high-definition TLS scans of 26 1-ha plots in desert grasslands and big sagebrush shrublands in southwest Idaho, USA. We used the Random Forests machine learning algorithm to develop decision tree models predicting the biomass and canopy cover of several vegetation classes from statistical descriptors of the aboveground heights of TLS points. Manual measurements of vegetation characteristics collected within each plot served as training and validation data. Models based on five or fewer TLS descriptors of vegetation heights were developed to predict the canopy cover fraction of shrubs (R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 7%), annual grasses (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 21%), perennial grasses (R2 = 0.36, RMSE = 12%), forbs (R2 = 0.52, RMSE = 6%), bare earth or litter (R2 = 0.49, RMSE = 19%), and the biomass of shrubs (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 175 g) and herbaceous vegetation (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 99 g) (all values reported are out-of-bag). Our models explained much of the variability between predictions and manual measurements, and yet we expect that future applications could produce even better results by reducing some of the methodological sources of error that we encountered. Our work demonstrates how TLS can be used efficiently to extend manual measurement of vegetation characteristics from small to large plots in grasslands and shrublands, with potential application to other similarly structured ecosystems. Our method shows that vegetation structural characteristics can be modeled without classifying and delineating individual plants, a challenging and time-consuming step common in previous

  16. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  17. Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Lawrence E. Band; Ge Sun; Junxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurately monitoring global vegetation dynamics with modern remote sensing is critical for understanding the functions and processes of the biosphere and its interactions with the planetary climate. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) product has been a primary data source for this purpose. To date, theMODIS teamhad released...

  18. Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Andrew D; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rademacher, Tim T; Keribin, Rozenn; Betts, Richard; Cadule, Patricia; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Douglas B; Dankers, Rutger; Falloon, Pete D; Ito, Akihiko; Kahana, Ron; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark R; Nishina, Kazuya; Ostberg, Sebastian; Pavlick, Ryan; Peylin, Philippe; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Vuichard, Nicolas; Warszawski, Lila; Wiltshire, Andy; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-03-04

    Future climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 are expected to cause major changes in vegetation structure and function over large fractions of the global land surface. Seven global vegetation models are used to analyze possible responses to future climate simulated by a range of general circulation models run under all four representative concentration pathway scenarios of changing concentrations of greenhouse gases. All 110 simulations predict an increase in global vegetation carbon to 2100, but with substantial variation between vegetation models. For example, at 4 °C of global land surface warming (510-758 ppm of CO2), vegetation carbon increases by 52-477 Pg C (224 Pg C mean), mainly due to CO2 fertilization of photosynthesis. Simulations agree on large regional increases across much of the boreal forest, western Amazonia, central Africa, western China, and southeast Asia, with reductions across southwestern North America, central South America, southern Mediterranean areas, southwestern Africa, and southwestern Australia. Four vegetation models display discontinuities across 4 °C of warming, indicating global thresholds in the balance of positive and negative influences on productivity and biomass. In contrast to previous global vegetation model studies, we emphasize the importance of uncertainties in projected changes in carbon residence times. We find, when all seven models are considered for one representative concentration pathway × general circulation model combination, such uncertainties explain 30% more variation in modeled vegetation carbon change than responses of net primary productivity alone, increasing to 151% for non-HYBRID4 models. A change in research priorities away from production and toward structural dynamics and demographic processes is recommended.

  19. A model of the coupled dynamics of climate, vegetation and terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry for regional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Benjamin; Wramneby, Anna (Dept. of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund Univ., Geocentrum II, Lund (Sweden)), e-mail: ben.smith.lu@gmail.com; Samuelsson, Patrick (Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., SE-60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Rummukainen, Markku (Dept. of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund Univ., Geocentrum II, SE-22362, Lund (Sweden); Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., SE-60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    Regional climate models (RCMs) primarily represent physical components of the climate system, omitting vegetation dynamics, ecosystem biogeochemistry and their associated feedbacks. To account for such feedbacks, we implemented a novel plant individual-based vegetation dynamics-ecosystem biogeochemistry scheme within the RCA3 RCM. Variations in leaf area index (LAI) of seven plant functional type (PFTs) in response to physical forcing and evolving vegetation state feed back to climate via adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. In an ERA-40-driven simulation over Europe, the model reproduces the recent past climate with comparable accuracy to the standard RCM. Large-scale patterns of LAI, net primary production and vegetation composition were comparable with observations, although winter LAI was systematically overestimated compared to satellite estimates. Analysis of the ERA-40 simulation and an A1B climate-change simulation revealed considerable covariation among dynamic variables of the physical climate and vegetation. At a Mediterranean site, periodic soil water limitation led to fluctuations in leaf cover and a likely positive feedback to near-surface temperature. At an alpine site, rising temperatures led to forest advance onto tundra areas, reducing albedo and effecting a likely positive feedback on temperature. Climate vegetation coupling was less pronounced but still apparent at intermediate temperate and boreal sites

  20. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  1. A Preliminary Survey of Terrestrial Plant Communities in the Sierra de los Valles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy G. Balice

    1998-10-01

    To more fully understand the species compositions and environmental relationships of high-elevation terrestrial plant communities in the Los Alamos region, 30 plots in randomly selected, upland locations were sampled for vegetation, topographic, and soils characteristics. The locations of these plots were constrained to be above 2,134 m (7,000 ft) above mean sea level. The field results were summarized, analyzed, and incorporated into a previously developed classification of vegetation and land cover types. The revised and updated discussions of the environmental relationships at these sites and their associated species compositions are included in this report. A key to the major land cover types in the Los Alamos region was also revised in accordance with the new information and included herein its entirety.

  2. A Geographic Mosaic of Climate Change Impacts on Terrestrial Vegetation: Which Areas Are Most at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, David D; Cornwell, William K; Weiss, Stuart B; Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate projected for the 21st century are expected to trigger widespread and pervasive biotic impacts. Forecasting these changes and their implications for ecosystem services is a major research goal. Much of the research on biotic responses to climate change has focused on either projected shifts in individual species distributions or broad-scale changes in biome distributions. Here, we introduce a novel application of multinomial logistic regression as a powerful approach to model vegetation distributions and potential responses to 21st century climate change. We modeled the distribution of 22 major vegetation types, most defined by a single dominant woody species, across the San Francisco Bay Area. Predictor variables included climate and topographic variables. The novel aspect of our model is the output: a vector of relative probabilities for each vegetation type in each location within the study domain. The model was then projected for 54 future climate scenarios, spanning a representative range of temperature and precipitation projections from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. We found that sensitivity of vegetation to climate change is highly heterogeneous across the region. Surprisingly, sensitivity to climate change is higher closer to the coast, on lower insolation, north-facing slopes and in areas of higher precipitation. While such sites may provide refugia for mesic and cool-adapted vegetation in the face of a warming climate, the model suggests they will still be highly dynamic and relatively sensitive to climate-driven vegetation transitions. The greater sensitivity of moist and low insolation sites is an unexpected outcome that challenges views on the location and stability of climate refugia. Projections provide a foundation for conservation planning and land management, and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the mechanisms and time scales of potential climate-driven vegetation transitions.

  3. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; Evans, J.W. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This document is the final report on surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to gain information that could help prevent or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need of management; federal species of concern were also included. The results of the survey will assist in the effective management of the natural resources of the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal or state listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring of artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The surveys confirmed the presence of 20 threatened and endangered species on the ORR. This report also includes some ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. Finally, this report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  4. Light use efficiency of terrestrial vegetation from remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, G. M.; Guan, K.; Berry, J. A.; Lobell, D. B.; Ryu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Light use efficiency, the rate with which plants use absorbed photons to fix carbon dioxide, is a crucial parameter for estimating terrestrial carbon fluxes. Estimates of light use efficiency lie at the heart of how we model and understand ecosystem productivity. Here, we make use of the recent availability of high-resolution, multi-year records of remotely sensed measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence to refine estimates of light use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale. Directly estimating light use efficiency from remote sensing can help guide the current approach of constraining a theoretical maximum light use efficiency using meteorological data. We explore the usefulness of a derived light use efficiency at the global scale from remotely sensed records of chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetically active radiation, and canopy leaf area. Our estimates of light use efficiency show good agreement with light use efficiency calculated using Fluxtower data spanning several continents and a wide variety of ecosystems. We further benchmark our approach against the light use efficiency estimated from a variety of ecosystem models, such as BESS. Further refinement of our proposed technique promises to advance our ability to detect ecosystem stresses and further constrain our estimates of carbon fluxes within terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Restoration Div.

    1996-05-01

    Surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to help avoid or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need-of-management; federal species of concern were included. Results of the survey will also assist in effectively managing the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal- or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The report also includes ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. The report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  6. A reconnaissance survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Smith

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park (NLNP was carried out over a period of two years. The main aims of the survey were to describe the major vegetation communities in the park and to produce a vegetation map of the NLNP Initial differentiation of vegetation units was established by the appearance of the vegetation on aerial photographs Further information was derived from 353 ground plots in which > 20 000 woody plants were identified and measured Thirteen broad vegetation types were recognised in the NLNP Details of their physiognomy, species composition, distribution, topography and edaphic associations are given.  

  7. A bottom-up evolution of terrestrial ecosystem modeling theory, and ideas toward global vegetation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    A primary purpose of this review is to convey lessons learned in the development of a forest ecosystem modeling approach, from it origins in 1973 as a single-tree water balance model to the current regional applications. The second intent is to use this accumulated experience to offer ideas of how terrestrial ecosystem modeling can be taken to the global scale: earth systems modeling. A logic is suggested where mechanistic ecosystem models are not themselves operated globally, but rather are used to 'calibrate' much simplified models, primarily driven by remote sensing, that could be implemented in a semiautomated way globally, and in principle could interface with atmospheric general circulation models (GCM's).

  8. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    compared with forests. Ecosystem respiration was weakly correlated with mean annual temperature across biomes, in spite of within site sensitivity over shorter temporal scales. Mean annual temperature and site water balance explained much of the variation in gross photosynthesis. Water availability limits......The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables...... associated with reduced temperature. The slope of the relation between monthly gross ecosystem production and evapotranspiration was similar between biomes. except for tundra vegetation, showing a strong linkage between carbon gain and water loss integrated over the year (slopes = 3.4 g CO2/kg H2O...

  9. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation 1995 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, E.R.; Mitchell, J.M.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    This progress report discusses surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. These surveys are important to help avoid or minimize potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed as threatened, endangered, or in need of management by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. Currently, there are 69 species of federally or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates that may occur in Tennessee. Not all of these are expected to occur on the ORR, nor do resources permit comprehensive sampling for all of them over the entire ORR. To effectively organize sampling efforts, listed animal species that might be present were targeted using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, species distributions, literature reviews, and personal communications. Sampling was conducted during the time of the year when each targeted species would most likely be encountered. Several trapping and surveying methods were used, including pitfall traps, Sherman traps, seining, artificial covers, and cave and avian surveys.

  10. Response of Terrestrial Vegetation to Variations in Temperature and Aridity Since the Last Glacial Maximum in Lake Chalco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, J. P.; Halbur, J.; Rubesch, M.; Brown, E. T.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Lozano, S.

    2013-05-01

    The water balance of the Southwestern United States and most of Mexico is dependent on regional climate systems, including the Mexican (or North American) Monsoon. The Mexican Monsoon leads to significant summer rainfall across a broad swath of the continent, which constitutes the major source of annual precipitation over much of this region. The position of the ITCZ and the strength of the accompanying monsoon are affected by variability in insolation. Stronger northern hemisphere summer insolation shifts the ITCZ northward, bringing about a more intense monsoon. Here we discuss a new geochemical climate record from Lake Chalco, Mexico, which couples inorganic (X-ray fluorescence) and organic (biomarkers and stable isotopes) geochemical proxies to reconstruct temperature and aridity over the past 45,000 years, as well as the response of terrestrial vegetation to such climate changes. The Basin of Mexico is a high altitude closed lacustrine basin (20°N, 99°W; 2240 m.a.s.l.) in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. The plain of Lake Chalco, located near Mexico City in the southern sub-basin, has an area of 120 km2 and a catchment of 1100 km2. Though the present-day lake has been reduced to a small marsh due to historic diversion of its waters, over longer timescales the lake has been a sensitive recorder of hydroclimatic variations. Low Ca concentrations indicate more arid periods during the late glacial (34 - 15 kybp) compared to the last interstadial or early Holocene. This observation is supported by the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic lipid biomarkers (long vs. short chain n-alkanes), which indicate greater relative inputs of aquatic biomarkers during wetter periods. The changes in aridity as shown in these geochemical proxies are compared with temperature as reflected in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) based paleotemperature proxies to assess the extent to which insolation may have driven aridity variations, and with terrestrial and aquatic biomarker

  11. Global terrestrial isoprene emission models: sensitivity to variability in climate and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its effects on the atmospheric lifetime of methane, the burdens of tropospheric ozone and growth of secondary organic aerosol, isoprene is central among the biogenic compounds that need to be taken into account for assessment of anthropogenic air pollution-climate change interactions. Lack of process-understanding regarding leaf isoprene production as well as of suitable observations to constrain and evaluate regional or global simulation results add large uncertainties to past, present and future emissions estimates. Focusing on contemporary climate conditions, we compare three global isoprene models that differ in their representation of vegetation and isoprene emission algorithm. We specifically aim to investigate the between- and within model variation that is introduced by varying some of the models' main features, and to determine which spatial and/or temporal features are robust between models and different experimental set-ups. In their individual standard configurations, the models broadly agree with respect to the chief isoprene sources and emission seasonality, with maximum monthly emission rates around 20–25 Tg C, when averaged by 30-degree latitudinal bands. They also indicate relatively small (approximately 5 to 10 % around the mean interannual variability of total global emissions. The models are sensitive to changes in one or more of their main model components and drivers (e.g., underlying vegetation fields, climate input which can yield increases or decreases in total annual emissions of cumulatively by more than 30 %. Varying drivers also strongly alters the seasonal emission pattern. The variable response needs to be interpreted in view of the vegetation emission capacities, as well as diverging absolute and regional distribution of light, radiation and temperature, but the direction of the simulated emission changes was not as uniform as anticipated. Our results highlight the need for modellers to evaluate their

  12. [User guide for Vegetation Structure survey at Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat structure user guide for the vegetation structure monitoring survey at Kulm Wetland Management District. This recurring survey happens every year from May...

  13. A survey of some insect pests of cultivated vegetables in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of some insect pests of cultivated vegetables in three selected irrigation areas along Jakara River, Kano, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The survey aimed at identifying insect pests that attack vegetables grown in three irrigation areas along Jakara River in Kano, Nigeria.

  14. A case for a vegetation survey in a developing country based on Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Müller

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a vegetation survey in Zimbabwe, a developing country, is discussed. It is proposed that such a survey should produce a classification which is based on floristic criteria, and in which the vegetation types relate as nearly as possible to homogeneous environmental units. The practical application of such a classification is outlined with reference to the management of natural vegetation resources, land use planning and the preservation of species diversity.

  15. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  16. Detailed Geomorphological survey in a recently deglaciated area by Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Francelino, Marcio; Schünemann, Adriano Luis; Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Inacio Fernandes Filho, Elpidio; Araujo Almeida, Pedro Henrique; Thomazini, Andre

    2017-04-01

    High resolution topographic surveys are important tools to model landscapes, especially in zones subjected to strong environmental changes, such as Antarctica, where landforms are highly influenced by glacial retreat and permafrost melting. The aim of this work was to map geomorphological features in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, by using Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The survey was performed in 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 during the austral summer, by means of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) model VZ-1000 of Rigel. In order to cover the entire Peninsula, the TLS equipment was installed in 81 different points. After processing, a cloud with more than 5 million points was generated, spatially well distributed, enabling the generalization process to obtain surface models with high performance. Hence, ultra-details of the different landscape features on the peninsula were studied. Results obtained were compared with a geomorphological map previously produced from the analysis of aerial photographs in the same area. Different limits were observed between the two techniques, mostly regarding sizes, allowing the identification of new landscape features. Depositional features are the most common landforms in Keller Peninsula, encompassing scree slopes, protalus, morainas and talus. Rock outcrops are common, forming prominent scarpments, feeding talus and protalus. Small patterned-ground soil areas were distinguished by the TLS. The use of TLS allowed the mapping of landforms with high resolution needed for environmental monitoring.

  17. Vegetation of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana: Recent Plant Communities with Comparison to a Three-Decade-Old Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent vegetation surveys of the Lacassine Pool within Lacassine NWR are compared to a survey published in 1974 in an effort to document changes in vegetation...

  18. Combining terrestrial laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry for fast and lightweight surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Dario

    2015-04-01

    To create detailed and accurate 3D maps of small- to medium-sized areas surveyors often turn to a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A TLS can make thousands of lidar measurements per second with centimeter-level accuracy even at long ranges, using scanning mirrors to aim the laser up/down and left/right for full coverage of the target area. One limitation of using a TLS is that complex objects may require many more TLS survey positions than simpler ones. Since protrusions may block line of sight to certain areas that can only be seen from particular angles, surveyors must survey from several additional locations to make sure the entire area is covered. This is particularly true for setups where the scanner cannot be elevated to gain line of sight to all the areas that are required to be surveyed. To resolve this issue, surveyors often turn to aerial survey vehicles. An aerial vehicle's bird's-eye perspective resolves features easily and its mobility lets the surveyor quickly capture the whole survey region from multiple angles. To survey more efficiently, surveyors can combine the strengths of TLS and airborne systems, resulting in a cost-effective method of mapping small- to medium-sized sites with 3D data and imagery. This process uses a standard TLS to survey from a few points around the area of interest, particularly vertical faces that would be difficult to survey from the air. Simultaneously, the surveyor uses a lightweight UAV equipped with a camera, gimbal, and basic GPS receiver to collect photogrammetric imagery over the site. During post-processing, the aerial imagery is processed to create 3D data of its own using automated triangulation software. This aerial 3D data is then merged with the 3D data created by the TLS. The aerial 3D data is discarded where it conflicts with the more precise TLS data, but is used to fill in the gaps in the areas where the TLS could not collect any data at all. Finally, the resultant 3D data is merged with the original

  19. A Survey Of Vegetation for The Erie Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains the results of an inventory conducted on the vegetation present at the Erie Wildlife Refuge. Its intent is to provide base information for later...

  20. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge personal conducted a vegetative transect using the five-point sampling method in September of 1981 in the East Marsh of Presquile National Wildlife Refuge....

  1. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five point vegetation sampling was conducted in both marshes on Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1972. No management occur red on either natural marsh between...

  2. Wetland Vegetation Survey Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge personal conducted a vegetative transect using the five-point sampling method in September of 1983 in the East Marsh of Presquile National Wildlife Refuge....

  3. Special-Status Plant Species Surveys and Vegetation Mapping at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R E

    2006-10-03

    This report presents the results of Jones & Stokes special-status plant surveys and vegetation mapping for the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Special-status plant surveys were conducted at Site 300 in April to May 1997 and in March to April 2002. Eight special-status plants were identified at Site 300: large-flowered fiddleneck, big tarplant, diamond-petaled poppy, round-leaved filaree, gypsum-loving larkspur, California androsace, stinkbells, and hogwallow starfish. Maps identifying the locations of these species, a discussion of the occurrence of these species at Site 300, and a checklist of the flora of Site 300 are presented. A reconnaissance survey of the LLNL Livermore Site was conducted in June 2002. This survey concluded that no special-status plants occur at the Livermore Site. Vegetation mapping was conducted in 2001 at Site 300 to update a previous vegetation study done in 1986. The purpose of the vegetation mapping was to update and to delineate more precisely the boundaries between vegetation types and to map vegetation types that previously were not mapped. The vegetation map is presented with a discussion of the vegetation classification used.

  4. LBA-ECO ND-11 Ecotone Vegetation Survey and Biomass, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a vegetation survey along transects across the transition zones between the three major forest types in the seasonally...

  5. [Structure and composition of terrestrial molluscs assemblages on the mogote vegetation complex of Escaleras de Jaruco, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Quinta, Maike; Reyes Tur, Bernardo

    2013-12-01

    Cuba has one of the richest land snail faunas of the world. This important fact has promoted different kind of studies on this group to promote conservation programs, from which many studies have directed their efforts to inventories, and population and community ecology. To contribute with this population knowledge, we studied land snails assemblages in three karstic elevations at the "Escaleras de Jaruco-Tapaste-Cheche" Natural Protected Landscape, Mayabeque, Cuba. We aimed to analyze the variation of the composition and structure of the assemblages between the rainy and little rainy months. The study was conducted from August to November 2009 and from January to April, 2010, in ten permanent square plots (9 m2) separated for over 20 m, on each elevation (Beluca, La Chirigota and La Jaula). In each plot, only live individuals were registered (physiologically active and at rest) to obtain species richness and abundance; besides, temperature (degree C) and relative humidity (%) were also considered in each plot. A total of 4248 individuals were observed which comprised two subclasses, five orders, 11 families, 20 genera and 21 species of terrestrial molluscs. From the total, 19 were Cuban endemics and eight were exclusive from Mayabeque, Matanzas. The Jaula showed the greater riches with 19 species, followed of Beluca with 17, and The Chirigota with 15. In the rainy months, La Jaula, showed individual's greater abundance with 1707, followed of Beluca with 1305 and La Chirigota with 1236. We observed differences in the population density in the three elevations between the rainy and little rainy months, which can be due to the climatic adverse conditions that are shown at the little rainy months. Additionally, during the survey we observed dominance of prosobranch species over the pulmonates. The specific abundance curves showed a steep slope, although was major in the rainy months in relation to the little rain months, which indicates the presence of dominant

  6. Characterizing Spatial-Temporal Variations in Vegetation Phenology over the North-South Transect of Northeast Asia Based upon the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to establish a broad regional phenological pattern for Northeast Asia using time-series data of the satellite measured index of terrestrial chlorophyll content (MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index from 2003 to 2007. A suite of phenological variables were extracted from 4 integral seasons of time-series Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI of World Wildlife Fund (WWF ecoregions smoothed by an asymmetric Gaussian model. In this study, spatial variation with latitude was observed for the chlorophyll content and phenological variables for natural vegetation across north-south transect of northeast Asia (NSTNEA. The onset of greenness for most ecoregions followed a latitudinal pattern with an earlier onset of greenness at lower latitudes. In general, the length of growing season was higher at lower latitudes. For forests in NSTNEA, the average maximum MTCI value and range of MTCI value at lower latitudes were significantly larger than that at higher latitudes during the study period. In addition, the cumulative CV showed a declining trend with an increase in latitude overall. Our findings suggest that although precipitation plays a promoting role, temperature is still the dominant factor in vegetation phenological period at high latitudes.

  7. LANDSLIDE MONITORING USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER: GEOREFERENCING AND CANOPY FILTERING ISSUES IN A CASE STUDY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Barbarella; M. Fiani

    2012-01-01

    ... road and to a major railway line in Italy. To survey the landslide we used three different models of Terrestrial Laser Scanners, including a "full wave form" one, potentially useful for filtering vegetation from the data...

  8. Terrestrial invertebrate abundance in the Elwha River estuary, Washington, in 2007 and 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents terrestrial invertebrate abundance data from samples collected in emergent and shrub vegetation along the edge of the Elwha...

  9. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  10. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  11. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  12. Estimation of vegetation photosynthetic capacity from space-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence for terrestrial biosphere models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Berry, Joseph A; Joiner, Joanna; van der Tol, Christiaan; Huete, Alfredo; Gitelson, Anatoly; Voigt, Maximilian; Köhler, Philipp

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis simulations by terrestrial biosphere models are usually based on the Farquhar's model, in which the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax ) is a key control parameter of photosynthetic capacity. Even though Vcmax is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental controls, it is typically parameterized in models with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. Remote sensing can be used to produce a spatially continuous and temporally resolved view on photosynthetic efficiency, but traditional vegetation observations based on spectral reflectance lack a direct link to plant photochemical processes. Alternatively, recent space-borne measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can offer an observational constraint on photosynthesis simulations. Here, we show that top-of-canopy SIF measurements from space are sensitive to Vcmax at the ecosystem level, and present an approach to invert Vcmax from SIF data. We use the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) balance model to derive empirical relationships between seasonal Vcmax and SIF which are used to solve the inverse problem. We evaluate our Vcmax estimation method at six agricultural flux tower sites in the midwestern US using spaced-based SIF retrievals. Our Vcmax estimates agree well with literature values for corn and soybean plants (average values of 37 and 101 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively) and show plausible seasonal patterns. The effect of the updated seasonally varying Vcmax parameterization on simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) is tested by comparing to simulations with fixed Vcmax values. Validation against flux tower observations demonstrate that simulations of GPP and light use efficiency improve significantly when our time-resolved Vcmax estimates from SIF are used, with R(2) for GPP comparisons increasing from 0.85 to 0.93, and for light use efficiency from 0.44 to 0.83. Our results support the use of

  13. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Uses of Screener Estimates in CHIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.

  14. Evaluation of short-term geomorphic changes along the Tagliamento river using LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanner surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rainato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years a change in the predominant morphology of several river environments has taken place, consisting in a reduction of the braided pattern in favor to wandering or straight configurations. This evolution seems to be due, according to the scientific community, to anthropic causes and, in particular, to the alteration of flow regimes as well as the reduction of sediment transport. Braided rivers are characterized by two or more active channels, separated by bars and fluvial islands and normally feature a high morphological dynamism. This dynamism is the result of the interaction among different elements as sediment supply, flow regime and in-channel and perifluvial vegetation. These factors have a fundamental role in the erosion and deposition processes which are the basis of the morphological changes. The aims of this study are the assessment of the short period geomorphic and volumetric changes occurred along a reach of the Tagliamento River and the comparison between the results obtained from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner data. The Tagliamento river is a natural gravel-bed river located in the NE of Italy, characterized by a relatively low degree of human disturbances. The analyses were carried out considering two different scales (a reach of about 430 ha and a sub-reach of about 25 ha and were based on two subsequent datasets in order to investigate the shortterm geomorphic changes due to eight significant floods. The surveys were performed using two different datasets derived from LiDAR and TLS technologies and used to analyze the reach and sub-reach respectively. The short-term estimates of geomorphic and volumetric changes were performed using DEMs of Difference (DoD based on a Fuzzy Inference System. The results have confirmed the high dynamism of the Tagliamento river, estimating a prevalent deposition at reach and a predominant erosion at sub-reach levels. Finally, a comparative

  15. Developing a global mixed-canopy, height-variable vegetation structure dataset for estimating global vegetation albedo by a clumped canopy radiative transfer scheme in the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model and GISS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Carlo; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Yang, Wenze; Schaaf, Crystal; Aleinov, Igor; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Sun, Qingsong; Carrer, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Processes determining biosphere-atmosphere coupling are strongly influenced by vegetation structure. Thus, ecosystem carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration affecting global carbon and water balances will depend upon the spatial extent of vegetation, its vertical structure, and its physiological variability. To represent this globally, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) coupled to General Circulation Models (GCMs) make use of satellite and/or model-based vegetation classifications often composed by homogeneous communities. This work aims at developing a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) by incorporating varying vegetation heights for mixed plant communities to be used as boundary conditions to the Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010) incorporated into the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), the DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. Information sources about land surface and vegetation characteristics obtained from a number of earth observation platforms and algorithms include the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), soil albedo derived from MODIS (Carrer et al., 2014), along with vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014). Three widely used Leaf Area Index (LAI) products are compared as input to the GVSD and ACTS forcing in terms of vegetation albedo: Global Data Sets of Vegetation (LAI)3g (Zhu et al. 2013), Beijing Normal University LAI (Yuan et al., 2011), and MODIS MOD15A2H product (Yang et al., 2006). Further PFT partitioning is performed according to a climate classification utilizing the Climate Research Unit (CRU; Harris et al., 2013) and the NOAA Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC; Scheider et al., 2014) data. Final

  16. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  17. Impact of mixed survey modes on physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R Nigg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended that researchers who use mixed modal methods for data collection compare their impact on outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption behaviors of a multiethnic sample of adults, comparing participants who continued a telephone survey and those who transitioned from a telephone to a web-based survey for a follow-up data collection point. This longitudinal study used a random sample of 700 Hawaii residents (63.3% Female; Mean age=47, SD=17.1. At baseline, participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing the stage, behavior, and decisional balance of both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. For the three-month follow-up survey, participants were given the option of completing the survey either on the web or by phone. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was computed for related physical activity scales and fruit/vegetable consumption variables to compare the change in response across time between a web group and phone group. For both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption, all mode-by-time interactions were significant. The participants who preferred the telephone survey maintained their levels, whereas those who preferred the web survey reported a decrease in each variable. These results suggest that changing the mode of a survey may introduce a systematic bias in data and that researchers should proceed with caution when using mixed modes of data collection.

  18. Application of Integrated Photogrammetric and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data to Cultural Heritage Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning technology has a wide spectrum of applications, from land surveying, civil engineering and architecture to archaeology. The technology is capable of obtaining, in a short time, accurate coordinates of points which represent the surface of objects. Scanning of buildings is therefore a process which ensures obtaining information on all structural elements a building. The result is a point cloud consisting of millions of elements which are a perfect source of information on the object and its surrounding. The photogrammetric techniques allow documenting an object in high resolution in the form of orthophoto plans, or are a basis to develop 2D documentation or obtain point clouds for objects and 3D modelling. Integration of photogrammetric data and TLS brings a new quality in surveying historic monuments. Historic monuments play an important cultural and historical role. Centuries-old buildings require constant renovation and preservation of their structural and visual invariability while maintaining safety of people who use them. The full process of surveying allows evaluating the actual condition of monuments and planning repairs and renovations. Huge sizes and specific types of historic monuments cause problems in obtaining reliable and full information on them. The TLS technology allows obtaining such information in a short time and is non-invasive. A point cloud is not only a basis for developing architectural and construction documentation or evaluation of actual condition of a building. It also is a real visualization of monuments and their entire environment. The saved image of object surface can be presented at any time and place. A cyclical TLS survey of historic monuments allows detecting structural changes and evaluating damage and changes that cause deformation of monument’s components. The paper presents application of integrated photogrammetric data and TLS illustrated on an example of historic monuments from southern

  19. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  20. Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  1. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM): a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlick, R.; Drewry, D. T.; Bohn, K.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-06-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical plant functional types (PFTs). There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM) as a new approach to terrestrial biosphere modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly generated plant growth strategies, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a strategy is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other strategies. The biogeochemical fluxes and land surface properties of the individual strategies are aggregated to the grid-cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. We evaluate the simulated global biogeochemical patterns against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favourably with other state-of-the-art global vegetation models. We also evaluate the simulated patterns of functional diversity and the sensitivity of the JeDi-DGVM modelling approach to the number of sampled strategies. Altogether, the results demonstrate the parsimonious and flexible

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  4. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Hermit Crabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Land-crabs in the genus Coenobita play an influential role in shaping the species composition and structure of the terrestrial community in the tropical Central...

  5. To what extent can vegetation change and plant stress be surveyed by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toemmervik, Hans

    1998-12-31

    Air pollution from the nickel processing industry in the Kola region of Russia accounts for a large part of the environmental problems in the north-eastern parts of Norway and Finland. The objectives of this thesis were to examine if vegetation damage and plant stress can be surveyed by remote sensing and to assess the use of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to detect plant stress in the field. The study was carried out in the border area between Norway and Russia. Two spaceborne and one airborne sensors were used. Changes in vegetation cover could be monitored with a degree of accuracy varying from 75 to 83%. A hybrid classification method monitored changes in both lichen dominated vegetation and in vegetation cover types dominated by dwarf shrubs and green plants, which were significantly associated with the differences in SO{sub 2} emission during the period from 1973 to 1994. Vegetation indices, change detection maps and prediction maps provided information on biomass and coverage of green vegetation. This was associated with the differences in the SO{sub 2} emissions during the same period. The vegetation and land cover types with the greatest stress and damage had the largest modelled SO{sub 2} concentration levels in the ground air layer while the vegetation cover types with the lowest degree of stress had the lowest. Comparison of the airborne casi map with the previously processed Landsat TM map from the same area showed that the casi map separated the complete vegetation cover into more detail than the Landsat TM map. The casi images indicated a red-edge shift for the medium to heavily damaged vegetation cover types. Problems with using airborne remote sensing by casi include variable clouds, lack of synoptic view, and cost. The variation in chlorophyll fluorescence of 11 plant species at 16 sites was most influenced by precipitation, temperature and continentality. 373 refs., 49 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Proceedings of the international workshop on the effects of acid precipitation on vegetation, soils, and terrestrial ecosystems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, June 12 to 14, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop were to determine the levels of current knowledge of the effects of acid precipitation on vegetation, soils, and terrestrial ecosystems; research needed in these areas to understand the environmental impacts of acid rain; and to help coordinate research groups to avoid excessive duplication of research. The workshop was designed so that researchers in the areas of effects of acid precipitation on vegetation, soils, and whole ecosystem approaches could communicate effectively. There was a general consensus that acid rain at extreme ambient levels, or in artificial systems that simulate extreme ambient levels, causes injury to plant tissues. A major area of concern of acid rain injury was thought to be plant reproduction. The overall levels of significance of plant injury among various plant species remain unknown. The most important priorities in the area of effects of acid rain on crops were an evaluation of effects on crop yields and interaction of acid rain in combination with pollutants on various plants. Few participants thought that ambient acid rain loadings have altered soils to such a degree that plants are affected at present, but many thought that acid rain could cause some alterations in soils. The most important research priorities were in the areas of the effects of acid rain on increased leaching of exchangeable plant nutrients and alterations in phosphorous availability. All participants agreed that there are alterations in terrestrial ecosystems from acid precipitation. However, no demonstrated harmful effects were presented from natural ecosystems. Further research on the effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems should be directed mostly toward the interaction of acid rain with toxic elements such as Al, Fe, and Mn and on the effects on nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen.

  7. Developing a global mixed-canopy, height-variable vegetation structure dataset for estimating global vegetation albedo and biomass in the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model and GISS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Kiang, N. Y.; Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.; Schaaf, C.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.; Zhao, F. A.; Yao, T.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining biosphere-atmosphere coupling are strongly influenced by vegetation structure. Thus, ecosystem carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration affecting global carbon and water balances will depend upon the spatial extent of vegetation, its vertical structure, and its physiological variability. To represent this globally, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) coupled to General Circulation Models (GCMs) make use of satellite and/or model-based vegetation classifications often composed by homogeneous communities. This work aims at developing a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) by incorporating varying vegetation heights for mixed plant communities to be used as input to the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), the DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. Information sources include the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014) along with the Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI)3g (Zhu et al. 2013). Further PFT partitioning is performed according to a climate classification utilizing the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and the NOAA Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) data. Final products are a GVSD consisting of mixed plant communities (e.g. mixed forests, savannas, mixed PFTs) following the Ecosystem Demography model (Moorcroft et al., 2001) approach represented by multi-cohort community patches at the sub-grid level of the GCM, which are ensembles of identical individuals whose differences are represented by PFTs, canopy height, density and vegetation structure sensitivity to allometric parameters. To assess the sensitivity of the GISS GCM to vegetation structure, we produce a range of estimates of Ent TBM biomass and plant

  8. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Scoring Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  9. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  10. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M V Fragoso

    Full Text Available Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11-40% of village and control sites or on 29-72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in

  12. The role of terrestrial vegetation in mercury deposition: fate of stable mercury isotopes applied to upland and wetland forest canopies during the METAALICUS experiment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Lindberg, S. E.; Sandilands, K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Harris, R.; Emmerton, C. A.; Richardson, M.; Asmath, H.

    2009-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an organic, neurotoxic form of mercury (Hg) that is responsible for fish consumption advisories in North American freshwaters. It is generally believed that increases in anthropogenic Hg emissions have resulted in high MeHg concentrations of fish. However, a direct relationship between deposition of inorganic Hg(II) and concentrations of MeHg in fish has been difficult to demonstrate because of our inability to distinguish newly-deposited Hg from Hg accumulated historically in ecosystems. The Mercury Experiment to Assess Atmospheric Loading In Canada and the US (METAALICUS) increased atmospheric inputs of mercury (Hg) to a small lake and its watershed to levels comparable to those in more industrialized regions. Between 2001 and 2006, three different enriched stable isotopes of Hg (spikes) were loaded to the watershed, one each to the surface of the lake (200Hg), the wetland (198Hg) and the forested upland (202Hg) areas of the catchment to determine the relative contribution of these sources to fish MeHg concentrations. Terrestrial vegetation often represents the first landscape compartment that new atmospheric Hg contacts upon deposition, and plants act as conduits of atmospheric Hg to the landscape. We will present pools and fluxes of spike Hg within upland and wetland canopy and ground vegetation compartments. Our Geographical Information Systems-based modeling approach to calculating spike pools used aircraft spray tracks, regressions between spike application rate and concentrations of spike in vegetation, a LiDAR-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) map and relationships between LAI and canopy biomass. We observed that 30-50% of spike Hg applied to the upland and wetland was initially intercepted by the forest canopy. Average half lives of spike Hg on deciduous (110±30 days) and coniferous (180±40 days) forest canopy and ground vegetation (890±620 days) indicated that retention of new atmospheric Hg(II) on terrestrial vegetation delays

  13. Consistent assimilation of MERIS FAPAR and atmospheric CO2 into a terrestrial vegetation model and interactive mission benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-P. Mathieu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial biosphere is currently a strong sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Through the radiative properties of CO2, the strength of this sink has a direct influence on the radiative budget of the global climate system. The accurate assessment of this sink and its evolution under a changing climate is, hence, paramount for any efficient management strategies of the terrestrial carbon sink to avoid dangerous climate change. Unfortunately, simulations of carbon and water fluxes with terrestrial biosphere models exhibit large uncertainties. A considerable fraction of this uncertainty reflects uncertainty in the parameter values of the process formulations within the models. This paper describes the systematic calibration of the process parameters of a terrestrial biosphere model against two observational data streams: remotely sensed FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation provided by the MERIS (ESA's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer sensor and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 provided by the GLOBALVIEW flask sampling network. We use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to systematically calibrate some 70 parameters of the terrestrial BETHY (Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology model. The simultaneous assimilation of all observations provides parameter estimates and uncertainty ranges that are consistent with the observational information. In a subsequent step these parameter uncertainties are propagated through the model to uncertainty ranges for predicted carbon fluxes. We demonstrate the consistent assimilation at global scale, where the global MERIS FAPAR product and atmospheric CO2 are used simultaneously. The assimilation improves the match to independent observations. We quantify how MERIS data improve the accuracy of the current and future (net and gross carbon flux estimates (within and beyond the assimilation period. We further demonstrate the use of an interactive mission benefit

  14. Long-term vegetation monitoring in Great Britain - the Countryside Survey 1978-2007 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Smart, Simon M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Maskell, Lindsay C.; Howard, David C.; Scott, W. Andrew; Henrys, Peter A.

    2017-07-01

    The Countryside Survey (CS) of Great Britain provides a globally unique series of datasets, consisting of an extensive set of repeated ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 29 years. CS was first undertaken in 1978 to monitor ecological and land use change in Britain using standardised procedures for recording ecological data from representative 1 km squares throughout the country. The same sites, with some additional squares, were used for subsequent surveys of vegetation undertaken in 1990, 1998 and 2007, with the intention of future surveys. Other data records include soils, freshwater habitats and invertebrates, and land cover and landscape feature diversity and extents. These data have been recorded in the same locations on analogous dates. However, the present paper describes only the details of the vegetation surveys. The survey design is a series of gridded, stratified, randomly selected 1 km squares taken as representative of classes derived from a statistical environmental classification of Britain. In the 1978 survey, 256 one-kilometre sample squares were recorded, increasing to 506 in 1990, 569 in 1998 and 591 in 2007. Initially each square contained up to 11 dispersed vegetation plots but additional plots were later placed in different features so that eventually up to 36 additional sampling plots were recorded, all of which can be relocated where possible (unless the plot has been lost, for example as a consequence of building work), providing a total of 16 992 plots by 2007. Plots are estimated to have a precise relocation accuracy of 85 %. A range of plots located in different land cover types and landscape features (for example, field boundaries) are included. Although a range of analyses have already been carried out, with changes in the vegetation being related to a range of drivers at local and national scales, there is major potential for further analyses, for example in relation to climate change. Although the

  15. Monitoring Australian Continental Land Cover Changes Using Landsat Imagery as a Component of Assessing the Role of Vegetation Dynamics on Terrestrial Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccetta, P.; Waterworth, R.; Furby, S.; Richards, G.

    2010-12-01

    Land use and land use change are significant drivers of the interchange between atmospheric and terrestrial carbon pools. Agriculture and forestry are of particular interest. Changes can be both abrupt, through say clearing of forest for agriculture, or gradual, such as accumulation through growth or vegetation responses to changing climate conditions, such as the amount of rainfall. To quantify the emissions consequences of land use and land use change in Australia, the capability for continental monitoring using Landsat data has been developed through collaboration between the Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), and other private and public sector partners. In this paper we provide an overview of this national program and some samples of the results.

  16. Diversity and abundance of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial habitats studied by 16S RNA surveys and real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Selezi, Drazenka; Quaiser, Achim; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Liza; Schleper, Christa

    2003-09-01

    Novel phylogenetic lineages of as yet uncultivated crenarchaeota have been frequently detected in low to moderate-temperature, marine and terrestrial environments. In order to gain a more comprehensive view on the distribution and diversity of Crenarchaeota in moderate habitats, we have studied 18 different terrestrial and freshwater samples by 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic surveys. In seven different soil samples of diverse geographic areas in Europe (forest, grassland, ruderal) and Asia (permafrost, ruderal) as well as in two microbial mats, we have consistently found one particular lineage of crenarchaeota. The diversity of Crenarchaeota in freshwater sediments was considerably higher with respresentative 16S rDNA sequences distributed over four different groups within the moderate crenarchaeota. Systematic analysis of a 16S rDNA universal library from a sandy ecosystem containing 800 clones exclusively revealed the presence of the soil-specific crenarchaeotal cluster. With primers specific for non-thermophilic crenarchaeota we established a rapid method to quantify archaeal 16S rDNA in real time PCR. The relative abundance of crenarchaeotal rDNA was 0.5-3% in the bulk soil sample and only 0.16% in the rhizosphere of the sandy ecosystem. A nearby agricultural setting yielded a relative abundance of 0.17% crenarchaeotal rDNA. In total our data suggest that soil crenarchaeota represent a stable and specific component of the microbiota in terrestrial habitats.

  17. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  18. Impact of Holocene terrestrial vegetation succession on the biogeochemical structure and function of an Arctic lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Whiteford, E.; Hopla, E.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Turner, S.; Edwards, M. E.; Jones, V.; McGowan, S.; Wiik, E.; Anderson, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation changes are occurring in the Arctic as warming progresses, a process often referred to as "greening". The northward expansion of woody shrubs influence nutrient cycling in soils, including carbon (C) cycling, but the extent to which they will change the storage or release of carbon at a landscape scale is uncertain. The role that lakes play in this system is not fully understood, but it is known that many lakes in the tundra and northern forests are today releasing carbon dioxide (and methane) into the atmosphere in significant amounts, and a proportion of this carbon comes into the lake from the vegetation and soils of the surrounding landscape. Furthermore, the number of lakes contributing to this gas release has been hitherto underestimated, and it is thus likely that lakes play a far greater role in terms of total gas emissions. In order to assess the relationships between vegetation succession and lake biogeochemical cycling we have studied palaeoenvironmental change in a suite of lakes across the Arctic in a NERC funded project LAC (Lakes and the Arctic Carbon Cycle). This abstract is focused on a full Holocene sequence from an Alaskan Lake (Woody Bottom Pond), with palaeo records of major elements (scanning XRF), diatoms, pollen, stable isotopes and pigments. The small size of the catchment likely leads to strong coupling between catchment processes such as vegetation succession and fire and aquatic biogeochemical responses. For example the arrival of alder is followed by marked shift in diatom assemblage and pigments associated with changes in N cycling. This approach allows us to assess how catchment change affects aquatic ecosystems and the resultant balance between heterotrophy and autotrophy in arctic lakes over long timescales.

  19. Effectiveness of quadrat sampling on terrestrial cave fauna survey - a case study in a Neotropical cave

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elina Bichuette; Luiza Bertelli Simões; Diego Monteiro von Schimonsky; Jonas Eduardo Gallão

    2015-01-01

    Quadrat sampling is a method used for a long time in plant ecology studies but only recently it has been used with focus on fauna. For the cave fauna samplings, there are rare works applying this methodology. The present study compared the methods of quadrat sampling with direct search qualitative for terrestrial cave fauna. For this, we conducted five sampling collections in a limestone cave in central Brazil. Quadrat sampling contributed with 121 exclusive species and 716 specimens and dire...

  20. Assessment of the importance of acidic fogwater and cloudwater in affecting terrestrial vegetation: Some important case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Eagar, C. (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Director of Research; Forest Service, Broomall, PA (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some examples of terrestrial effects of concern as case studies to demonstrate the methodology to be used for answering questions of the NAPAP Integrated Assessment. The two examples presented, one each for forestry and crops, represent what is probably the worst case'' for possible acidic rain effects on crops and forests. Both examples revolve around hypotheses centering on stress from acidic fogwater or cloudwater. Because it is likely that additional information will become available prior to the publication of the Integrated Assessment, it should be understood that the analyses and interpretations presented on the following pages are subject to change when NAPAP publishes its final Assessment in 1990. 76 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Estimation of Vegetation Cover Using Digital Photography in a Regional Survey of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Salas-Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for measuring vegetation cover in Mexican forest surveys are subjective and imprecise. The objectives of this research were to compare the sampling designs used to measure the vegetation cover and estimate the over and understory cover in different land uses, using digital photography. The study was carried out in 754 circular sampling sites in central Mexico. Four spatial sampling designs were evaluated in three spatial distribution patterns of the trees. The sampling designs with photographic captures in diagonal form had lower values of mean absolute error (MAE < 0.12 and less variation in random and grouped patterns. The Carbon and Biomass Sampling Plot (CBSP design was chosen due to its smaller error in the different spatial tree patterns. The image processing was performed using threshold segmentation techniques and was automated through an application developed in the Python language. The two proposed methods to estimate vegetation cover through digital photographs were robust and replicable in all sampling plots with different land uses and different illumination conditions. The automation of the process avoided human estimation errors and ensured the reproducibility of the results. This method is working for regional surveys and could be used in national surveys due to its functionality.

  2. FLEX (Fluorescence Explorer mission: Observation fluorescence as a new remote sensing technique to study the global terrestrial vegetation state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available FLEX (Fluorescence EXplorer is a candidate for the 8th ESA’s Earth Explorer mission. Is the first space mission specifically designed for the estimation of vegetation fluorescence on a global scale. The mission is proposed to fly in tandem with the future ESA´s Sentinel-3 satellite. It is foreseen that the information obtained by Sentinel-3 will be supplemented with that provided by FLORIS (Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer onboard FLEX. FLORIS will measure the radiance between 500 and 800 nm with a bandwidth between 0.1 nm and 2 nm, providing images with a 150 km swath and 300 m pixel size. This information will allow a detailed monitoring of vegetation dynamics, by improving the methods for the estimation of classical biophysical parameters, and by introducing a new one: fluorescence. This paper presents the current status of FLEX mission in A/B1 phase and the different ongoing studies, campaigns and projects carried out in support of the FLEX mission.

  3. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  4. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Pradipasen, Mandhana

    2009-11-01

    To examine the fruit and vegetable consumption in Thailand, the percentage of Thais meeting recommended intakes and the association with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional survey with a stratified, three-stage, cluster probability sampling design. Community-dwelling men and women participating in the Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. A total of 39 290 individuals aged >or=15 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated through the use of a short semi-qualitative FFQ. Overall, participants had average frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption equal to 4.56 and 5.97 d/week, respectively. Average daily number of servings of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables were 1.46, 1.78 and 3.24, respectively. Intake amounts of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables varied by marital status and region, and were lower among males (except for vegetable intake), those of older age, those with low educational attainment, those with low monthly household income and those living in a rural area. Only 1/3, 1/4 and 1/4 of the population consumed the recommended >or=2, >or=3 and >or=5 servings/d for fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables. Sociodemographic factors related to meeting the recommended intake of >or=5 servings/d for fruit plus vegetables included being female (OR = 1.13) and household income >or=50,000 Baht/month (OR = 1.66). The amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed by Thai participants were far below the level of current recommendations. Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables should be targeted more towards low socio-economic groups.

  6. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Definition of Acceptable Dietary Data Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collected on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are coded as frequency and time unit - times per day, week, or month. The data contain some values that are very unlikely.

  7. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server. PMID:26958614

  8. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server.

  9. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  10. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  11. Effectiveness of quadrat sampling on terrestrial cave fauna survey - a case study in a Neotropical cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elina Bichuette

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quadrat sampling is a method used for a long time in plant ecology studies but only recently it has been used with focus on fauna. For the cave fauna samplings, there are rare works applying this methodology. The present study compared the methods of quadrat sampling with direct search qualitative for terrestrial cave fauna. For this, we conducted five sampling collections in a limestone cave in central Brazil. Quadrat sampling contributed with 121 exclusive species and 716 specimens and direct search qualitative method contributed with 91 exclusive species and 355 specimens. Mann-Whitney test evidenced significant differences between the two methods. We demonstrated that quadrat sampling method was slightly more efficient to analyze the species richness and much more effective to assess the abundance than the use of only direct search qualitative method, mainly considering tiny and/or cryptobiotic invertebrates (e.g., earth worms, symphylans, psocopterans, trichopterans, dipterans, small spiders, and small isopods. We recommend the association of different methods to test patterns in cave fauna, since incomplete sampling may lead to erroneous estimates and equivocated decisions about management, impact studies and cave conservation.

  12. Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2: a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemistry models of the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yude; Melillo, Jerry M; McGuire, A David; Kicklighter, David W; Pitelka, Louis F; Hibbard, Kathy; Pierce, Lars L; Running, Steven W; Ojima, Dennis S; Parton, William J; Schimel, David S

    1998-04-01

    Although there is a great deal of information concerning responses to increases in atmospheric CO2 at the tissue and plant levels, there are substantially fewer studies that have investigated ecosystem-level responses in the context of integrated carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Because our understanding of ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 is incomplete, modeling is a tool that can be used to investigate the role of plant and soil interactions in the response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO2. In this study, we analyze the responses of net primary production (NPP) to doubled CO2 from 355 to 710 ppmv among three biogeochemistry models in the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP): BIOME-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), Century, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). For the conterminous United States, doubled atmospheric CO2 causes NPP to increase by 5% in Century, 8% in TEM, and 11% in BIOME-BGC. Multiple regression analyses between the NPP response to doubled CO2 and the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation of biomes or grid cells indicate that there are negative relationships between precipitation and the response of NPP to doubled CO2 for all three models. In contrast, there are different relationships between temperature and the response of NPP to doubled CO2 for the three models: there is a negative relationship in the responses of BIOME-BGC, no relationship in the responses of Century, and a positive relationship in the responses of TEM. In BIOME-BGC, the NPP response to doubled CO2 is controlled by the change in transpiration associated with reduced leaf conductance to water vapor. This change affects soil water, then leaf area development and, finally, NPP. In Century, the response of NPP to doubled CO2 is controlled by changes in decomposition rates associated with increased soil moisture that results from reduced evapotranspiration. This change affects nitrogen availability for plants, which influences NPP. In

  13. Extensive survey of terrestrial organic carbon in surface sediments of the East Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jorien; Gustafsson, Örjan; Alling, Vanja; Sánchez-García, Laura; van Dongen, Bart; Andersson, Per; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Eglinton, Tim

    2010-05-01

    The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is the largest and shallowest continental shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean, yet it is the least explored. The perenially frozen tundra and taiga of the circum-Arctic coastal area holds approximately half of the global belowground carbon pool. Significant amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) are exported with the Great Siberian Arctic rivers to the shelf seas. In addition, the carbon-rich, ice-bound Yedoma coasts in East Siberia release significant amounts of Pleistocene carbon through thermal degradation and coastal erosion. The fate of these large-scale releases of terrOC in the East Siberian Shelf Sea is still poorly understood. The urgency of this research is accentuated by the fact that the East-Siberian Arctic landmass is experiencing the strongest climate warming on Earth, with a great potential for various carbon-climate feedback links. During the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08), a 50-day research expedition onboard the Russian vessel Yakob Smirnitskiy in late summer 2008, we obtained surface sediments from over 60 ESS locations. The data obtained after bulk analyses of these sediments are combined with results obtained from previous ESS campaigns in 2003 and 2004 to facilitate a comprehensive investigation of the ESS surface sediment composition. Sedimentary OC contents were between 0.13 and 3.7% (median 1.02%, interquartile range 0.563) with the highest values near the Indigirka and Kolyma river mouths and in the Long Strait. Stable carbon isotope values were in the range of -27.4 to -21.2 per mill (median -25.3 per mill, interquartile range 2.04), with more depleted values close to the coast. A clear transition was observed east of 170° E with more enriched values, signalling a regime shift with stronger influence of the Pacific Ocean. The terrOC fraction in the surface sediments was estimated from the 13C data to be on average 70% for ESS as a whole, with maximal values of 90-100% (along most of the

  14. A Survey of Terrestrial Approaches to the Challenge of Lunar Dust Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Tatiana; Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous technical challenges exist to successfully extend lunar surface exploration beyond the tantalizing first steps of Apollo. Among these is the challenge of lunar dust intrusion into the cabin environment. Addressing this challenge includes the design of barriers to intrusion as well as techniques for removing the dust from the cabin atmosphere. Opportunities exist for adapting approaches employed in dusty industrial operations and pristine manufacturing environments to cabin environmental quality maintenance applications. A survey of process technologies employed by the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, food processing, and mining industries offers insight into basic approaches that may be suitable for adaptation to lunar surface exploration applications.

  15. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y; Hantoro, Inneke; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of changes in the content of phytochemicals. The survey on preparation practices was performed with food service establishments (n = 123) and households (n = 477) in Semarang, Indonesia, and assessed the food handlers' perception of the health benefits of these vegetables. Boiling and stir-frying are the most frequently applied techniques to prepare Brassicas. The respondents perceive that steaming, boiling, and stir-frying result in vegetables with a high health benefit. White cabbage and choysum are the most frequently prepared Brassicas. However, broccoli is perceived as the healthiest. The consequences of the various applied preparation techniques on the content of alleged health promoting phytochemicals (glucosinolates) in dishes containing Brassica vegetables are discussed.

  16. A decade of modern cave surveying with terrestrial laser scanning: A review of sensors, method and application development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Mohammed Oludare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the need to survey and model caves or caverns in their correct three-dimensional geometry has increased due to two major competing motivations. One is the emergence of medium and long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technology that can collect high point density with unprecedented accuracy and speed, and two, the expanding sphere of multidisciplinary research in understanding the origin and development of cave, called speleogenesis. Accurate surveying of caves has always been fundamental to understanding their origin and processes that lead to their current state and as well provide tools and information to predict future. Several laser scanning surveys have been carried out in many sophisticated cave sites around the world over the last decade for diverse applications; however, no comprehensive assessment of this development has been published to date. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D scanning in caves during the last decade. It examines a bibliography of almost fifty high quality works published in various international journals related to mapping caves in their true 3D geometry with focus on sensor design, methodology and data processing, and application development. The study shows that a universal standard method for 3D scanning has been established. The method provides flexible procedures that make it adaptable to suit different geometric conditions in caves. Significant progress has also been recorded in terms of physical design and technical capabilities. Over time, TLS devices have seen a reduction in size, and become more compact and lighter, with almost full panoramic coverage. Again, the speed, resolution, and measurement accuracy of scanners have improved tremendously, providing a wealth of information for the expanding sphere of emerging applications. Comparatively, point cloud processing packages are not left out of the development. They are more efficient in terms of

  17. The pros and cons of topographic surveys using terrestrial or airborne platforms and their applicability in ICZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are very dynamic land-ocean interfaces, shaped by natural and human factors. Coasts are often densely occupied and modified by man-made structures, changing their natural dynamics and their ability to adapt to changing environments. Over the last decades, coastal erosion has become a serious problem threatening not only local economies but also valuable habitats, such as dunes, lagoons and salt marshes. The assessment of coastal morphology and its dynamics is essential to quantify and understand changes, particularly those due to climate hazards and human intervention. We present several observation systems used to obtain digital elevation models: a video-based terrestrial mobile mapping system (MMS, a plane and two low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (AUV equipped with digital cameras. The systems are compared in terms of their features, the information they can provide and their applicability in ICZM. Methods differ in terms of: operating conditions, ease of deployment, costs (both in terms of time and money and in the terrain and area they can cover. They also differ in precision (between less than 5 and 20 cm, depending on equipment and flight height, though all of the proposed systems are precise enough to assess changes in morphology that exceed short-term variations. Terrestrial mobile mapping systems are easy to deploy and suited to cover a few square kilometres, but they need adequate access. An airplane is much more efficient and less invasive. It covers any type of terrain but implies more costs, logistics and equipment. UAV, like delta wings and small helicopters are better suited for small areas. Delta wings are faster, but helicopters are more flexible in their movement. They are limited by battery life, and cannot be used with stronger winds (above ~20 km/h. The choice of an observation system will depend on the specific survey objectives and on the characteristics of the surveyed area. Type and accessibility of the

  18. Analysis of subglacial hydrodynamics and ice dynamics through combined terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Rüttimann, Sébastien; Micheletti, Natan; Irving, James; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    This study shows how high resolution surveys of subglacial channel morphology combined with high resolution terrestrial laser scanner survey of an Alpine glacier help to understand subglacial hydrological forcing of ice dynamics. The study area is the Haut Glacier d'Arolla in Switzerland, an Alpine valley glacier for which subglacial drainage system has been well studied. A new generation of terrestrial laser scanners was used to investigate glacier surface ablation and other elements of glacial hydrodynamics at exceptionally high spatial and temporal resolution. The LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner, with a laser 3B specifically designed for measurements of snow and ice cover surfaces, was tested at seasonal and daily scales. The data revealed spatial variations in the patterns of surface melt, controlled by both aspect and differential debris cover at the seasonal scale, and controlled by ogive-related differences in ice surface debris content at the daily scale. More tentatively, intra-daily scale measurements pointed to possible hydraulic jacking of the glacier associated with short-term water pressure rises at the downstream part of the glacier. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) field campaign was conducted a year later in the location where possible hydraulic jacking had been detected previously. The aims of this campaign were (i) to assess GPR usage for subglacial channel detection; (ii) identify more precisely the channel morphology; and (iii) investigate further the hydraulic jacking hypothesis. 100 MHz antennas were used to map a 240 x 34 m area near the glacier snout where the ice thickness did not exceed 50 m. The corresponding data, after processing, allowed reconstruction of the bed topography and the morphology of subglacial channels in 3D, showing two of the latter in this area. One channel was followed for approximately 20 m upglacier and corresponding morphology estimates were performed. These data allowed for 3D reconstructions of both the bed

  19. Capability assessment and challenges for quantum technology gravity sensors for near surface terrestrial geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Metje, Nicole; Tuckwell, George

    2017-11-01

    Geophysical surveying is widely used for the location of subsurface features. Current technology is limited in terms of its resolution (thus size of features it can detect) and penetration depth and a suitable technique is needed to bridge the gap between shallow near surface investigation using techniques such as EM conductivity mapping and GPR commonly used to map the upper 5 m below ground surface, and large features at greater depths detectable using conventional microgravity (> 5 m below ground surface). This will minimise the risks from unknown features buried in and conditions of the ground during civil engineering work. Quantum technology (QT) gravity sensors potentially offer a step-change in technology for locating features which lie outside of the currently detectable range in terms of size and depth, but that potential is currently unknown as field instruments have not been developed. To overcome this, a novel computer simulation was developed for a large range of different targets of interest. The simulation included realistic noise modelling of instrumental, environmental and location sources of noise which limit the accuracy of current microgravity measurements, in order to assess the potential capability of the new QT instruments in realistic situations and determine some of the likely limitations on their implementation. The results of the simulations for near surface features showed that the new technology is best employed in a gradiometer configuration as opposed to the traditional single sensor gravimeter used by current instruments due to the ability to suppress vibrational environmental noise effects due to common mode rejection between the sensors. A significant improvement in detection capability of 1.5-2 times was observed, putting targets such as mineshafts into the detectability zone which would be a major advantage for subsurface surveying. Thus this research, for the first time, has demonstrated clearly the benefits of QT gravity

  20. Ground vegetation monitoring in Swiss forests: comparison of survey methods and implications for trend assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimonier, Anne; Kull, Peter; Keller, Walter; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    At Swiss long-term forest ecosystem research sites, ground vegetation was assessed during the period 1994-2003/2008 following two approaches: (1) visual assessment of the cover of species occurring in sixteen 1 m(2) quadrats, distributed over a 43 × 43 m area, and (2) phytosociological relevés in concentric circular plots of 30, 200, and 500 m(2). We first compared the two approaches with respect to diversity assessment. The number of species recorded in the 16 quadrats was in general higher than in the 30 m(2) plot and it represented 42% to 108% of the number of species recorded in the 500 m(2) plot. In a second step, we tested whether any temporal trends were apparent. In a few cases, a decrease or increase in Landolt's mean indicator values for light, nitrogen availability, soil pH, soil moisture, or temperature was found to be significant. However, these changes were usually restricted to one approach or one area. The only clear trend was detected in an unmanaged former coppice beech stand, for which all survey approaches indicated canopy closure. At another site, vegetation reacted to the local opening of the canopy following windthrow. In a third step, we compared the leaf area index (LAI), measured with an LAI-2000 instrument (Licor, Inc.) over each quadrat, with the indicator value of the vegetation for light (L). Within a site, there was no clear relationship between LAI and L values per quadrat. In contrast, across all sites, the relationship between LAI and L, averaged per site for all available years, was highly significant.

  1. Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Proposed Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D.; Rhie, S. H.

    We present a conceptual design for a space based Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) which will use the gravitational microlensing technique to detect extra solar planets with masses as low as that of Mars at all separations >~ 1 AU. The microlensing data would be collected by a diffraction limited, wide field imaging telescope of ~ 1.5m aperture equipped with a large array of red-optimized CCD detectors. Such a system would be able to monitor $\\sim 2\\times 10^8$ stars in $\\sim 6$ square degrees of the Galactic bulge at intervals of 20-30 minutes, and it would observe $\\sim 12000$ microlensing events in three bulge seasons. If planetary systems like our own are common, GEST should be able to detect $\\sim 5000$ planets over a 2.5 year lifetime. If gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn are rare, then GEST would detect $\\sim 1300$ planets in a 2.5 year mission if we assume that most planetary systems are dominated by planets of about Neptune's' mass. Such a mission would also discover $\\sim 100$ planets of an Earth mass or smaller if such planets are common. This is a factor of $\\sim 50$ better than the most ambitious ground based programs that have been proposed. GEST will also be sensitive to planets which have been separated from their parent stars.

  2. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  3. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  4. NatureServe International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications of Vegetation Alliances and Associations at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This subset of the International Ecological Classification Standard represents the National Vegetation Classification Standard (NVCS) and covers vegetation alliances...

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption and hypertriglyceridemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Lee, H-J; Shin, H J; Stampfer, M J; Cho, E

    2015-11-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the association between total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as subgroups of fruit and vegetable intake, with hypertriglyceridemia among Korean adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7934 adults aged 19-64 years from the fourth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Subgroups of fruits and vegetables included citrus, non-citrus and carotene-rich fruits and cruciferous, green leafy and carotene-rich vegetables. Hypertriglyceridemia (plasma triglyceride ⩾150 mg/dl) was diagnosed using a blood sample drawn after 12+ hours of fasting. There were 2001 (25.2%) cases of hypertriglyceridemia among the participants. Total fruit intake was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia; the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hypertriglyceridemia across increasing quintiles were 1.00 (ref), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), 0.72 (0.58, 0.90), 0.68 (0.54, 0.85) and 0.64 (0.49, 0.82; Ptrend=0.001) after controlling for survey year, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, education and income. Similar inverse associations were found for all fruit subgroups. However, we found no significant association between intakes of total or subgroups of vegetable and hypertriglyceridemia; the odds ratio for top vs bottom quintile was 1.00 (0.81-1.24) for total vegetable intake. Our findings support a potential beneficial role of fruit consumption to reduce blood triglyceride levels in Asian populations.

  6. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Hantoro, I.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of

  7. A survey of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in conventional and organic-labeled raw vegetables at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez de González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2015-05-01

    A national survey of the nitrate ( NO3(-)) and nitrite ( NO2(-)) concentrations in raw and highly consumed vegetables available at retail in the United States was conducted. A total of 194 samples of fresh broccoli, cabbage, celery, lettuce, and spinach categorized as conventional or organic by label were collected from 5 major cities in different geographic regions of the United States and analyzed to determine NO3(-) and NO2(-) concentrations. There were no differences in the mean NO2(-) values of conventional compared with organic vegetables taken from the 5 metropolitan areas. However, significant differences in mean pairwise comparisons between some conventional and organic vegetables for NO3(-) content were observed. The mean NO2(-) concentration of both conventional and organic vegetables ranged between 0.1 and 1.2 mg/kg of fresh weight (FW) with the exception of conventional spinach that contained 8.0 mg/kg FW. Mean NO3(-) contents of conventional broccoli, cabbage, celery, lettuce, and spinach were 394, 418, 1496, 851, and 2797 mg/kg FW, respectively, while their organic-labeled counterparts averaged 204, 552, 912, 844, and 1318 mg/kg FW. In most cases, organic vegetables were numerically lower in NO3(-) content than their conventional counterparts. Based on survey results, the finding that low NO3(-) levels were observed in some organic vegetables in different cities may warrant further study to determine if true differences exist, due to production practices, seasonal differences, and the magnitudes of those differences. Furthermore, the geographic differences in NO3(-) content of vegetables may flaw estimates of daily NO2(-) and NO3(-) exposure. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplow, J. S.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    The data set "Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain" was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models. The data are freely available for non-commercial use under Open Government Licence terms and conditions. doi:10.5285/d0a6a8bf-68f0-4935-8b43-4e597c3bf251. Supporting information to assist with the reuse of this data is available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC) (http://eidc.ceh.ac.uk/).

  9. Consumers’ Awareness, Demands and Preferences for Organic Vegetables: A Survey Study in Shiraz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Ali; Javanmardi, Jamal; Abdollazadeh, Negar; Liaghat, Zahra

    2008-01-01

    Some Iranian vegetable producers use a lot of chemicals, but not in a safe way or at the optimum level. There are several reports about chemical residues in vegetables that have serious side effects on human health and the environment in that country. On other hand, many Iranian farmers traditionally use organic production practices, but organic cultivation in Iran is not in accordance with international regulations. Since vegetables are the most important category of organic products, and si...

  10. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  11. A survey of the terrestrial mammals of the State Biological Reserve of Sassafrás, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial mammal inventory was conducted in the State Biological Reserve of Sassafrás, Santa Catarina from August 2004 to March 2008. The objective of the study was to investigate and better describe the mammalian fauna of Santa Catarina state. We recorded species presence via several methods, including sightings, collection of fallen stock, identification of tracks, utilization of camera traps, and live animal trapping. In full, we recorded 43 mammalian species distributed among eight orders. Our constructed inventory includes information on the biology of some species recorded, as well as potential threats to the conservation of terrestrial mammals in this region.

  12. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A survey on parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables in Ihiala LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in some selected markets in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State Nigeria between January and June 2014. Vegetable samples which includes Amaranthus spp (green leaf), Telfara Occidentalis (pumpkin leaf), Talinium ...

  14. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  15. A phytosociology survey and vegetation description of inselbergs in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No previous scientific surveys have been conducted on inselbergs in the Drakensberg. The aim of this study was to collect specimens, identify, describe and name the vegetation clusters and assess biogeographical connections with other Afromontane regions. A total of 103 relevés where sampled from six inselbergs. The plant sampling was carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method with the plant and environmental data entered in TURBOVEG and exported as a Cornell Condensed format file (CC! into Juice. Classification was completed using TWINSPAN (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (modified, resulting in 4 major communities, 11 communities, 13 sub-communities and 18 variants. Ordination (indirect was carried out using CANOCO (version 4.5 to investigate the relationship between species. The four major communities identified are Rhodohypoxis rubella (wetland grass and forblands, Scirpus ficinioides – Crassula peploides (sheet rock grass and forblands, Pentaschistis exserta (high-altitude alpine grassland, previously undescribed, and Merxmuellera drakensbergensis – Helichrysum trilineatum (high-altitude alpine fynbos grassland, described in other vegetation and floristic studies. Four habitats were identified, namely wetlands, sheet rock shallow soil, highaltitude alpine grassland and deep soil high-altitude fynbos grasslands. Substrate and moisture availability appeared to be the defining micro-climatic conditions determining the different vegetation clusters whilst altitude is the overriding environmental factor influencing all vegetation.Conservation implications: Rising temperatures as a result of carbon dioxide increase is predicted to drastically decrease the number of endemic and near-endemic montane species, whilst altering the composition of vegetation units which comprise the alpine vegetation.

  16. Extensive forest leaf area survey aiming at detection of vegetation change in subarctic-boreal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Kusakabe,Tomoko; Tsuzuki,Hayato; Hughes,Gary; Sweda,Tatsuo

    2000-01-01

    The warming resulting from increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses is expected to be most prominent in the subarctic-boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere. With the objective of setting up a baseline to monitor possible vegetation change in this region, a continuous vegetation profile extending 600km from Edmonton, Alberta to Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada was measured using an airborne infrared laser altimeter mounted on a helicopter. Then the distribution of...

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Alexandra; Yngve, Agneta; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used...

  18. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  19. A survey of drought and Variation of Vegetation by statistical indexes and remote sensing (Case study: Jahad forest in Bandar Abbas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamassoki, E.; Soleymani, Z.; Bahrami, F.; Abbasgharemani, H.

    2014-06-01

    The damages of drought as a climatic and creeping phenomenon are very enormous specially in deserts. Necessity of management and conflict with it is clear. In this case vegetation are damaged too, and even are changed faster. This paper describes the process of vegetation changes and surveys it with drought indexes such as statistical and remote sensing indexes and correlation between temperature and relative humidity by Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in forest park of Bandar Abbas in successive years. At the end the regression and determination-coefficient for showing the importance of droughts survey are computed. Results revealed that the correlation between vegetation and indexes was 0.5. The humidity had maximum correlation and when we close to 2009 the period of droughts increase and time intervals decrease that influence vegetation enormously and cause the more area lost its vegetation.

  20. Survey to determine the adequacy of existing conserved areas in relation to vegetation types. A preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Edwards

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The report is a broad survey of the conservation status of South African vegetation. Data and maps show the distribution and total areas of conserved lands by the various conservation agencies, the size structure of nature reserves, the areas and percentages of conserved areas in relation to the 70 veld types and seven main vegetation types into which South Africa was divided by Acocks (1953, and important conservation requirements in the Bantu Homelands. Major conservation deficiencies lie in the Karoo and Karroid Bushveld and Grassland Types of vegetation, where 42 veld types have none or virtually no conservation, and in the Tropical Bush and Savanna Types to which-belong nine of the 10 remaining veld types extremely lacking in conservation. Additional reserves are needed' to conserve certain important and local ecosystems and species in the remaining 18 veld types, especially the Sclerophyllous Bush (Macchia or Fynbos and Temperate and Transitional Forest and Scrub Types, and in certain Coastal Tropical Forest and Thornveld Types. Apart from minor deficiencies, the conservation status is outstanding for six of these 18 veld types (up to 47 per cent under conservation, and very good for another six veld types.

  1. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  2. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) Survey: a Key NASA Science Program on the Road to Exoplanet Imaging Missions (SPIE Proceedings 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William C.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, Aki; hide

    2014-01-01

    Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20 of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, AA, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.

  4. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Search for Terrestrial Extra-solar Planets via Gravitational Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S.; Jewitt, D.; Langston, G.; Lauer, T.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S.; Rhie, S. H.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N.

    2000-12-01

    GEST is a comprehensive extra-solar planet search mission sensitive to planets with masses as low as that of Mars. GEST will monitor the Galactic bulge for 8 months per year for three years to detect planets via gravitational microlensing and transits. GEST's microlensing survey will detect low-mass planets at separations of > 0.6 AU via high signal-to-noise variations of gravitational microlensing light curves. These planetary signals do not require follow-up observations to confirm the planetary interpretation, and they yield direct measurements of the star:planet mass ratio. GEST will be able to detect 100 Earth-mass planets at 1 AU (assuming 1 such planet per star) and will detect its first Earth-mass planets within a few months of launch. The GEST microlensing survey is the only proposed planet search program sensitive to old, free-floating planets. GEST's transit survey will search ~ 108 Galactic bulge stars for giant planets at separations of GEST will survey ~ 1200 square degrees for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and operate a Participating Scienctist Program (PSP) with observational programs selected via competitive proposals. The KBO survey should discover 100,000 new KBOs.

  5. Awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendation, and fruit and vegetable intake of adults in the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors (FAB) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Moser, Richard P; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-08-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Few studies have examined awareness of the current fruit and vegetable campaign in the United States, Fruits and Veggies-More Matters. This study assessed awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign and knowledge of the 7-13 serving recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption among adults, and determined whether these were associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional data from 3021 adults in the United States' National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey were analyzed. Few participants were aware of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign (2%) and the 7-13 recommendation (6%) for adults. More participants were aware of the former 5 A Day campaign (29%) and recommendation (30%). Thirty-nine percent reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Participants were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day if they were aware of the 5 A Day/Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and reported that the recommendation for adults was ≥5 servings/day. Findings suggest the need to increase awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and the 7-13 recommendation among adults to support high fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (kimchi. Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future.

  7. Tropical climates at the last glacial maximum: a new synthesis of terrestrial palaeoclimate data. I. Vegetation, lake-levels and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrera, I. [USTL, Montpellier (France). Lab. Paleoenvironnements et Palynologie; Harrison, S.P.; Prentice, I.C.; Jolly, D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, PO Box 10 01 64, D-07701 Jena (Germany); Ramstein, G.; von Grafenstein, U.; Pinot, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA Saclay, Batiment 709, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Guiot, J. [IMEP CNRS, Case 451, Faculte de St Jerome, F-13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Bartlein, P.J. [Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Bonnefille, R. [Palynology Laboratory, French Institute of Pondichery, 11 St. Louis Street., P.B. 33, Pondicherry 605 001 (India); Bush, M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Cramer, W. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegrafenberg, P.O. Box 60 12 03, D-14412 Potsdam (Germany); Holmgren, K. [Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hooghiemstra, H. [Department of Palynology and Paleo/Actuo-ecology, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, NL-1098 SM Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hope, G. [Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, ACT (Australia); Lauritzen, S.E. [Department of Geology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Ono, Y. [Laboratory of Geoecology, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 (Japan); Stute, M. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Yu, G. [Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    1999-11-04

    Palaeodata in synthesis form are needed as benchmarks for the palaeoclimate modelling intercomparison project (PMIP). Advances since the last synthesis of terrestrial palaeodata from the last glacial maximum (LGM) call for a new evaluation, especially of data from the tropics. Here pollen, plant-macrofossil, lake-level, noble gas (from groundwater) and {delta}{sup 18}O (from speleothems) data are compiled for 18{+-}2 ka ({sup 14}C), 32 N-33 S. The reliability of the data was evaluated using explicit criteria and some types of data were reanalysed using consistent methods in order to derive a set of mutually consistent palaeoclimate estimates of mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCO), mean annual temperature (MAT), plant available moisture (PAM) and runoff (P-E). Cold-month temperature (MAT) anomalies from plant data range from -1 to -2 K near sea level in Indonesia and the S Pacific, through -6 to -8 K at many high-elevation sites to -8 to -15 K in S China and the SE USA. MAT anomalies from groundwater or speleothems seem more uniform (-4 to -6 K), but the data are as yet sparse; a clear divergence between MAT and cold-month estimates from the same region is seen only in the SE USA, where cold-air advection is expected to have enhanced cooling in winter. Regression of all cold-month anomalies against site elevation yielded an estimated average cooling of -2.5 to -3 K at modern sea level, increasing to {approx}-6 K by 3000 m. However, Neotropical sites showed larger than the average sea-level cooling (-5 to -6 K) and a nonsignificant elevation effect, whereas W and S Pacific sites showed much less sea-level cooling (-1 K) and a stronger elevation effect. (orig.)

  8. Obtaining Fruit and Vegetables for the Lowest Prices: Pricing Survey of Different Outlets and Geographical Analysis of Competition Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L.; Winter, Pieta R.; McBreen, Ben; Stewart, Georgia; Roets, Rianda; Nutsford, Daniel; Bowie, Christopher; Donnellan, Niamh; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Aims Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. Methods Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM) selling local produce (n = 3), other F&V markets (OFVM) (n = 5), supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8), and more distant supermarkets (n = 8), (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand). Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. Results A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18) were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18) were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate ‘halo effect’ in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek) prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant) supermarkets, supporting evidence for a ‘halo effect’. Ideal weekly ‘food basket’ prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76), online supermarket ($113), nearby supermarkets ($124), distant supermarkets ($127), and FMs ($138). This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26) by using OFVMs relative to (non-online) supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. Conclusions In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations. PMID

  9. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Winter, Pieta R; McBreen, Ben; Stewart, Georgia; Roets, Rianda; Nutsford, Daniel; Bowie, Christopher; Donnellan, Niamh; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM) selling local produce (n = 3), other F&V markets (OFVM) (n = 5), supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8), and more distant supermarkets (n = 8), (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand). Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18) were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18) were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek) prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant) supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76), online supermarket ($113), nearby supermarkets ($124), distant supermarkets ($127), and FMs ($138). This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26) by using OFVMs relative to (non-online) supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  10. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L Pearson

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. METHODS: Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM selling local produce (n = 3, other F&V markets (OFVM (n = 5, supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8, and more distant supermarkets (n = 8, (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand. Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18 were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18 were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76, online supermarket ($113, nearby supermarkets ($124, distant supermarkets ($127, and FMs ($138. This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26 by using OFVMs relative to (non-online supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. CONCLUSIONS: In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  11. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  12. Sociodemographic Determinants of Low Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Bangladeshi Adults: Results From WHO-STEPS Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Nazmul; Zaman, M Mostafa; Rahman, Md Mujibur; Chowdhury, M A Jalil; Ahsan, H A M Nazmul; Hassan, Md Mahtabuddin; Karim, Syed Rezaul; Hossain, Md Zakir; Billah, Baki

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting fruit and vegetables (FAVs) intake among Bangladeshi adults. Dietary data of 9275 adults from the Bangladesh Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Survey 2010 were analyzed. The mean age of the respondents was 42.4 (±13.5) years. Multistage cluster sampling was applied to identify samples. Demographics, personal habits, physical activity, diet, and anthropometric data were collected using the WHO-STEPs questionnaire. Average daily intake of 25 kg/m2, and smokeless tobacco consumption were significantly associated with higher FAV consumption. Frequency of low FAV intake increased with increasing age and decreased with increasing educational attainment. Programs targeting people at risk of low FAV consumption are needed to promote consumption.

  13. Vegetable intake is associated with lower Frammingham risk scores in Korean men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Observational studies suggest that an association between vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the daily intake of vegetables on a national level and its effect on the risk of CHD risk, as determined by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted a cross-sectional design of 2,510 male adults 40-64y of age who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vegetable was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption frequency of vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The odd ratio of CHD risk according to daily intake and frequency of vegetables was analyzed. RESULTS Total vegetable intake was inversely and significantly associated with the risk of CHD (Model 1: 4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.96, P for trend = 0.0015), and the significant relationship with CHD risk remained even after adjusting for potential confounders (Model 3: 4th vs. 1st quartile, adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.95, P for trend = 0.0492). Subjects in the higher quartiles of non-salted vegetable intake had 31% lower odds of the risk of CHD compared to those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for various potential confounders in model 3 (aOR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.49-0.97, P for trend = 0.0478). No significant associations between the frequency of vegetable intake (total, green, white and red vegetable) and the risk of CHD were found. CONCLUSIONS The major results of this study indicate that higher vegetable intake may help prevent CHD in Korean men. PMID:26865921

  14. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  15. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2000: A stratified random approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Merino, J.H.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of submerged aquatic vegetative (SAV) along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) generally focus on seagrasses. In 2000, we attempted a synoptic survey of SAV in the mesohaline (5-20 ppt) zone of estuarine and nearshore areas of the northeastern Gulf. Areas with SAV were identified from existing aerial 1992 photography, and a literature review was used to select those areas that were likely to experience mesohaline conditions during the growing season. In 2000, a drought year, we visited 217 randomly selected SAV beds and collected data on species composition and environmental conditions. In general, sites were either clearly polyhaline (2: 20 ppt) or oligohaline (S 5 ppt), with only five sites measuring between 5 and 20 ppt. Ruppia maritima L. (13-35 ppt, n = 28) was the only species that occurred in mesohaline salinities. Halodule wrightii Asch. occurred in 73% of the beds. The nonindigenous Myriophyllum spicatum L. was present in four locations with salinities below 3 ppt. No nonindigenous macroalgae were identified, and no nonindigenous angiosperms occurred in salinities above 3 ppt. Selecting sample locations based on historical salinity data was not a successful strategy for surveying SAV in mesohaline systems, particularly during a drought year. Our ability to locate SAV beds within 50 m of their aerially located position 8 yr later demonstrates some SAV stability in the highly variable conditions of the study area. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Silences Consortium of Alabama.

  16. The use of household budget surveys to estimate the availability of fruits and vegetables for consumption in Swiss households after deduction of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouclaous Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The consumption of 400-600 grams per day of fruits and vegetables has been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and lower incidence of cancers and chronic diseases. This study explores the alignment of household purchases of fruits and vegetables with nutritional recommendations in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Household Budget Surveys for 2006-2008 are analyzed to estimate the availability of fruits and vegetables at household level after accounting for food waste. A household is defined as meeting the recommendation when the monthly purchases by weight are equal or superior to the amount required to provide three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits per person per day. Results The descriptive statistics demonstrate that close to 90% of households recommendation, and 76% fail to meet the fruit recommendation when unavoidable waste is deducted. These percentages increase further when total waste (unavoidable, possibly avoidable, and avoidable waste is deducted from household purchases. Moreover, a significant association is observed between the structure of the households and the availability of fruits and vegetables. Families with children are less likely to meet the recommendations than other types of households. Conclusions This paper reveals a need to improve the availability and accessibility to fruits and vegetables, particularly in households with children. It also highlights the importance of limiting avoidable food waste at household level. Interventions such as introducing price subsidies on fruits and vegetables, and educating the public on the importance of limiting household food waste, are recommended.

  17. Montane meadows in the Sierra Nevada: comparing terrestrial and aquatic assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Sarah E; Moyle, Peter B; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-11-01

    We surveyed montane meadows in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades for two field seasons to compare commonly used aquatic and terrestrial-based assessments of meadow condition. We surveyed (1) fish, (2) reptiles, (3) amphibians, (4) aquatic macroinvertebrates, (5) stream geomorphology, (6) physical habitat, and (7) terrestrial vegetation in 79 meadows between the elevations of 1,000 and 3,000 m. From the results of those surveys, we calculated five multi-metric indices based on methods commonly used by researchers and land management agencies. The five indices consisted of (1) fish only, (2) native fish and amphibians, (3) macroinvertebrates, (4) physical habitat, and (5) vegetation. We compared the results of the five indices and found that there were significant differences in the outcomes of the five indices. We found positive correlations between the vegetation index and the physical habitat index, the invertebrate index and the physical habitat index, and the two fish-based indices, but there were significant differences between indices in both range and means. We concluded that the five indices provided very different interpretations of the condition in a given meadow. While our assessment of meadow condition changed based on which index was used, each provided an assessment of different components important to the overall condition of a meadow system. Utilizing a multimetric approach that accounts for both terrestrial and aquatic habitats provides the best means to accurately assess meadow condition, particularly given the disproportionate importance of these systems in the Sierra Nevada landscape.

  18. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  19. A DNA barcode-based survey of terrestrial arthropods in the Society Islands of French Polynesia: host diversity within the SymbioCode Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Ramage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the taxonomic and molecular diversity of 10 929 terrestrial arthropod specimens, collected on four islands of the Society Archipelago, French Polynesia. The survey was part of the ‘SymbioCode Project’ that aims to establish the Society Islands as a natural laboratory in which to investigate the flux of bacterial symbionts (e.g., Wolbachia and other genetic material among branches of the arthropod tree. The sample includes an estimated 1127 species, of which 1098 included at least one DNA-barcoded specimen and 29 were identified to species level using morphological traits only. Species counts based on molecular data emphasize that some groups have been understudied in this region and deserve more focused taxonomic effort, notably Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Some taxa that were also subjected to morphological scrutiny reveal a consistent match between DNA and morphology-based species boundaries in 90% of the cases, with a larger than expected genetic diversity in the remaining 10%. Many species from this sample are new to this region or are undescribed. Some are under description, but many await inspection by motivated experts, who can use the online images or request access to ethanol-stored specimens.

  20. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  1. Survey of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in wheat, soybean, and vegetable crops in southeast Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, A L; Herbert, D A; Kuhar, T P; Kamminga, K

    2009-04-01

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) cause significant damage to many different crops and horticultural commodities in Virginia. However, little is known about the species diversity or impact of stink bug egg parasitoids in the state. A survey was conducted in 2005 and 2006 (May through September) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and several vegetable crops by collecting natural egg masses of various stink bug species and by monitoring sentinel egg masses. A total of 570 Euschistus servus (Say) eggs in 26 egg masses, 11,197 Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) eggs in 939 egg masses, 15 Podisus maculiventris (Say) eggs in 2 egg masses, and 546 Acrosternum hilare (Say) eggs in 18 egg masses were field collected and returned to the laboratory, where emerging parasitoids were identified to species. In addition, 2,512 laboratory-reared E. servus eggs and 230 P. maculiventris eggs were placed as sentinels into crop fields and collected after 7 d, and parasitoid or stink bug emergence was recorded. Four species of hymenopteran parasitoids in the family Scelionidae were recovered from stink bug eggs: Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis Wollaston, Trissolcus edessae Fouts, and Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead. In addition, one parasitoid in the family Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) was recovered. Parasitism rates were highest in E. servus with 89.7 and 49.2% of egg masses and individual eggs parasitized, respectively. The predominant parasitoid species was T. podisi.

  2. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Postfire Vegetation Survey Campaigns through Large and Heterogeneous Areas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability. Additionally, we compared the spatial information provided by the drone orthomosaic at ultra-high spatial resolution with another image provided by the WorldView-2 satellite at high spatial resolution. The drone raw imagery presented some anomalies, such as horizontal banding noise and non-homogeneous radiometry. Camera locations showed a lack of synchrony of the single frequency GPS receiver. The georeferencing process based on ground control points achieved an error lower than 30 cm in X-Y and lower than 55 cm in Z. The drone orthomosaic provided more information in terms of spatial variability in heterogeneous burned areas in comparison with the WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The drone orthomosaic could constitute a viable alternative for the evaluation of post-fire vegetation regeneration in large and heterogeneous burned areas.

  3. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Postfire Vegetation Survey Campaigns through Large and Heterogeneous Areas: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guisuraga, José Manuel; Sanz-Ablanedo, Enoc; Suárez-Seoane, Susana; Calvo, Leonor

    2018-02-14

    This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability. Additionally, we compared the spatial information provided by the drone orthomosaic at ultra-high spatial resolution with another image provided by the WorldView-2 satellite at high spatial resolution. The drone raw imagery presented some anomalies, such as horizontal banding noise and non-homogeneous radiometry. Camera locations showed a lack of synchrony of the single frequency GPS receiver. The georeferencing process based on ground control points achieved an error lower than 30 cm in X-Y and lower than 55 cm in Z. The drone orthomosaic provided more information in terms of spatial variability in heterogeneous burned areas in comparison with the WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The drone orthomosaic could constitute a viable alternative for the evaluation of post-fire vegetation regeneration in large and heterogeneous burned areas.

  4. Relationships between the species composition of forest field-layer vegetation and environmental drivers, assessed using a national scale survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corney, P.M.; Duc, Le M.G.; Smart, S.M.; Kirby, K.J.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Marrs, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    1 Simulation models of forest stand dynamics have increased understanding of over-storey vegetation functioning, and have facilitated the development of tools capable of assessing possible successional trajectories. However, few models incorporate the response of the field layer vegetation despite

  5. Estimating the number of tree species in forest populations using current vegetation survey and forest inventory and analysis approximation plots and grid intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Jin-Mann S. Lin; John Teply

    2000-01-01

    We estimate number of tree species in National Forest populations using the nonparametric estimator. Data from the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) of Region 6 of the USDA Forest Service were used to estimate the number of tree species with a plot close in size to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot and the actual CVS plot for the 5.5 km FIA grid and the 2.7 km...

  6. Final Report on Vegetation Community Surveys 2005-2006 and Botanical and Zoological Surveys 2004-2005 for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2004 and 2005 the Delaware Natural Heritage Program took an inventory of plants, animals, vegetation communities of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  7. Ground penetrating radar and terrestrial laser scanner surveys on deposits of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: insights for dune bedform genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémi Dujardin, Jean; Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Abolghasem, Amir; Cordonnier, Benoit; Kueppers, Ulrich; Bano, Maksim; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Dune bedforms formed by dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDC) are often described or interpreted as antidunes and chute and pools. However, the interpretation remains essentially speculative and is not well understood. This is largely due to the seeming impossibility of in-situ measurements and experimental scaling, as well as the lack of recent, 3D exposures. Indeed, most dune bedform cross-stratifications from the dilute PDC record outcrop in 2D sections. The 2006 eruption of Tungurahua has produced well-developed bedforms that are well-exposed on the surface of the deposits with easy access. We performed a survey of these deposits combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling with terrestrial laser scanning of the surface. The GPR survey was carried in dense arrays (from 10 to 25 cm spacing between profiles) over ca. 10 m long bedforms. GPR profiles were corrected for topography from photogrammetry data. An in-house software, RadLab (written in matlab), was used for common processing of individual profiles and 2D & 3D topographic migration. Each topography-corrected profile was then loaded into a seismic interpretation software, OpenDtect, for 3D visualization and interpretation. Most bedforms show high lateral stability that is independent of the cross-stratification pattern (that varies between stoss-aggrading bedsets, stoss-erosive bedsets and stoss-depositional lensoidal layers). Anecdotic bedforms have their profiles that evolve laterally (i.e. in a direction perpendicular to the flow direction). Cannibalization of two dune bedforms into a single one on one end of the profile can evolve into growth of a single bedform at the other lateral end. Also, lateral variation in the migration direction occurs, i.e. a single bedform can show upstream aggradation at one lateral end of the bedform, but show downstream migration at the other end. Some bedforms have great variations in their internal structure. Several episodes of growth and erosion can be

  8. HOVE-Wedge-Filtering of Geomorphologic Terrestrial Laser Scan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Panholzer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning has become an important surveying technique in many fields such as natural hazard assessment. To analyse earth surface processes, it is useful to generate a digital terrain model originated from laser scan point cloud data. To determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. In mountainous terrain with a small-structured topography, filtering is very difficult. Here, automatic filtering solutions usually designed for airborne laser scan data often lead to unsatisfactory results. In this work, we further develop an existing approach for automated filtering of terrestrial laser scan data, which is based on the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above a direct line of sight between scanner and another measured point. By taking into account several environmental variables and a repetitive calculation method, the modified method leads to significantly better results. The root-mean-square-error (RSME for the same test measurement area could be reduced from 5.284 to 1.610. In addition, a new approach for filtering and interpolation of terrestrial laser scanning data is presented using a grid with horizontal and vertical angular data and the measurement length.

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced the Vegetation Spatial Database Coverage (vegetation map) for the...

  10. Changes in the utilization of wild green vegetables in Poland since the 19th century: a comparison of four ethnobotanical surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj, Lukasz

    2010-03-24

    The aim of this paper is to compare the presence of wild green vegetables in four ethnobotanical questionnaires. This range of surveys offers a rich diachronic perspective, possibly unique in ethnobotany. Four archival questionnaires (by other researchers), whose results have been only partly published, were analyzed. They are Rostafiński's questionnaire of 1883-1909, the Gajek team's questionnaires of 1948-1949 and 1964-1969, and Stolicná and Kłodnicki's questionnaire of 2000-2003. Green shoots or leaves of least 58 species (belonging to 43 genera) of wild plants have been used as green vegetables or culinary herbs for nutritional purposes since the 19th century. The disappearance of wild green vegetables from the Polish diet was a gradual process, in which the sequence of disappearance of the species from diet was as follows: (1) Aegopodium & Heracleum, (2) Cirsium, Sinapis & Raphanus, (3) Urtica, (4) Chenopodium, (5) Oxalis, (6) Rumex. In Poland, within the studied time scale, there was no tradition of incorporating more than a few species of wild greens in one dish. Local people usually utilized a small number of taxa, but in large quantities, resorting to some other available species only in times of famine. The relatively low number of wild green vegetables utilized has gradually decreased to practically none, mainly due to replacement by a few cultivated vegetables. This process must have started well before the 19th century, but became most dramatic throughout the 20th century. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,

  12. Low Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Canadian Youth: Findings from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequent fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is protective against some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. This study explores self-reported frequency of FV consumption in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian youth in grades 6-12. Methods: Data from grades 6-12 students who participated in the…

  13. Mangrove forests submitted to depositional processes and salinity variation investigated using satellite images and vegetation structure surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Lignon, M.; Kampel, M.; Menghini, R.P.; Schaeffer-Novelli, Y.; Cintrón, G.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F

    2011-01-01

    The current paper examines the growth and spatio-temporal variation of mangrove forests in response to depositional processes and different salinity conditions. Data from mangrove vegetation structure collected at permanent plots and satellite images were used. In the northern sector important environmental changes occurred due to an artificial channel producing modifications in salinity. The southern sector is considered the best conserved mangrove area along the coast of São Paulo State, Br...

  14. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  15. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  16. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  17. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  18. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Camargo, G; Fischer, E

    2011-04-01

    Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant--for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare--for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger.

  19. Recolonization and development of vegetation on mine spoils following brown coal mining in Lusatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, W.H.O. [Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany). Chair of Soil Protection and Recultivation

    1996-09-01

    A survey of primary colonization and succession of vegetation on various deposited substrates, littoral and shallow water areas of mining lakes and residual waters of the Lusatian lignite mining district is presented. Dumped substrates are characterized by a high acid potential which is caused by pyrite and marcasite of Tertiary origin. In the process of pyrite oxidation free mineral acids and large quantities of sulphate and bivalent iron are liberated. Residual waters are characterized by extreme acidity with pH values between 1.9 and 3.1 and by extremely high iron contents. Non-linear positive correlations are demonstrated between pH values and free mineral acids and between pH values and free carbonic acids (CO{sub 2}) and bivalent iron. In aquatic, semi-aquatic and in terrestrial areas the succession of vegetation can be described by the following five main stages: stage of primary colonization and spontaneous vegetation; stage of monodominant species stands; stage of the formation of vegetation mosaics; stage of the formation of plant associations; final stage of succession. Index species of the terrestrial colonization are Corynephorus canescens and Calamagrostis epigejos, while Juncus bulbosus is the indicator species of aquatic colonization. The succession of vegetation develops in the direction of close-to-nature vegetation conditions which are typical for the heath areas of the Lusatian Lowlands. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-03-01

    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables.

  1. Vegetation of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana-Recent plant communities with comparison to a three-decade-old survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in plant community composition and structure can affect the quality of habitat for wildlife species. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Louisiana was established in 1937 with a primary goal of providing habitat for wintering waterfowl species. A large freshwater impoundment constructed on the refuge to improve waterfowl habitat value was completed in 1943. About 10 years after construction was completed, staff at the refuge became concerned that emergent vegetation cover was increasing in the impoundment over time while open water areas, which are critical as foraging and resting areas for waterfowl, were decreasing. To document vegetation change over time, we collected information on plant community species composition for comparison to similar data collected in 1973. A total of 84 sampling plots was established in 2006 within the impoundment to coincide as closely as possible to plots sampled in the earlier study. Plant species composition and cover were recorded at each plot in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Change between sampling events separated by more than three decades was determined by comparing the frequency of occurrence of 20 species identified in 1973 to their frequency in 2006 and 2007. Interannual variation was determined by comparing plot data between 2006 and 2007. In plots dominated by emergent vegetation, it was found that Bacopa caroliniana, Eleocharis equisetoides, Leersia hexandra, Panicum hemitomon, and Sagittaria lancifolia were significantly less frequent in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973. The frequency of Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Nitella gracilis, and Nymphoides aquatica was significantly lower in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973 in plots dominated by floating-leaved plants, submersed plants, or open water. In 2007, Hydrocotyle sp. and Sacciolepis striata were more frequent than in 1973 in emergent vegetation plots, and Utricularia sp. was more frequent in submersed or open-water plots. We documented

  2. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  3. Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tsz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO. There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. Methods Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2010. Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV consumed by quartiles. Results Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12; children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88 and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56. Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49, and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25; children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96 and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56. Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. Conclusions The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher

  4. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), Psnacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Feature Extraction of Foredune Morphology from Terrestrial Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, N.; Brodie, K. L.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    Foredune morphology is often described in storm impact prediction models using the elevation of the dune crest and dune toe and compared with maximum runup elevations to categorize the storm impact and predicted responses. However, these parameters do not account for other foredune features that may make them more or less erodible, such as alongshore variations in morphology, vegetation coverage, or compaction. The goal of this work is to identify other descriptive features that can be extracted from terrestrial lidar data that may affect the rate of dune erosion under wave attack. Daily, mobile-terrestrial lidar surveys were conducted during a 6-day nor'easter (Hs = 4 m in 6 m water depth) along 20km of coastline near Duck, North Carolina which encompassed a variety of foredune forms in close proximity to each other. This abstract will focus on the tools developed for the automated extraction of the morphological features from terrestrial lidar data, while the response of the dune will be presented by Brodie and Spore as an accompanying abstract. Raw point cloud data can be dense and is often under-utilized due to time and personnel constraints required for analysis, since many algorithms are not fully automated. In our approach, the point cloud is first projected into a local coordinate system aligned with the coastline, and then bare earth points are interpolated onto a rectilinear 0.5 m grid creating a high resolution digital elevation model. The surface is analyzed by identifying features along each cross-shore transect. Surface curvature is used to identify the position of the dune toe, and then beach and berm morphology is extracted shoreward of the dune toe, and foredune morphology is extracted landward of the dune toe. Changes in, and magnitudes of, cross-shore slope, curvature, and surface roughness are used to describe the foredune face and each cross-shore transect is then classified using its pre-storm morphology for storm-response analysis.

  6. Landslide Monitoring Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner: Georeferencing and Canopy Filtering Issues in a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M.; Fiani, M.

    2012-07-01

    In order to define a methodology that faces the major critical issues, we used a Terrestrial Laser Scanner to monitor a large landslide that caused significant disruptions both to an important state road and to a major railway line in Italy. To survey the landslide we used three different models of Terrestrial Laser Scanners, including a "full wave form" one, potentially useful for filtering vegetation from the data. The output of each measurement campaign is a Digital Surface Model referred to a unique reference system. Starting from the DSMs we produced the Digital Terrain Models, one for each survey. The use of different models of TLS together with the software packages recommended by the companies for data processing, allowed us to compare the surveys and to evaluate the reliability and the accuracy of results. The comparison of data has been useful in order to identify and analyse over time the areas of greatest deformation and the directions of landslide movement and it also gives us some elements about the validity of the technique in this kind of applications. The laser surveys have shown a strong dynamic of the slope but have also highlighted some difficulties in order to efficiently filtering the data. Using two different kinds of TLS, full wave form and mono eco, on the same portion of landslide allows us to make comparisons between the two methodologies for landslide monitoring in a real-world context.

  7. LANDSLIDE MONITORING USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER: GEOREFERENCING AND CANOPY FILTERING ISSUES IN A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barbarella

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to define a methodology that faces the major critical issues, we used a Terrestrial Laser Scanner to monitor a large landslide that caused significant disruptions both to an important state road and to a major railway line in Italy. To survey the landslide we used three different models of Terrestrial Laser Scanners, including a "full wave form" one, potentially useful for filtering vegetation from the data. The output of each measurement campaign is a Digital Surface Model referred to a unique reference system. Starting from the DSMs we produced the Digital Terrain Models, one for each survey. The use of different models of TLS together with the software packages recommended by the companies for data processing, allowed us to compare the surveys and to evaluate the reliability and the accuracy of results. The comparison of data has been useful in order to identify and analyse over time the areas of greatest deformation and the directions of landslide movement and it also gives us some elements about the validity of the technique in this kind of applications. The laser surveys have shown a strong dynamic of the slope but have also highlighted some difficulties in order to efficiently filtering the data. Using two different kinds of TLS, full wave form and mono eco, on the same portion of landslide allows us to make comparisons between the two methodologies for landslide monitoring in a real-world context.

  8. The Functionally-Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-02

    The Functionally-Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is a vegetation model for use in Earth system models (ESMs). The model includes a size- and age-structured representation of tree dynamics, competition between functionally diverse plant functional types, and the biophysics underpinning plant growth, competition, mortality, as well as the carbon, water, and energy exchange with the atmosphere. The FATES model is designed as a modular vegetation model that can be integrated within a host land model for inclusion in ESMs. The model is designed for use in global change studies to understand and project the responses and feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems and the Earth system under changing climate and other forcings.

  9. A vegetation survey of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. I. The use of association-analysis and Braun-Blanquet methods*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey aimed to establish broad vegetation units that could be mapped on an extensive scale in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve at the southern tip of the Cape Peninsula. This paper compares the performance of two methods, association-analysis and the Braun-Blanquet method as developed by the Zurich-Montpellier School of Phytosociology. One hundred 50 m2  sample plots, covering the whole Reserve, were placed systematically at grid intersections on the 1:18 000 topographical map. at 1 000-yard (914 m intervals. Species lists, recording merely presence of all species with permanently recognizable aerial parts, were made for each plot. The association-analysis resulted in a classification of 23 final groups of sample plots, of which only five groups showed high floristic and ecological homogeneity. Of the remainder, eight groups contained some anomalous, misplaced plots, and ten represented small, isolated fragments of natural units. The original data were then analysed using Braun-Blanquet methods to provide an independent classification for comparison with the former. The Braun-Blanquet communities were found to be more homogeneous in terms of previously defined habitat groupings and showed floristic relationships consistent with these groupings. It is concluded that, with the type of sampling used, the synthetic phytosociological Braun-Blanquet method provides a more natural classification of plant communities of the Reserve than does the monothetic divisive association-analysis method.

  10. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  11. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  12. The XII Century Towers, a Benchmark of the Rome Countryside almost Cancelled: the Safeguard Plan by Low Cost Uav and Terrestrial Dsm Photogrammetry Surveying and 3d Web GIS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, L.; Paolini, P.; Forti, G.

    2017-11-01

    "Giving a bird-fly look at the Rome countryside, throughout the Middle Age central period, it would show as if the multiple city towers has been widely spread around the territory" on a radial range of maximum thirty kilometers far from the Capitol Hill center (Carocci and Vendittelli, 2004). This is the consequence of the phenomenon identified with the "Incasalamento" neologism, described in depth in the following paper, intended as the general process of expansion of the urban society interests outside the downtown limits, started from the half of the XII and developed through all the XIII century, slowing down and ending in the following years. From the XIX century till today the architectural finds of this reality have raised the interest of many national and international scientists, which aimed to study and catalog them all to create a complete framework that, cause of its extension, didn't allow yet attempting any element by element detailed analysis. From the described situation has started our plan of intervention, we will apply integrated survey methods and technologies of terrestrial and UAV near stereo-photogrammetry, by the use of low cost drones, more than action cameras and reflex on extensible rods, integrated and referenced with GPS and topographic survey. In the final project we intend to produce some 3D scaled and textured surface models of any artifact (almost two hundreds were firstly observed still standing), to singularly study the dimensions and structure, to analyze the building materials and details and to formulate an hypothesis about any function, based even on the position along the territory. These models, successively georeferenced, will be imported into a 2D and 3D WebGIS and organized in layers made visible on basemaps of reference, as much as on historical maps.

  13. THE XII CENTURY TOWERS, A BENCHMARK OF THE ROME COUNTRYSIDE ALMOST CANCELLED: THE SAFEGUARD PLAN BY LOW COST UAV AND TERRESTRIAL DSM PHOTOGRAMMETRY SURVEYING AND 3D WEB GIS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Giving a bird-fly look at the Rome countryside, throughout the Middle Age central period, it would show as if the multiple city towers has been widely spread around the territory” on a radial range of maximum thirty kilometers far from the Capitol Hill center (Carocci and Vendittelli, 2004. This is the consequence of the phenomenon identified with the “Incasalamento” neologism, described in depth in the following paper, intended as the general process of expansion of the urban society interests outside the downtown limits, started from the half of the XII and developed through all the XIII century, slowing down and ending in the following years. From the XIX century till today the architectural finds of this reality have raised the interest of many national and international scientists, which aimed to study and catalog them all to create a complete framework that, cause of its extension, didn’t allow yet attempting any element by element detailed analysis. From the described situation has started our plan of intervention, we will apply integrated survey methods and technologies of terrestrial and UAV near stereo-photogrammetry, by the use of low cost drones, more than action cameras and reflex on extensible rods, integrated and referenced with GPS and topographic survey. In the final project we intend to produce some 3D scaled and textured surface models of any artifact (almost two hundreds were firstly observed still standing, to singularly study the dimensions and structure, to analyze the building materials and details and to formulate an hypothesis about any function, based even on the position along the territory. These models, successively georeferenced, will be imported into a 2D and 3D WebGIS and organized in layers made visible on basemaps of reference, as much as on historical maps.

  14. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  15. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Glacier National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Glacier National Park (GNP) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey...

  17. A Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry to Terrestrial Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the photogrammetric and laser scan survey of an excavated section of the Laetoli hominid track-way in Tanzania. The survey was designed to allow for comparison to a prior detailed survey of the track-way carried out in 1995, and serves as a means to compare terrestrial laser scanning with ...

  18. Short-term bryoid and vascular vegetation response to reforestation alternatives following wildfire in conifer plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori J. Kayes; Klaus J. Puettmann; Paul D. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    How are dynamics of early-seral post-fire vascular plant and bryoid (terrestrial mosses, lichens, and fungi) vegetation impacted by reforestation activities, particularly manual vegetation removal and planting density? Does the relationship between vegetation dynamics and vegetation removal differ between harsh (west-facing) and moderate (east-facing) aspects?...

  19. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial...

  20. Cobertura vegetal do estado de São Paulo: I - Levantamento por fotointerpretação das áreas cobertas com cerrado, cerradão e campo, em 1962 Vegetation covering the state of São Paulo: I - Survey in 1962 by means of photo-interpretation of the areas covered by various types of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Borgonovi

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, com base em fotografias aéreas, o levantamento da cobertura vegetal de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, em 1962. Separaram-se as áreas com o cerrado pròpriamente dito (tipo da savana brasileira, cerradão (tipo de cerrado mais alto e mais denso e de campo (tipo de vegetação herbácea. Na caracterização dessas coberturas, levaram-se em conta apenas as áreas ainda sem utilização agrícola e com a vegetação pouco alterada pelo homem. A fotointerpretação foi feita com base na caracterização das texturas por amostragem de campo. O trabalho mostrou a situação seguinte: cerradão. 724.900, cerrado 2.668.000, e campo, 458.600 ha, representando, respectivamente, 2,9, 10,8 e 1,7% da área do Estado.A survey was achieved in 1962 based on aerial photographs covering the whole area of the state of São Paulo and areas were separated, by photo-interpretation, according to the type of vegetation, as follows: the «cerrado» which is a type of Brazilian savanna, the «cerradão», a type of shrubbery, mostly tall and rather dense, and grasslands, a type of herbaceous vegetation. In the characterization of the latter were considered just those areas that had not been under cultivation as yet or with but a little interference by man, altering somewhat their texture. Photo-interpretation was performed on a basis of characterization of texture by field sampling. This paper shows the situation with regard to the various types of plants covering the areas: «cerrado» covered 724,900 ha, «cerradão» 2,668,000 and grasslands 458,600 ha, these figures representing 2.9, 10.8 and 1.8% of the total area of the state.

  1. Geodetic Imaging of Marsh Surface Elevation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C. T.; Starek, M. J.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Lord, A.

    2015-12-01

    The resilience of marshes to a rising sea is dependent on their elevation response. Given the level of precision required to measure minute changes in marsh elevation over time, survey methods have to be adapted to minimize impacts to the sediment surface. Current approaches include Surface Elevation Tables (SETs), which are used to monitor wetland surface change with respect to an in situ vertical benchmark. Although SETs have been proven as an effective technique to track subtle sedimentation rates (marsh elevation response away from the measurement site. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) offers potential for high definition monitoring of marsh surface evolution. However, several challenges must be overcome in the application of the technology for geodetic imaging of marsh surfaces. These challenges include surface occlusion by dense vegetation, error propagation due to scan co-registration and referencing across time, impacts of scan angle, and filtering of non-ground points. Researchers at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a field-survey of a marsh within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve using TLS and RTK GPS for comparison. Grand Bay in Mississippi USA is one of the most biologically productive estuarine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. The study region is covered by dense and tall saw-grass that makes it a challenging environment for bare-earth mapping. For this survey, a Riegl VZ-400 TLS (1550 nm wavelength) was utilized. The system is capable of recording multiple returns per a transmitted pulse (up to 15) and provides full-waveform output for signal post-processing to extract returns. The objectives of the study are twofold: 1) examine impacts of TLS survey design, scan angle and scan density on marsh elevation mapping; 2) assess the capabilities of multiple-echo and full-waveform TLS data to extract the bare-earth surface below the dense vegetation. This presentation will present results of the study including the developed

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  3. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results

  4. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  5. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  6. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  7. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Attah, Simon K; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2014-11-25

    Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques. We purchased two batches of samples of cabbage, sweet bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, tomato and onion within a two week interval. The vegetables were washed by three methods and the wash solution was concentrated and analyzed for parasites. The prevalent parasites detected were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (43%) and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (16%). Others present were Hookworm ova, Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Entamoeba coli cysts, Trichuris trichiuria ova, Enterobius vermicularis ova, Isospora belli oocysts and Fasciolopsis buski ova. Contamination was highest in lettuce (61%) and cabbage and the least contaminated was tomato (18%). Contamination of vegetables sold at the open-aired markets was about ten-times that of the supermarkets. In Ghana, the large open-aired markets are the most patronized and serve as a supply point for most corner shops and stalls. The results thus highlight the potential of fresh vegetables serving as a major source of food-borne disease outbreaks and the contribution of open-aired markets to their transmission. Urgent public education on handling of fresh vegetables is recommended.

  8. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  9. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  10. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  11. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  12. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  13. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    satellite for polar cap passes during large SEP events to determine the experimental geographic cutoff latitudes for the two energy ranges. 9 These...E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) Shea, M.A., and D.F. Smart, Overview of the Effects of Solar Terrestrial Phenomena...Conference, Invited, Rapporteurs, & Highlight Papers, edited by N. Iucci and E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) 27

  14. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  15. Circumpolar Arctic vegetation: a hierarchic review and roadmap toward an internationally consistent approach to survey, archive and classify tundra plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D A Walker; F J A Daniels; I Alsos; U S Bhatt; A L Breen; M Buchhorn; H Bultmann; L A Druckenmiller; M E Edwards; D Ehrich; H E Epstein; William Gould; R A Ims; H Meltofte; M K Raynolds; J Sibik; S S Talbot; P J Webber

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-derived remote-sensing products are providing a modern circumpolar perspective of Arctic vegetation and its changes, but this new view is dependent on a long heritage of ground-based observations in the Arctic. Several products of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna are key to our current understanding.Wereview aspects of the PanArctic Flora, the...

  16. A new map of standardized terrestrial ecosystems of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Hak, Jon; Josse, Carmen; Bow, Jacquie; Warner, Harumi; Larwanou, Mahamane; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Kehl, Harald; Amena, Ruba; Andriamasimanana, Rado; Ba, Taibou; Benson, Laurence; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Matthew; Cress, Jill J.; Dassering, Oueddo; Friesen, Beverly A.; Gachathi, Francis; Houcine, Sebei; Keita, Mahamadou; Khamala, Erick; Marangu, Dan; Mokua, Fredrick; Morou, Boube; Mucina, Ladislav; Mugisha, Samuel; Mwavu, Edward; Rutherford, Michael; Sanou, Patrice; Syampungani, Stephen; Tomor, Bojoi; Vall, Abdallahi Ould Mohamed; Vande Weghe, Jean Pierre; Wangui, Eunice; Waruingi, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems and vegetation of Africa were classified and mapped as part of a larger effort and global protocol (GEOSS – the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), which includes an activity to map terrestrial ecosystems of the earth in a standardized, robust, and practical manner, and at the finest possible spatial resolution. To model the potential distribution of ecosystems, new continental datasets for several key physical environment datalayers (including coastline, landforms, surficial lithology, and bioclimates) were developed at spatial and classification resolutions finer than existing similar datalayers. A hierarchical vegetation classification was developed by African ecosystem scientists and vegetation geographers, who also provided sample locations of the newly classified vegetation units. The vegetation types and ecosystems were then mapped across the continent using a classification and regression tree (CART) inductive model, which predicted the potential distribution of vegetation types from a suite of biophysical environmental attributes including bioclimate region, biogeographic region, surficial lithology, landform, elevation and land cover. Multi-scale ecosystems were classified and mapped in an increasingly detailed hierarchical framework using vegetation-based concepts of class, subclass, formation, division, and macrogroup levels. The finest vegetation units (macrogroups) classified and mapped in this effort are defined using diagnostic plant species and diagnostic growth forms that reflect biogeographic differences in composition and sub-continental to regional differences in mesoclimate, geology, substrates, hydrology, and disturbance regimes (FGDC, 2008). The macrogroups are regarded as meso-scale (100s to 10,000s of hectares) ecosystems. A total of 126 macrogroup types were mapped, each with multiple, repeating occurrences on the landscape. The modeling effort was implemented at a base spatial resolution of 90 m. In

  17. Comprehensive seismic surveys suggest that subsurface water-holding capacity is secondary to bedrock nutrient content as a regulator of vegetation productivity in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. J.; Riebe, C. S.; Dueker, K. G.; Goulden, M.; Flinchum, B. A.; Pasquet, S.; Callahan, R. P.; Hahm, W. J.; Keifer, I. S.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both climate and lithology regulate the distribution of vegetation across Earth's surface. However, lithologic effects on vegetation are inherently difficult to understand, because they integrate both the properties of bedrock and the processes that alter it in the critical zone. For example, bedrock composition can influence overlying vegetation by providing nutrients that promote growth. Likewise weathering, which may depend in part on bedrock composition, can promote growth by increasing subsurface porosity, which provides storage space for life-sustaining water. To disentangle the effects of bedrock on vegetation, we used seismology to quantify subsurface porosity in 3D, integrated from the surface to vegetation rooting depths, at three climatically similar but geologically diverse granitic sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Evapotranspiration (ET) varies tenfold, allowing us to test the hypothesis that differences in ecosystem productivity are driven by lithologic differences in subsurface water storage capacity. We found that subsurface porosity varies by only 10 percent. Thus our results show little difference in weathering across the sites, despite sharp differences in the abundance of weatherable minerals such as biotite and hornblende. Moreover, porosity does not explain the large inferred variations in ET across our sites. However, ET does correlate strongly with bedrock concentrations of plant-essential nutrients including phosphorus, a correlation that is widespread across the Sierra Nevada Batholith based on our previous work. Together, our results suggest that, for a given climate, ecosystem productivity can depend predominantly on bedrock nutrient concentrations rather than weathering. Bedrock in the Sierra Nevada is similar to granites of other mountain ranges around the world, implying that our results have widespread implications for understanding lithologic effects on the distribution of life across Earth's surface.

  18. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps.......The Terrestrial Steering Group (TSG), has initiated the implementation phase of the CBMP Terrestrial Plan. The CBMP Terrestrial Steering Group, along with a set of invited experts (see Appendix A for a participants list), met in Iceland from February 25-27th to develop a three year work plan...... to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. This report describes the outcome of that workshop. The aim of the workshop was to develop a three year work plan to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. The participants were tasked with devising an approach to both (a) determine what...

  19. Patterns of sociodemographic and food practice characteristics in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in children: results from the U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tsz N; Prynne, Celia J; Cole, Darren; Fitt, Emily; Bates, Beverley; Stephen, Alison M

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have considered the combined effects of home-related determinants on children’s diet. The present study investigated independent associations between sociodemographic and food practice (SFP) characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption in U.K. children and the combined effects of SFP on consumption using pattern analysis. Diet was assessed using 4 d food diaries, SFP were collected using computer-assisted personal interview. Linear regressions were used to test associations; principal component analysis was used to identify patterns of SFP characteristics. Regression of fruit (g/d) and vegetables (g/d) v. component scores of each pattern were performed. U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2010). Children aged 1.5–10 years (n 642). Significant associations were found between fruit and vegetable consumption and household socio-economic status. Pattern 1, which was positively correlated with household structure characteristics, was associated with increased fruit consumption (P relation to dietary outcomes. Results have public health implications on the healthfulness of meals eaten out of home and in takeaways, as well as the need to reduce diet inequality in larger households with lower socio-economic status.

  20. Microstructure of terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics); Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-12-15

    The theory of evolution involving episodic terrestrial catastrophism predicts that the Oort cloud is disturbed by close encounters with massive nebulae. Each disturbance generates bombardment pulses of a few million years duration, the pulse frequencies being determined by the Sun's passage through the spiral arms and central plane of the Galaxy where nebulae concentrate. The structure within a pulse is shown here to be dominated by a series of 'spikes' of approx. 0.01-0.1 Myr duration separated by approx. 0.1-1.0 Myr, each caused by the arrival in circumterrestrial space of the largest comets followed by their disintegration into short-lived Apollo asteroids. Evidence is presented that a bombardment pulse was induced 3-5 Myr ago and that a 'spike' in the form of debris from a Chiron-like progenitor of Encke's comet has dominated the terrestrial environment for the last 0.02 Myr.

  1. Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates in a Global Hotspot of Karst Area in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

    2016-05-26

    The karst area of southwest China (KASC) is the largest piece of karst landscape on the earth and a global biodiversity hot-spot with high concentrations of endemic species. Although a number of nature reserves (NRs) have been established across the region, the representativeness of biodiversity of the NR system is still unknown. Based on comprehensive literature and field surveys, and intensive consultations with zoologists and wildlife managers, we compiled distributions of 1,204 terrestrial vertebrate species and 271 NRs in KASC. We found Jinxiu, Mengla, Hekou, and Jinghong have the richest amphibian species; Jinxiu has the highest species richness of reptiles; Jinghong, Menghai, and Mengla have the largest numbers of avian species; whereas, Mengla, Longzhou, and Ningming have the greatest mammalian diversity in the region. Gap analysis among NR system, species richness pattern, and five biogeographic indicators found insufficient representation of the NR system on territorial vertebrate diversity. The conservation effectiveness in Guizhou Province was much lower than that in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. Under-representation and over-representation simultaneously occurred in many of the ecoregions, elevation classes, vegetation types, landcover categories, and human disturbance intensity gradients. For conservation of terrestrial vertebrates in KASC, several suggestions were presented in this study.

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    -aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative...

  3. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  4. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  5. Snow and Vegetation Interactions at Boundaries in Alaska's Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, C. A.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    There has been increased attention on snow-vegetation interactions in Arctic tundra because of rapid climate-driven changes affecting that snow-dominated ecosystem. Yet, far less attention is paid to boreal forest snow-vegetation interactions even though climatic conditions are changing there as well. Further, it is the prevalent terrestrial biome on the planet. The forest is a variable patchwork of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs shaped by wind, fire, topography, water drainage, and permafrost. These patches and their boundaries have a corresponding effect on boreal snow distributions; however, measurements characterizing boreal snow are sparse and focus within patches (vs. between patches). Unfortunately, remote sensing approaches in such forested areas frequently fall short due to coarse footprint size and dense canopy cover. Over the last several years we have been examining the characteristics of snow cover within and across boundaries in the boreal forest, seeking to identify gradients in snow depth due to snow-vegetation interactions as well identifying methods whereby boreal forest surveys could be improved. Specifically, we collected end-of-season snow measurements in the Alaska boreal forest during long-distance traverses in the Tanana Basin in 2010 (26 sites) and within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge in 2011 (26 sites). At each site (all relatively flat), hundreds of snow depths were collected using a GPS-equipped Magnaprobe, which is an automated tool for measuring and locating individual snow depths. Corresponding canopy properties included NDVI determined from high-resolution satellite imagery; canopy properties were variable among the 1ha sites and some areas had recently burned. Among sites, NDVI had the largest correlation with snow depths; elevation was not significant. Vegetation transition zones play important roles in explaining observed snow depth. Similar to treeline work showing nutrient and energy gradients are influenced by

  6. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  7. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  8. Regional terrestrial ecosystem dynamics and their interactions with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D.; Schimel, D.; Parton, W.; McKeown, R.

    2003-04-01

    Integration of land use with human dimensions, biological, atmospheric and hydrological processes is necessary for us to estimate net carbon exchange from the terrestrial biota. However, proper handling of scale across a set of divergent processes interconnecting the atmosphere and the biosphere is critical to the success of this analysis. Development of the new IGBP “Land” Project will develop a structure to better integrate research that has advanced during the past decade. Our understanding of the long term changes in the terrestrial biosphere will provide greater insight to the environmental sustainability under different stresses and provide an indication of how different regions may respond to changes in climate, disturbance regimes, and land use. This insight will provide a framework to better develop earth system science over the coming decade and to better incorporate the human-environmental system perspective. Our understanding of the biological controls of carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface (referring to the soil, vegetation, water system) is critical to our estimation of net terrestrial carbon fluxes and the connection of key natural resources (e.g., water, vegetation, soils, etc) to climate and land use changes. Terrestrial biological processes respond strongly to atmospheric temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, N-deposition, precipitation, and radiative transfers. The development of this integrated science perspective to understand the scope of effects human activities on land are affecting the feedbacks to the earth system and the impacts on the terrestrial human-environment system. The presentation will focus on the development of this framework and highlight recent advances in our observational and analytical components of terrestrial biosphere research.

  9. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  10. Space Weather: Terrestrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Tuija

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects arise from the dynamic conditions in the Earth’s space environment driven by processes on the Sun. While some effects are influenced neither by the properties of nor the processes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, others are critically dependent on the interaction of the impinging solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field and plasma environment. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to space weather influences, understanding and predicting hazards posed by the active solar events has grown in importance. This review introduces key dynamic processes within the magnetosphere and discusses their relationship to space weather hazards.

  11. Diversity of terrestrial avifauna in response to distance from the shoreline of the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, M.B.; Boarman, W.I.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Large aquatic bodies influence surrounding terrestrial ecosystems by providing water and nutrients. In arid landscapes, the increased primary productivity that results may greatly enhance vertebrate biodiversity. The Salton Sea, a large saline lake in the Colorado Desert of southern California, provides nutrients in the form of hundreds of thousands of dead fish carcasses, brine flies, and chemical compounds through windborne salt sea spray. We performed point counts for landbirds and shorebirds monthly or every other month between March 2001 and February 2002 across a sampling grid of 35 points along the west edge of Salton Sea. We found that avian diversity (numbers of species and numbers per species) was dependent on proximity to the Sea. Diversity was at a maximum nearest the shore, and was significantly lower away from the Sea's edge, at all surveyed distances up to 1 km from the shore. Cover by the dominant shrubs on the study site also corresponded to proximity to the water's edge. Whereas one may hypothesize that the avian diversity patterns are caused by these differences in vegetation structure, our data did not support this. Future studies should further investigate this potential correlation between vegetation and bird patterns. Until more is understood about the relationship between elevated avian diversity and the physical environment of the land-shore interface, our results suggest that the Sea's surface be stabilized near its present level. Future management schemes at the Salton Sea that include reductions of water sources should be carefully analyzed, so as to not jeopardize the terrestrial avifauna at this unique ecosystem. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Field Plot Points for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Acadia...

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Acadia...

  14. Dune Morphology and Sediment Budget Responses to Varying Vegetation Cover and Restoration: Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. M.; Walker, I. J.; Pickart, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study examines morphodynamic and sedimentation responses of a stretch of coastal foredune undergoing removal of invasive vegetation (Ammophila arenaria) to restore ecosystem dynamics at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Seasonal topographic and vegetation transect surveys and historical aerial photography are analyzed to assess interannual to decadal geomorphic responses of the foredune and sediment budget changes. Relationships between sedimentation and geomorphic change are explored between dominant vegetation cover types as possible. The foredune maintained a near balanced position (+0.004 m a-1) between 1939 and 2014 across the study site. However, there is a general N to S trend from progradation to retreat of the foredune with a maximum change of +1.34 m a-1 in the northern A. arenaria dominated areas to a max retreat of -0.49 m a-1 in the southern sites with a lower and more hummocky foredune dominated by native plants. From 2004 to 2014, percent active sand surface and average aerial change of blowouts remained relatively stable across the study site, with average change values of -0.97% and +0.01% respectively. Positive statistical correlations exist between seasonal beach and foredune volume changes across all sites, yet no significant differences are observed in total volumetric change over the observation period or volume changes within beach and foredune between different vegetation cover types. Survey and aerial photography results suggest that the increased density of A. arenaria has contributed to foredune stabilization over recent decades. However, there is no observed significant difference in seasonal sand volume change in relation to differing dominant vegetation covers. Rather, strong positive correlations exist between seasonal beach volumes and foredune sedimentation, which suggests that foredune sediment budgets may be driven primarily by littoral and aeolian supply variations. Future research will explore vegetation

  15. Physical barriers to carotenoid bioaccessibility. Ultrastructure survey of chromoplast and cell wall morphology in nine carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jennifer; Holzenburg, Andreas; King, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    The ultrastructural characterisation of cellular components is a key element in revealing the bases for differences in nutrient bioaccessibility among fruits and vegetables and their derived products. Together, cell walls and chromoplasts constitute the two major physical barriers to carotenoid release from the food matrix (structure) during digestion. In general, larger cells with thinner cell walls are most likely to fail under mechanical pressure. In relation to chromoplasts, the substructures plastoglobuli, crystals and membranes give decreasing rates of carotenoid solubilisation when exposed to digestive forces. This paper describes cell wall and chromoplast structures in nine carotenoid-storing raw fruits and vegetables. Watermelon and melon cells were shown to have the largest cells concomitant with thin, non-fibrous cell walls, while carrot, hypodermal grapefruit and sweet potato cells were smallest with fibrous or dense cell walls. Mango fruit showed the highest proportion of globules to other substructures. Carrot, papaya and tomato contained many crystalline structures. Finally, watermelon, mango and butternut squash developed a high proportion of membranous structures. A more precise description of the physical characteristics of foods that stand as barriers to bioaccessibility can help in understanding which are more or less inhibitory for particular foods. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  17. Applications of modern digital terrestrial photogrammetry to problems in glaciology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, W.

    2004-12-01

    Recent developments in digital photogrammetry allow reliable, accurate, stereometric models of detailed objects such as glaciers to be constructed at reduced cost and effort in comparison to conventional film-based aerial or terrestrial photogrammetric methods. These developments include: 1) Correction of lens distortion by digital remapping of images; 2) Digital measurement of image space coordinate measurements; 3) Ease with which multiple stereomodels may be combined, permitting redundancy and strong parallax. These improvements make stereophotogrammetry a practical and cost effective alternative to other mapping procedures (e.g. optical survey, laser profiling) for small- to medium-scale glaciology projects. The relative strengths of digital terrestrial photogrammetry are compared to traditional film-based photogrammetric procedures as well as to other ground-based and airborne survey methods and satellite imagery, and several examples of terrestrial photogrammetric applications to glaciers are presented, including topographic profiling, velocity determination, and structural mapping.

  18. Terrestrial chemical cues help coral reef fish larvae locate settlement habitat surrounding islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Pratchett, Morgan S; Srinivasan, Maya; Planes, Serge; Thorrold, Simon R

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the degree of connectivity between coastal and island landscapes and nearby coral reefs is vital to the integrated management of terrestrial and marine environments in the tropics. Coral reef fish are capable of navigating appropriate settlement habitats following their pelagic larval phase, but the mechanisms by which they do this are unclear. The importance of olfactory cues in settlement site selection has been demonstrated, and there is increasing evidence that chemical cues from terrestrial sources may be important for some species. Here, we test the olfactory preferences of eight island-associated coral reef fish recruits and one generalist species to discern the capacity for terrestrial cue recognition that may aid in settlement site selection. A series of pairwise choice experiments were used to evaluate the potential role that terrestrial, water-borne olfactory cues play in island-reef recognition. Olfactory stimuli tested included near-shore water, terrestrial rainforest leaf litter, and olfactory cues collected from different reef types (reefs surrounding vegetated islands, and reefs with no islands present). All eight island-associated species demonstrated high levels of olfactory discrimination and responded positively toward olfactory cues indicating the presence of a vegetated island. We hypothesize that although these fish use a suite of cues for settlement site recognition, one mechanism in locating their island/reef habitat is through the olfactory cues produced by vegetated islands. This research highlights the role terrestrial olfactory cues play in large-scale settlement site selection and suggests a high degree of ecosystem connectivity.

  19. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regionally strong feedbacks between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Lee, Jung-Eun; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyse satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30% of precipitation and surface radiation variance in regions where feedbacks occur. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  1. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  2. Arctic Vegetation under Climate Change – Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and Leaf Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schollert, Michelle

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation are highly reactive non-methane hydrocarbons which participate in oxidative reactions in the atmosphere prolonging the lifetime of methane and contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The BVOC...

  3. Height to Live Crown of Vegetation in Acadia National Park (acad_ht_crwn)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a raster dataset in which cell values represent average height to live crown base, in feet, of woody terrestrial vegetation in Acadia National Park.

  4. Vegetation factors influencing density and distribution of wild large herbivores in a southern African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and

  5. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  6. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Melodie A. McGeoch; Hendrik Sithole; Samways, Michael J.; Simaika, John P; Pryke, James S.; Mike Picker; Charmaine Uys; Armstrong, Adrian J.; Ansie S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Ian A. Engelbrecht; Brigitte Braschler; Michelle Hamer

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here ...

  7. Inventory of Some Environmental Components in the Terrestrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of some environmental components in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility in Makurdi was carried out to obtain baseline information on the area. Inventory, semi-structured interviews and field observations/walks were carried out to obtain information on useful plants, ...

  8. 171 inventory of some environmental components in the terrestrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-02

    Sep 2, 2010 ... ABSTRACT. A survey of some environmental components in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the. Integrated Waste Treatment Facility in Makurdi was carried out to obtain baseline information on the area. Inventory, semi-structured interviews and field observations/walks were carried out to obtain ...

  9. Enchytraeids as indicator organisms for chemical stress in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.; Römbke, J.

    2001-01-01

    This review article surveys the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward chemical stress, and the effects of chemical stress on enchytraeid communities in terrestrial ecosystems. The factors affecting bioavailability of stressors to enchytraeids and the nature of direct and indirect effects

  10. LANDFIRE (90m) Existing Vegetation Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map depicts the distribution of existing vegetation types contained in the LANDFIRE dataset. All 30-meter EVT grids were resampled to 90-meter grids and merged...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  16. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  17. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  1. Average Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  2. Peak Vegetation Growth 1991 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1991 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  3. Peak Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  4. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  5. Peak Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  6. Peak Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  7. Average Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  8. Peak Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  9. Vegetation Drought Response Index: 2010-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VegDRI, short for Vegetation Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought...

  10. Sagebrush Biomass Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsoy, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Clark, P. E.; Spaete, L.; Mitchell, J.; Shrestha, R.

    2012-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a proven tool for inventory of many vegetation types. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been demonstrated for estimation of biomass of trees, but the relatively low number of laser points (1-10 m-2) typical of ALS datasets makes estimating biomass of shrubs and small stature vegetation challenging. This study uses terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to estimate sagebrush biomass (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) by relating destructively sampled estimates to TLS-derived volumetric estimates. At close range, TLS can commonly provide in excess of 100,000 3-D points for a single sagebrush of approximately 1 m3 in volume. In this study, thirty sagebrush were scanned and destructively sampled at 6 sites within Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The 3-D point cloud data are converted into 1-cm voxels to give quantitative estimates of shrub volume. The accuracy of the TLS-based metrics for estimating biomass are then compared to several traditional plot sampling methods including point-intercept and simple crown dimension measurements. The findings of this study are expected to provide guidance on methods for data collection and analysis such that biomass can be accurately estimated across plot-scales (e.g., 100 m x 100 m).

  11. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi Pem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK, BMI, Energy Intake (EI, Physical Activity Level (PAL, Dietary Intake (DI and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG and 175 intervention group (IG were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05. NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05. No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05. Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  12. Biochar Erosion in a Temperate Forest Assessed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Milutin; Bruckman, Viktor; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Biochar amendment in soils is seen as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. There are a number of examples of successful amendment strategies in agricultural ecosystems, where biochar is mixed with the mineral topsoil by ploughing or similar manipulation techniques. The application in forest ecosystems, however, comes with the limitation that biochar can only be applied directly on the surface. Light-weight biochar particles may be prone to erosion by environmental forces, such as precipitation and wind. We therefore assessed biochar erosion patterns by using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in combination with a time-lapse camera on a micro topography scale in a temperate spruce-dominated forest with herbaceous ground vegetation. TLS is a photogrammetric technique that utilizes the laser light detection and ranging (LiDAR) principle to provide high resolution, 3D geometrical information of the object at millimeter scale. A biochar-amended (10 t/ha) plot with the size of ca. 3m x 3m was surveyed with 4 TLS scans taken from each of 4 plot's sides. The acquired scans were co-registered using the professional targets that were installed on the plot's corners. The resulting point cloud was then used as a base for calculating digital terrain model (DTM), to spatially map vegetation heights, vegetation density and roughness. These TLS products were derived by analyzing the geometrical properties of the acquired point cloud. A time-lapse camera was installed during summer 2013, continuously observing the entire plot at 3min intervals. A single, representative, precipitation event in August was selected for a detailed image analysis of biochar particle movement. The analysis showed that areas of notable particle movement correspond to places of flow accumulation simulated from the DTM. This suggests that the very high resolution terrain information can be usefully for planning the biochar amendment on temperate forest ecosystems.

  13. The adaptation rate of terrestrial ecosystems as a critical factor in global climate dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuessler, J.S.; Gassmann, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A conceptual climate model describing regional two-way atmosphere-vegetation interaction has been extended by a simple qualitative scheme of ecosystem adaptation to drought stress. The results of this explorative study indicate that the role of terrestrial vegetation under different forcing scenarios depends crucially on the rate of the ecosystems adaptation to drought stress. The faster the adaptation of important ecosystems such as forests the better global climate is protected from abrupt climate changes. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  14. Vegetation and vascular flora of the Mekong River, Kratie and Steung Treng Provinces, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Maxwell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary and detailed botanical survey of the islands in the Mekong River between Kratie and Steung Treng was done. This area includes the most biologically intact and threatened riparian and terrestrial ecosystems along the river in Cambodia. The vegetation includes six riverine zones and four terrestrial facies. Riverine habitats are mostly intact while the terrestrial vegetation ranges from destroyed to degraded. Effective conservation measures are required to stop further habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. One new species, 23 records for the Cambodian flora, and a total of 690 species were collected. Detailed descriptions of all habitats, a database, and photographs are included. Increased exploitative human settlement in the area has caused drastic environmental changes with extensive deforestation and hunting. The forests are grazed, burned, logged, and often cleared for agricultural use without effective control. Sustainable management and scientifically acceptable development must be implemented before the area is totally ruined. Properly conceived reforestation is urgently required as well as a conservation education project aimed directly at the people living in the area. Unless effective restraints are implemented the area will become biologically destitute and will not be able to provide the natural resources that people require--in short, the area will become uninhabitable. Restoration of degraded or destroyed places will be impossible or far more difficult than conservation and intelligent management of presently endangered places. The potential for profitable eco-tourism should also be considered since tourists will certainly want to visit natural ecosystems on some of the islands. Only if local people are directly involved in eco-tourism and understand the necessity of conservation can this activity be successful. It is strongly recommended that continued botanical research be conducted in the area in order to

  15. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Yoo-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis. The prevalence of rhinitis decreased with increasing kimchi consumption. The quintile 4 (range of kimchi intake: 108.0-180.0 g) groups, compared with the reference of quintile 1 (0-23.7 g), showed a decrease of 18.9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.672-0.979) in Model 4. In conclusion, consumption of kimchi lowers the risk of rhinitis, suggesting that its use should be encouraged among the Korean population.

  16. Quantifying Local Ablation Rates for the Greenland Ice Sheet Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, C. M.; Pitcher, L. H.; LeWinter, A.; Finnegan, D. C.; Overstreet, B. T.; Miège, C.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying accurate ice surface ablation or melt rates for the Greenland Ice Sheet is important for calibrating and validating surface mass balance models and constraining sea level rise estimates. Common practice is to monitor surface ablation at defined points by manually measuring ice surface lowering in relation to stakes inserted into the ice / snow. However, this method does not account for the effects of local topography, solar zenith angle, and local variations in ice surface albedo/impurities on ablation rates. To directly address these uncertainties, we use a commercially available terrestrial LIDAR scanner (TLS) to monitor daily melt rates in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet for 7 consecutive days in July 2016. Each survey is registered to previous scans using retroreflective cylinders and is georeferenced using static GPS measurements. Bulk ablation will be calculated using multi-temporal differential LIDAR techniques, and difficulties in referencing scans and collecting high quality surveys in this dynamic environment will be discussed, as well as areas for future research. We conclude that this novel application of TLS technology provides a spatially accurate, higher fidelity measurements of ablation across a larger area with less interpolation and less time spent than using traditional manual point based methods alone. Furthermore, this sets the stage for direct calibration, validation and cross-comparison with existing airborne (e.g. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper - ATM - onboard Operation IceBridge and NASA's Land, Vegetation & Ice Sensor - LVIS) and forthcoming spaceborne sensors (e.g. NASA's ICESat-2).

  17. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples : vegetables, fishes/shellfishes, fruits, starch and starch roots and drinking waters. Among the all 2001 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  18. The páramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 2. Azonal vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello A., N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The azonal páramo vegetation present at the top of Ramal de Guaramacal in the Venezuelan Andes was studied by means of observations, plant collections and surveys consisting of a total of 71 small plots of between 0.25 to 6 m2. Azonal vegetation is represented in the study area by habitats

  19. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  20. Update on terrestrial ecological classification in the highlands of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Vanderhorst

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Natural Heritage Program (WVNHP) maintains databases on the biological diversity of the state, including species and natural communities, to help focus conservation efforts by agencies and organizations. Information on terrestrial communities (also called vegetation, or habitat, depending on user or audience focus) is maintained in two databases. The...

  1. Patterns and controls of the variability of radiation use efficiency and primary productivity across terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbulsky, M.F.; Peñuelas, J.; Papale, D.; Ardö, J.; Goulden, M.L.; Kiely, G.; Richardson, A.D.; Rotenberg, E.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Filella, I.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The controls of gross radiation use efficiency (RUE), the ratio between gross primary productivity (GPP) and the radiation intercepted by terrestrial vegetation, and its spatial and temporal variation are not yet fully understood. Our objectives were to analyse and synthesize the spatial

  2. Winter Avian Distribution and Relative Abundance in Six Terrestrial Habitats on Southern Eleuthera, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVE CURRIE; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE JR.; DAVID N. EWERT; ANCILLENO DAVIS; ZEKO MCKENZIE

    2005-01-01

    We studied winter avian distribution and relative abundance in six common terrestrial broadleaf habitats, selected on a continuum of disturbance from recently disturbed (abandoned plantation) to mature vegetation (tall coppice), on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. During 158-point counts conducted 22 January—10 March 2003, 1357 individuals were detected,...

  3. Monitoring spring phenology with high temporal resolution terrestrial LiDAR measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Schenkels, T.; Bartholomeus, H.M.; Armston, J.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation phenology studies the timing of recurring seasonal dynamics and can be monitored through estimates of plant area index (PAI). Shifts in spring phenology are a key indicator for the effect of climate change, in particular the start of the growing season of forests. Terrestrial laser

  4. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 15Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  5. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Daily Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  6. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Monthly Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  7. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  8. Coupled canopy-atmosphere modelling for radiance-based estimation of vegetation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, V.C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore plays a crucial role in the carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems. Vegetation variables, such as leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab), can be monitored at global scale using remote sensing (RS).

  9. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376758562; Brinkhuis, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095046097

    2013-01-01

    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  10. Linking plant communities on land and at sea: The effects of Posidonia oceanica wrack on the structure of dune vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Jucker, Tommaso; Carboni, Marta; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Although terrestrial and marine ecosystems are often perceived as clearly distinct, in coastal areas biological communities on land and at sea are in fact intimately linked. One way in which terrestrial and marine systems interact is through the accumulation of seagrass wrack on beaches, which plays an important role as a nutrient input in coastal dune food webs. Here we test whether accumulated beach-cast wrack also influences the structure and diversity of coastal dune plant communities. Relying on a database of 572 vegetation surveys distributed across the island of Sardinia, we used mixed-effects models to compare the vegetation cover and species richness of plant communities exposed to different amounts of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast wrack. We found that beaches which receive high amounts of P. oceanica wrack have considerably greater vegetation cover (10% on average) than those with fewer deposits. The positive relationship between beach-cast wrack and vegetation cover was especially strong in nearshore plant communities, becoming progressively weaker along the habitat zonation. A similar pattern was found for species richness: beaches with high levels of accumulated wrack had more diverse drift line and foredune plant communities, while habitats further away from the shoreline were unaffected. Our study is the first to present evidence suggesting that activities which reduce wrack accumulation on beaches - either through direct removal of deposits or by causing P. oceanica seabeds to decline - can have effects on both the structure and diversity of coastal dune plant communities. Effective management of Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems will require developing clear strategies for the removal and relocation of accumulated beach-cast wrack.

  11. Carbon Inputs From Riparian Vegetation Limit Oxidation of Physically Bound Organic Carbon Via Biochemical and Thermodynamic Processes: OC Oxidation Processes Across Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Tfaily, Malak M. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Crump, Alex R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Goldman, Amy E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Arntzen, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Romero, Elvira [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Resch, C. Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kennedy, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stegen, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-12-01

    In light of increasing terrestrial carbon (C) transport across aquatic boundaries, the mechanisms governing organic carbon (OC) oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces are crucial to future climate predictions. Here, we investigate biochemistry, metabolic pathways, and thermodynamics corresponding to OC oxidation in the Columbia River corridor. We leverage natural vegetative differences to encompass variation in terrestrial C inputs. Our results suggest that decreases in terrestrial C deposition associated with diminished riparian vegetation induce oxidation of physically-bound (i.e., mineral and microbial) OC at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. We also find that contrasting metabolic pathways oxidize OC in the presence and absence of vegetation and—in direct conflict with the concept of ‘priming’—that inputs of water-soluble and thermodynamically-favorable terrestrial OC protects bound-OC from oxidation. Based on our results, we propose a mechanistic conceptualization of OC oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces that can be used to model heterogeneous patterns of OC loss under changing land cover distributions.

  12. Terrestrial ecosystems and their change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Eric Gustafson; A. David McGuire; Vjacheslav I. Kharuk; Dmitry G. Schepaschenko; Herman H. Shugart; Nadezhda M. Tchebakova; Natalia N. Vygodskaya; Alexander A. Onuchin; Daniel J. Hayes; Ian McCallum; Shamil Maksyutov; Ludmila V. Mukhortova; Amber J. Soja; Luca Belelli-Marchesini; Julia A. Kurbatova; Alexander V. Oltchev; Elena I. Parfenova; Jacquelyn K. Shuman

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers the current state of Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and major biometric characteristics. Ongoing climate change and the dramatic increase of accompanying anthropogenic pressure provide different but mostly negative impacts on Siberian ecosystems. Future climates of the region may lead to substantial drying on large...

  13. Climate-mediated spatiotemporal variability in terrestrial productivity across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Babst, F.; Ciais, P.; Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Zang, C.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Quantifying the interannual variability (IAV) of the terrestrial ecosystem productivity and its sensitivity to climate is crucial for improving carbon budget predictions. In this context it is necessary to disentangle the influence of climate from impacts of other mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of the ecosystem productivity. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of historical observations of European crop yields in tandem with a set of climate variables. We further evaluated if relevant remote-sensing retrievals of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) depict a similar behaviour. Our results reveal distinct spatial patterns in the IAV of the analysed proxies linked to terrestrial productivity. In particular, we find higher IAV in water-limited regions of Europe (Mediterranean and temperate continental Europe) compared to other regions in both crop yield and remote-sensing observations. Our results further indicate that variations in the water balance during the active growing season exert a more pronounced and direct effect than variations of temperature on explaining the spatial patterns in IAV of productivity-related variables in temperate Europe. Overall, we observe a temporally increasing trend in the IAV of terrestrial productivity and an increasing sensitivity of productivity to water availability in dry regions of Europe during the 1975-2009 period. In the same regions, a simultaneous increase in the IAV of water availability was detected. These findings suggest intricate responses of carbon fluxes to climate variability in Europe and that the IAV of terrestrial productivity has become potentially more sensitive to changes in water availability in the dry regions in Europe. The changing sensitivity of terrestrial productivity accompanied by the changing IAV of climate is expected to impact carbon stocks and the net carbon balance

  14. Application of Kite Based Aerial Photography to Resolve Short Term Sediment Exchanges Between a Dissipative Beach and Densely Vegetated Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, M.; Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sand dunes provide coastal communities critical protection from flooding and erosion, as well as a habitat for a range of species- some threatened or endangered. As such, it is of importance to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes through which these systems evolve at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. During summer 2016, a large field campaign in southwest Washington called the Sandbar-aEolian Dune EXchange EXperiment (SEDEX2) focused on developing a suite of data sets fundamental to improving our understanding of the ways in which beaches and dunes grow during fair weather conditions. As part of this experiment, daily to bi-weekly measurements of upper-beach and vegetated dune morphology were collected by post-processing images acquired using a consumer grade kite-based aerial photography system with low-cost Agisoft Photoscan Structure from Motion (SfM) software. Under the appropriate environmental conditions (e.g., sufficient wind, no precipitation, and minimal fog), kite-based SfM techniques minimize survey effort and time as compared to traditional coastal surveying methods such as RTK DGPS and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), making this approach ideally suited for frequent surveys of small ( digital elevation models. Here we document daily-to-weekly-scale upper beach and dune evolution using kite-based SfM techniques, focusing particularly on improving the efficacy of this technology both in vegetated areas and over short timescales. Our kite-based SfM approach, validated by concurrent RTK DGPS surveys, TLS scans, and dune vegetation surveys, is allowing us to develop quantitative estimates of the sediment exchange between the back-beach and dunes. Other data collected during SEDEX2 are being utilized to determine the primary drivers of these observed changes.

  15. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick W [Jefferson, MD

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  16. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  17. Terrestrial hyperspectral image shadow restoration through fusion with terrestrial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Preston J.; Glennie, Craig L.; Finnegan, David C.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from exclusively airborne observations to include terrestrial modalities. In contrast to airborne collection geometry, hyperspectral imagery captured from terrestrial cameras is prone to extensive solar shadowing on vertical surfaces leading to reductions in pixel classification accuracies or outright removal of shadowed areas from subsequent analysis tasks. We demonstrate the use of lidar spatial information for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize sunlit and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We examine the effectiveness of radiometrically calibrated lidar intensity in identifying these similar materials in sun and shade conditions and further evaluate a restoration technique that leverages ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multispectral lidar, indicate the potential for HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance of shadowed HSI pixels is quantified for imagery of a geologic outcrop through improvements in spectral shape, spectral scale, and HSI band correlation.

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake in the Mexican population: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de frutas y verduras en la población mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Ramírez-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify fruit and vegetable (FV dietary intake in the Mexican population and compliance with international recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: FV dietary intake (FV-DI and compliance with international recommendations were obtained in a representative sample of a Mexican population ages 1-59 years old using dietary data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTS: Average FV-DI for different age groups range from 61 to 72 g for fruits and 26 to 56 g for vegetables. Average total FV intakes were 88.7 g in preschool-age, 103.1 g in school-aged children, 116.3 g in adolescents and 122.6 g in adults. The lowest intakes were observed in the northern region and among the population with the lowest wellbeing levels. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 30% of the Mexican population had adequate intakes of FV. Developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing intake of these food groups is a national priority.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones internacionales en la población mexicana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones fueron obtenidas en una muestra representativa de la población mexicana de entre 1 a 59 años de edad, usando datos sobre dieta de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de ingestión dietética para los diversos grupos de edad fluctuaron entre 61 y 72 g en frutas y 26 y 56 g en verduras. Los promedios de ingestión dietética total de frutas y verduras fueron: 87.5 g en preescolares, 103.1 g en escolares, 116.3 g en adolescentes y 122.6 g en adultos. Los menores consumos se observaron en la región norte y en la población con los menores niveles de bienestar. CONCLUSIONES: Menos de 30% de la población tuvo consumos adecuados. El desarrollo e implementación de estrategias y programas que contribuyan a aumentar el

  19. A survey on lifestyle and attitudes on fruit and vegetable consumption and participation in physical activity in a sample of secondary school and university students from Palermo, Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and physical activity (PA, are thought to be some of the most important protective factors that can improve long-term health quality of life. Many epidemiological studies indicate, in fact, that F&V consumption and PA are health-promoting and are correlated with the beneficial effects and positive outcomes such as preventing some chronic diseases. Evidence, however, indicates that large proportions of adolescents are not consuming the minimum servings of F&V as recommended by experts and a high percentage of them have sedentary habits.

    Objective and method: The purpose of this research was to investigate knowledge and behaviors in a sample of secondary school, (250, and university students, (200, referred to F&V consumption and PA. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 19 items with multiple choice answers. Data were codified, descriptive analysis and ÷2 tests were computed through Openstat and Statistica software.

    Results: Only 24,2% of the individuals identified welfare as including healthy eating, and this attitude seemed to be associated with the students’ families educational level. Educational level was also positively associated with the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet for well-being and with PA practice. The percentage of students having knowledge of the expert recommendations on PA and eating guidelines about F&V consumption was about one third of the entire population. Students who met the expert recommendation for daily servings of fruit and vegetables were 27,8%, while only 17,8% practiced regular PA. The principal source of information was university/school, (48,0% and 57,0%.

    Conclusions: Healthy dietary and PA habits are far from the optimal in our sample of students. Because of the importance for the prevention of many diseases and long term health

  20. Vegetation and climate interactions: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, Gilles; de Boer, Hugo; Soh, Wuu-Kuang

    2017-04-01

    Plants play a key role in the climate system by influencing the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle, as well as by affecting the Earths energy balance via changes in albedo. Moreover, changes in climate may result in adaptive responses in vegetation that can feedback to the climate system. The processes that are most dominantly affected depend on the time scale of interest. This session will explore climate and plant interactions and feedbacks through a very large spectrum of processes and time spans. At very short time scale (several minutes) plants may influence the formation of shallow cumulus clouds. At geological time scales (millions of years) evolutionary changes in plant functional traits, such as rooting depth, may influence mineral weathering rates and subsequent atmospheric CO2 levels. To introduce this session we will show that as soon as plants colonized continents the climate was deeply modified. This major change took place during Devonian and corresponds to the opening of a new terrestrial carbon reservoir (soil and vegetation) and therefore contribute to a large decrease of atmospheric CO2. But, this period is also associated with a large change in terrestrial albedo from dessert to vegetation cover. We shall explore the climate impact of such a "terrestrialisation" during Late Devonian (375 Ma). Building on from here, this session will investigate the climate-vegetation interactions through geological time (Late Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Holocene…) and Anthropocene projections. In modern times we are introducing a large quantity of CO2 to the atmospheric reservoir at extreme rates that is affecting the vegetation globally. Owing to recent developments the consequences of terrestrial biosphere interactions for climate change are accurately monitored and simulated through a hierarchy of different co=mplexity models. Therefore, we may predict major interactions which could take place during this century in terms of changes in the water cycle and

  1. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  2. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  3. Environmental Factors That Influence a Mutualism Between the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. and the Annual Weed Ambrosia trifida L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. can improve Ambrosia trifida L. seed survival and seedling recruitment in agroecosystems with high risks of post-dispersal seed predation. In a previous 1-yr survey of no-till agricultural fields in the eastern U.S. Corn Belt, both L. terrestris and A. trifida w...

  4. Mars : a small terrestrial planet

    OpenAIRE

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, David; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for rem...

  5. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  6. The potential for regime shifts in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate constrains the extent of the two major terrestrial biomes at high latitudes: boreal forests and arctic tundra. Model simulations provide considerable evidence that physical and biogeochemical feedbacks from these regions to the climate system act to maintain a status quo of climate and biome distribution. Ongoing anthropogenically driven changes in climate are particularly pronounced in high latitude regions, and empirical evidence for their influence on tundra and boreal ecosystems is mounting. Global vegetation models project changes to accelerate in coming decades, culminating in profound shifts in high latitude biomes by the end of this century. Regime shifts are surprisingly large changes in a system that occur when a it moves between alternative stable states ('attractors'), without the equivalent large shift of an external driver. In association with climate change, regime shifts in ecosystems could theoretically generate significant modifications to ecosystem-climate feedbacks, in the Arctic for example through the respiration or combustion of large amounts of soil carbon. Here we review evidence for historical regime shifts in terrestrial ecosystems at high latitudes, including shifts in species dominance and distribution. We describe ongoing changes in characteristics of these ecosystems, including vegetation productivity, composition, and the fire regime, and discuss whether they can be indicators of impeding regime shifts. Finally, we discuss the potential of exploiting regime shifts in tundra and boreal systems for climate change mitigation or resource management by forcing ecosystems to shift towards a more desirable stable state.

  7. Biophsyical constraints on gross primary production by the terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Prentice, I. C.; Davis, T. W.

    2014-10-01

    Persistent divergences among the predictions of complex carbon-cycle models include differences in the sign as well as the magnitude of the response of global terrestrial primary production to climate change. Such problems with current models indicate an urgent need to reassess the principles underlying the environmental controls of primary production. The global patterns of annual and maximum monthly terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by C3 plants are explored here using a simple first-principles model based on the light-use efficiency formalism and the Farquhar model for C3 photosynthesis. The model is driven by incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and remotely sensed green-vegetation cover, with additional constraints imposed by low-temperature inhibition and CO2 limitation. The ratio of leaf-internal to ambient CO2 concentration in the model responds to growing-season mean temperature, atmospheric dryness (indexed by the cumulative water deficit, Δ E) and elevation, based on an optimality theory. The greatest annual GPP is predicted for tropical moist forests, but the maximum (summer) monthly GPP can be as high, or higher, in boreal or temperate forests. These findings are supported by a new analysis of CO2 flux measurements. The explanation is simply based on the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of PAR combined with the physiology of photosynthesis. By successively imposing biophysical constraints, it is shown that partial vegetation cover - driven primarily by water shortage - represents the largest constraint on global GPP.

  8. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  9. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  10. A Vegetation Survey of Trout Brook Flowage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trout Brook structure was started in 1963 under the Accelerated Public Works Program and finished in the summer of 1965. There is a 200 foot earthdike, a metal...

  11. Intercomparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Instruments for Assessing Forested Ecosystems: A Brisbane Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Danson, M.; Gaulton, R.; Zhang, Z.; Disney, M.; Sparrow, B.; Phinn, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Burt, A.; Counter, S.; Erb, A.; Goodwin, N.; Hancock, S.; Howe, G.; Johansen, K.; Li, Z.; Lollback, G.; Martel, J.; Muir, J.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Scarth, P.; Tindall, D.; Walker, L.; Witte, C.; Woodgate, W.; Wu, S.

    2013-12-01

    During 28th July - 3rd August, 2013, an international group of researchers brought five terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) to long-term monitoring plots in three eucalyptus-dominated woodland sites near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, to acquire scans at common locations for calibration and intercomparison.They included: DWEL - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (Boston U., U. Massachusetts Lowell, U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) SALCA - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (U. Salford, UK) CBL - a canopy biomass lidar, a small ultraportable low-cost multiple discrete return scanner (U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) Riegl VZ400 - a survey-grade commercial waveform scanner (Queensland Government and TERN, U. Queensland, Australia) FARO Focus 3D - a lightweight commercial phase-shift ranging laser scanner (U. Southern Queensland) Two plots were scanned at Karawatha Forest Park, a Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Supersite, and one plot at D'Aguilar National Park. At each 50 x 100 m plot, a center scan point was surrounded by four scan points located 25 m away in a cross pattern allowing for 3-D reconstructions of scan sites in the form of point clouds. At several center points, multiple instrument configurations (i.e. different beam divergence, angular resolution, pulse rate) were acquired to test the impact of instrument specifications on separation of woody and non-woody materials and estimation of vegetation structure parameters. Three-dimensional Photopoint photographic panoramas were also acquired, providing reconstructions of stems in the form of point clouds using photogrammetric correlation methods. Calibrated reflectance targets were also scanned to compare instrument geometric and radiometric performance. Ancillary data included hemispherical photos, TRAC LAI/clumping measurements, spectra of leaves, bark, litter, and other target components. Wet and dry leaf weights determined water content. Planned intercomparison topics and

  12. Aeolian Sediment Trapping Efficiencies of Sparse Vegetation and its Ecohydrological Consequences in Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, H. B.; Ravi, S.; Li, J. J.; Sankey, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological and aeolian processes control the redistribution of soil and nutrients in arid and semi arid environments thereby contributing to the formation of heterogeneous patchy landscapes with nutrient-rich resource islands surrounded by nutrient depleted bare soil patches. The differential trapping of soil particles by vegetation canopies may result in textural changes beneath the vegetation, which, in turn, can alter the hydrological processes such as infiltration and runoff. We conducted infiltration experiments and soil grain size analysis of several shrub (Larrea tridentate) and grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) microsites and in a heterogeneous landscape in the Chihuahuan desert (New Mexico, USA). Our results indicate heterogeneity in soil texture and infiltration patterns under grass and shrub microsites. We assessed the trapping effectiveness of vegetation canopies using a novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. An open-source software (OpenFOAM) was used to validate the data gathered from particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of soil within the shrub and grass microsites and their porosities (91% for shrub and 68% for grass) determined using terrestrial LiDAR surveys. Three-dimensional architectures of the shrub and grass were created using an open-source computer-aided design (CAD) software (Blender). The readily available solvers within the OpenFOAM architecture were modified to test the validity and optimize input parameters in assessing trapping efficiencies of sparse vegetation against aeolian sediment flux. The results from the numerical simulations explained the observed textual changes under grass and shrub canopies and highlighted the role of sediment trapping by canopies in structuring patch-scale hydrological processes.

  13. Evaluation of the MERIS terrestrial Chlorophyll Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J.; Curran, P.

    The MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), one of the payloads on Envisat, has fine spectral resolution, moderate spatial resolution and a three day repeat cycle. This makes MERIS a potentially valuable sensor for the measurement and monitoring of terrestrial environments at regional to global scales. The red edge, which results from an abrupt change in reflectance in red and near-infrared wavelengths has a location that is related directly to the chlorophyll content of vegetation. A new index called the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI) uses data in three red and NIR wavebands centred at 681.25nm, 705nm and 753.75nm (bands 8, 9 and 10 in the MERIS standard band setting). The MTCI is easy to calculate and can be automated. Preliminary indirect evaluation using model, field and MERIS data suggested its sensitivity, notably to high values of chlorophyll content and its limited sensitivity to spatial resolution and atmospheric effects. As a result this index is now a standard level-2 product of the European Space Agency. For direct MTCI evaluation two different approaches were used. First, the MTCI/chlorophyll content relationship were determined using a surrogate of chlorophyll content for sites in southern Vietnam and second, the MTCI/chlorophyll relationship was determined using actual chlorophyll content for sites in the New Forest, UK and for plots in a greenhouse. Forests in southern Vietnam were contaminated heavily with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The contamination levels were so high that it led to a long term decrease in chlorophyll content within forests that have long since regained full canopy cover. In this approach the amount of Agent Orange dropped onto the forest between 1965 and 1971 was used as a surrogate for contemporary chlorophyll content and was related to current MTCI at selected forest sites. The resulting relationship was positive. Further per pixel investigation of the MTCI/Agent Orange concentration relationship

  14. Monitoring Topographic Change In Highly Erodible Landscapes By Means Of Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, D.; Smith, M.; López-Tarazón, J. A.; Tena, A.; Brasington, J.; Batalla, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in survey instrumentation yield the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at the resolution of grain-scale upwards. Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are capable of acquiring unprecedented volumes of survey-grade observations over ranges 10-2 - 103 m at 10-3 m accuracy. In this paper we present the topographic change of an experimental badland (90 m2, Isabena Catchment, Pre-Pyrenees) after a series of rainfall events. Multi-temporal topographic models of the experimental site were obtained by means of TLS. Additionally, (i) the rainfall between each topographic survey was measured, (ii) the export of sediment from the experimental badland was monitored by means of a pit trap installed at the outlet, (iii) water samples were obtained when runoff was generated, and (iv) air temperature was monitored continuously. A total of 7 topographic surveys were obtained between 2009 and 2010. The first scan was obtained in summer 2009 as a reference, while the remaining six were surveyed regularly after rainfall events occurred between September and December 2010. The models were composed of between 1 and 7 million of survey observations. ToPCAT, an open source algorithm (will be available soon) designed to analyse large 3d point clouds, was applied to the TLS data sets. ToPCAT allows unifying point densities, creating multi-resolution gridded terrain products, and calculate statistical measures of the point clouds that, in turn, are used as a proxy of roughness. The results indicate as the maximum rainfall event was registered in September (22.3 mm). A total of 368 mm of rainfall were recorded between September-December 2010. Between the 25% and 83% of the events generated runoff. Suspended sediment concentrations oscillated between 14 and 96 g l-1, while the maximum volume of sediment retained in the trap was of 59 kg. An event-based erosion rate of vegetation cover, slope and antecedent roughness conditions are the main factors

  15. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. It is speculated that minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents would be 300-400 meters, and that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas, and strip and silt-over virtually all vegetation. As a result the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed. This could in turn cause extinction of large terrestrial animals.

  16. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  17. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting

  18. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  19. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    As climate changes, how will terrestrial vegetation respond? Because the fates of many biogeochemical, hydrological and economic cycles depend on vegetation, this question is fundamental to climate change science but extremely challenging to address. This is particularly true in the Arctic, where temperature change has been most acute globally (IPCC 2007) and where potential feedbacks to carbon, energy and hydrological cycles have important implications for the rest of the Earth system (Chapin et al 2000). It is well known that vegetation is tightly coupled to precipitation and temperature (Whittaker 1975), but predicting the response of vegetation to changes in climate involves much more than invoking the limitations of climate envelopes (Thuiller et al 2008). Models must also consider efficacy of dispersal, soil constraints, ecological interactions, possible CO2 fertilization impacts and the changing impact of other, more proximal anthropogenic effects such as pollution, disturbance, etc (Coops and Waring 2011, Lenihan et al 2008, Scheller and Mladenoff 2005). Given this complexity, a key test will be whether models can match empirical observations of changes that have already occurred. The challenge is finding empirical observations of change that are appropriate to test hypothesized impacts of climate change. As climate gradually changes across broad bioclimatic gradients, vegetation condition may change gradually as well. To capture these gradual trends, observations need at least three characteristics: (1) they must quantify a vegetation attribute that is expected to change, (2) they must measure that attribute in exactly the same way over long periods of time, and (3) they must sample diverse communities at geographic scales commensurate with the scale of expected climatic shifts. Observation networks meeting all three criteria are rare anywhere on the globe, but particularly so in remote areas. For this reason, satellite images have long been used as a

  20. The changing Arctic carbon cycle: using the past to understand terrestrial-aquatic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. J.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Jones, V.; McGowan, S.; Langdon, P. G.; Whiteford, E.; Turner, S.; Edwards, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Predicted shifts in terrestrial vegetation cover associated with Arctic warming are altering the delivery and processing of carbon to aquatic ecosystems. This process could determine whether lakes are net carbon sources or sinks and, because lake density is high in many Arctic areas, may alter regional carbon budgets. Lake sediment records integrate information from within the lake and its catchment and can be used quantify past vegetation shifts associated with known climatic episodes of warmer (Holocene Thermal Maximum) and cooler (Neoglacial) conditions. We analysed sediment cores located in different Arctic vegetation biomes (tundra, shrub, forested) in Greenland, Norway and Alaska and used biochemical (algal pigments, stable isotopes) remains to evaluate whether past vegetation shifts were associated with changes in ecosystem carbon processing and biodiversity. When lake catchments were sparsely vegetated and soil vegetation was limited ultra-violet radiation (UVR) screening pigments indicate clear lake waters, scarce dissolved organic carbon/ matter (DOC/M). Moderate vegetation development (birch scrub in Norway; herb tundra in Greenland) appears to enhance delivery of DOM to lakes, and to stimulate algal production which is apparently linked to heterotrophic carbon processing pathways (e.g. algal mixotrophy, nutrient release via the microbial loop). Mature forest cover (in Alaska and Norway) supressed lake autotrophic production, most likely because coloured DOM delivered from catchment vegetation limited light availability. During wetter periods when mires developed lake carbon processing also changed, indicating that hydrological delivery of terrestrial DOM is also important. Therefore, future changes in Arctic vegetation and precipitation patterns are highly likely to alter the way that arctic ecosystems process carbon. Our approach provides an understanding of how ecosystem diversity and carbon processing respond to past climate change and the difficulty

  1. 3D RECORDING AND MODELLING OF MIDDLE-AGE FORTRESS IN DENSE VEGETATION ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koehl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Schwartzenbourg castle is a Middle-Ages fortress which was built in 1261. It is situated above the valley of Munster in Alsace, France. It was mainly used as a fortified place and a jail. In the early 15th century, the structure has deteriorated. Even after some repairs, it fell into ruins during the Thirty Years’ war (1618-1648 and stayed uninhabited. During World War I, the German army used the place as a vantage point and also built a blockhouse inside the ruins. Nowadays, the ruins are gradually collapsing and the remains of the old walls are completely covered by thick plants. The goal of this project was to create a 3D-model of the site before closing its access, which became too dangerous for people. This modelling is divided into two elements: on one hand, a digital terrain model (DTM of the site in order to replace the castle and to analyze the background of its original environment; on the other hand, a 3D modelling of the ruins of the castle invaded by the vegetation. Indeed, the main difficulty of the measurement is obviously the dense vegetation which hides the castle. Held back for years outside the castle, it has now become an integral part of the ruins. This vegetation is finally today usually the first threat of heritage buildings. After a preliminary inspection of the site as well as difficulties of the project, the first step consisted of the survey of the whole environment of the site. We will therefore describe the different phases of the survey with the initial implementation of a georeferenced network on site. We will present the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS surveys, then complementary surveys carried out by aerial photogrammetry. To be implemented, we had to wait for an advanced autumn in order to have as few leaves on trees as possible. The major step of processing of point clouds described in this paper is then the extraction of a DTM by using techniques to pass through the vegetation, or better to segment the

  2. D Recording and Modelling of Middle-Age Fortress in Dense Vegetation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Courtois, Y.; Guillemin, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Schwartzenbourg castle is a Middle-Ages fortress which was built in 1261. It is situated above the valley of Munster in Alsace, France. It was mainly used as a fortified place and a jail. In the early 15th century, the structure has deteriorated. Even after some repairs, it fell into ruins during the Thirty Years' war (1618-1648) and stayed uninhabited. During World War I, the German army used the place as a vantage point and also built a blockhouse inside the ruins. Nowadays, the ruins are gradually collapsing and the remains of the old walls are completely covered by thick plants. The goal of this project was to create a 3D-model of the site before closing its access, which became too dangerous for people. This modelling is divided into two elements: on one hand, a digital terrain model (DTM) of the site in order to replace the castle and to analyze the background of its original environment; on the other hand, a 3D modelling of the ruins of the castle invaded by the vegetation. Indeed, the main difficulty of the measurement is obviously the dense vegetation which hides the castle. Held back for years outside the castle, it has now become an integral part of the ruins. This vegetation is finally today usually the first threat of heritage buildings. After a preliminary inspection of the site as well as difficulties of the project, the first step consisted of the survey of the whole environment of the site. We will therefore describe the different phases of the survey with the initial implementation of a georeferenced network on site. We will present the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys, then complementary surveys carried out by aerial photogrammetry. To be implemented, we had to wait for an advanced autumn in order to have as few leaves on trees as possible. The major step of processing of point clouds described in this paper is then the extraction of a DTM by using techniques to pass through the vegetation, or better to segment the points into

  3. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  4. Predicting use of effective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diep, Cassandra S; Beltran, Alicia; Chen, Tzu-An; Thompson, Debbe; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    .... An Internet survey was conducted with parents of pre-school children to assess their agreement with effective vegetable parenting practices and Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices items...

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Effigy...

  6. Field Plot Points for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Effigy...

  7. True Color Orthorectified Photomosaic for Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a 2006-2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Mapping Program to create a digital database of vegetation for Mesa...

  8. A Remotely Sensed Global Terrestrial Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Q.; Zhao, M.; Kimball, J. S.; McDowell, N. G.; Running, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Regional drought and flooding from extreme climatic events are increasing in frequency and severity, with significant adverse eco-social impacts. Detecting and monitoring drought at regional to global scales remains challenging, despite the availability of various drought indices and widespread availability of potentially synergistic global satellite observational records. We developed a method to generate a near-real-time remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI) to monitor and detect drought globally at 1-km spatial resolution and regular 8-day, monthly and annual frequencies. The new DSI integrates and exploits information from current operational satellite based terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) and Vegetation greenness Index (NDVI) products, which are sensitive to vegetation water stress. Specifically, our approach determines the annual DSI departure from its normal (2000-2011) using the remotely sensed ratio of ET to potential ET (PET) and NDVI. The DSI results were derived globally and captured documented major regional droughts over the last decade, including severe events in Europe (2003), the Amazon (2005 and 2010), and Russia (2010). The DSI corresponded favorably (r=0.43) with the precipitation based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), while both indices captured similar wetting and drying patterns. The DSI was also correlated with satellite based vegetation net primary production (NPP) records, indicating that the combined use of these products may be useful for assessing water supply and ecosystem interactions, including drought impacts on crop yields and forest productivity. The remotely-sensed global terrestrial DSI enhances capabilities for near-real-time drought monitoring to assist decision makers in regional drought assessment and mitigation efforts, and without many of the constraints of more traditional drought monitoring methods.

  9. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  10. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  11. Consumer Control of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.

    2012-12-01

    More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface is grazed by large herbivores and their effects on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen processes are large and widespread. Yet the large effects of these animals on terrestrial processes have largely been ignored in global change models. This presentation will explore the many pathways that consumers affect short and long time-scale terrestrial nitrogen and carbon processes. Large herbivores influence the quality of soil organic matter and the size of the active (i.e., labile) pool of soil carbon and nitrogen in several ways. Herbivory leads to greater abundance of species producing low quality material in forest and dry grassland, via feeding preferentially on high quality forage, and high quality material in mesic grassland habitat, via the high quality of material that regrows after a plant is grazed. Defoliation stimulates the rate of root exudation that enhances rhizospheric processes and the availability of nitrogen in the plant rhizosphere. Herbivores also change the species composition of mycorrhizae fungal associates that influence plant growth and affect soil structure and the turnover rate of soil carbon. Recent radiocarbon measurements have revealed that herbivores also markedly affect the turnover dynamics of the large pool of old soil carbon. In Yellowstone Park, ungulates slow the mean turnover of the relatively old (i.e., slow and passive) 0 - 20 cm deep soil organic carbon by 350 years in upland, dry grassland and speed up that rate in slope-bottom, mesic grassland by 300 years. This represents a 650 year swing in the turnover period of old soil carbon across the Yellowstone landscape. By comparison, mean turnover time for the old pool of 0 - 10 cm deep soil organic carbon shifts by about 300 years across the steep climatic gradient that includes tropical, temperate, and northern hardwood forest, and tallgrass, shortgrass and desert grassland. This large body of evidence suggests consumers play a

  12. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  13. Modelling the dynamics of ambient dose rates induced by radiocaesium in the Fukushima terrestrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Marc-André; Mourlon, Christophe; Calmon, Philippe; Manach, Erwan; Debayle, Christophe; Baccou, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, Japanese scientists have been intensively monitoring ambient radiations in the highly contaminated territories situated within 80 km of the nuclear site. The surveys that were conducted through mainly carborne, airborne and in situ gamma-ray measurement devices, enabled to efficiently characterize the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of air dose rates induced by Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in the terrestrial systems. These measurements revealed that radiation levels decreased at rates greater than expected from physical decay in 2011-2012 (up to a factor of 2), and dependent on the type of environment (i.e. urban, agricultural or forest). Unlike carborne measurements that may have been strongly influenced by the depuration of road surfaces, no obvious reason can be invoked for airborne measurements, especially above forests that are known to efficiently retain and recycle radiocaesium. The purpose of our research project is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the data acquired by Japanese, and identify the environmental mechanisms or factors that may explain such decays. The methodology relies on the use of a process-based and spatially-distributed dynamic model that predicts radiocaesium transfer and associated air dose rates inside/above a terrestrial environment (e.g., forests, croplands, meadows, bare soils and urban areas). Despite the lack of site-specific data, our numerical study predicts decrease rates that are globally consistent with both aerial and in situ observations. The simulation at a flying altitude of 200 m indicated that ambient radiation levels decreased over the first 12 months by about 45% over dense urban areas, 15% above evergreen coniferous forests and between 2 and 12% above agricultural lands, owing to environmental processes that are identified and discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the decrease over evergreen coniferous regions might be due the combined effects of canopy

  14. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  15. East African weathering dynamics controlled by vegetation-climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Boehlke, Adam; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Vincens, Annie; Cohen, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical weathering has important linkages to global biogeochemistry and landscape evolution in the East African rift. We disentangle the influences of climate and terrestrial vegetation on chemical weathering intensity and erosion at Lake Malawi using a long sediment record. Fossil pollen, microcharcoal, particle size, and mineralogy data affirm that the detrital clays accumulating in deep water within the lake are controlled by feedbacks between climate and hinterland forest composition. Particle-size patterns are also best explained by vegetation, through feedbacks with lake levels, wildfires, and erosion. We develop a new source-to-sink framework that links lacustrine sedimentation to hinterland vegetation in tropical rifts. Our analysis suggests that climate-vegetation interactions and their coupling to weathering/erosion could threaten future food security and has implications for accurately predicting petroleum play elements in continental rift basins.

  16. Earth Observation of Vegetation Dynamics in Global Drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng

    and exploring the widely used long-term datasets and 2) mapping trends in woody vegetation. A highlight of the thesis is the mapping of trends in the non-green woody vegetation component in global tropical drylands, which is obtained for the first time from combing satellite optical and passive microwave......Land degradation in global drylands has been a concern related to both the local livelihoods and the changes in terrestrial biosphere, especially in the context of substantial global environmental changes. Earth Observation (EO) provides a unique way to assess the vegetation dynamics over the past...... decades, which are keys to understanding the changes in global drylands. However, there are still large uncertainties and unknowns in the quality and capabilities of remote sensing data. This thesis contributes to an improved EO based assessment of dryland vegetation dynamics by 1) evaluating...

  17. Ecological Effects of Land Use Changes on European Terrestrial Mountain Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernusca, Alexander

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (TERI within Framework IV of the EU, ECOMONT aims at investigating ecological effects of land-use changes in European terrestrial mountain ecosystems. ECOMONT is coordinated by Prof Cernusca (University of Innsbruck and is carried out by eight European partner teams in the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, the Spanish Pyrennees and the Scottish Highlands. ECOMONT focuses on an analysis of structures and processes in the context of land-use changes, scaling from the leaf to the landscape level. The following research topics are being investigated: Spatial distribution of vegetation and soil in the composite experimental sites; physical and chemical soil properties, SOM status and turnover; canopy structure, primary production, and litter decomposition; water relations of ecosystems and hydrology of catchment areas; microclimate and energy budget of ecosystems; gas exchange of single plants and ecosystems; gas exchange between the composite experimental sites and the atmosphere, population and plant biology of keyspecies, plant-animal interactions, potential risks through land-use changes; GIS; remote sensing - environmental mapping; modeling activities integrating from plant to ecosystem and landscape level. First results of ECOMONT show that land-use changes have strong impacts on vegetation composition, structure and processes, on soil physics and chemistry, and therefore strongly affect exchange processes with the atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles. Abandonment of traditional agricultural practices (grazing, mowing causes characteristic changes of the vegetation. In most cases a successional reversion over many decades reaches its climax with the vegetation growing naturally at the sites. Sometimes, however, abandonment can also lead fo a degradation of vegetation and soil. In spite of common principles of changes of vegetation, soils and related processes with altered land

  18. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  19. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  20. TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING IN MONITORING OF HYDROTECHNICAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Zaczek-Peplinska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing Terrestrial Laser Scanning technology is provided by modern measuring instruments, i.e. total stations and laser scanners. Owing to these instruments, periodic control measurements of concrete dams carried out as a part of geodetic surveying provide point models characterised by quasi-continuity. Basing on the results of these surveys, it is possible to conduct a number of geometric analyses, as well as to obtain information for detailed analytic and calculative deliberations. A scanner, similarly to a total station, determines spatial coordinates (X, Y, Z of the surveyed points by identifying distances and angles. Registration of intensity of the reflected laser beam (Intensity sent out by the scanner provides additional information on the surveyed object. Thanks to high working speed and a large amount of collected data, scanners have become an essential tool for a geodesist.This paper evaluates the possibility of applying Terrestrial Laser Scanning to test deformations and shifts of flagged points of concrete dam construction based on experimental measurements, including object inventory and evaluation of the dam’s concrete structure condition.

  1. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa. Part 1: Fynbos Biome related vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Helga van der Merwe; van Rooyen, Margaretha W.; Noel van Rooyen

    2008-01-01

    The Succulent Karoo Hotspot stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. A lack of botanical information on the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld area of the Succulent Karoo Hotspot was identified during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Plan) process. A grant from CEPF (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund) funded a study to produce a vegetation map of the area to serve as baseline for ecosystem management.Vegetation surveys were conducted over an area of more than th...

  2. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  3. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: geoemma@vm.uff.br; Schaefer, Carlos [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Maria Sella, Silvia [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Carlos A. [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Vicente [Instituto Oceanografico, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R. [Instituto Oceanografico, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Phan Van Ngan [Instituto Oceanografico, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals.

  4. Herbivory and growth in terrestrial and aquatic populations of amphibious stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jacobsen, Dean

    2002-01-01

    1. Many amphibious plant species grow in the transition between terrestrial and submerged vegetation in small lowland streams. We determined biomass development, leaf turnover rate and invertebrate herbivory during summer in terrestrial and aquatic populations of three amphibious species...... production (average 1.2-5.1%) than aquatic populations (2.9-17.3%), while the same plant dry mass was consumed per unit ground area. 3. Grazing loss increased linearly with leaf age apart from the youngest leaf stages. Grazing loss during the lifetime of leaves was therefore 2.4-3.1 times higher than mean...... apparent loss to standing leaves of all ages. The results imply that variation in density of grazers relative to plant production can account for differences in grazing impact between terrestrial and aquatic populations, and that fast leaf turnover keeps apparent grazing damage down. 4. We conclude...

  5. Impact of vegetation on the simulation of seasonal monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of vegetation dataset derived from SPOT satellite by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization)versus that of USGS (United States Geological Survey)vegetation dataset on the simulation of the Indian summer monsoon.The present study has been ...

  6. Prevalence of helminths on raw vegetables and hygienic practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the prevalence of helminths on raw vegetables presented for sales and the level of hygienic practices among vegetable marketers in Maiduguri. All the markets surveyed were categorized into quadrants for the purpose of this study. A total of three hundred and twenty samples of spinach, cabbage, ...

  7. Ethnobotanical studies of traditional leafy vegetables and spices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this research were a) to identify and document the traditional leafy vegetables and spices of Ebonyi State, and b) to assess their nutritional values with a view of enhancing their selection as components of cooked food. Market and field surveys were carried out for traditional leafy vegetables and spices in ...

  8. Natural and semi-natural vegetation in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Numata, M.; Miyawaki, A.; Itow, D.

    1972-01-01

    Studies on the composition of the forests and other vegetation of Japan were initiated by J. Tanaka (1887) in the Meiji Era. According to his introduction his field survey started in 1879 and resulted into a classification of vegetation zones (forest zones), mainly of the lowland, based on

  9. Natural recovery of steppe vegetation on vehicle tracks in central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied natural vegetation recovery on abandoned vehicle tracks in the central Mongolia steppe through vegetation surveys and stable isotopic techniques. ... Hokkaido University, Sapporo Hokkaido 060–0810, Japan; Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Khudaldaany Gudamj–5, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia ...

  10. Water Control on Vegetation Growth Pattern in Eurasia from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude ecosystem productivity is constrained by cold temperature and moisture limitations to plant growth, while these environmental restrictions may be changing with global warming. Satellite data driven assessments indicate that over the past three decades, rapid warming in the northern high latitudes has resulted in earlier and longer potential growing seasons and widespread greening, due to general relaxation of cold temperature constraints to vegetation productivity. However, warming may have also increased water stress limitations to growth. In this study, we use GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) derived total water storage (TWS), 2-m air temperature (T) from ERA-interim reanalysis, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from MODIS (Collection 5) and satellite data driven vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) estimates as surrogates for vegetation growth, for the period August 2002-December 2013 to evaluate terrestrial water supply controls to vegetation growth changes over the three major river basins of northern Eurasia. We find that during the analyzed period, the apparent growth response follows regional vegetation, moisture and temperature gradients and is spatially complex. In the drier southwest characterized by grassland, vegetation growth is mainly controlled by TWS availability. In the central region, dominated by cold temperature and water limited boreal forest, T is the main control on vegetation growth. In the Lena basin, where vegetation includes both boreal forest and water limited grassland, both T and TWS impact vegetation growth. We suggest that GRACE TWS estimates provide reliable observational constraints on water availability to vegetation that supplement sparse soil moisture observations and satellite precipitation estimates with unknown bias.

  11. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wen, Ding; Zhu, Jianxing; Tang, Xuli; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Hu, Huifeng; Huang, Mei; Yu, Guirui

    2017-04-01

    Forests store a large part of the terrestrial vegetation carbon (C) and have high C sequestration potential. Here, we developed a new forest C sequestration (FCS) model based on the secondary succession theory, to estimate vegetation C sequestration capacity in China's forest vegetation. The model used the field measurement data of 3161 forest plots and three future climate scenarios. The results showed that logistic equations provided a good fit for vegetation biomass with forest age in natural and planted forests. The FCS model has been verified with forest biomass data, and model uncertainty is discussed. The increment of vegetation C storage in China's forest vegetation from 2010 to 2050 was estimated as 13.92 Pg C, while the average vegetation C sequestration rate was 0.34 Pg C yr-1 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.28-0.42 Pg C yr-1 , which differed significantly between forest types. The largest contributor to the increment was deciduous broadleaf forest (37.8%), while the smallest was deciduous needleleaf forest (2.7%). The vegetation C sequestration rate might reach its maximum around 2020, although vegetation C storage increases continually. It is estimated that vegetation C sequestration might offset 6-8% of China's future emissions. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between vegetation C sequestration rate and C emission rate in different provinces of China, suggesting that developed provinces might need to compensate for undeveloped provinces through C trade. Our findings will provide valuable guidelines to policymakers for designing afforestation strategies and forest C trade in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. USGS 2015 JSankey Riparian Vegetation and Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data include image-based classifications of total vegetation from 1965, 1973, 1984, 1992, 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2009, and characteristics of the river channel...

  13. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  14. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, F.W. (Allied-General Nuclear Services, Barnwell, SC (USA)); Ng, Y.C. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.); Palms, J.M. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1981-11-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except /sup 137/Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For /sup 137/Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes.

  15. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  16. Extreme solar-terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme solar-terrestrial events are those in which very energetic solar ejections hit the earth?s magnetosphere, causing intense energization of the earth?s ring current. Statistically, their occurrence is approximately once per Gleissberg solar cycle (70-100yrs). The solar transient occurred on July, 23rd (2012) was potentially one of such extreme events. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME), however, was not ejected towards the earth. Instead, it hit the STEREO A spacecraft, located 120 degrees away from the Sun-Earth line. Estimates of the geoeffectiveness of such a CME point to a scenario of extreme Space Weather conditions. In terms of the ring current energization, as measured by the Disturbance Storm-Time index (Dst), had this CME hit the Earth, it would have caused the strongest geomagnetic storm in space era.

  17. Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H M; Dodsworth, J A; Goodman, R M

    2000-10-01

    Microorganisms that colonize plant roots are recruited from, and in turn contribute substantially to, the vast and virtually uncharacterized phylogenetic diversity of soil microbiota. The diverse, but poorly understood, microorganisms that colonize plant roots mediate mineral transformations and nutrient cycles that are central to biosphere functioning. Here, we report the results of epifluorescence microscopy and culture-independent recovery of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences showing that members of a previously reported clade of soil Crenarchaeota colonize both young and senescent plant roots at an unexpectedly high frequency, and are particularly abundant on the latter. Our results indicate that non-thermophilic members of the Archaea inhabit an important terrestrial niche on earth and direct attention to the need for studies that will determine their possible roles in mediating root biology.

  18. Reciprocal Vegetation-Flow Feedbacks Driving Early-Stage Landscape Evolution in a Restored Wet Meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.; Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Watts, D.

    2013-12-01

    Just as taxonomic classification has improved understanding in biology, ecogeomorphologists would benefit from a functional classification of biota based on the biophysical feedbacks that they engage in. Early stages of landscape development following disturbance provide a unique opportunity to delineate and understand these feedback processes, as the diversity in functional morphotypes (a.k.a. 'ecomorphs,' to expand on a concept from terrestrial ecology) is high and the potential for self-organization of landscape pattern strong. We used the opportunity of a stream restoration that reset its floodplain to 'initial conditions' to perform a suite of biophysical measurements designed to delineate the classes of feedback that influence landscape evolution in distinct ways. The Big Spring Run restoration (Lancaster, PA), completed in November 2011, involved removal of 15,000 t of legacy sediment from the valley bottom to expose a Holocene hydric layer and reestablish wet meadow hydrology and biota. By performing repeat biogeomorphic surveys within a study grid, we tested the hypothesis that distinct ecomorphs determine the persistence and location of channel and microtopographic features. The qualitatively distinct patch types surveyed included carpet-forming mat vegetation, tussock-forming vegetation, sparsely vegetated mudflats, benthic algal mats, mixed herbaceous communities, grasses, and clonal emergent vegetation. Within each sampling location, changes in vegetation community architecture, grain size distribution, critical shear stress for sediment entrainment, and topography were monitored over time, and flow resistance was measured. An overbank flow event that completely filled the floodplain provided an additional opportunity to measure vegetation-flow-sediment interactions. Once emergent vegetation was bent over by flow, vegetation had a negligible influence on flow velocity--in contrast to most other wetlands--but continued to shelter the bed from sediment

  19. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  20. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  1. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie A. McGeoch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here we outline challenges and solutions to the integration of invertebrates into biodiversity management objectives and monitoring in protected areas in South Africa. We show that such integration is relevant and possible, and assess the relative suitability of seven key taxa in this context. Finally, we outline a series of recommendations for mainstreaming invertebrates in conservation planning, surveys and monitoring in and around protected areas.Conservation implications: Invertebrates constitute a substantial and functionally significant component of terrestrial biodiversity and are valuable indicators of environmental condition. Although consideration of invertebrates has historically been neglected in conservation planning and management, substantial progress with surveys, systematics and bioindication means that it is now both feasible and advisable to incorporate them into protected area monitoring activities.

  2. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  3. National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Inventory Program: Natchez Trace Parkway vegetation mapping project report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Nordman, Carl; Pyne, Milo; White, Rickie; Jakusz, Joseph; Hoy, Erin E.; Dieck, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Mapping Inventory (VMI) Program is an effort to classify, describe, and map existing vegetation of national park units for the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. The NPS VMI Program is managed by the NPS I&M Division and provides baseline vegetation information to the NPS Natural Resource I&M Program. The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, NatureServe, NPS Gulf Coast Network, and NPS Natchez Trace Parkway (NATR; also referred to as Parkway) have completed vegetation classification and mapping of NATR for the NPS VMI Program.Mappers, ecologists, and botanists collaborated to affirm vegetation types within the U.S. National Vegetation Classification (USNVC) of NATR and to determine how best to map them by using aerial imagery. Analyses of data from 589 vegetation plots had been used to describe an initial 99 USNVC associations in the Parkway; this classification work was completed prior to beginning this NATR vegetation mapping project. Data were collected during this project from another eight quick plots to support new vegetation types not previously identified at the Parkway. Data from 120 verification sites were collected to test the field key to vegetation associations and the application of vegetation associations to a sample set of map polygons. Furthermore, data from 900 accuracy assessment (AA) sites were collected (of which 894 were used to test accuracy of the vegetation map layer). The collective of all these datasets resulted in affirming 122 USNVC associations at NATR.To map the vegetation and open water of NATR, 63 map classes were developed. including the following: 54 map classes represent natural (including ruderal) vegetation types in the USNVC, 5 map classes represent cultural (agricultural and developed) vegetation types in the USNVC, 3 map classes represent nonvegetation open-water bodies (non-USNVC), and 1 map class represents landscapes that

  4. Design and Performance of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary L.; Shaklan, Stuart; Lisman, P. Doulas; Ho, Timothy; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Basinger, Scott; Ledeboer, Bill; Kwack, Eug; Kissil, Andy; Mosier, Gary; hide

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph, one of two potential architectures, is described. The telescope is designed to make a visible wavelength survey of the habitable zones of at least thirty stars in search of earth-like planets. The preliminary system requirements, optical parameters, mechanical and thermal design, operations scenario and predicted performance is presented. The 6-meter aperture telescope has a monolithic primary mirror, which along with the secondary tower, are being designed to meet the stringent optical tolerances of the planet-finding mission. Performance predictions include dynamic and thermal finite element analysis of the telescope optics and structure, which are used to make predictions of the optical performance of the system.

  5. Interglacial theme and variations: 500 k.y. of orbital forcing and associated responses from the terrestrial and marine biosphere, U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Herbert, Timothy; Mix, Alan; Barron, John

    2001-12-01

    Sediments collected off northern California by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 167 contain time series that show strong, orbitally driven insolation forcing of surface oceanographic conditions. Orbital forcing caused a strong response in the distribution of major terrestrial vegetation but a less predictable response for primary productivity offshore. Terrestrial vegetation responded primarily to regional sea surface temperature (SST). Coastal ocean productivity appears highest when SST is moderately high, not during peak interglacial conditions nor during insolation maxima. When individual interglacial intervals are examined closely, each has a different signature. Two of six interglacials (MIS [marine isotope stage] 5 and MIS 11) have higher SST than modern conditions, but each elicits a different response from the terrestrial and marine communities. The type of vegetation and the strength of upwelling vary between interglacials, depending on the relative strength of factors that drive the warming, including insolation, ice-cap size, and level of greenhouse gases.

  6. SELECTED ASPECTS OF ETHNOCENTRIC BEHAVIOUR OF VEGETABLE CONSUMERS IN WARSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse certain aspects of ethnocentric behaviour of vegetable purchasers in Warsaw. The research, in the form of a survey, was carried out among the adult population in 2015. Among the studied factors were consumers’ attitudes in relation to domestic and imported vegetables, depending on selected demographic characteristics. The analysis of empirical material has indicated ethnocentrism among vegetable buyers. Domestic vegetable purchases are primarily determined by practical advantages of the products. The choice of domestic products for mainly rational reasons points towards intentional ethnocentrism.

  7. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included structural canopy variables in addition to height metrics. Our work indicates that vegetation profiles from TLS data can provide useful information on forest structure. PMID:27124295

  8. Global terrestrial N2O budget for present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Stefan; Xing, Xu-Ri; Wårlind, David; Eliasson, Peter; Smith, Ben; Arneth, Almut

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in plant productivity and physiology and is the main limiting nutrient in a majority of the terrestrial ecosystems. The enhanced input of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr) in agriculture have enhanced global food production, but with adverse effects on biodiversity and water quality, and substantially increased emissions of N trace gases that affect air quality and climate. Emissions of N gases affects the climate, either through cloud forming nitrogen oxides (NOx) gases or as greenhouse gases, where nitrous oxide (N2O) is the most important being approximately 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study we use the process-based global vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) (Olin et al. 2015) that recently have incorporated a new soil N transformation scheme, adopted from Xu-Ri and Prentice (2008), which makes it possible to study the N2O emission respond to changes in climate and CO2 concentration as well as anthropogenic N enhancements on a global scale. We present here results from the validation of the new model against site-scale N2O measurements from agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems. We will also present results from a study to examine how land use, land use change and anthropogenic N fertilisation influence historical and future global N2O emissions. This new development represents a key component within future projects in CMIP6 (LUMIP) and in EC-Earth for the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO. Olin, S., Lindeskog, M., Pugh, T., Schurgers, G., Mischurow, M., Wårlind, D., Zaehle, S., Stocker, B., Smith, B. and Arneth, A. 2015. Soil carbon management in large-scale Earth system modelling: implications for crop yields and nitrogen leaching. Earth System Dynamics, 6, 745-768. Xu-Ri and Prentice IC. 2008. Terrestrial nitrogen cycle simulation with a dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology, 14, 1745-1764.

  9. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p forest structure.

  10. Reciprocal Subsidies and Food Web Pathways Leading to Chum Salmon Fry in a Temperate Marine-Terrestrial Ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanuk, Tamara N.; Levings, Colin D.

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine subsidies of carbon to invertebrates along a tidal gradient (low-intertidal, mid-intertidal, high-intertidal, supralittoral) and to determine the relative importance of terrestrial carbon in food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Howe Sound, British Columbia. We found a clear gradient in the proportion of terrestrially derived carbon along the tidal gradient ranging from 68% across all invertebrate taxa in the supralittoral to 25% in the high-intertidal, 20% in the mid-intertidal, and 12% in the low-intertidal. Stable isotope values of chum salmon fry indicated carbon contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources, with terrestrially derived carbon ranging from 12.8 to 61.5% in the muscle tissue of chum salmon fry (mean 30%). Our results provide evidence for reciprocal subsidies of marine and terrestrially derived carbon on beaches in the estuary and suggest that the vegetated supralittoral is an important trophic link in supplying terrestrial carbon to nearshore food webs. PMID:20386705

  11. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of aquatic and terrestrial plant lignin phenols: Critical information for paleoecological reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. K.; Gao, L.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Currently, lignin phenols are used in marine and lacustrine ecosystems as proxies for terrestrial vegetation inputs. Lignins are found in all vascular plants, where they play a crucial role in conduction of water, nutrients and photosynthates through the vascular system, and where they provide structural support. Furthermore, different types of lignin phenols are found in specific types of vegetation (e.g., both syringyl and vanillyl phenols are in angiosperm wood, but only vanillyl phenols are in gymnosperm wood). The ratio of lignin phenols (e.g. syringyl:vanillyl) is indicative of the type of plant from which the lignin phenols were derived. Studies that examine lignin phenols in sedimentary archives assume that lignin phenols are derived solely from terrestrial plants, and changes in the types of lignin phenols are therefore assumed to mark changes in terrestrial vegetation. These assumptions may be flawed, however, because many aquatic plants, including those that are submerged, are vascular, yet little is known about the type and concentration of lignin phenols present in aquatic vascular plants. This knowledge is imperative to the success of paleoecological studies that utilize lignin phenols as a geochemical proxy for terrestrial vegetation. Furthermore, lignin phenols may be important targets for compound-specific radiocarbon dating, which is useful when suitable macrofossils are unavailable. Knowing the origin of the molecules used for radiocarbon dating, however, (i.e. whether they are terrestrial or aquatic) is critical to obtaining meaningful chronologies. We isolated and analyzed lignin phenol monomers from different types of aquatic vascular plants. All plants analyzed are angiosperms, but they occupy different niches in aquatic plant communities: floating, emergent and submergent. We also analyzed different parts of aquatic plants (i.e., stems and leaves). We found lignin phenols in all aquatic species that we analyzed, which highlights the need for

  12. Mapping background values of atmospheric nitrogen total depositions in Germany based on EMEP deposition modelling and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung der Hintergrundwerte atmosphaerischer Stickstoff-Gesamtdepositionen in Deutschland anhand von Daten des EMEP-Messnetzes und des ICP Vegetation Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Fagerli, Hilde [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of EMEP, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    In order to map exceedances of critical atmospheric deposition loads for nitrogen (N) surface data on the atmospheric deposition of N compounds to terrestrial ecosystems are needed. Across Europe such information is provided by the international European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) in a resolution of 50 km by 50 km, relying on both emission data and measurement data on atmospheric depositions. The objective of the article at hand is on the improvement of the spatial resolution of the EMEP maps by combining them with data on the N concentration in mosses provided by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP). Methods The map on atmospheric depositions of total N as modelled by EMEP was intersected with geostatistical surface estimations on the N concentration in mosses at a resolution of 5 km by 5 km. The medians of the N estimations in mosses were then calculated for each 50 km by 50 km grid cell. Both medians of moss estimations and corresponding modelled deposition values were ln-transformed and their relationship investigated and modelled by linear regression analysis. The regression equations were applied on the moss kriging estimates of the N concentration in mosses. The respective residuals were projected onto the centres of the EMEP grid cells and were mapped using variogram analysis and kriging procedures. Finally, the residual and the regression map were summed up to the map of total N deposition in terrestrial ecosystems throughout Europe. The regression analysis of the estimated N concentrations in mosses and the modelled EMEP depositions resulted in clear linear regression patterns with coefficients of determination of r{sup 2}=0.62 and Pearson correlations of r{sub p}=0.79 and Spearman correlations of r{sub s}=0.70, respectively. Regarding the German

  13. Carbon inputs from riparian vegetation limit oxidation of physically bound organic carbon via biochemical and thermodynamic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Crump, Alex R.; Goldman, Amy E.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Romero, Elvira B.; Resch, Charles T.; Kennedy, David W.; Stegen, James C.

    2017-11-20

    In light of increasing terrestrial carbon (C) transport across aquatic boundaries, the mechanisms governing organic carbon (OC) oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces are crucial to future climate predictions. Here, we investigate biochemistry, metabolic pathways, and thermodynamics corresponding to OC oxidation in the Columbia River corridor. We leverage natural vegetative differences to encompass variation in terrestrial C inputs. Our results suggest that decreases in terrestrial C deposition associated with diminished riparian vegetation induce oxidation of physically-bound (i.e., mineral and microbial) OC at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. We also find that contrasting metabolic pathways oxidize OC in the presence and absence of vegetation and—in direct conflict with the concept of ‘priming’—that inputs of water-soluble and thermodynamically-favorable terrestrial OC protects bound-OC from oxidation. Based on our results, we propose a mechanistic conceptualization of OC oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces that can be used to model heterogeneous patterns of OC loss under changing land cover distributions.

  14. Quantifying the influence of the terrestrial biosphere on glacial-interglacial climate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is thought to be a key component in the climatic variability seen in the palaeo-record. It has a direct impact on surface temperature through changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (so-called biogeophysical effects) and, in addition, has an important indirect effect through changes in vegetation and soil carbon storage (biogeochemical effects) and hence modulates the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects generally have opposite signs, meaning that the terrestrial biosphere could potentially have played only a very minor role in the dynamics of the glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Quaternary. Here we use a fully coupled dynamic atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model (GCM) to generate a set of 62 equilibrium simulations spanning the last 120 kyr. The analysis of these simulations elucidates the relative importance of the biogeophysical versus biogeochemical terrestrial biosphere interactions with climate. We find that the biogeophysical effects of vegetation account for up to an additional -0.91 °C global mean cooling, with regional cooling as large as -5 °C, but with considerable variability across the glacial-interglacial cycle. By comparison, while opposite in sign, our model estimates of the biogeochemical impacts are substantially smaller in magnitude. Offline simulations show a maximum of +0.33 °C warming due to an increase of 25 ppm above our (pre-industrial) baseline atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio. In contrast to shorter (century) timescale projections of future terrestrial biosphere response where direct and indirect responses may at times cancel out, we find that the biogeophysical effects consistently and strongly dominate the biogeochemical effect over the inter-glacial cycle. On average across the period, the terrestrial biosphere has a -0.26 °C effect on temperature, with -0.58 °C at the Last Glacial Maximum. Depending on

  15. Quantifying the influence of the terrestrial biosphere on glacial–interglacial climate dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Davies-Barnard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial biosphere is thought to be a key component in the climatic variability seen in the palaeo-record. It has a direct impact on surface temperature through changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (so-called biogeophysical effects and, in addition, has an important indirect effect through changes in vegetation and soil carbon storage (biogeochemical effects and hence modulates the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects generally have opposite signs, meaning that the terrestrial biosphere could potentially have played only a very minor role in the dynamics of the glacial–interglacial cycles of the late Quaternary. Here we use a fully coupled dynamic atmosphere–ocean–vegetation general circulation model (GCM to generate a set of 62 equilibrium simulations spanning the last 120 kyr. The analysis of these simulations elucidates the relative importance of the biogeophysical versus biogeochemical terrestrial biosphere interactions with climate. We find that the biogeophysical effects of vegetation account for up to an additional −0.91 °C global mean cooling, with regional cooling as large as −5 °C, but with considerable variability across the glacial–interglacial cycle. By comparison, while opposite in sign, our model estimates of the biogeochemical impacts are substantially smaller in magnitude. Offline simulations show a maximum of +0.33 °C warming due to an increase of 25 ppm above our (pre-industrial baseline atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio. In contrast to shorter (century timescale projections of future terrestrial biosphere response where direct and indirect responses may at times cancel out, we find that the biogeophysical effects consistently and strongly dominate the biogeochemical effect over the inter-glacial cycle. On average across the period, the terrestrial biosphere has a −0.26 °C effect on temperature, with −0.58 °C at the

  16. Limno-terrestrial Tardigrada of the Nearctic Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G. HINTON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined all available records of limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in the Nearctic realm (Greenland, Canada, Alaska, the continental United States of America, and northern Mexico, both to compare this fauna with other realms and to investigate distribution within North America. We included only those records in which tardigrades had been identified to species. Of 204 Nearctic limno-terrestrial tardigrade species, 38 were cosmopolitan, while 55 were unique to the Nearctic realm. The Nearctic tardigrade fauna is most similar to the Palearctic, with 135 species in common, 39 of which have not been reported elsewhere. The Nearctic realm shares 82 species with the Neotropical realm, only 10 which are not also Palearctic. These data are consistent with the geological history of the three realms, and indicate a distinction between Laurasian and Gondwanan tardigrade faunas. Although little is known about limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in much of North America, there are several excellent regional or local surveys. Many species are distributed widely throughout the continent, but 30.0% of Nearctic species have been reported from a single site. Cluster analysis of the fauna of 11 Nearctic regions shows that the Arctic and sub-Arctic fauna constitute a regional fauna distinct from the rest of the continent. Ecological analysis is hampered by inconsistent reporting of tardigrade substrate, though available data suggest little substrate specificity in terrestrial tardigrades. Most species are found in both mosses and lichens. Many are also present in soil and leaf litter, but few are found only in these substrates.

  17. A Bayesian geostatistical estimation of biomass in semi-arid rangelands by combining airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Glenn, N. F.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass of vegetation is critical for carbon cycle research. Estimating biomass from field survey data is laborious and/or destructive and thus retrieving biomass from remote sensing data may be advantageous. Most remote sensing biomass studies have focused on forest ecosystems, while few have focused on low stature vegetation, such as grasses in semi-arid environments. Biomass estimates for grass are significant for studying wildlife habitat, assessing fuel loads, and studying climate change response in semi-arid regions. Recent research has demonstrated the ability of small footprint airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to extract sagebrush height characteristics and the ability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to estimate vegetation volume over semi-arid rangelands. ALS has somewhat lower resolution than TLS, but has improved spatial coverage over TLS. Combining ALS and TLS is a powerful tool to estimate biomass on regional scales. Bayesian geostatistics, also known as Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME), can fuse multiple data sources across scales and provide estimation uncertainties for the integration of ALS and TLS data for grass biomass. Regression models are used to approximately delineate the relationship between field biomass measurements and TLS derived height and shape metrics. We then consider TLS plot-level data at the point scale with ALS data at the area scale. The regularization method is utilized to establish the scaling relations between TLS-derived and ALS-derived metrics. The metric maps from the ALS level are reconstructed using a BME method based on regularized variograms. We gain biomass and estimation uncertainty on the regional scale by introducing updated metrics into the model. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the BME method, we develop simple independent regression models by assuming the TLS-derived metrics as ground reference data. Therefore, the regression model is used to correct the ALS-estimated values and we retrieve

  18. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  19. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  20. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R; Puttick, Mark N; Blaxter, Mark; Vinther, Jakob; Olesen, Jørgen; Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Pisani, Davide

    2016-07-19

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  2. Mars: a small terrestrial planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for remote-sensing data and have opened a new era in the study of Mars geology. While large sections of Mars science have made progress and new topics have emerged, a major question in Mars exploration—the possibility of past or present life—is still unsolved. Without entering into the debate around the presence of life traces, our review develops various topics of Mars science to help the search of life on Mars, building on the most recent discoveries, going from the exosphere to the interior structure, from the magmatic evolution to the currently active processes, including the fate of volatiles and especially liquid water.

  3. JOINT PROCESSING OF UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM DATA FOR VERY HIGH RESOLUTION CITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Both unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS are important techniques for surveying and mapping. In recent years, the UAV technology has seen tremendous interest, both in the mapping community and in many other fields of application. Carrying off-the shelf digital cameras, the UAV can collect high quality aerial optical images for city modeling using photogrammetric techniques. In addition, a MMS can acquire high density point clouds of ground objects along the roads. The UAV, if operated in an aerial mode, has difficulties in acquiring information of ground objects under the trees and along façades of buildings. On the contrary, the MMS collects accurate point clouds of objects from the ground, together with stereo images, but it suffers from system errors due to loss of GPS signals, and also lacks the information of the roofs. Therefore, both technologies are complementary. This paper focuses on the integration of UAV images, MMS point cloud data and terrestrial images to build very high resolution 3D city models. The work we will show is a practical modeling project of the National University of Singapore (NUS campus, which includes buildings, some of them very high, roads and other man-made objects, dense tropical vegetation and DTM. This is an intermediate report. We present work in progress.

  4. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    amolecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route...... to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land...

  5. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa. Part 1: Fynbos Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Succulent Karoo Hotspot stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. A lack of botanical information on the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld area of the Succulent Karoo Hotspot was identified during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Plan process. A grant from CEPF (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund funded a study to produce a vegetation map of the area to serve as baseline for ecosystem management.Vegetation surveys were conducted over an area of more than three million hectares from August to October 2004. Two major floristic units were identified, namely the Fynbos Biome related (Mountain Renosterveld and Succulent Karoo Biome related units. An analysis of the floristic data of the predominantly Mountain Renosterveld vegetation unit is presented in this paper. Three associations were identified, which were subdivided into nine subassociations, one of which contains four variants. The vegetation units are described in terms of their species composition and their relationships with the physical environment. A vegetation map is provided depicting the geographical distribution of the different vegetation types. The main threat to the vegetation of the region identified by the farming community was a lack of infrastructure.

  6. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  7. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  8. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  9. Biomass Resources Distribution in the Terrestrial Ecosystem of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and the multiple linear regression model were used to estimate distribution of biomass resources in 2010. The establishment of models, developed using different vegetation biomass sample data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf area index (LAI, meteorological data, coordinates, terrain data, and statistical data. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model can explain 95.6% of the variance in biomass, with a relative estimation error of 67 g·m−2 for a range of biomass between 0–73,875 g·m−2. Spatial statistic results were consistent with the practical condition in most cases. The above- and below-ground biomass (ABGB of China was estimated to be 31.1 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g in 2010. The forest ecosystem has the largest total biomass, which represents about 70% of the whole terrestrial ecosystem. The desert ecosystem has minimum biomass value. The Belowground Endowment (BRE varied differently in spatial distribution, with the high values occurring in the southeast and northeast. The low values were primarily distributed in north and northwest regions, where it is mostly desert and few plants. Biomass per capita indicates the availability of natural resources per capita. Tibet had the maximum biomass per capita (807 tone in 2010. Shanghai and Tianjin had the minimum biomass per capita, less than 500 kg. Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Hainan had negative growth of biomass per capita.

  10. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  11. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  12. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 2: Technology handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. The objective of that study was to develop a data base of key parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage technologies. The data base includes present and expected (through 2000) performance goals of the systems. The data base was established through an extensive literature search, surveys of manufacturers and researchers, and statistical and qualitative analyses of the available input data. The results of the study are reported in four documents: (1) Project Summary; (2) Technology Handbook; (3) Parameter Survey; (4) Analysis, Data, Bibliography. Contents (Volume II): Diesels, Gas Turbines, Stirlings, Organic Rankine Cycle, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, Wind Turbines, Batteries, Thermal Energy Storage System.

  13. Terrestrial Radiodetermination Potential Users and Their Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    The report summarizes information gathered during a preliminary study of the application of electronic techniques to geographical position determination on land and on inland waterways. Systems incorporating such techniques have been called terrestri...

  14. Transfer of terrestrial technology for lunar mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; Green, Patricia A.

    The functions, operational procedures, and major items of equipment that comprise the terrestrial mining process are characterized. These data are used to synthesize a similar activity on the lunar surface. Functions, operations, and types of equipment that can be suitably transferred to lunar operation are identified. Shortfalls, enhancements, and technology development needs are described. The lunar mining process and what is required to adapt terrestrial equipment are highlighted. It is concluded that translation of terrestrial mining equipment and operational processes to perform similar functions on the lunar surface is practical. Adequate attention must be given to the harsh environment and logistical constraints of the lunar setting. By using earth-based equipment as a forcing function, near- and long-term benefits are derived (i.e., improved terrestrial mining in the near term vis-a-vis commercial production of helium-3 in the long term.

  15. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  16. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition......The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...

  17. Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

    2014-05-01

    Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

  18. Theory of radiative transfer models applied in optical remote sensing of vegetation canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, W.

    1998-01-01


    In this thesis the work of the author on the modelling of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies and the terrestrial atmosphere is summarized. The activities span a period of more than fifteen years of research in this field carried out at the National Aerospace Laboratory

  19. Reconstruction of hydrology, vegetation and past climate change in bogs using fungal microfossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Charman, D.; van Geel, B.; Mauquoy, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Water is one of the most important environmental factors defining the niche of terrestrial fungi, and fungi preserved in ombrotrophic peat deposits have the potential to indicate past variations in surface wetness and vegetation composition. This study aimed to assess the potential of fungal

  20. Integration of nitrogen dynamics into a global terrestrial ecosystem model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaojuan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wittig, Victoria [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive model of terrestrial N dynamics has been developed and coupled with the geographically explicit terrestrial C cycle component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). The coupled C-N cycle model represents all the major processes in the N cycle and all major interactions between C and N that affect plant productivity and soil and litter decomposition. Observations from the LIDET data set were compiled for calibration and evaluation of the decomposition submodel within ISAM. For aboveground decomposition, the calibration is accomplished by optimizing parameters related to four processes: the partitioning of leaf litter between metabolic and structural material, the effect of lignin on decomposition, the climate control on decomposition and N mineralization and immobilization. For belowground decomposition, the calibrated processes include the partitioning of root litter between decomposable and resistant material as a function of litter quality, N mineralization and immobilization. The calibrated model successfully captured both the C and N dynamics during decomposition for all major biomes and a wide range of climate conditions. Model results show that net N immobilization and mineralization during litter decomposition are dominantly controlled by initial N concentration of litter and the mass remaining during decomposition. The highest and lowest soil organicNstorage are in tundra (1.24 KgNm2) and desert soil (0.06 Kg N m2). The vegetation N storage is highest in tropical forests (0.5 Kg N m2), and lowest in tundra and desert (<0.03 Kg N m2). N uptake by vegetation is highest in warm and moist regions, and lowest in cold and dry regions. Higher rates of N leaching are found in tropical regions and subtropical regions where soil moisture is higher. The global patterns of vegetation and soil N, N uptake and N leaching estimated with ISAM are consistent with measurements and previous modeling studies. This gives us confidence that ISAM

  1. Application of terrestrial laser scanner on tidal flat morphology at a typhoon event timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiming; He, Qing; Zhang, Keqi; Guo, Leicheng; Wang, Xianye; Shen, Jian; Cui, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Quantification of tidal flat morphological changes at varying timescales is critical from a management point of view. High-resolution tidal flat morphology data, including those for mudflats and salt-marshes, are rare due to monitoring difficulty by traditional methods. Recent advances in Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution and large-scale morphological data, but it remains problematic for its application on salt-marshes due to the presence of dense vegetation. In this study, we applied a TLS system to retrieve high-accuracy digital elevation models in a tidal flat of the Yangtze Estuary by using a robust and accurate Progressive Morphological filter (PM) to separate ground and non-ground points. Validations against GPS-supported RTK measurements suggested remarkable performance. In this case the average estimation error was about 0.3 cm, while the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 2.0 cm. We conducted three TLS surveys on the same field including salt-marshes and mudflats at the time points 5 days before, 3 days after, and 45 days after a typhoon event. The retrieved data showed that the mudflats suffered from profound erosion while the salt-marshes slightly accreted during the typhoon period. The average elevation change of the total area was about - 4 cm (- 0.28 cm per day). However, both the mudflats and salt-marshes deposited in the post-typhoon period and the accretion over salt-marshes occurred at a higher rate than that during the typhoon. The elevation of the total area increased by 15.9 cm (0.37 cm per day), suggesting fast recovery under calm conditions. Quantification of the erosion and deposition rates was aided by the high quality TLS data. This study shows the effectiveness of TLS in quantifying morphological changes of tidal flats at an event (and post-event) timescale. The data and analysis also provide sound evidence on vegetation impact in stimulating salt-marsh development and restoration

  2. Linking vegetation structure, function and physiology through spectroscopic remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, S.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Rogers, A.; Desai, A. R.; Kruger, E. L.; Townsend, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem process models require detailed information on ecosystem states and canopy properties to properly simulate the fluxes of carbon (C), water and energy from the land to the atmosphere and assess the vulnerability of ecosystems to perturbations. Current models fail to adequately capture the magnitude, spatial variation, and seasonality of terrestrial C uptake and storage, leading to significant uncertainties in the size and fate of the terrestrial C sink. By and large, these parameter and process uncertainties arise from inadequate spatial and temporal representation of plant traits, vegetation structure, and functioning. With increases in computational power and changes to model architecture and approaches, it is now possible for models to leverage detailed, data rich and spatially explicit descriptions of ecosystems to inform parameter distributions and trait tradeoffs. In this regard, spectroscopy and imaging spectroscopy data have been shown to be invaluable observational datasets to capture broad-scale spatial and, eventually, temporal dynamics in important vegetation properties. We illustrate the linkage of plant traits and spectral observations to supply key data constraints for model parameterization. These constraints can come either in the form of the raw spectroscopic data (reflectance, absorbtance) or physiological traits derived from spectroscopy. In this presentation we highlight our ongoing work to build ecological scaling relationships between critical vegetation characteristics and optical properties across diverse and complex canopies, including temperate broadleaf and conifer forests, Mediterranean vegetation, Arctic systems, and agriculture. We focus on work at the leaf, stand, and landscape scales, illustrating the importance of capturing the underlying variability in a range of parameters (including vertical variation within canopies) to enable more efficient scaling of traits related to functional diversity of ecosystems.

  3. Multi-Pass Approach for Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J.; Eckels, R.; Evers, M.; Singh, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning (MTLS) has been utilised for an increasing number of corridor surveys. Current MTLS surveys require that many targets be placed along the corridor to monitor the MTLS trajectory's accuracy. These targets enable surveyors to directly evaluate the magnitude of GNSS errors at regular intervals and can also be used to adjust the trajectory to the survey control. However, this "Multi-Target" approach (MTA) is an onerous task that can significantly reduce efficiency. It also is inconvenient to the travelling public, as lanes are often blocked and traffic slowed to permit surveyors to work safely along the road corridor. This paper introduces a "Multi-Pass" approach (MPA), which minimises the number of targets required for monitoring the GNSS-controlled trajectory while still maintaining strict engineering accuracies. MPA uses the power of multiple, independent MTLS passes with different GNSS constellations to generate a "Control Polyline" from the point cloud for the corridor. The Control Polyline can be considered as a statistically valid survey measurement and be incorporated in a network adjustment to strengthen a control network by identifying outliers. Results from a test survey at the MTLS course maintained by the Oregon Department of Transportation illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. Fruits and Vegetables at Home: Child and Parent Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine child and parent perceptions of home food environment factors and associations with child fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: Research staff administered surveys to children during after-school sessions, and parents completed surveys by mail or over the phone. Setting: Four urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota,…

  5. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  6. Black spots for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems: impact of a perennial cormorant colony on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszyk, Piotr; Brzeg, Andrzej; Rzymski, Piotr; Piotrowicz, Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    The global growth of populations of different cormorant species has raised concern on the consequences of their presence in the environment. This study examined the impact of a perennial colony (160 breeding pairs) of great cormorants on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The deposition of bird-originating nutrients within the area of colony, their accumulation in soils and the fluxed of chemical substances to a nearby lake were investigated. The impact of cormorants on terrestrial vegetation and microbial pollution of the lake were also studied. The soils beneath the colony were found to contain extremely high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The overgrowing vegetation was largely limited with nitrophilous and invasive species being more abundant. Increased loads of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus were also found in groundwater and particularly, surface runoff. The colony area delivered significant amounts of nutrients to the lake also when the birds were absent. The lake water near colony was also characterized by increased nutrient content and additionally higher number of faecal bacteria. The present results demonstrate the complexity through which the effect of cormorant colonies can be manifested simultaneously in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zoogeografía de los gasterópodos terrestres del sur de Tamaulipas, México Terrestrial gastropods zoogeography in Southern Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Correa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La biogeografía de los moluscos terrestres mexicanos es pobremente conocida. Entre diciembre 1990 y noviembre 2006 se estudiaron los gasterópodos terrestres de la región sur del estado de Tamaulipas, México. Esta región posee una gran variación altitudinal, topográfica y climática. Los muestreos (525 fueron obtenidos en 121 localidades en diferentes tipos de vegetación. La principal característica zoogeográfica fue el endemismo, con 45 especies o subespecies (43% de la malacofauna, el valor más alto se dio en el noreste de México. Además, un total de 24 especies (23% tuvo una distribución neotropical y neártica, y 15 especies o subespecies (14% una distribución exclusivamente neotropical. La familia Spiraxidae fue la que presentó mayor endemismo (17 especies y dos subespecies. Esta familia tiene el mayor número de especies endémicas (27 en el noreste de México.Terrestrial gastropods zoogeography in Southern Tamaulipas, México. Biogeography of Mexican terrestrial mollusks is poorly known, although many studies have described some of their biological aspects. This study aimed to contribute with new information on the distribution of terrestrial mollusks in this region of high altitudinal, topographic and climatic variations of Southern Tamaulipas State, México. For this, terrestrial gastropods were surveyed from December 1990 to November 2006. A total of 525 samples were obtained from 121 localities, characterized with different vegetation types. The primary zoogeographical feature was the presence of many endemic taxa, with 45 species or subspecies, representing the 43%, the highest value for Northeastern México. In addition, a total of 24 species (23%, were of Neotropical and Neartic distributions, and 15 species or subspecies (14% exhibited Neotropical distributions. Furthermore, the family Spiraxidae showed the largest number of endemic species, with 17 species and two subspecies, and had the largest number of endemic

  8. Evolutionary History of Terrestrial Pathogens and Endoparasites as Revealed in Fossils and Subfossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Poinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work uses fossils and subfossils to decipher the origin and evolution of terrestrial pathogens and endoparasites. Fossils, as interpreted by morphology or specific features of their hosts, furnish minimum dates for the origin of infectious agents, coevolution with hosts, and geographical locations. Subfossils, those that can be C14 dated (roughly under 50,000 years and are identified by morphology as well as molecular and immunological techniques, provide time periods when humans became infected with various diseases. The pathogen groups surveyed include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and select multicellular endoparasites including nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, and insect parasitoids in the terrestrial environment.

  9. Key knowledge and data gaps in modelling the influence of CO2 concentration on the terrestrial carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T A M; Müller, C; Arneth, A; Haverd, V; Smith, B

    2016-09-20

    Primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation is expected to increase under the influence of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). Depending on the fate of such additionally fixed carbon, this could lead to an increase in terrestrial carbon storage, and thus a net terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon. Such a mechanism is generally believed to be the primary global driver behind the observed large net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by the biosphere. Mechanisms driving CO2 uptake in the Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs) used to attribute and project terrestrial carbon sinks, including that from increased [CO2], remain in large parts unchanged since those models were conceived two decades ago. However, there exists a large body of new data and understanding providing an opportunity to update these models, and directing towards important topics for further research. In this review we highlight recent developments in understanding of the effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis, and in particular on the fate of additionally fixed carbon within the plant with its implications for carbon turnover rates, on the regulation of photosynthesis in response to environmental limitations on in-plant carbon sinks, and on emergent ecosystem responses. We recommend possible avenues for model improvement and identify requirements for better data on core processes relevant to the understanding and modelling of the effect of increasing [CO2] on the global terrestrial carbon sink. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Is fruit and vegetable intake associated with asthma or chronic rhino-sinusitis in European adults? Results from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Arthur, Rhonda; Potts, James F.

    2017-01-01

    self-reported asthma symptoms) and CRS were the outcomes of interest. Dietary intake of 22 subgroups of fruits and vegetables was ascertained using the internationally validated GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations were examined with negative binomial and multiple regressions...... was negatively associated with intake of dried fruits (β-coefficient -2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.09, -0.59), whilst CRS was statistically negatively associated with total intake of fruits (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55, 0.97). Conversely, a positive association was observed between asthma score and alliums...

  11. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  12. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  13. Potential Vegetation and Carbon Redistribution in Northern North America from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Flanagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are strong relationships between climate and ecosystems. With the prospect of anthropogenic forcing accelerating climate change, there is a need to understand how terrestrial vegetation responds to this change as it influences the carbon balance. Previous studies have primarily addressed this question using empirically based models relating the observed pattern of vegetation and climate, together with scenarios of potential future climate change, to predict how vegetation may redistribute. Unlike previous studies, here we use an advanced mechanistic, individually based, ecosystem model to predict the terrestrial vegetation response from future climate change. The use of such a model opens up opportunities to test with remote sensing data, and the possibility of simulating the transient response to climate change over large domains. The model was first run with a current climatology at half-degree resolution and compared to remote sensing data on dominant plant functional types for northern North America for validation. Future climate data were then used as inputs to predict the equilibrium response of vegetation in terms of dominant plant functional type and carbon redistribution. At the domain scale, total forest cover changed by ~2% and total carbon storage increased by ~8% in response to climate change. These domain level changes were the result of much larger gross changes within the domain. Evergreen forest cover decreased 48% and deciduous forest cover increased 77%. The dominant plant functional type changed on 58% of the sites, while total carbon in deciduous vegetation increased 107% and evergreen vegetation decreased 31%. The percent of terrestrial carbon from deciduous and evergreen plant functional types changed from 27%/73% under current climate conditions, to 54%/46% under future climate conditions. These large predicted changes in vegetation and carbon in response to future climate change are comparable to previous

  14. Reducing the uncertainty in the projection of the terrestrial carbon cycle by fusing models with remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, S.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Viskari, T.; Desai, A. R.; Townsend, P. A.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling global change requires accurate representation of terrestrial carbon (C), energy and water fluxes. In particular, capturing the properties of vegetation canopies that describe the radiation regime are a key focus for global change research because the properties related to radiation utilization and penetration within plant canopies provide an important constraint on terrestrial ecosystem productivity, as well as the fluxes of water and energy from vegetation to the atmosphere. As such, optical remote sensing observations present an important, and as yet relatively untapped, source of observations that can be used to inform modeling activities. In particular, high-spectral resolution optical data at the leaf and canopy scales offers the potential for an important and direct data constraint on the parameterization and structure of the radiative transfer model (RTM) scheme within ecosystem models across diverse vegetation types, disturbance and management histories. In this presentation we highlight ongoing work to integrate optical remote sensing observations, specifically leaf and imaging spectroscopy (IS) data across a range of forest ecosystems, into complex ecosystem process models within an efficient computational assimilation framework as a means to improve the description of canopy optical properties, vegetation composition, and modeled radiation balance. Our work leverages the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn; http://www.pecanproject.org/) ecoinformatics toolbox together with a RTM module designed for efficient assimilation of leaf and IS observations to inform vegetation optical properties as well as associated plant traits. Ultimately, an improved understanding of the radiation balance of ecosystems will provide a better constraint on model projections of energy balance, vegetation composition, and carbon pools and fluxes thus allowing for a better diagnosis of the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in response to global change.

  15. Numerical simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation using two-planet model. At that time, the protostar has formed for about 3 Myr and the gas disk has dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. We also consider variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Myr, and the accretion rate is about 60%–80%. In each simulation, 3–4 terrestrial planets are formed inside “Jupiter” with masses of 0.15–3.6 M⊕. In the 0.5–4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion may also happen a few times between two giant planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108 yr.

  16. Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Keenan, Trevor F; Smith, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems sequester roughly 30% of anthropogenic carbon emission. However this estimate has not been directly deduced from studies of terrestrial ecosystems themselves, but inferred from atmospheric and oceanic data. This raises a question: to what extent is the terrestrial carbon cycle intrinsically predictable? In this paper, we investigated fundamental properties of the terrestrial carbon cycle, examined its intrinsic predictability, and proposed a suite of future research directions to improve empirical understanding and model predictive ability. Specifically, we isolated endogenous internal processes of the terrestrial carbon cycle from exogenous forcing variables. The internal processes share five fundamental properties (i.e., compartmentalization, carbon input through photosynthesis, partitioning among pools, donor pool-dominant transfers, and the first-order decay) among all types of ecosystems on the Earth. The five properties together result in an emergent constraint on predictability of various carbon cycle components in response to five classes of exogenous forcing. Future observational and experimental research should be focused on those less predictive components while modeling research needs to improve model predictive ability for those highly predictive components. We argue that an understanding of predictability should provide guidance on future observational, experimental and modeling research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phytolith carbon sequestration in global terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-15

    Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes. Total phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes is 156.7±91.6TgCO2yr-1. Grassland (40%), cropland (35%), and forest (20%) biomes are the dominant producers of phytolith-based carbon; geographically, the main contributors are Asia (31%), Africa (24%), and South America (17%). Practices such as bamboo afforestation/reforestation and grassland recovery for economic and ecological purposes could theoretically double the above phytolith C sink. The potential terrestrial phytolith C sequestration during 2000-2099 under such practices would be 15.7-40.5PgCO2, equivalent in magnitude to the C sequestration of oceanic diatoms in sediments and through silicate weathering. Phytolith C sequestration contributes vitally to the global C cycle, hence, it is essential to incorporate plant-soil silica cycling in biogeochemical C cycle models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE VEGETABLES MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia DAVID

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, due to its favourable climatic conditions, is a country with a long tradition in growing vegetables. The importance of growing vegetables is demonstrated both by area cultivated with vegetables and by the large number of individual producers. In this context, the current study comprises, on the one hand, the evolution of vegetable crops specific indicators, and, on the other hand, the evolution of foreign trade. As for the actual production of vegetables in Romania, it cannot provide the requisites for domestic consumption and for this reason we resort to imports. The imports of vegetables and unprocessed products have a negative influence on the trade balance. The producers, processors and distributors of vegetables and vegetable products are faced with a series of problems that have a negative influence on their economic and financial results. Among these problems, the most important ones are generated by: the use of nonperforming traditional technologies that contributed to lower productions, as compared to the productions obtained by EU vegetable farmers; the difficulty in marketing the vegetables within an optimum time interval because vegetable farmers are not members of associations that have a viable marketing programme, which would ensure an adequate and efficient vegetables distribution; the use of nonperforming seeds in order to obtain vegetables. In conclusion, it is imperative to support vegetable farming in order to provide the requisites for consumption and in order to increase the producers’ revenues in the rural space. This can be achieved by accessing structural funds.

  19. [Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2012-03-01

    Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction).

  20. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

  1. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  2. Automatic concrete cracks detection and mapping of terrestrial laser scan data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rabah

    2013-12-01

    The current paper submits a method for automatic concrete cracks detection and mapping from the data that was obtained during laser scanning survey. The method of cracks detection and mapping is achieved by three steps, namely the step of shading correction in the original image, step of crack detection and finally step of crack mapping and processing steps. The detected crack is defined in a pixel coordinate system. To remap the crack into the referred coordinate system, a reverse engineering is used. This is achieved by a hybrid concept of terrestrial laser-scanner point clouds and the corresponding camera image, i.e. a conversion from the pixel coordinate system to the terrestrial laser-scanner or global coordinate system. The results of the experiment show that the mean differences between terrestrial laser scan and the total station are about 30.5, 16.4 and 14.3 mms in x, y and z direction, respectively.

  3. The implications of the discovery of extra-terrestrial life for religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ted

    2011-02-13

    This paper asks about the future of religion: (i) Will confirmation of extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) cause terrestrial religion to collapse? 'No' is the answer based upon a summary of the 'Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey'. Then the paper examines four specific challenges to traditional doctrinal belief likely to be raised at the detection of ETI: (ii) What is the scope of God's creation? (iii) What can we expect regarding the moral character of ETI? (iv) Is one earthly incarnation in Jesus Christ enough for the entire cosmos, or should we expect multiple incarnations on multiple planets? (v) Will contact with more advanced ETI diminish human dignity? More than probable contact with extra-terrestrial intelligence will expand the Bible's vision so that all of creation--including the 13.7 billion year history of the universe replete with all of God's creatures--will be seen as the gift of a loving and gracious God.

  4. A vital link: water and vegetation in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, D.

    2013-10-01

    This paper argues that the interplay of water, carbon and vegetation dynamics fundamentally links some global trends in the current and conceivable future Anthropocene, such as cropland expansion, freshwater use, and climate change and its impacts. Based on a review of recent literature including geographically explicit simulation studies with the process-based LPJmL global biosphere model, it demonstrates that the connectivity of water and vegetation dynamics is vital for water security, food security and (terrestrial) ecosystem dynamics alike. The water limitation of net primary production of both natural and agricultural plants - already pronounced in many regions - is shown to increase in many places under projected climate change, though this development is partially offset by water-saving direct CO2 effects. Natural vegetation can to some degree adapt dynamically to higher water limitation, but agricultural crops usually require some form of active management to overcome it - among them irrigation, soil conservation and eventually shifts of cropland to areas that are less water-limited due to more favourable climatic conditions. While crucial to secure food production for a growing world population, such human interventions in water-vegetation systems have, as also shown, repercussions on the water cycle. Indeed, land use changes are shown to be the second-most important influence on the terrestrial water balance in recent times. Furthermore, climate change (warming and precipitation changes) will in many regions increase irrigation demand and decrease water availability, impeding rainfed and irrigated food production (if not CO2 effects counterbalance this impact - which is unlikely at least in poorly managed systems). Drawing from these exemplary investigations, some research perspectives on how to further improve our knowledge of human-water-vegetation interactions in the Anthropocene are outlined.

  5. A vital link: water and vegetation in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the interplay of water, carbon and vegetation dynamics fundamentally links some global trends in the current and conceivable future Anthropocene, such as cropland expansion, freshwater use, and climate change and its impacts. Based on a review of recent literature including geographically explicit simulation studies with the process-based LPJmL global biosphere model, it demonstrates that the connectivity of water and vegetation dynamics is vital for water security, food security and (terrestrial ecosystem dynamics alike. The water limitation of net primary production of both natural and agricultural plants – already pronounced in many regions – is shown to increase in many places under projected climate change, though this development is partially offset by water-saving direct CO2 effects. Natural vegetation can to some degree adapt dynamically to higher water limitation, but agricultural crops usually require some form of active management to overcome it – among them irrigation, soil conservation and eventually shifts of cropland to areas that are less water-limited due to more favourable climatic conditions. While crucial to secure food production for a growing world population, such human interventions in water–vegetation systems have, as also shown, repercussions on the water cycle. Indeed, land use changes are shown to be the second-most important influence on the terrestrial water balance in recent times. Furthermore, climate change (warming and precipitation changes will in many regions increase irrigation demand and decrease water availability, impeding rainfed and irrigated food production (if not CO2 effects counterbalance this impact – which is unlikely at least in poorly managed systems. Drawing from these exemplary investigations, some research perspectives on how to further improve our knowledge of human–water–vegetation interactions in the Anthropocene are outlined.

  6. Introducing tropical lianas in a vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Hans; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Brugnera, Manfredo di Procia e.; Krshna Moorthy Paravathi, Sruthi; Pausenberger, Nancy; Roels, Jana; kearsley, elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are essential components of the earth system and play a critical role for land surface feedbacks to climate change. These forests are currently experiencing large-scale structural changes, including the increase of liana abundance and biomass. This liana proliferation might have large impacts on the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However no single global vegetation model currently accounts for lianas. The TREECLIMBERS project (ERC starting grant) aims to introduce for the first time lianas into a vegetation model. The project attempts to reach this challenging goal by performing a global meta-analysis on liana data and by collecting new data in South American forests. Those new and existing datasets form the basis of a new liana plant functional type (PFT) that will be included in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). This presentation will show an overview of the current progress of the TREECLIMBERS project. Liana inventory data collected in French Guiana along a forest disturbance gradient show the relation between liana abundance and disturbance. Xylem water isotope analysis indicates that trees and lianas can rely on different soil water resources. New modelling concepts for liana PFTs will be presented and in-situ leaf gas exchange and sap flow data are used to parameterize water and carbon fluxes for this new PFT. Finally ongoing terrestrial LiDAR observations of liana infested forest will be highlighted.

  7. A study of forest vegetation dynamics in the south of the Krasnoyarskii Krai in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetskiy, M.; Pasko, I.; Shevyrnogov, A.; Slyusar, N.; Khodyayev, A.

    2011-09-01

    Remote sensing applications have greatly enhanced ability to monitor and manage in the areas of forestry. Accurate measurements of regional and global scale vegetation dynamics (phenology) are required to improve models and understanding of inter-annual variability in terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. Study of vegetation phenology is required for understanding of variability in ecosystem. In this paper, monitoring of vegetation dynamics using time series of satellite data is presented. Vegetation variability (vegetation rate) in different topoclimatic areas is investigated. Original software using IDL interactive language for processing of satellite long-term data series was developed. To investigate growth dynamics vegetation rate inferred from remote sensing was used. All estimations based on annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Vegetation rate for Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated using MODIS data. The time series covers spring seasons of each of 9 years, from 2000 to 2008. Comparison of EVI and NDVI derived growth rates has shown that NDVI derived rates reveal spatial structure better. Using long-term data of vegetation rates variance was estimated that helps to reveal areas with anomalous growth rate. Such estimation shows sensitivity degree of different areas to different topoclimatic conditions. Woods of heights depend on spatial topoclimatic variability unlike woods of lowlands. Principal components analysis shows vegetation with different rate conditions. Also it reveals vegetation of same type in areas with different conditions. It was demonstrated that using of methods for estimating the dynamic state of vegetation based on remote sensing data enables successful monitoring of vegetation phenology.

  8. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  9. Dioxins in Dutch vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge R; Bakker MI; Hijman WC; Boer AC den; Hartog RS den; Baumann RA; LAC; LVM; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The exposure to dioxins (including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. The main contribution to the total intake originates from the consumption of animal fat. Nevertheless, vegetables were estimated

  10. Multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanner monitoring of coastal instability processes at Coroglio cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Teresa; Somma, Renato; Marino, Ermanno; Matano, Fabio; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Coroglio cliff is a morphological evolution of the caldera rim of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) in Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) with an elevation of 150 m a.s.l. and a length of about 200 m. The lithology consists of NYT, extremely lithified, overlaid by less lithified recent products of the Phlegrean volcanism., These materials are highly erodible and, due to proximity to the sea, the sea wave and wind actions cause very strong erosion process. In the recent years Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technique is used for environmental monitoring purposes through the creation of high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This method allows the reconstruction, by means of a dense cloud of points, of a 3D model for the entire investigated area. The scans need to be performed from different points of view in order to ensure a good coverage of the area, because a widespread problem is the occurrence of shaded areas. In our study we used a long-range laser scanner model RIEGL VZ1000®. Numerous surveys (April 2013, June 2014, February 2015) have been performed for monitoring coastal cliff morphological evolution. An additional survey was executed in March 2015, shortly after a landslide occurrence. To validate the multi-temporal monitoring of the laser scanner, a "quick" comparison of the acquired point clouds has been carried out using an algorithm cloud-to-cloud, in order to identify 3D changes. Then 2.5D raster images of the different scans has been performed in GIS environment, also in order to allow a map overlay of the produced thematic layer, both raster and vector data (geology, contour map, orthophoto, and so on). The comparison of multi-temporal data have evidenced interesting geomorphological processes on the cliff. It was observed a very intense (about 6 m) local moving back at the base of the cliff, mainly due to the sea wave action during storms, while in cliff sectors characterized by less compact lithologies widespread

  11. IMPACTS OF INDISCRIMINATE USE OF PESTICIDES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Barboza Vinha; Cláudia Lúcia de Oliveira Pinto; Cleide Maria Ferreira Pinto; Caroline Franco de Souza; Maria Regina de Miranda Souza; Letícia Loures de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruit and vegetables can have serious public health problems and environmental issues. There is a lack of information on security measures for handling these products and their adverse effects on the entire production chain. The aim was to report the impact of indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruits and vegetables based on survey of scientific literature and data from National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The results indicate a high percentag...

  12. Vegetation diversity of conventional and organic hedgerows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Aude, Erik; Tybirk, Knud; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    2003-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to reduce the impact of modern conventional farming on the environment and semi-natural ecosystems. One of them is organic farming, known primarily for the absence of pesticides and artificial fertilisers. The objective of this study was to study and test the differences in the spontaneous vegetation of comparable hedgerows in the same area situated within organic and conventional farming systems. The hedge bottom vegetation was surveyed during August 2001 in 13 h...

  13. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  14. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy from terrestrial organic matter through the Monterey event, Miocene, New Jersey margin (IODP Expedition 313)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linhao; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    The stratigraphic utility of carbon-isotope values from terrestrial organic matter is explored for Miocene siliciclastic sediments of the shallow shelf, New Jersey margin, USA (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] Expedition 313). These shallow marine strata, rich in terrestrial organic matter...... consistently in palynological preparation residues, concentrated woody phytoclasts, and individually picked woody phytoclasts obtained from the New Jersey sediments. A bulk organic matter curve shows somewhat different stratigraphic trends but, when corrected for mixing of marine-terrestrial components...... as environmental factors affecting vegetation in the sediment source areas. These possible factors are assessed on the basis of pyrolysis data, scanning electron microscope observations, and comparison to palynological indices of environmental change. Some evidence is found for localized degradation and...

  15. National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Inventory Program: Appalachian National Scenic Trail vegetation mapping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Hall, Mark; Menard, Shannon; Largay, Ery; Sattler, Stephanie; Hoy, Erin E.; Ruhser, Janis; Hlavacek, Enrika; Dieck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Mapping Inventory (VMI) Program classifies, describes, and maps existing vegetation of national park units for the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. The NPS VMI Program is managed by the NPS I&M Division and provides baseline vegetation information to the NPS Natural Resource I&M Program. The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, NatureServe, NPS Northeast Temperate Network, and NPS Appalachian National Scenic Trail (APPA) have completed vegetation classification and mapping of APPA for the NPS VMI Program.Mappers, ecologists, and botanists collaborated to affirm vegetation types within the U.S. National Vegetation Classification (USNVC) of APPA and to determine how best to map the vegetation types by using aerial imagery. Analyses of data from 1,618 vegetation plots were used to describe USNVC associations of APPA. Data from 289 verification sites were collected to test the field key to vegetation associations and the application of vegetation associations to a sample set of map polygons. Data from 269 validation sites were collected to assess vegetation mapping prior to submitting the vegetation map for accuracy assessment (AA). Data from 3,265 AA sites were collected, of which 3,204 were used to test accuracy of the vegetation map layer. The collective of these datasets affirmed 280 USNVC associations for the APPA vegetation mapping project.To map the vegetation and land cover of APPA, 169 map classes were developed. The 169 map classes consist of 150 that represent natural (including ruderal) vegetation types in the USNVC, 11 that represent cultural (agricultural and developed) vegetation types in the USNVC, 5 that represent natural landscapes with catastrophic disturbance or some other modification to natural vegetation preventing accurate classification in the USNVC, and 3 that represent nonvegetated water (non-USNVC). Features were interpreted from viewing 4

  16. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Morgan D; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2002-03-19

    Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of delta15N and delta13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Invertebrates varied predictably in delta15N with enrichment of 3-8 per thousand below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing delta15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in delta13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Enrichment of delta15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of delta13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in delta15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  17. Impact of a Permo-Carboniferous high O2 event on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, D. J.; Berner, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Independent models predicting the Phanerozoic (past 600 million years) history of atmospheric O2 partial pressure (pO2) indicate a marked rise to approximately 35% in the Permo-Carboniferous, around 300 million years before present, with the strong potential for altering the biogeochemical cycling of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This potential, however, would have been modified by the prevailing atmospheric pCO2 value. Herein, we use a process-based terrestrial carbon cycle model forced with a late Carboniferous paleoclimate simulation to evaluate the effects of a rise from 21 to 35% pO2 on terrestrial biosphere productivity and assess how this response is modified by current uncertainties in the prevailing pCO2 value. Our results indicate that a rise in pO2 from 21 to 35% during the Carboniferous reduced global terrestrial primary productivity by 20% and led to a 216-Gt (1 Gt = 1012 kg) C reduction in the vegetation and soil carbon storage, in an atmosphere with pCO2 = 0.03%. However, in an atmosphere with pCO2 = 0.06%, the CO2 fertilization effect is larger than the cost of photorespiration, and ecosystem productivity increases leading to the net sequestration of 117 Gt C into the vegetation and soil carbon reservoirs. In both cases, the effects result from the strong interaction between pO2, pCO2, and climate in the tropics. From this analysis, we deduce that a Permo-Carboniferous rise in pO2 was unlikely to have exerted catastrophic effects on ecosystem productivity (with pCO2 = 0.03%), and if pCO2 levels at this time were >0.04%, the water-use efficiency of land plants may even have improved. PMID:11050154

  18. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  19. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen Thomas E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  20. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  1. Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Witton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid footprint record, suggestions that the expansive uropatagia common to early pterosaurs would restrict hindlimb motion in walking or running, and the presence of sprawling forelimbs in some species. Here, these arguments are re-visited and mostly found problematic. Restriction of limb mobility is not a problem faced by extant animals with extensive fight membranes, including species which routinely utilise terrestrial locomotion. The absence of non-pterodactyloid footprints is not necessarily tied to functional or biomechanical constraints. As with other fully terrestrial clades with poor ichnological records, biases in behaviour, preservation, sampling and interpretation likely contribute to the deficit of early pterosaur ichnites. Suggestions that non-pterodactyloids have slender, mechanically weak limbs are demonstrably countered by the proportionally long and robust limbs of many Triassic and Jurassic species. Novel assessments of pterosaur forelimb anatomies conflict with notions that all non-pterodactyloids were obligated to sprawling forelimb postures. Sprawling forelimbs seem appropriate for species with ventrally-restricted glenoid articulations (seemingly occurring in rhamphorhynchines and campylognathoidids. However, some early pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon macronyx and wukongopterids, have glenoid arthrologies which are not ventrally restricted, and their distal humeri resemble those of pterodactyloids. It seems fully erect forelimb stances were possible in these pterosaurs, and may be probable given proposed correlation between pterodactyloid-like distal humeral morphology and forces incurred through erect forelimb postures. Further indications of terrestrial habits include

  2. Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid footprint record, suggestions that the expansive uropatagia common to early pterosaurs would restrict hindlimb motion in walking or running, and the presence of sprawling forelimbs in some species. Here, these arguments are re-visited and mostly found problematic. Restriction of limb mobility is not a problem faced by extant animals with extensive fight membranes, including species which routinely utilise terrestrial locomotion. The absence of non-pterodactyloid footprints is not necessarily tied to functional or biomechanical constraints. As with other fully terrestrial clades with poor ichnological records, biases in behaviour, preservation, sampling and interpretation likely contribute to the deficit of early pterosaur ichnites. Suggestions that non-pterodactyloids have slender, mechanically weak limbs are demonstrably countered by the proportionally long and robust limbs of many Triassic and Jurassic species. Novel assessments of pterosaur forelimb anatomies conflict with notions that all non-pterodactyloids were obligated to sprawling forelimb postures. Sprawling forelimbs seem appropriate for species with ventrally-restricted glenoid articulations (seemingly occurring in rhamphorhynchines and campylognathoidids). However, some early pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon macronyx and wukongopterids, have glenoid arthrologies which are not ventrally restricted, and their distal humeri resemble those of pterodactyloids. It seems fully erect forelimb stances were possible in these pterosaurs, and may be probable given proposed correlation between pterodactyloid-like distal humeral morphology and forces incurred through erect forelimb postures. Further indications of terrestrial habits include antungual

  3. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  4. Terrestrial laser scanning in monitoring of anthropogenic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina; Kowalska, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The registered xyz coordinates in the form of a point cloud captured by terrestrial laser scanner and the intensity values (I) assigned to them make it possible to perform geometric and spectral analyses. Comparison of point clouds registered in different time periods requires conversion of the data to a common coordinate system and proper data selection is necessary. Factors like point distribution dependant on the distance between the scanner and the surveyed surface, angle of incidence, tasked scan's density and intensity value have to be taken into consideration. A prerequisite for running a correct analysis of the obtained point clouds registered during periodic measurements using a laser scanner is the ability to determine the quality and accuracy of the analysed data. The article presents a concept of spectral data adjustment based on geometric analysis of a surface as well as examples of geometric analyses integrating geometric and physical data in one cloud of points: cloud point coordinates, recorded intensity values, and thermal images of an object. The experiments described here show multiple possibilities of usage of terrestrial laser scanning data and display the necessity of using multi-aspect and multi-source analyses in anthropogenic object monitoring. The article presents examples of multisource data analyses with regard to Intensity value correction due to the beam's incidence angle. The measurements were performed using a Leica Nova MS50 scanning total station, Z+F Imager 5010 scanner and the integrated Z+F T-Cam thermal camera.

  5. Mars Ascent Vehicle Test Requirements and Terrestrial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Cathey, Henry M.; Smith, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars robotic sample return mission has been a potential flagship mission for NASA s science mission directorate for decades. The Mars Exploration Program and the planetary science decadal survey have highlighted both the science return of the Mars Sample Return mission, but also the need for risk reduction through technology development. One of the critical elements of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle, which must launch the sample from the surface of Mars and place it into low Mars orbit. The MAV has significant challenges to overcome due to the Martian environments and the Entry Descent and Landing system constraints. Launch vehicles typically have a relatively low success probability for early flights, and a thorough system level validation is warranted. The MAV flight environments are challenging and in some cases impossible to replicate terrestrially. The expected MAV environments have been evaluated and a first look of potential system test options has been explored. The terrestrial flight requirements and potential validation options are presented herein.

  6. Terrestrial habitat mapping of the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1996 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington-Allen, R.A.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is in the process of remediating historical contamination on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Two key components are ecological risk assessment and monitoring. In 1994 a strategy was developed and a specific program was initiated to implement the strategy for the terrestrial biota of the entire ORR. This document details results of the first task: development of a habitat map and habitat models for key species of interest. During the last 50 years ORR has been a relatively protected island of plant and animal habitats in a region of rapidly expanding urbanization. A preliminary biodiversity assessment of the ORR by the Nature Conservancy in 1995 noted 272 occurrences of significant plant and animal species and communities. Field surveys of threatened and endangered species show that the ORR contains 20 rare plant species, 4 of which are on the state list of endangered species. The rest are either on the state list of threatened species or listed as being of special concern. The ORR provides habitat for some 60 reptilian and amphibian species; more than 120 species of terrestrial birds; 32 species of waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds; and about 40 mammalian species. The ORR is both a refuge for rare species and a reservoir of recruitment for surrounding environments and wildlife management areas. Cedar barrens, river bluffs, and wetlands have been identified as the habitat for most rare vascular plant species on the ORR.

  7. Variability and recent trends in the African terrestrial carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the African terrestrial carbon balance over the past century using a spatially resolved process based vegetation model (ORCHIDEE. The model is forced by changing climate and by human-induced changes in land use. It includes a simple parameterization of natural fires, but the natural vegetation dynamics was ignored. The period analyzed is 1901–2002. Overall, we found that the African net terrestrial carbon balance (Net Biome Productivity, NBP increased from a net CO2 source to the atmosphere of 0.14 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s to a net sink of 0.15 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s. The land use flux alone is estimated to be a source of 0.13 Pg C yr−1 caused by deforestation. This implies that climatic trends (mainly increasing precipitation and CO2 increase (fertilization effect, are causing a sink of 0.28 Pg C yr−1 which offsets the land-use source. We found that the interannual variability of NBP is large, and mostly driven by photosynthesis variability. Over savannas, photosynthesis changes from one year to the next are strongly correlated with rainfall changes (R2=0.77 in northern Africa, and R2=0.42 in southern African savannas. Over forests, such a control by rainfall is not found. The main spatial pattern of interannual variability in NBP and photosynthesis/ecosystem respiration fluxes is related with ENSO, with dryer conditions prevailing over savannas during El Niño and wetter conditions over forests. Climate induced variations in fire emissions respond to this ENSO forcing, but do not determine strongly the NBP interannual variability. Finally, we model that ecosystem respiration variations (mostly autotrophic respiration are correlated with those of photosynthesis, on interannual as well as on decadal time scales, but this result is uncertain given the potential for acclimation for autotrophic respiration processes.

  8. Factors influencing DOC leaching from terrestrial ecosystems: a database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino Serrano, M.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Gielen, B.

    2012-04-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important process linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting these fluxes can lead to biased of eddy covariance-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem carbon sequestration. The necessity for integrating DOC leaching in carbon cycle models is thus clear, especially in view of future model development aiming at directly linking terrestrial, freshwater and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed in order to better understand and predict dissolved organic carbon dynamics. DOC concentrations mainly vary by geographical location, soil and vegetation types, topography, season and climate. Within this framework, we developed a database on DOC concentrations and fluxes with the aim of better understanding how those parameters determine DOC variations. This database compiles DOC concentrations and fluxes in soil solution and creeks at site or catchment level for different ecosystems around the world, but with special focus on the Northern Hemisphere and on peatland ecosystems. The database currently includes information from around 120 sites, gathered from published literature and datasets accessible on the internet. The database contains annual, seasonal and monthly data on DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and also includes other meta-data related to the site, such as land cover, soil properties, climate, annual water balance and other soil solution parameters. This compiled dataset allows to study the influence of several physical factors that determine DOC production in soils. We will present the observed relationships between drivers, such as precipitation, drainage flows, soil pH, soil texture, and DOC concentration/ DOC fluxes at different levels, ecosystem types, temporal scales (monthly versus annual or seasonal), and soil depths. The same relations will be analysed

  9. Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy G. Balice; Jay D. Miller; Brian P. Oswald; Carl Edminster; Stephen R. Yool

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.

  10. Vegetation Types in Coastal Louisiana in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mouton, Edmond; Linscombe, Jeb; Hartley, Steve B.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Fur and Refuge Division jointly completed an aerial survey to collect data on 2007 vegetation types in coastal Louisiana. The current map presents the data collected in this effort. The 2007 aerial survey was conducted by using techniques developed over the last thirty years while conducting similar vegetation surveys. Transects flown were oriented in a north-south direction and spaced 1.87 mi (3 km) apart and covered coastal marshes from the Texas State line to the Mississippi State line and from the northern extent of fresh marshes to the southern end of saline (saltwater) marshes on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico or of coastal bays. Navigation along these transects and to each sampling site was accomplished by using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and geographic information system (GIS) software. As the surveyors reached each sampling station, observed areas of marsh were assigned as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline (saltwater) types, and dominant plant species were listed and ranked according to abundance. Delineations of marsh boundaries usually followed natural levees, bayous, or other features that impede or restrict water flow.

  11. [Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for

  12. The role of vegetation dynamics in the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitch, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    This thesis contains a description of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) and its application to infer the role of vegetation dynamics on atmospheric CO{sub 2} content at different time-scales. The model combines vegetation dynamics and biogeochemistry in a modular framework. Individual modules describe ecosystems processes, including vegetation resource competition and production, tissue turnover, growth, fire and mortality, soil and litter biogeochemistry, including the effects of CO{sub 2} on these processes. The model simulates realistic post-disturbance succession in different environments. Seasonal exchange of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is modelled in reasonable agreement with observation. Global estimates of carbon stocks in soil, litter and vegetation are within their acceptable ranges and the model captures the present-day patterns in vegetation. Fire return intervals are simulated correctly in most regions. Results emphasise the important role of the terrestrial biosphere in both the seasonal cycle and in the inter-annual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. LPJ successfully reproduced both the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO{sub 2} content as measured at a global network of monitoring stations. The model predicted a small net terrestrial biosphere uptake of CO{sub 2} during the 1980s with a strong CO{sub 2} fertilisation effect, which enhances plant production, reduced by the effects of climate and land use change. Historical land use change and CO{sub 2} fertilisation have been the dominant, albeit opposing factors governing the response of the terrestrial biosphere with respect to carbon storage during the 20th century. LPJ is run using one future climate and atmospheric CO{sub 2} scenario until 2200. Enhanced production due to the CO{sub 2} fertilisation effect eventually reaches an asymptote, and consequently the ability of

  13. Time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; Zhao, Xiang; Liang, Shunlin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Kaicheng; Tang, Bijian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2015-09-01

    Climate conditions significantly affect vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, the vegetation responses to climate vary considerably with the diverse spatial patterns and the time-lag effects, which are the most important mechanism of climate-vegetation interactive effects. Extensive studies focused on large-scale vegetation-climate interactions use the simultaneous meteorological and vegetation indicators to develop models; however, the time-lag effects are less considered, which tends to increase uncertainty. In this study, we aim to quantitatively determine the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors using the GIMMS3g NDVI time series and the CRU temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation datasets. First, this study analyzed the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors. Then, a multiple linear regression model and partial correlation model were established to statistically analyze the roles of different climatic factors on vegetation responses, from which the primary climate-driving factors for different vegetation types were determined. The results showed that (i) both the time-lag effects of the vegetation responses and the major climate-driving factors that significantly affect vegetation growth varied significantly at the global scale, which was related to the diverse vegetation and climate characteristics; (ii) regarding the time-lag effects, the climatic factors explained 64% variation of the global vegetation growth, which was 11% relatively higher than the model ignoring the time-lag effects; (iii) for the area with a significant change trend (for the period 1982-2008) in the global GIMMS3g NDVI (P global climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Assessment of soil-vegetation cover condition in river basins applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Petrosian, Janna; Shirkin, Leonid; Repkin, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. Lately remotely determining vegetation indices have been used for this purpose alongside with terrestrial data. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial - temporal peculiarities and the dynamics of soil-vegetation condition of the Klyazma basin as whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images («Landsat» ETM+ etc.) Research methods. 1. Dynamics analysis NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) 2. Remote data have been correlated to terrestrial measurement results of phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics, crop capacity (http://biodat.ru) 3. For the digital processing of space images software Erdas Imagine has been used, GIS analysis has been carried out applying Arc GIS. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located

  15. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  16. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  17. Dental anomaly in Tapirus terrestris (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    A male skull of Tapirus terrestris (L.) originating from Dutch Guiana (Leiden Museum, reg. no. 11632), received from the Rotterdam Zoological Garden through the kind intermediary of Mr. F. J. APPELMAN on July 15, 1952, is remarkable for the abnormal development of its right P1. The full permanent

  18. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  19. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  20. Geological remote sensing signatures of terrestrial impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Schnetzler, C.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geological remote sensing techniques can be used to investigate structural, depositional, and shock metamorphic effects associated with hypervelocity impact structures, some of which may be linked to global Earth system catastrophies. Although detailed laboratory and field investigations are necessary to establish conclusive evidence of an impact origin for suspected crater landforms, the synoptic perspective provided by various remote sensing systems can often serve as a pathfinder to key deposits which can then be targetted for intensive field study. In addition, remote sensing imagery can be used as a tool in the search for impact and other catastrophic explosion landforms on the basis of localized disruption and anomaly patterns. In order to reconstruct original dimensions of large, complex impact features in isolated, inaccessible regions, remote sensing imagery can be used to make preliminary estimates in the absence of field geophysical surveys. The experienced gained from two decades of planetary remote sensing of impact craters on the terrestrial planets, as well as the techniques developed for recognizing stages of degradation and initial crater morphology, can now be applied to the problem of discovering and studying eroded impact landforms on Earth. Preliminary results of remote sensing analyses of a set of terrestrial impact features in various states of degradation, geologic settings, and for a broad range of diameters and hence energies of formation are summarized. The intention is to develop a database of remote sensing signatures for catastrophic impact landforms which can then be used in EOS-era global surveys as the basis for locating the possibly hundreds of missing impact structures. In addition, refinement of initial dimensions of extremely recent structures such as Zhamanshin and Bosumtwi is an important objective in order to permit re-evaluation of global Earth system responses associated with these types of events.

  1. Using terrestrial laser scanning data to drive decimetric resolution urban inundation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Timothy; Duncan, Alastair; Horritt, Matthew; Bates, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The availability of LiDAR data has led to the proliferation a wide variety of research streams from DEM segmentation (Mason et al., 2007) to mapping the vertical profile of vegetation (Blair et al., 1999) and floodplain inundation modelling (Bates et al., 2003). As the specifications of LiDAR systems have improved, the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of airborne systems have increased to ~5-10 cm and ~25 cm respectively (Baltsavias, 1999), giving highly resolved digital surface models (DSMs) of the urban environment (Mason et al., 2007). More recently, terrestrial laser scanners have started to be employed to capture even higher accuracy (i.e. ~1-3cm horizontal resolution) 3D point cloud data for applications in engineering, transportation, urban planning, among others (Lichti et al., 2008). Such very high resolution terrestrial laser scanning data have, however, yet to be used in urban hydraulic models, despite the fact that anecdotal and modelling evidence of the hydraulic process at work during urban floods suggests that features with very small horizontal and vertical length scales (i.e. walls, kerbs, steps, road cambers and storm drains) can have a significant impact on the flow development. In this paper we therefore investigate the potential utility of terrestrial laser scanning data for improving flood risk assessments in urban areas. To do this two key problems have to be dealt with. First, we require methods to process terrestrial laser scanning data in order to extract hydraulically relevant information. As such a number of processing steps are presented and a variety of resolution DEMs are derived. Second, we need to employ highly computationally efficient hydraulic algorithms in order to build models at the scale of the terrestrial laser scanner data and still simulate flows over spatial domains that are not trivially small. In this study, two state-of-the-art numerical models are used to demonstrate complex urban flood flows for pluvial and

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  3. Review of effects of NaCl and other road salts on terrestrial vegetation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Nancy P.

    2000-01-01

    his report was prepared for the technical review for Environment Canada's evaluation of road salt, targetet for environmental assessment in the publicationof the Canadian Environment Protection Act's second Priority Substances List (PS2).

  4. Effects of Tracked Vehicle Activity on Terrestrial Mammals, Birds, and Vegetation at Fort Knox, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    all three areas. Fox tracks were seen in the short-term area, and signs of dogs and gray squirrels were seen in the control area. The information on...Woodpecker 0 0 1 3 0 0 Hairy Woodpecker 0 0 5 17 0 0 Great Crested Flycatcher 2 19 0 0 0 0 Eastern Wood Pewee 1 10 0 0 0 0 Rough-winged Swallow 1 10 1 3 0...Woodpecker --- 2272.696 --- Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 4896.0 --- Hairy Woodpecker --- 1513.6664 Downy Woodpecker 775.296 373.4342 --- Eastern Kingbl-d

  5. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...... is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment...

  6. Leaf optical system modeled as a stochastic process. [solar radiation interaction with terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Garratt, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A stochastic leaf radiation model based upon physical and physiological properties of dicot leaves has been developed. The model accurately predicts the absorbed, reflected, and transmitted radiation of normal incidence as a function of wavelength resulting from the leaf-irradiance interaction over the spectral interval of 0.40-2.50 micron. The leaf optical system has been represented as Markov process with a unique transition matrix at each 0.01-micron increment between 0.40 micron and 2.50 micron. Probabilities are calculated at every wavelength interval from leaf thickness, structure, pigment composition, and water content. Simulation results indicate that this approach gives accurate estimations of actual measured values for dicot leaf absorption, reflection, and transmission as a function of wavelength.

  7. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren...

  8. New records of temperate mollusks in two Late Pleistocene terrestrial localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalía; Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; García-Barrera, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    The Mixteca Alta Oaxaqueña is in the state of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. This region is characterized by numerous Pleistocene fossiliferous localities. The objective of this study is to describe a diverse assemblage of Late Pleistocene freshwater and terrestrial mollusks in two localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Coixtlahuaca District. We identified 10 taxa of gastropods and one of bivalves. By the sedimentological characteristics and the mollusks assemblage, it is possible to relate the first locality with meandriform river deposits, without vegetation. The second locality was associated with a floodplain with short-lived associated vegetation. Five identified species constitute the most austral records of these taxa in Neartic Realm. In all the taxa, the Late Pleistocene occurrences constitute the last records of the identified mollusks in the study zone.

  9. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  10. [Topsoil application in vegetation restoration in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao-Yuan; Li, Hong-Yuan; Mo, Xun-Qiang; Ma, Chun

    2009-11-01

    Soil seed bank has the unique regional species composition and genetic characteristics, and plays important roles in maintaining species diversity and population density. Topsoil, as a kind of revegetation materials, has the potential in vegetation restoration. Based on the Japanese literatures, this paper introduced the characteristics and contents of revegetation with topsoil, and discussed the revegetation modes from the aspects of topsoil mixing ratio, slope surface condition, and topsoil collection depth. The application cases of topsoil in various habitat types such as forests, roads, wetlands, and abandoned lands were also introduced. Some suggestions to the further researches on topsoil application in vegetation restoration were proposed, e.g., to strengthen the practical research of topsoil, to determine the appropriate techniques and targets of topsoil application as well as the survey methods and applicability standards, and to develop the low cost and high-efficient new application ways of topsoil.

  11. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Used over Western U.S. Rangelands to Characterize Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    New remote sensing methods to quantify terrestrial ecosystems have developed rapidly over the past 10 years. New platforms with improved aeronautical capabilities have become known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). In addition to the new aircraft, sensors are becoming smaller and some can fit into limited payload bays. The miniaturization process is well underway, but much remains to be done. Rather than using a wide variety of sensors, a limited number of instruments is recommended. At the moment we fly 2-3 instruments (digital SLR camera, 6-band multispectral camera, and single video camera). Our flights are primarily over low population density western U.S. rangeland with objectives to assess rangeland health, active erosion, vegetation change, phenology, livestock movement, and vegetation type consumed by grazing animals. All of our UAS flights are made using a serpentine flight path with overlapping images at an altitude of 700 ft (215 m). This altitude allows hyperspatial imagery with a resolution of 5-15 cm depending upon the sensor being used, and it allows determination of vegetation type based on the plant structure and vegetation geometries, or by multispectral analysis. In addition to advances in aircraft and sensor technology, image processing software has become more sophisticated. Future development is necessary, and we can expect improvement in sensors, aircraft, data collection, and application to terrestrial ecosystems. Of 17 ARS research laboratories across the country four laboratories are interested in future UAS applications and another 13 already have at least one UAS. In 2015 the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a framework of recommendations that would allow routine use of certain small UAS (those weighing less than 55 lb (25 kg)). Although these new regulations will provide increased flexibility in how flights are made, other operations will still require the use of a Certificate of Authorization.

  13. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Space: Status and Potential for Carbon Cycle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanter, L.; Koehler, P.; Walther, S.; Zhang, Y.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross primary production (GPP), or the amount of atmospheric CO2 fixed by vegetation through photosynthesis, represents the largest carbon flux between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Despite its importance, large-scale estimates of GPP remain highly uncertain for some terrestrial ecosystems. In this context, measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is emitted in the 650-850nm spectral range by the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants, have the potential to provide a new view on vegetation photosynthesis. Global monitoring of SIF from space have been achieved in the last years by means of a number of atmospheric spectrometers, which have turned out to provide the necessary spectral and radiometric sensitivity for SIF retrieval. The first global measurements of SIF were achieved in 2011 from spectra acquired by the Japanese GOSAT mission. This breakthorugh was followed by retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instruments onboard MetOp-A and MetOp-B, which enable a continuous spatial sampling, and lately from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY. This observational scenario is completed by the first SIF data from the NASA-JPL OCO-2 mission (launched in July 2014) and the upcoming Copernicus' Sentinel 5-Precursor to be launched by early 2016. OCO-2 and TROPOMI offer the possibility of monitoring SIF globally with a 100-fold improvement in spatial and temporal resolution with respect to GOSAT, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY.In this contribution, we will provide an overview of global SIF monitoring and will illustrate the potential of SIF data to improve our knowledge of vegetation photosynthesis and GPP at the synoptic scale. We will show examples of ongoing research exploiting SIF data for an improved monitoring of photosynthetic activity at different ecosystems, highlighting the usefulness of SIF to constrain estimates of CO2 uptake by vegetation through photosynthesis.

  14. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  15. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  16. An interdisciplinary approach to reconstructing hydrologically controlled terrestrial habitat dynamics during MIS 5 from sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Rushworth, Danielle; Copsey, Harriet; Imeri, Alma; Valsecchi, Verushka; Cara, Magdalena; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated sediments from a piston core (site Co1202) in the northeastern part of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) that cover the period from 136 to 97 ka, i.e. most of marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 including Termination II and the peak warm period of MIS 5e (Eemian). The aim of the study was to reconstruct climatically controlled changes in the terrestrial habitat by combining data from elemental, lipid biomarker (alkyl lipids, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers/GDGTs) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses with pollen data. Comparison of biomarker data from sediments and modern materials shows a close similarity between the average biomarker composition of sediments and soils. This is confirmed by statistical analyses, implying that a dominant proportion of the sedimentary alkyl lipids derives from soils while aquatic sources (macrophytes, phytoplankton) can be ruled out as a major source. The carbonate record of the Co1202 sediments and the GDGT-based proxy for lake surface water temperature (TEX86) closely follow climatic trends as they are known from the North Atlantic realm, including marine isotope sub-stage 5d and short-term climate events such as cold events C25, C24 and C23. By contrast, proxies based on alkyl lipid composition reveal an entirely different pattern. Episodes of slow, continuous change are disrupted by abrupt shifts. This suggests a threshold-controlled system, with supply of organic matter from specific sources being increased or suppressed by a sudden change of supply pathways. Such a mechanism is provided by lake level change that includes rapid flooding or exposure of extensive tectonic terraces in the vicinity of site Co1202 as documented by geophysical surveys. Both flooding and exposure change the areas that certain habitats occupy in the catchment of the site, e.g., the proportions of vegetation and soils on the surrounding mountain slopes relative to that on low-lying terrace surfaces. Several such abrupt changes can

  17. Terrestrial basking sea turtles are responding to spatio-temporal sea surface temperature patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Halley, John M.; Marks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalists as early as Darwin observed terrestrial basking in green turtles (Chelonia mydas), but the distribution and environmental influences of this behaviour are poorly understood. Here, we examined 6 years of daily basking surveys in Hawaii and compared them with the phenology of local sea surface temperatures (SST). Data and models indicated basking peaks when SST is coolest, and we found this timeline consistent with bone stress markings. Next, we assessed the decadal SST profiles for...

  18. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  19. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Pernille

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in Iceland in the autumn of 2003 as a part of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey. The survey was designed to provide information on actual consumption levels of vegetables and fruits by 11-year-old school children and to assess potential determinants of consumption patterns. A total of 1235 Icelandic children (89% from 32 randomly chosen schools participated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the explained variance of the children's fruit and vegetable intake. In these analyses socio-demographic background variables were entered as a first block, perceived physical-environmental variables as a second block, perceived socio-environmental variables as a third block and personal variables as a fourth block. Results 64% of the children ate fruit less than once a day, and 61% ate vegetables less than once a day. Respectively, 31% and 39% of the variance in children's fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the determinants studied. About 7% and 13% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the perceived physical-environmental determinants, mainly by availability at home. About 18% and 16% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the personal determinants. For both fruit and vegetable intake, the significant personal determinants were preferences, liking, knowledge of recommendations and self-efficacy. Conclusion Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake among children should aim at both environmental factors such as greater availability of fruit and vegetables, and personal factors as self

  20. Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Kati; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Kaartinen, Harri; Krooks, Anssi; Manninen, Terhikki; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihelä, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo; Thölix, Laura; Karjalainen, Tuure

    2010-05-01

    The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland during 2008-2009. The SNORTEX is a 3-years investigation (started in 2008) piloted by Météo-France and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The key objectives of SNORTEX are to improve the characterization of snow-melting patterns in boreal regions using a multiscale approach supported by multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing information, and to build an integrated database for snow variables (albedo, fraction, water equivalent) in a forested environment for the validation of the SAF (Satellite Application Facilities) snow-related products. Validation data for EUMETSAT Land, Climate and Hydrological SAFs will be gathered in the campaign. The focus of the 2009 campaign was on the melting season. The field work was scheduled to include different snow/weather conditions and to include a time period with fractional snow cover. There will be one more field measurement period in spring 2010. The field survey took place at Sodankylä in Finnish Lapland. The existing facilities of FMI-ARC (The Arctic Research Center of the Finnish Meteorological Institutes) (67.4 °N 26.6 °E) were used. The studied area was chosen for this campaign because it is located far from the coasts, which makes the climate continental. The winters are long and cold during which the snow usually does not completely melt and several layers form in the snow pack. The area is partially forested which makes it possible to observe how the forests affect snow, snow cover and albedo. In addition to this the topography of the area is relatively plain which makes the area ideal for