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Sample records for terrestrial shocked basalt

  1. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  2. Relative locations of the bow shocks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus

  3. Discrimination of Thermal versus Mechanical Effects of Shock on Rock Magnetic Properties of Spherically Shocked up to 10-160 GPa Basalt and Diabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Tikoo, S.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kars, M. A. C.; Egli, R.; Chareev, D. A.; Fairchild, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how shock waves generated during hypervelocity impacts affect rock magnetic properties is key for interpreting the paleomagnetic records of lunar rocks, meteorites, and cratered planetary surfaces. Laboratory simulations of impacts show that ultra-high shocks may induce substantial post-shock heating of the target material. At high pressures (>10 GPa), shock heating occurs in tandem with mechanical effects, such as grain fracturing and creation of crystallographic defects and dislocations within magnetic grains. This makes it difficult to conclude whether shock-induced changes in the rock magnetic properties of target materials are primarily associated with mechanical or thermal effects. Here we present novel experimental methods to discriminate between mechanical and thermal effects of shock on magnetic properties and illustrate it with two examples of spherically shocked terrestrial basalt and diabase [1], which were shocked to pressures of 10 to >160 GPa, and investigate possible explanations for the observed shock-induced magnetic hardening (i.e., increase in remanent coercivity Bcr). The methods consist of i) conducting extra heating experiments at temperatures resembling those experienced during high-pressure shock events on untreated equivalents of shocked rocks (with further comparison of Bcr of shocked and heated samples) and ii) quantitative comparison of high-resolution first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams (field step: 0.5-0.7 mT) for shocked, heated and untreated specimens. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the shock-induced coercivity hardening in our samples is predominantly due to solid-state, mechanical effects of shock rather than alteration associated with shock heating. Indeed, heating-induced changes in Bcr in the post-shock temperature range were minor. Visual inspection of FORC contours (in addition to detailed analyses) reveals a stretching of the FORC distribution of shocked sample towards higher coercivities

  4. Martian volcanism: festoon-like ridges on terrestrial basalt flows and implications for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilig, E.; Greeley, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fink and Fletcher, and Fink model was used to assess and compare flow rheology for two terrestrial basalt flows and one Martian flow with previous studies. Based on the morphologic similarities between the Martian flows and the Icelandic flows and knowledge of the emplacement of the terrestrial flows, the flows west of Arsia Mons are considered to have been emplaced as large sheet flows from basaltic flood style eruptions. Festoon ridges represent folding of the surface crust in the last stages of emplacement when viscosities would be high due to cooling. Alternatively, the lava may have had a high crystallinity or was erupted at low temperatures. In addition, increased compressive stress behind halted flow fronts or in ponded areas may have contributed to ridge formation

  5. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  6. Some effects of gas adsorption on the high temperature volatile release behavior of a terrestrial basalt, tektite and lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. G.; Muenow, D. W.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Mass pyrograms obtained from high-temperature, mass psectrometric pyrolysis of a glassy theoleiitic submarine basalt and a tektite, ground in air to less than 64 microns, have shown N2 and SO release patterns very similar to those from the pyrolysis of mature lunar soil fines. The N2 and CO release behavior from the terrestrial samples reproduces the biomodal, high-temperature (approximately 700 and 1050 C) features from the lunar samples. Unground portions of the basalt and tektite show no release of N2 and CO during pyrolysis. Grinding also alters the release behavior and absolute amounts of H2O and CO2. It is suggested that adsorption of atmospheric gases in addition to solar wind implantation of ions may account for the wide range of values in previously reported concentrations of carbon and nitrogen from lunar fines.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N.; Mustard, John F.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Robertson, Kevin M.; Salvatore, Mark R.; Edwards, Christopher S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop. The phases identified in the sample are albite, large iron oxides, and titanite throughout; calcite in vesicles; calcic clinopyroxene, aegirine, and Fe/Mg-bearing clay in the rind; and fine-grained hematite and pyroxenes in the interior. Using imaging spectroscopy, the chemistry and mineralogy results extend to the hand sample and larger outcrop. From all of the analyses, we suggest that the pillow basalts were altered initially after emplacement, either by heated lake water or magmatic fluids, at temperatures of at least 400-600 °C, and the calcic clinopyroxenes and aegirine identified in the rind are a preserved record of that alteration. As the hydrothermal system cooled to slightly lower temperatures, clays formed in the rind, and, during this alteration, the sample oxidized to form hematite in the matrix of the interior and Fe3+ in the pyroxenes in the rind. During the waning stages of the hydrothermal system, calcite precipitated in vesicles within the rind. Later, diagenetic processes albitized the sample, with albite replacing plagioclase, lining vesicles, and accreting onto the exterior of the sample. This albitization or Na-metasomatism occurred when the lake within the Hartford Basin evaporated during a drier past climatic era, resulting in Na-rich brines. As Ca-rich plagioclase altered to albite, Ca was released into solution, eventually precipitating as calcite in previously-unfilled vesicles, dominantly in the interior of the pillow. Coordinated analyses of this sample permit

  8. Rockfall monitoring by Terrestrial Laser Scanning - case study of the basaltic rock face at Castellfollit de la Roca (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Calvet, J.; García-Sellés, D.; Asensio, E.

    2011-03-01

    This case study deals with a rock face monitoring in urban areas using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The pilot study area is an almost vertical, fifty meter high cliff, on top of which the village of Castellfollit de la Roca is located. Rockfall activity is currently causing a retreat of the rock face, which may endanger the houses located at its edge. TLS datasets consist of high density 3-D point clouds acquired from five stations, nine times in a time span of 22 months (from March 2006 to January 2008). The change detection, i.e. rockfalls, was performed through a sequential comparison of datasets. Two types of mass movement were detected in the monitoring period: (a) detachment of single basaltic columns, with magnitudes below 1.5 m3 and (b) detachment of groups of columns, with magnitudes of 1.5 to 150 m3. Furthermore, the historical record revealed (c) the occurrence of slab failures with magnitudes higher than 150 m3. Displacements of a likely slab failure were measured, suggesting an apparent stationary stage. Even failures are clearly episodic, our results, together with the study of the historical record, enabled us to estimate a mean detachment of material from 46 to 91.5 m3 year-1. The application of TLS considerably improved our understanding of rockfall phenomena in the study area.

  9. Mars on Earth: Analog basaltic soils and particulates from Lonar Crater, India, include Deccan soil, shocked soil, reworked lithic and glassy ejecta, and both shocked and unshocked baked zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    "There is no perfect analog for Mars on Earth" [first line of Hipkin et al. (2013) Icarus, 261-267]. However, fieldwork and corresponding sample analyses from laboratory instrumentation (to proxy field instruments) has resulted in the finding of unique analog materials that suggest that detailed investigations of Lonar Crater, India would be beneficial to the goals of the Mars Program. These are briefly described below as Analog Processes, Materials, and Fieldwork. Analog Processes: The geologic history of Lonar Crater emulates localities on Mars with 1.) flood basaltic volcanism with interlayer development of 2.) baked zones or "boles" and 3.) soil formation. Of six flows, the lower three are aqueously altered by groundwater to produce a range of 4.) alteration products described below. The impact event 570 ka produced a range of 5.) impactites including shocked baked zones, shocked soils, and altered basalt shocked to a range of shock pressures [Kieffer et al., 1976]. Analog Materials: 65 Ma Deccan basalt contains augite and labradorite. Baked zones are higher in hematite and other iron oxides. Soil consists of calcite and organic matter. Several basalts with secondary alteration are listed here and these mirror alteration on Mars: hematite, chlorite, serpentine, zeolite, and palagonite, with varying combinations of these with primary igneous minerals. All of these materials (#1 through 4 above) are shocked to a range of shocked pressures to produce maskelynite, flowing plagioclase glass, vesiculated plagioclase glass, and complete impact melts. Shocked soils contain schlieren calcite amidst comminuted grains of augite, labradorite, and these glasses. Shocked baked zones unsurprisingly have a petrographic texture similar to hornfels, another product of contact metamorphism. Analog Fieldwork: The ejecta consists of two layers: 8 m of lithic breccia with unshocked and fractured basalts under a 1 m suevite consisting of all ranges of shock pressure described above

  10. 40Ar-39Ar dating of terrestrial and exterrestrial materials. Basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoka, Ichiro; Takigami, Yutaka.

    1994-01-01

    Through a series of 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating for terrestrial and exterrestrial samples, the results for basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and for meteorites from Antarctica give significant information concerning their formation histories. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of basalts from the Japan Sea floor give a constraint that the Japan Sea floor was formed at least 20 Ma. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for dyke samples from the Deccan Plateau indicate a possibility for the occurrence of a little younger ages than that of the main plateau formations by a few million years. Meteorites collected from Antarctica show some variable 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages reflecting their different thermal histories. (author)

  11. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Erdos, G.; Nemeth, Z.

    2012-01-01

    by the Cluster spacecraft were best predicted by the 3-D model of Lin et al. (2010). The applied empirical bow shock models and the 3-D semi-empiric bow shock model combined with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solution proved to be insufficient for predicting the observed unusual bow shock locations during large...... interplanetary disturbances. The results of a global 3-D MHD model were in good agreement with the Cluster observations on 17 January 2005, but they did not predict the bow shock crossings on 31 October 2003....... of three magnetopause and four bow shock models which describe them in considerably different ways using statistical methods based on observations. A new 2-D magnetopause model is introduced (based on Verigin et al., 2009) which takes into account the pressure of the compressed magnetosheath field raised...

  12. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  13. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 2; Waves and Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A. W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first quantified measure of the energy dissipation rates, due to wave-particle interactions, in the transition region of the Earth's collision-less bow shock using data from the Time History of Events and Macro-Scale Interactions during Sub-Storms spacecraft. Our results show that wave-particle interactions can regulate the global structure and dominate the energy dissipation of collision-less shocks. In every bow shock crossing examined, we observed both low-frequency (less than 10 hertz) and high-frequency (approximately or greater than10 hertz) electromagnetic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The low-frequency waves were consistent with magnetosonic-whistler waves. The high-frequency waves were combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. The high-frequency waves had the following: (1) peak amplitudes exceeding delta B approximately equal to 10 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 300 millivolts per meter, though more typical values were delta B approximately equal to 0.1-1.0 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 10-50 millivolts per meter (2) Poynting fluxes in excess of 2000 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter) (typical values were approximately 1-10 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter); (3) resistivities greater than 9000 omega meters; and (4) associated energy dissipation rates greater than 10 microWm(sup -3) (micro-waves per cubic meter). The dissipation rates due to wave-particle interactions exceeded rates necessary to explain the increase in entropy across the shock ramps for approximately 90 percent of the wave burst durations. For approximately 22 percent of these times, the wave-particle interactions needed to only be less than or equal to 0.1 percent efficient to balance the nonlinear wave steepening that produced the shock waves. These results show that wave

  14. Asymmetric shock heating and the terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    One of the difficulties of the current giant impact model for the origin of the Moon is to explain the marked similarity in the isotopic compositions and the substantial differences in the major element chemistry. Physics of shock heating is analyzed to show that the degree of heating is asymmetric between the impactor and the target, if the target (the proto-Earth) had a magma-ocean but the impactor did not. The magma ocean is heated much more than the solid impactor and the vapor-rich jets come mainly from the magma-ocean from which the Moon might have been formed. In this scenario, the similarity and differences in the composition between the Moon and Earth would be explained as a natural consequence of a collision in the later stage of planetary formation. Including the asymmetry in shock heating is the first step toward explaining the chemical composition of the Moon.

  15. Shock recovery experiments in the range of 10 to 45 GPa - comparison of results of synthetic magnetite and terrestrial diabase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Pesonen, L.; Deutsch, A.; Honnermann, U.

    89 /53/, Fall Meeting Supplement (2008), , GP21C-0790-GP21C-0790 ISSN 0096-3941. [American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. 15.12.2008-19.12.2008, San Francisco] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : shock experiments * magnetite * diabase Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verbose=0&listenv=table&application=fm08&convert=&converthl=&refinequery=&formintern=&formextern=&transquery=kohout&_lines=&multiple=0&descriptor=%2fdata%2fepubs%2fwais%2findexes%2ffm08%2ffm08%7c766%7c5433%7cShock%20recovery%20experiments%20in%20the%20range%20of%2010%20to%2045%20GPa%20-%20comparison%20of%20results%20of%20synthetic%20magnetite%20and%20terrestrial%20diabase%7cHTML%7clocalhost:0%7c%2fdata%2fepubs%2fwais%2findexes%2ffm08%2ffm08%7c19257669%2019263102%20%2fdata2%2fepubs%2fwais%2fdata%2ffm08%2ffm08.txt

  16. Mid-IR Reflectance (DRIFT) Spectral Variations in Basaltic Mineralogy with Direction of Impact at Lonar Crater, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, N.; Chavan, R. S.; Arif, M.

    2012-12-01

    Identification of spectral changes with the direction of impact has important implications for understanding the impact cratering phenomenon occurring on both terrestrial and extraterrestrial planets and also for geology of the crater. Fortuitously, Lonar Impact Crater (India) is the only well-preserved terrestrial simple crater excavated on Deccan basalts and serves as an excellent analogue to craters on Mars and Moon. An ~570 ka old Lonar crater was suggested to be formed by an oblique impact of a chondritic impactor that struck the pre-impact target from the east into a sequence of six basaltic Deccan flows and created a 1.88 km diameter crater with two layers of ejecta blanket. Here we report preliminary laboratory studies of spectral results on fine-grained rock powers (IR (4000-400 cm-1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. The basalts were collected from two profiles in the east and south sections of the crater wall and the upper most crater rim, which later subdivided into sector-wise samples to carry out a systematic study of spectral properties of Lonar basalts, together with impact related samples of breccias and impact melts. For the first time, data of the shock metamorphism of Lonar basalt is examined using DRIFT spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of rock powders of relatively unshocked and shocked basalts are obtained to document the mineralogical variations and the distribution of primary (e.g. Plagioclase Feldspar, Pyroxene), and secondary Phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. Illite, Smectite, Montmorillonite, Saponite, Serpentine) with direction of impact. The spectral data between pre-impact unshocked and post-impact shocked basalts are interpreted to reflect the effect of shock pressure and alteration that rock have undergone. On western crater rim sector, typical silicate spectral features in 900-1200 cm-1 which attributed to Si-O stretching, are observed to change slightly in the width and shift in position as a result of

  17. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    and ordering. Classification functions as a primary tool of perception, opening up ways of seeing things and sealing off others. Lacking a classification, mare-basalt petrology appears immature with little consensual perception of the qualities and signifigances of the basalts. The appearance may or may not be the reality, but it demonstrates a need for a functioning, communicatory classification, in particular for the dissemination of ideas and the furtherance of studies. Names are inconsistent both among lunar rocks and between lunar and terrestrial rocks. Samples are labeled by elements, chemistry with tags, chemistry cast into mineralogy, or a mineralogical attribute (respective examples A 14 VHK A 17 high-Ti Group B 1, A 15 quartz-normative, A-12 pigeonite). Such inconsistency is bound to lead to confusion. Chemical descriptions mean different things in mildly different contexts: A low-K Fra Mauro basalt (not a basalt!) contains slightly more K than an Apollo 11 high-K basalt. High-alumina means more than about 11% Al2O3 for mare basalts, but 21% for highlands "basalts." Volcanic KREEP basalts, about 18% Al2O3, are not (usually) qualified with "high-alumina." Yet for terrestrial basalts, high-alumina means more than about 17% Al2O3, Further, even very-low-Ti mare basalts have Ti abundances (about 0.5-1.5% Ti02) as great as typical terrestrial basalts. Thus, parallels between lunar and terrestrial nomenclatures are nonexistent (reinforced by the fact that a mare-basalt composition found on Earth would be too ultramafic to name basalt at all). A separate type of name exists for mare-basalt glasses, which are identified by site, color, and a letter for any subsequent distinctions, e.g., A15 Green Glass C. While the inconsistencies cited above by themselves make nomenclature arcane, a greater source of difficulty is the common use of acronyms such as VHK and VLT. Most of these are partly chemical acronyms, but degrading the symbol Ti to T (for instance) makes them

  18. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  19. Shock Deformation and Volcanism across the Cretaceous - Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Alan Royce

    1990-01-01

    The cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) transition remains one of the most controversial scientific topics in the geosciences. Geological and geophysical evidence associated with the K/T boundary have been used to argue that the extinctions were caused by meteor impact or volcanism. The goal of this study was to assess the viability of a volcanic model for the K/T transition. Comparison of natural and experimentally-shocked quartz and feldspar using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the optical and statistical character of shock-induced microstructures in volcanic rocks are different from both classic impact microstructures, and from the Raton K/T samples. A series of 31 high-explosive (HE) shock-recovery experiments at pressures to 25 GPa and temperatures to 750^circC were completed on samples of granite and quartzite. TEM and optical microscopy reveal that pre-shock temperature and pulse duration have a first-order effect on the development of shock-induced microstructures in quartz and feldspar. Application of the experimental results to natural shock-induced microstructures indicates that the volcanic microstructures are probably produced at elevated temperatures and shock pressures that do not exceed 15 GPa. The results also suggest that the Raton K/T deposits were produced at pressures below about 25 GPa. Analysis of samples from the K/T transition at DSDP Site 527 and correlations between biostratigraphy, isotopes, and the data from this study suggest that the decline in marine productivity over an extended period of time may be due to climate changes induced by basaltic volcanism. The eruption of the Deccan Traps is a viable mechanism for the K/T extinctions, and the correlation of flood basalts with every major biotic crisis in the last 250 Ma supports the link between these two phenomena. Eruption of flood basalts enriched in F, Cl, CO_2 , and SO_2, could disrupt the terrestrial ecosystem, and could produce effects

  20. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  1. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  2. Basaltic Shergottite NWA 856: Differentiation of a Martian Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Pirotte, Z.

    2016-01-01

    NWA 856 or Djel Ibone, is a basaltic shergottite discovered as a single stone of 320 g in South Morocco in April, 2001. This meteorite is fresh, i.e. shows minimal terrestrial weathering for a desert find. No shergottite discovered in North Africa can be paired with NWA 856. The purpose of this study is to constrain its crystallization history using textural observations, crystallization sequence modeling and in-situ trace element analysis in order to understand differentiation in shergottite magmatic systems.

  3. The compatibility of basalt and MgO with liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Runge, H.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of commercially available basalt and MgO-ceramics with liquid sodium has been investigated up to 900 0 C. The two basalt qualities even reacted with sodium at low temperatures and short exposure times. Some inserted MgO-ceramics exhibited the expected good sodium compatibility even at 900 0 C for 100 hours. The reaction mechanisms, the volume changes and the mass balance are discussed. In the thermal shock experiments, the basaltic materials were totally disintegrated while the MgO-qualities remained compact. (author)

  4. Moessbauer Studies of Volhynian Basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakun-Czubarow, N.; Milczarski, J.; Galazka-Friedman, J.; Szlachta, K.; Forder, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Volhynian basalts studied belong to the effusive-tuffogenic Volhynian Series (Slawatycze Series in Poland), being the large Ediacaran continental igneous province, that covers an area of 200 000 km 2 in the western margin of East European Craton. The series is underlain by the Cryogenian terrigenous Polesie Series with doleritic sills and dikes. The Volhynian Series consists of the rock beds belonging to the three volcanic cycles with different ratios of flood basalts to pyroclastics. The aim of the study was recognition of primary and secondary Fe-bearing minerals, particularly Fe- and Fe-Ti oxides as well as determination of iron oxidation state, that is an important tool in the search for native copper deposits in these rocks. For Moessbauer studies the following rock samples were chosen: the Polesie Series dolerites, the Volhynian Series basalts from the Ukrainian quarries and drill-holes, e.g. from the Volodymir Volhynskaya drilling hole; the Slawatycze Series basalts from Kaplonosy drill-hole in Poland. In the Kaplonosy basalts the content of magnetite decreases with depth, which may be caused by magma differentiation due to fractional crystallization, when Mg content decreases as Ti and Fe - increases in basic magma. In the Kaplonosy basalts the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio increases with depth, which points to the increase of iron oxidation with the progress of basaltic magma differentiation. (authors)

  5. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  6. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  7. Characterization and Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalt Types Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C.

    1977-01-01

    The types of basal to be found on the moon were identified using reflectance spectra from a variety of lunar mare surfaces and craters as well as geochemical interpretations of laboratory measurements of reflectance from lunar, terrestrial, and meteoritic samples. Findings indicate that major basaltic units are not represented in lunar sample collections. The existence of late stage high titanium basalts is confirmed. All maria contain lateral variations of compositionally heterogenous basalts; some are vertically inhomogenous with distinctly different subsurface composition. Some basalt types are spectrally gradational, suggesting minor variations in composition. Mineral components of unsampled units can be defined if spectra are obtained with sufficient spectral coverage (.3 to 2.5 micron m) and spatial resolution (approximating .5 km).

  8. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  9. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  10. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  11. Basalt-trachybasalt samples in Gale Crater, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Peter H.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Dyar, Darby

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, observed numerous igneous float rocks and conglomerate clasts, reported previously. A new statistical analysis of single-laser-shot spectra of igneous targets observed by ChemCam shows a strong peak at ~55 wt% SiO 2 and 6 wt% total alkalis, with a minor secondary maximum at 47–51 wt% SiO 2 and lower alkali content. The centers of these distributions, together with the rock textures, indicate that many of the ChemCam igneous targets are trachybasalts, Mg# = 27 but with a secondary concentration of basaltic material, with a focus of compositions around Mg# = 54. We suggest that all of these igneous rocks resulted from low-pressure, olivine-dominated fractionation of Adirondack (MER) class-type basalt compositions. This magmatism has subalkaline, tholeiitic affinities. The similarity of the basalt endmember to much of the Gale sediment compositions in the first 1000 sols of the MSL mission suggests that this type of Fe-rich, relatively low-Mg#, olivine tholeiite is the dominant constituent of the Gale catchment that is the source material for the fine-grained sediments in Gale. The similarity to many Gusev igneous compositions suggests that it is a major constituent of ancient Martian magmas, and distinct from the shergottite parental melts thought to be associated with Tharsis and the Northern Lowlands. Finally, the Gale Crater catchment sampled a mixture of this tholeiitic basalt along with alkaline igneous material, together giving some analogies to terrestrial intraplate magmatic provinces.

  12. Determination of Geochemical Bio-Signatures in Mars-Like Basaltic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olsson-Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bio-signatures play a central role in determining whether life existed on early Mars. Using a terrestrial basalt as a compositional analog for the martian surface, we applied a combination of experimental microbiology and thermochemical modeling techniques to identify potential geochemical bio-signatures for life on early Mars. Laboratory experiments were used to determine the short-term effects of biota on the dissolution of terrestrial basalt, and the formation of secondary alteration minerals. The chemoorganoheterotrophic bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain B_33, was grown in a minimal growth medium with and without terrestrial basalt as the sole nutrient source. No growth was detected in the absence of the basalt. In the presence of basalt, during exponential growth, the pH decreased rapidly from pH 7.0 to 3.6 and then gradually increased to a steady-state of equilibrium of between 6.8 and 7.1. Microbial growth coincided with an increase in key elements in the growth medium (Si, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Experimental results were compared with theoretical thermochemical modeling to predict growth of secondary alteration minerals, which can be used as bio-signatures, over a geological timescale. We thermochemically modeled the dissolution of the basalt (in the absence of biota in very dilute brine at 25°C, 1 bar; the pH was buffered by the mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. Preliminary results suggested that at the water to rock ratio of 1 × 107, zeolite, hematite, chlorite, kaolinite, and apatite formed abiotically. The biotic weathering processes were modeled by varying the pH conditions within the model to adjust for biologic influence. The results suggested that, for a basaltic system, the microbially-mediated dissolution of basalt would result in “simpler” secondary alteration, consisting of Fe-hydroxide and kaolinite, under conditions where the abiotic system would also form chlorite. The results from this study demonstrate

  13. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J.; Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D.

    2016-01-01

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  14. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Naoko, E-mail: naoko.sano@ncl.ac.uk; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J. [National EPSRC XPS Users' Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Stephenson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  15. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  16. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  17. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  18. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  19. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  20. Computer simulations of collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contributions of particle computer simulations to the understanding of the physics of magnetic shock waves in collisionless plasmas is presented. The emphasis is on the relation between the computer simulation results, spacecraft observations of shocks in space, and related theories, rather than on technical aspects of the numerics. It is shown that much has been learned from the comparison of ISEE spacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and particle computer simulations concerning the quasi-perpendicular, supercritical shock (ion scale structure, ion reflection mechanism and ultimate dissipation processes). Particle computer simulations have also had an appreciable prospective role in the investigation of the physics of quasi-parallel shocks, about which still little is known observationally. Moreover, these numerical techniques have helped to clarify the process of suprathermal ion rejection by the shock into the foreshock, and the subsequent evolution of the ions in the foreshock. 95 references

  1. Crustal development in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of planetary crusts may be divided into primary, resulting from melting during accretion, and secondary crusts developed by partial melting from planetary mantles. The Mercurian crust is probably primary with no compelling evidence of later basaltic extrusions. Reflectance spectral evidence for the existence Fe2(+) is equivocal. The Viking Lander XRF data on Mars indicate basaltic material at both sites 4,000 km apart. Surface aeolian processes would be expected to provide a homogeneous average of the crust, but no evidence of more siliceous material is present. This conclusion is weakly supported by the Russian gamma ray data. No evidence for granite appears from the Russian Venera XRF data which indicates MORB-type and alkali basalt (4% K2O) surface compositions. The highlands of Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite probably owe their elevation to tectonic processes rather than compositional effects. Venus may thus resemble the early Archean Earth. The terrestrial granitic continental crust is a product of episodic multiple partial melting events, probably a consequence of the presence of surface water.

  2. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  3. Experimental research on continuous basalt fiber and basalt-fibers-reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyi; Zou, Guangping; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2008-11-01

    The interest for continuous basalt fibers and reinforced polymers has recently grown because of its low price and rich natural resource. Basalt fiber was one type of high performance inorganic fibers which were made from natural basalt by the method of melt extraction. This paper discusses basic mechanical properties of basalt fiber. The other work in this paper was to conduct tensile testing of continuous basalt fiber-reinforced polymer rod. Tensile strength and stress-strain curve were obtained in this testing. The strength of rod was fairly equal to rod of E-glass fibers and weaker than rod of carbon fibers. Surface of crack of rod was studied. An investigation of fracture mechanism between matrix and fiber was analyzed by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) method. A poor adhesion between the matrix and fibers was also shown for composites analyzing SEM photos. The promising tensile properties of the presented basalt fibers composites have shown their great potential as alternative classical composites.

  4. Geologic structure of the eastern mare basins. [lunar basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness of mare basalts in the eastern maria are estimated and isopachs of the basalts are constructed. Sub-basalt basin floor topography is determined, and correlations of topographic variations of the surface with variations in basalt thickness or basin floor topography are investigated.

  5. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  7. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Hydrothermal evolution of repository groundwaters in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters in the near field of a radioactive waste repository in basalt will change their chemical composition in response to reactions with the basalt. These reactions will be promoted by the heat generated by the decaying waste. It is important to predict both the rate and the extent of these reactions, and the secondary minerals produced, because the alteration process controls the chemical environment affecting the corrosion of the canister, the solubility and complexation of migrating radionuclides, the reactivity of the alteration products to radionuclides sorption, and the porosity and permeability of the host rock. A comprehensive review of the literature leads to the preliminary finding that hydrothermally altering basalts in geothermal regions such as Iceland lead to a secondary mineralogy and groundwater composition similar to that expected to surround a repository. Furthermore, laboratory experiments replicating the alteration conditions approximate those observed in the field and expected in a repository. Preliminary estimates were made of the rate of hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass and the zero-order dissolution rate of basaltic materials. The rates were compared with those for rhyolitic glasses and silicate minerals. Preliminary calculations made of mixed process alteration kinetics, involving pore diffusion and surface reaction suggest that at temperatures greater than 150 0 C, alteration proceeds so rapidly as to become pervasive in normally fractured basalt exposed to higher temperatures in the field. 70 references

  9. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  10. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    colored type contains 30.9 6 4.2 wt% FeOt and 40.7 6 3.6 wt% SiO2, whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 6 5.9 wt% FeOt and 65.6 6 7.3 wt% SiO2. Similar light colored melt inclusions in olivine and fine grained dark and light colored interstitial pockets also give evidence of crystallization from......Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  11. Shock-induced microdeformations in quartz and other mineralogical indications of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the boundary clay is important for the determination of the timing and processes involved in the impact event and in the assignment and interpretation of geochemical signatures. Multiple sets of shock-induced microdeformations (planar features) in quartz grains separated from KT boundary clays provide compelling evidence of an impact event. This mineralogical manifestation of shock metamorphism is associated worldwide with a large positive anomaly of iridium in these boundary clays, which has also been considered indicative of the impact of a large extraterrestrial body. Global distributions of maximum sizes of shocked quartz grains from the boundary clays and the mineralogy of the ejecta components favor an impact on or near the North American continent. Spinel crystals (magnesioferrite) occur in the boundary clays as micrometer-sized octahedra or skeletal forms. Their composition differs from that of spinels found in terrestrial oceanic basalts. Magnesioferrite crystals are restricted to the high-angle ejecta layer of the boundary clays and their small size and skeletal morphology suggest that they are condensation products of a vaporized bolide. Hollow spherules ranging up to 1 mm in size are ubiquitously associated with the boundary clays. In nonmarine

  12. Tracking Hadean processes in modern basalts with 142-Neodymium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, M. F.; Carlson, R. W.; Walker, R. J.; Jackson, M.; Garçon, M.; Norman, M.

    2018-02-01

    The short-lived 146Sm→142 Nd isotope system (t1/2 = 103 Ma) provides constraints on the timing and processes of terrestrial silicate fractionation during the early Hadean. Although some Archean terranes preserve variability in 142Nd/144Nd, no anomalies have been resolved previously in young rocks. This study provides high precision 142Nd/144Nd data on a suite of ocean island basalts from Samoa and Hawaii previously shown to have variable depletions in 182W/184W that are inversely correlated with 3He/4He ratios. Improved analytical techniques and multiple replicate analyses of Nd show a variation in μ142 Nd values between -1.3 and +2.7 in the suite, relative to the JNdi standard. Given the reproducibility of the standard (±2.9 ppm, 2 SD), two Samoan samples exhibit resolved variability in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios outside of their 95% confidence intervals, suggesting minor variability in the Samoan hotspot. One sample from Samoa has a higher μ142 Nd of +2.7, outside the 95% confidence interval (±1.0 ppm) of the average of the JNdi standard. Limited, but resolved, variation in 142Nd/144Nd within the suite suggests the preservation of early Hadean silicate differentiation in the sources of at least some basalts from Samoa. Larger variations of 182W/184W and 3He/4He ratios in the same samples suggest that metal-silicate separation and mantle outgassing left a more persistent imprint on the accessible mantle compared to 142Nd/144Nd ratios which are impacted by early silicate differentiation.

  13. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  14. Implications of one-year basalt weathering/reactivity study for a basalt repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is testing the performance of the Defense Waste Processing Facility glass under conditions representing potential repository environments. For a basalt repository, one of the important issues is how rapidly reducing conditions are re-established after placement of the waste. The objective of this study was to examine the factors affecting the reactivity of the basalt. Construction of a nuclear waste repository in basalt will temporarily perturb the groundwater conditions, creating more oxidizing (air-saturated) conditions than an undisturbed repository system. Reducing conditions can be beneficial to the performance of waste glass and canisters, and may limit the transport of certain radionuclides. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project intends to use a backfill containing crushed basalt to re-establish the reducing conditions of the groundwater. The reactivity of the basalt has been found to be minimal once the fresh crushed surfaces have been weathered and the reactive intergranular glass component has been leached, e.g., by long-term surface storage. Crushing of the basalt for pneumatic emplacement of the backfill should, therefore, occur shortly before placement in the repository. This backfill must contain a minimum of 5 percent reactive fines (<100 mesh), to rapidly achieve reducing conditions. 23 refs., 21 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  16. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  17. Isotopic signature of Madeira basaltic magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogarko, L.N.; Karpenko, S.F.; Bibikova, E.V.; Mato, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical composition of the basalts of Madeira Island is studied. To assess the isotopic sources of magmatism the Pb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb systems were investigated in a number of basalts. It is shown that the island's rocks are characterized by the mostly deplet sources in relation to Pb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr - 0.70282-0.70292, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd - 0.52303-0.51314). Isotopic composition of lead testifies that the magmatism reservoir is some enriched. It is concluded that the magmatism of Madeira Island is a new example of world ocean island's volcanism [ru

  18. Antifriction basalt-plastics based on polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    A study is made of the dependence of the mechanical and friction-engineering properties of polypropylene reinforced with basalt fibers on the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It is established that the main factors that determine the mechanical properties of the plastics are the quality of impregnation of the fibers by the binder and the residual length of the reinforcing filler in the composite after extrusion and injection molding. The material that was developed has a low friction coefficient and low rate of wear within a relatively brood range of friction conditions. The basalt-plastics can be used in the rubbing parts of machines and mechanisms subjected to dry friction.

  19. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  20. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of basalt fiber.

  1. Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    investigates the use of basalt fibers in a composite along with SC-15 epoxy resin for ballistic protection. Basalt fibers are not known as a ballistic...material but rather as a structural one. Even though basalt fibers are not expected to outperform some of the higher ballistic performing materials...such as the aramid and polyethylene fibers ; however, due to the lower manufacturing costs, basalt fibers are an interesting alternative. The objective

  2. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material

  3. Site identification presentation: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The final step in the site identification process for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is described. The candidate sites are identified. The site identification methodology is presented. The general objectives which must be met in selecting the final site are listed. Considerations used in the screening process are also listed. Summary tables of the guidelines used are included

  4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    I found the GPB lavas to be very interest- ing because in some ... by Venkatesan et al (1993) and thus in a way validates my approach. ... and age calculation of lavas from phenocrysts. Keywords. Deccan Trap; Giant Plagioclase Basalts; eruption duration. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 111, No. 4, December ...

  5. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.

  6. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographic characteristics of basalts collected from a segment of the Carlsberg Ridge (lat. 3 degrees 35'N to 3 degrees 41'N; long. 64 degrees 05'E to 64 degrees 09'E) show typical pillow lava zonations with variable concentrations of plagioclase...

  7. Effects of Basalt Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gelani A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effects of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymers (BFRP on some fundamental mechanical properties of concrete. Basalt fibres are formed by heating crushed basalt rocks and funnelling the molten basalt through a spinneret to form basalt filaments. This type of fibres have not been widely used till recently. Two commercially available chopped basalt fibres products with different aspect ratios were investigated, which are dry basalt (GeoTech Fibre and basalt pre-soaked in an epoxy resin (GeoTech Matrix .The experimental work included compression tests on 96 cylinders made of multiple batches of concrete with varying amounts of basalt fibre additives of the two mentioned types, along with control batches containing no fibres. Furthermore, flexural tests on 24 prisms were carries out to measure the modulus of rupture, in addition to 30 prisms for average residual strength test. Results of the research indicated that use of basalt fibres has insignificant effects on compressive strength of plain concrete, where the increase in strength did not exceed about 5%. On the other hand, results suggest that the use of basalt fibres may increase the compressive strength of concrete containing fly as up top 40%. The rupture strength was increased also by 8% to 28% depending on mix and fibre types and contents. Finally, there was no clear correlation between the average residual strength and ratios of basalt fibres mixed with the different concrete batches.

  8. Geochemical characteristics of the Jos-Plateau Basalts, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jos Plateau basalts, present Zr/Nb ratios (2.4-3.0) comparable to those of the alkali basalts of the lower Benue valley, and of the Cameroon volcanic line, suggesting that they were possibly derived from the same mantle source. Keywords: Jos Plateau, alkali basalt, mantle, partial melting, incompatible elements.

  9. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  10. Petrology of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James; Melchior, John

    1983-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is the southeasternmost active volcano of the Emperor-Hawaii linear volcanic chain. It comprises a spectrum of basalt compositional varieties including basanite, alkali basalt, transitional basalt and tholeiite. Samples from four dredge collections made on Scripps Institution of Oceanography Benthic Expedition in October 1982 are tholeiite. The samples include highly vesicular, olivine-rich basalt and dense glass-rich pillow fragments containing olivine and augite phenocrysts. Both quartz-normative and olivine-normative tholeiites are present. Minor and trace element data indicate relatively high abundances of low partition coefficient elements (e.g., Ti, K, P. Rb, Ba, Zr) and suggest that the samples were derived by relatively small to moderate extent of partial melting, of an undepleted mantle source. Olivine composition, MgO, Cr and Ni abundances, and Mg/(Mg+Fe), are typical of moderately fractionated to relatively unfractionated "primary" magmas. The variations in chemistry between samples cannot be adequately explained by low-pressure fractional crystallization but can be satisfied by minor variations in extent of melting if a homogeneous source is postulated. Alternatively, a heterogeneous source with variable abundances of certain trace elements, or mixing of liquids, may have been involved. Data for 3He/ 4He, presented in a separate paper, implies a mantle plume origin for the helium composition of the Loihi samples. There is little variation in the helium isotope ratio for samples having different compositions and textures. The helium data are not distinctive enough to unequivocally separate the magma sources for the tholeiitic rocks from the other rock types such as Loihi alkalic basalts and the whole source region for Loihi may have a nearly uniform helium compositions even though other element abundances may be variable. Complex petrologic processes including variable melting, fractional crystallization and magma mixing may have blurred

  11. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  12. Basalts of the Khodzhirbulak Suite and Assessment their Feasibility for Basalt Fiber (Surkhantau Mountains, Southwestern Shoots of the Hissar Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khakberdyev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary assessment of basalt of the Khodzhirbulakskoy Suite of Surkhantau Mountains for the basalt fiber production are presented. According to petrographic study, the rocks are described as basalts of amygdaloidal structure. On the base of content of the amount of glassy form and nodular calcite, three groups of basalts were identified. The inverse relationship between the bulk content of the volcanic rock and the content of calcite: the greater volume of volcanic rocks, the less content of calcite, and vice versa. The basalt material demonstrates average pH module of 3.52.

  13. Mass dependent fractionation of stable chromium isotopes in mare basalts: Implications for the formation and the differentiation of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, Pierre; Parkinson, Ian J.; Anand, Mahesh

    2016-02-01

    We present the first stable chromium isotopic data from mare basalts in order to investigate the similarity between the Moon and the Earth's mantle. A double spike technique coupled with MC-ICP-MS measurements was used to analyse 19 mare basalts, comprising high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP-rich varieties. Chromium isotope ratios (δ53Cr) for mare basalts are positively correlated with indices of magmatic differentiation such as Mg# and Cr concentration which suggests that Cr isotopes were fractionated during magmatic differentiation. Modelling of the results provides evidence that spinel and pyroxene are the main phases controlling the Cr isotopic composition during fractional crystallisation. The most evolved samples have the lightest isotopic compositions, complemented by cumulates that are isotopically heavy. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this fractionation: (i) equilibrium fractionation where heavy isotopes are preferentially incorporated into the spinel lattice and (ii) a difference in isotopic composition between Cr2+ and Cr3+ in the melt. However, both processes require magmatic temperatures below 1200 °C for appreciable Cr3+ to be present at the low oxygen fugacities found in the Moon (IW -1 to -2 log units). There is no isotopic difference between the most primitive high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP basalts, which suggest that the sources of these basalts were homogeneous in terms of stable Cr isotopes. The least differentiated sample in our sample set is the low-Ti basalt 12016, characterised by a Cr isotopic composition of -0.222 ± 0.025‰, which is within error of the current BSE value (-0.124 ± 0.101‰). The similarity between the mantles of the Moon and Earth is consistent with a terrestrial origin for a major fraction of the lunar Cr. This similarity also suggests that Cr isotopes were not fractionated by core formation on the Moon.

  14. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  15. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) program as administered by the DOE's Richland Operations Office and Rockwell Hanford Operations is described. The objectives, scope and scientific technologies are discussed. The work breakdown structure of the project includes: project management and support, systems integration, geosciences, hydrology, engineered barriers, test facility design and construction, engineering testing, repository studies, and schedules. The budget of the program including operating and capital cost control is also included

  16. Gamma radiolysis effects on basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma radiolysis of basalt groundwater containing 700 ppM methane produces a milky liquid that is a suspension of fine particles of a high molecular weight hydrocarbon somewhat like polyethylene. The ability of these polymers to chelate with, or otherwise sorb, metal ions from aqueous solution was measured using Cu +2 as a representative cation. Values in the range 0.3 to 0.8 millimoles of Cu per liter of solution were found. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  18. Iron isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Marty, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    The iron isotopic compositions of 93 well-characterized basalts from geochemically and geologically diverse mid-ocean ridge segments, oceanic islands and back arc basins were measured. Forty-three MORBs have homogeneous Fe isotopic composition, with δ56Fe ranging from +0.07‰ to +0.14‰ and an average of +0.105 ± 0.006‰ (2SD/√n, n = 43, MSWD = 1.9). Three back arc basin basalts have similar δ56Fe to MORBs. By contrast, OIBs are slightly heterogeneous with δ56Fe ranging from +0.05‰ to +0.14‰ in samples from Koolau and Loihi, Hawaii, and from +0.09‰ to +0.18‰ in samples from the Society Islands and Cook-Austral chain, French Polynesia. Overall, oceanic basalts are isotopically heavier than mantle peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths, reflecting Fe isotope fractionation during partial melting of the mantle. Iron isotopic variations in OIBs mainly reflect Fe isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene, enhanced by source heterogeneity in Koolau samples.

  19. AEGIS methodology demonstration: case example in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The AEGIS technology has been successfully demonstrated. For the same data, similar unpublished results have been obtained by RHO and INTERA Environmental Consultants, Inc. for contaminant transport. In addition to establishing the utility of computer codes and assessment methodology, the AEGIS technology demonstration in basalt has also produced some practical guidance for future field data gathering programs. The results of this basalt demonstration indicate that the geohydrologic systems separating the nuclear waste from the natural biosphere discharge site mitigate the consequences of the postulated fault intersection event. This analysis suggests that the basalt system satisfies the 1000- and 10,000-yr proposed standards for release to the accessible environment (limited release of 129 I and 14 C). The reader should be cautioned, however, that the results are valid only for one particular set of parameters and one postulated release scenario. A complete sensitivity analysis must be performed to evaluate the range of effects that might be observed under different release conditions and for the different range in parameters

  20. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  1. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  2. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  3. The Impact of Space Flight on Survival and Interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with Basalt, a Volcanic Moon Analog Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Leys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule. Long-term storage had a significant impact on cell physiology and energy status (by flow cytometry analysis, plate count and intracellular ATP measurements as 60% of cells stored on ground lost their cell membrane potential, only 17% were still active, average ATP levels per cell were significantly lower and cultivability dropped to 1%. The cells stored in the presence of basalt and exposed to space flight conditions during storage however showed less dramatic changes in physiology, with only 16% of the cells lost their cell membrane potential and 24% were still active, leading to a higher cultivability (50% and indicating a general positive effect of basalt and space flight on survival. Microbe-mineral interactions and biofilm formation was altered by spaceflight as less biofilm was formed on the basalt during flight conditions. Leaching from basalt also changed (measured with ICP-OES, showing that cells release more copper from basalt and the presence of cells also impacted iron and magnesium concentration irrespective of the presence of basalt. The flight conditions thus could counteract some of the detrimental effects observed after the 3 month storage conditions.

  4. Making rhyolite in a basalt crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, John

    2016-04-01

    Iceland has long attracted the attention of those concerned with the origin of rhyolitic magmas and indeed of granitic continental crust, because it presents no alternative for such magmas other than deriving them from a basaltic source. Hydrothermally altered basalt has been identified as the progenitor. The fact that rhyolite erupts as pure liquid requires a process of melt-crustal separation that is highly efficient despite the high viscosity of rhyolite melt. Volcanoes in Iceland are foci of basaltic magma injection along the divergent plate boundary. Repeated injection produces remelting, digestion, and sometimes expulsion or lateral withdrawal of material resulting in a caldera, a "crucible" holding down-dropped and interlayered lava flows, tephras, and injected sills. Once melting of this charge begins, a great deal of heat is absorbed in the phase change. Just 1% change in crystallinity per degree gives a melt-present body an effective heat capacity >5 times the subsolidus case. Temperature is thus buffered at the solidus and melt composition at rhyolite. Basalt inputs are episodic ("fires") so likely the resulting generation of rhyolite by melting is too. If frequent enough to offset cooling between events, rhyolite melt extractions will accumulate as a rhyolite magma reservoir rather than as discrete crystallized sills. Evidently, such magma bodies can survive multiple firings without themselves erupting, as the 1875 eruption of Askja Caldera of 0.3 km3 of rhyolite equilibrated at 2-km depth without previous leakage over a ten-millennium period and the surprise discovery of rhyolite magma at 2-km depth in Krafla suggest. Water is required for melting; otherwise melting cannot begin at a temperature lower than that of the heat source. Because the solubility of water in melt is pressure-dependent and almost zero at surface pressure, there must be a minimum depth at which basalt-induced melting can occur and a rhyolite reservoir sustained. In practice, the

  5. Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

  6. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe

  7. Magnetostratigraphy of the Grande Ronde Basalt Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, D.R.; Petty, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the holes sampled have shown that there are four magnetic correlation lines, between adjacent flows in holes that have distinctly different mean stratigraphic inclinations, and two magnetic polarity boundaries that can be used for magnetic correlation in the Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin. The results of paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Wanapum Basalt and Saddle Mountains Basalt indicate that the potential for magnetostratigraphic correlation in these sequences is also good

  8. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    OpenAIRE

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna; LKHASARANOV Solbon Aleksandrovich; ROZINA Victoria Yevgenievna; BUYANTUEV Sergey Lubsanovich; BARDAKHANOV Sergey Prokopievich

    2014-01-01

    Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of ba...

  9. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  10. Geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas

  11. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  12. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  13. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  14. Descriptive summary of the Grande Ronde Basalt type section, Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, V.E.; Price, S.M.; Reidel, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Grande Ronde Basalt type section, located in extreme southeastern Washington, was measured, sampled, and characterized. The section is 800 meters thick and is comprised of 35 Grande Ronde Basalt flows. These flows are divisible into 3 magnetostratiographic units termed, in ascending order, the R 1 , the N 1 , and the R 2 . The R 1 unit is represented by 13 reversely polarized flows; the N 1 unit, by 13 normally polarized flows; and the R 2 , by 9 reversely polarized flows. Chemically, the Grande Ronde Basalt flows are divided into 2 major groups, termed A and B. The compositions of the lower 9 flows, members of Group A, are similar to either the high-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type, the high-Ti Grande Ronde chemical type, or the Pomona chemical type. The compositions of the upper 25 flows, members of Group B, are predominantly similar to the low-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type. Petrographically, the Grande Ronde Basalt flows are generally fine grained and aphyric, and have a intergranular or intersertal micro-texture. Major mineral phases include plagioclase (An/sub 40-60/) and augite; minor mineral phases include pigeonite, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, and olivine. Group A flows generally contain more olivine and less pigeonite than do Group B flows. 6 figures, 6 tables

  15. Nitrogen Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Seafloor-Altered Terrestrial Basaltic Glass: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N.R.; Izawa, M.R.M.; Kobayashi, K.; Lazzeri, K.; Ranieri, L.A.; Nakamura, E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Observed enrichments of N (and the δ15N of this N) in volcanic glasses altered on Earth's modern and ancient seafloor are relevant in considerations of modern global N subduction fluxes and ancient life on Earth, and similarly altered glasses on Mars and other extraterrestrial bodies could serve as valuable tracers of biogeochemical processes. Palagonitized glasses and whole-rock samples of volcanic rocks on the modern seafloor (ODP Site 1256D) contain 3–18 ppm N with δ15Nair values of up to +4.5‰. Variably altered glasses from Mesozoic ophiolites (Troodos, Cyprus; Stonyford volcanics, USA) contain 2–53 ppm N with δ15N of −6.3 to +7‰. All of the more altered glasses have N concentrations higher than those of fresh volcanic glass (for MORB, smectite, illite) in both the palagonitized cracks and the microtubules. These phyllosilicates (particularly illite), and possibly also zeolites, are the likely hosts for N in these glasses. Key Words: Nitrogen—Nitrogen isotope—Palagonite—Volcanic glass—Mars. Astrobiology 18, 330–342. PMID:29106312

  16. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  17. Crystal Stratigraphy of Two Basalts from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic Basalt 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium Basalt 65703,9-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five basaltic samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of basaltic samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of basaltic rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare basalts, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine basalts, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.

  18. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  19. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  20. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    1998-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  1. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  2. Preparation of basalt-based glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHOVIL LOGAR

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Local and conventional raw materials–massive basalt from the Vrelo locality on Kopaonik mountain–have been used as starting materials to test their suitability for the production of glass-ceramics. Crystallization phenomena of glasses of the fused basalt rocks were studied by X-ray phase analysis, optical microscopy and other techniques. Various heat treatments were used, and their influences, on controlling the microstructures and properties of the products were studied with the aim of developing high strength glass-ceramic materials. Diopside CaMg(SiO32 and hypersthene ((Mg,FeSiO3 were identifies as the crystalline phases. The final products contained considerable amounts of a glassy phase. The crystalline size was in range of 8–480 mm with plate or needle shape. Microhardness, crashing strength and wears resistence of the glass-ceramics ranged from 6.5–7.5, from 2000–6300 kg/cm2 and from 0.1–0.2 g/cm, respectively.

  3. Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Diane T; Rutherford, Malcolm J; Jacobsen, Steven D; Hauri, Erik H; Saal, Alberto E

    2013-05-14

    Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar basalt composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich basalts on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential.

  4. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  5. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  6. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Numerical simulations of hydrothermal circulation resulting from basalt intrusions in a buried spreading center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A.T.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional, one by two-kilometer section through the seafloor was simulated with a numerical model to investigate coupled fluid and heat flow resulting from basalt intrusions in a buried spreading center. Boundary and initial conditions and physical properties of both sediments and basalt were constrained by field surveys and drilling in the Guaymas Basin, central Gulf of California. Parametric variations in these studies included sediment and basalt permeability, anisotropy in sediment permeability, and the size of heat sources. Faults were introduced through new intrusions both before and after cooling.Background heat input caused fluid convection at velocities ≤ 3 cm a−1 through shallow sediments. Eighty to ninety percent of the heat introduced at the base of the simulations exited through the upper, horizontal surface, even when the vertical boundaries were made permeable to fluid flow. The simulated injection of a 25–50 m thick basalt intrusion at a depth of 250 m resulted in about 10 yr of pore-fluid expulsion through the sea-floor in all cases, leaving the sediments above the intrusions strongly underpressured. A longer period of fluid recharge followed, sometimes accompanied by reductions in total seafloor heat output of 10% in comparison to pre-intrusion values. Additional discharge-recharge events were dispersed chaotically through the duration of the cooling period. These cycles in heat and fluid flow resulted from the response of the simulated system to a thermodynamic shock, the sudden emplacement of a large heat source, and not from mechanical displacement of sediments and pore fluids, which was not simulated.Water/rock mass ratios calculated from numerical simulations are in good agreement with geochemical estimates from materials recovered from the Guaymas Basin, assuming a bulk basalt permeability value of at least 10−17 m2/(10−2 mD). The addition of faults through intrusions and sediments in these simulations did not facilitate

  8. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    glass are conspicuous. The chemical data indicate that the basalts are tholeiitic. Secondary minerals encountered support the view that the basalts are spilitised. Basalts of this area show affinities to both continental and oceanic types especially...

  9. Indexes and parameters of activity in solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, G.S.; Minasyants, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The daily variation of different indexes and parameters of the solar-terrestrial physics at the 23 cycle were considered to find the most important from them for the forecast of geomagnetic activity. The validity of application of the Wolf numbers in quality of the characteristic of solar activity at sunspots is confirmed. The best geo-effective parameter in the arrival of the interplanetary shock from coronal mass ejection to an orbit of the Earth. (author)

  10. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  11. Influence of basalt/groundwater interactions on radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    The work presented here is a partial summary of the experimental results obtained in the Laboratory Analog Program. Two aspects of this effort are (1) the interaction between simulated basaltic groundwater and basalt fissures that were either freshly cleaved or laboratory altered by hydrothermal treatment with the simulated groundwater and (2) the effect of this interaction on radionuclide migration through these basalt fissures. The following conclusions of this study bear heavily on the predicted safety of a basalt repository: Sorption properties of freshly fissured basalt and naturally aged basalt are quite different for different chemical species. Analog experiments predict that aged basalt would be an effective retarder of cesium, but would be much less so for actinide elements. Distribution ratios measured from batch experiments with finely ground rock samples (presenting unaltered rock surfaces) are not a reliable means of predicting radionuclide migration in geological repositories. As the near-repository area is resaturated by groundwater, its ability to retard actinide migration will be degraded with time. Disturbing the natural flow of groundwater through the repository area by constructing and backfilling the repository will modify the composition of groundwater. This modified groundwater is likely to interact with and to modify naturally aged basalt surfaces downstream from the repository

  12. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  13. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  14. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO 3 , which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs 2 MoO 4 , Cs 2 U 2 O 7 ) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO 4 , with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO 4 . Dissolution of β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO 3 .3H 2 O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U 4+ to U 6+ . When diopside (nominally CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) and β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 were hydrothermally reacted, at 300 0 C both UO 2 and UO 3 .3H 2 O were produced. Experiments on SrZrO 3 show it to be an unreactive phase

  15. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be

  16. [Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in Basalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen

    2015-08-01

    Basalt is the raw material of basalt fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of basalt fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.

  17. Basalt alteration and basalt-waste interaction in the Pasco Basin of Washington State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Apps, J.A.; Mouton, C.A.; Corrigan, D.J.; Frisch, C.J.; Shomura, L.K.

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature of the minerals which coat vesicle and fracture surfaces in the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation, simulate the mass transfer which led to their precipitation, and predict the mass transfer associated with the dissolution of spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrographic, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe (EMP) analyses have been made on a series of samples taken from 1100 ft (335.3 m) of core from core hole DC2. Preliminary simulations of the mass transfer associated with basalt dissolution in a thermodynamically closed system have been accomplished. In addition two mass transfer codes have been modified to facilitate data base changes. Thermochemical data for uranium and plutonium have been collected and converted to standard state conditions. These data will be critically evaluated and input to the mass transfer data base in the near future

  18. Geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazierski, P.F.; King, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets

  19. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  20. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  1. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  2. BASALT A: Basaltic Terrains in Idaho and Hawaii as Planetary Analogs for Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott S.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Nawotniak, Shannon E. Kobs; Sehlke, Alexander; Garry, W. Brent; Elphic, Richard C.; Payler, Sam J.; Stevens, Adam H.; Cockell, Charles S.; Brady, Allyson L.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Assessments of field research target regions are described within two notably basaltic geologic provinces as Earth analogs to Mars. Regions within the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho and the Big Island of Hawaii, USA, provinces that represent analogs of present-day and early Mars, respectively, were evaluated on the basis of geologic settings, rock lithology and geochemistry, rock alteration, and climate. Each of these factors provide rationale for the selection of specific targets for field research in five analog target regions: (1) Big Craters and (2) Highway lava flows at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho; and (3) Mauna Ulu low shield, (4) Kilauea Iki lava lake and (5) Kilauea caldera in the Kilauea Volcano summit region and the East Rift Zone of Hawaii. Our evaluation of compositional and textural differences, as well as the effects of syn- and post-eruptive rock alteration, shows that the basaltic terrains in Idaho and Hawaii provide a way to characterize the geology and major geologic substrates that host biological activity of relevance to Mars exploration. This work provides the foundation to better understand the scientific questions related to the habitability of basaltic terrains, the rationale behind selecting analog field targets, and their applicability as analogs to Mars.

  3. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  4. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  5. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  6. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  7. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  8. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  9. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  10. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  11. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  12. The Thickness and Volume of Young Basalts Within Mare Imbrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Chunlai; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Wu, Yunzhao; Lu, Yu; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xunyu

    2018-02-01

    Basaltic volcanism is one of the most important geologic processes of the Moon. Research on the thickness and volume of late-stage basalts of Mare Imbrium helps better understand the source of lunar volcanism and eruption styles. Based on whether apparent flow fronts exist or not, the late-stage basalts within Mare Imbrium were divided into two groups, namely, Upper Eratosthenian basalts (UEm) and Lower Eratosthenian basalts (LEm). Employing the topographic profile analysis method for UEm and the crater excavation technique for LEm, we studied the thickness and distribution of Eratosthenian basalts in Mare Imbrium. For the UEm units, their thicknesses were estimated to be 16-34 (±2) m with several layers of individual lava ( 8-13 m) inside. The estimated thickness of LEm units was 14-45(±1) m, with a trend of reducing thickness from north to south. The measured thickness of late-stage basalts around the Chang'E-3 landing site ( 37 ± 1 m) was quite close to the results acquired by the lunar penetrating radar carried on board the Yutu Rover ( 35 m). The total volume of the late-stage basalts in Mare Imbrium was calculated to be 8,671 (±320) km3, which is 4 times lower than that of Schaber's estimation ( 4 × 104 km3). Our results indicate that the actual volume is much lower than previous estimates of the final stage of the late basaltic eruption of Mare Imbrium. Together, the area flux and transport distance of the lava flows gradually decreased with time. These results suggest that late-stage volcanic evolution of the Moon might be revised.

  13. Simulating the structure of gypsum composites using pulverized basalt waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanov Аleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of simulating the structure of gypsum composite modified with basalt dust waste to make materials and products based on it. Structural simulating of the topological space in gypsum modified composite by optimizing its grain-size composition highly improves its physical and mechanical properties. Strength and density tests have confirmed the results of the simulation. The properties of modified gypsum materials are improved by obtaining of denser particle packing in the presence of hemihydrate of finely dispersed basalt and plasticizer particles in the system, and by engaging basalt waste in the structuring process of modified gypsum stone.

  14. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  15. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-05-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  16. Magnetic Anisotropic Susceptibility Studies on Impact Structures in the Serra Geral Basalt, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, A. P.; MacDonald, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of magnetic properties of shocked basalt are underway for two impact craters in the 132 Ma Serra Geral basalt of southern Brazil: the Vista Alegre crater (25.95°S, 41.69°W) in the state of Paraná, with a diameter of 12.4 km, and the Vargeão crater (26.81°S, 52.17°W) in Santa Catarina, of 9.5 km. Shatter cones and quartz planar deformation features (pdfs) have been found at both structures. Uplifted crater rims and external ejecta deposits have been removed by erosion at both craters. The interior of the Vista Alegre crater contains ejecta fallback deposits, typically reworked and weathered, and basalts of the crater floor are poorly exposed. In contrast, shocked basalts are exposed across the interior of the Vargeão structure, ejecta fallback deposits have been removed by erosion, and a central domal uplift of quartzose strata from beneath the basalt is found. Discounting the possibility of differential erosion rates, these differences might suggest that the Vargeão is the older of the two structures. Laboratory experiments elsewhere have suggested that major axes of the ellipse of anisotropic susceptibility (K1 major; K3 minor) could be aligned with the direction of propagation of the shockwave accompanying impact processes. Insufficient exposures exist at Vista Alegre to test this hypothesis. Oriented samples along a NNW-trending diametral profile across the better exposed Vargeão structure did not show a radial alignment of either K1 or K3 relative to the centre of that structure. In general, the mean susceptibility at Vargeão is lower towards the center; the degree of anisotropy is low (Pjcentral uplift. The shape factor (T) varies considerably (-0.5 (prolate) to +0.7 (oblate)); most magnetofabrics are oblate. Only 3 of 16 sites are prolate, and those are near the crater margin. K3 (minimum) axes are mainly steep, with a mean direction steep and slightly north of the center. K1 (maximum) axes are mainly gently plunging (tendency to preferring

  17. Alfven shock trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  18. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  19. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  20. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using artificial neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.

    method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB), enriched (E-MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) is applied to identify the inherent...

  1. Alteration of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    Textural, mineralogical and compositional characteristics of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean show them to be altered to varying extents through their interaction with the seawater, resulting in the formation of palagonite. The major...

  2. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...

  3. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts.

  4. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  5. Chemical magnetization when determining Thellier paleointensity experiments in oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselebrovskiy, Alexey; Maksimochkin, Valery

    2017-04-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of oceanic basalts selected in the rift zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Red Sea has been explored. Laboratory simulation shows that the thermoremanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) in oceanic basalts may be separated by using Tellier-Coe experiment. It was found that the rate of CRM destruction is about four times lower than the rate of the partial thermoremanent magnetization formation in Thellier cycles. The blocking temperatures spectrum of chemical component shifted toward higher temperatures in comparison with the spectrum of primary thermoremanent magnetization. It was revealed that the contribution of the chemical components in the NRM increases with the age of oceanic basalts determined with the analysis of the anomalous geomagnetic field (AGF) and spreading theory. CRM is less than 10% at the basalts aged 0.2 million years, less than 50% at basalts aged 0.35 million years, from 60 to 80% at basalts aged 1 million years [1]. Geomagnetic field paleointensity (Hpl) has been determined through the remanent magnetization of basalt samples of different ages related to Brunhes, Matuyama and Gauss periods of the geomagnetic field polarity. The value of the Hpl determined by basalts of the southern segment of MAR is ranged from 17.5 to 42.5 A/m, by the Reykjanes Ridge basalts — from 20.3 to 44 A/m, by the Bouvet Ridge basalts — from 21.7 to 34.1 A/m. VADM values calculated from these data are in good agreement with the international paleointensity database [2] and PISO-1500 model [3]. Literature 1. Maksimochkin V., Tselebrovskiy A., (2015) The influence of the chemical magnetization of oceanic basalts on determining the geomagnetic field paleointensity by the thellier method, moscow university physics bulletin, 70(6):566-576, 2. Perrin, M., E. Schnepp, and V. Shcherbakov (1998), Update of the paleointensity database, Eos Trans. AGU, 79, 198. 3. Channell JET, Xuan C, Hodell DA (2009

  6. Diversity of life in ocean floor basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.; Torsvik, V.; Daae, F. L.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Electron microscopy and biomolecular methods have been used to describe and identify microbial communities inhabiting the glassy margins of ocean floor basalts. The investigated samples were collected from a neovolcanic ridge and from older, sediment-covered lava flows in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge at a water depth around 3500 m and an ambient seawater temperature of -0.7°C. Successive stages from incipient microbial colonisation, to well-developed biofilms occur on fracture surfaces in the glassy margins. Observed microbial morphologies are various filamentous, coccoidal, oval, rod-shaped and stalked forms. Etch marks in the fresh glass, with form and size resembling the attached microbes, are common. Precipitation of alteration products around microbes has developed hollow subspherical and filamentous structures. These precipitates are often enriched in Fe and Mn. The presence of branching and twisted stalks that resemble those of the iron-oxidising Gallionella, indicate that reduced iron may be utilised in an energy metabolic process. Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene sequences from microbes present in the rock samples, show that the bacterial population inhabiting these samples cluster within the γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides subdivision of the Bacteria, while the Archaea all belong to the Crenarchaeota kingdom. This microbial population appears to be characteristic for the rock and their closest relatives have previously been reported from cold marine waters in the Arctic and Antarctic, deep-sea sediments and hydrothermal environments.

  7. Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Righetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects, and it is likely to distort when dried and tends to fail under tension due to the presence of cracks, knots, or grain deviation. The proposed repair technique consists of the insertion of BFRP spikes into timber beams to restore the continuity of cracked sections. The experimental efforts deal with the evaluation of the bending strength and deformation properties of 24 timber beams. An artificially simulated cracking was produced by cutting the wood beams in half or notching. The obtained results for the repaired beams were compared with those of solid undamaged and damaged beams, and increases of beam capacity, bending strength and of modulus of elasticity, and analysis of failure modes was discussed. For notched beams, the application of the BFRP spikes was able to restore the original bending capacity of undamaged beams, while only a small part of the original capacity was recovered for beams that were cut in half.

  8. Radiolytic hydrogen production in the subseafloor basaltic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Dzaugis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2 is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium (238U, 235U, thorium (232Th and potassium (40K. To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor basaltic aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 basalt samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise basalt suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered basalt concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events and post-emplacement alteration. In our samples, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor basaltic aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor basalt. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma basement basalt. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG basalt may

  9. Geochemistry of the Potassic Basalts from the Bufumbira Volcanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various basalts are low in SiO2 wt %, Al2O3 wt % and Na2O wt % but high in MgO wt %, TiO2 wt %, CaO wt %, K2O wt % with K2O/Na2O = 1.08 to 2.07. These are potassic belonging to the kamafugite series. Plots discriminate two geochemical trends corresponding to the picritic and clinopyroxene rich basalts.

  10. Mechanical Characterization of Basalt and Glass Fiber Epoxy Composite Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Lapena, Mauro Henrique; Marinucci, Gerson

    2017-01-01

    The application of basalt fibers are possible in many areas thanks to its multiple and good properties. It exhibits excellent resistance to alkalis, similar to glass fiber, at a much lower cost than carbon and aramid fibers. In the present paper, a comparative study on mechanical properties of basalt and E-glass fiber composites was performed. Results of apparent hoop tensile strength test of ring specimens cut from tubes and the interlaminar shear stress (ILSS) test are presented. Tensile te...

  11. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  12. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  14. High alkali-resistant basalt fiber for reinforcing concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, Ya.V.; Gutnikov, S.I.; Manylov, M.S.; Zhukovskaya, E.S.; Lazoryak, B.I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Doping of basalt fiber with ZrSiO 4 increased its alkali resistance. • Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. • Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. • Mechanical properties of fibers were analyzed by a Weibull distribution. • Zirconia doped basalt fibers demonstrate high performance in concrete. - Abstract: Basalt glasses and fibers with zirconia content in the range from 0 to 7 wt% were obtained using ZrSiO 4 as a zirconium source. Weight loss and tensile strength loss of fibers after refluxing in alkali solution were determined. Basalt fiber with 5.7 wt% ZrO 2 had the best alkali resistance properties. Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. It was shown that alkali resistance of zirconia doped basalt fibers is caused by insoluble compounds of Zr 4+ , Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ in corrosion layer. Mechanical properties of initial and leached fibers were evaluated by a Weibull distribution. The properties of basalt fibers with ZrSiO 4 were compared with AR-glass fibers. The performance of concrete with obtained fibers was investigated

  15. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  16. Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Basu, A. R.; Peterson, J.; Misra, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected for this study from the rim of the crater, which is raised about 20 meters above the surrounding plains. For comparison, a Manicouagan maskelynite and an unaltered mid-oceanic ridge basalt with plagioclase laths were also analyzed. Polished thin sections of all these samples were first petrographically studied. The MORB plagioglase as well as the plagioclase from Lonar host-basalts show first order interference colors and distinct multiple lamellar twinning. The Manicouagan maskelynite is isotropic under crossed-polars. The Lonar tektite samples characteristically demonstrate spherules which are identified by their perfectly circular cross-section and isotropic nature. The spherules also contain fragments of the host basalt with plagioclase laths showing lamellar twinning. The groundmass within the spherules shows lath shaped plagioclase grains, most of which show varying degrees of isotropism due to maskelynitization. Raman scattering measurements were performed using the 514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser at an intensity of 40 kW/cm2. An inverted microscope (Nikon TE3000) with 50x objective (NA 0.55) was used for confocal imaging. A holographic notch filter removed residual laser scatter and the Raman scattering was detected by a silicon CCD at -90° C (Princeton Instruments Spec10-400R). Raman spectra were collected from ~250 cm-1 through 2000 cm-1. Raman spectra of crystalline unshocked plagioclase feldspars from the MORB and the Lonar host basalt show strongest peaks at 265 cm-1, 410 cm-1, 510 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1. The results remain the same for different points in a single grain but vary slightly

  17. Reconsolidation of a Context Long-Term Memory in the Terrestrial Snail Requires Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinova, Tatiana H.; Tagirova, Rosa R.; Ismailova, Asja I.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Samarova, Elena I.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.; Balaban, Pavel M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin on contextual memory in the terrestrial snail "Helix." Prior to the training session, the behavioral responses in two contexts were similar. Two days after a session of electric shocks (5 d) in one context only, the context conditioning was observed as the significant…

  18. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  20. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  1. Volcanology and hazards of phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Johanne

    Iceland is one of the most active terrestrial volcanic regions on Earth with an average of more than 20 eruptions per century. Around 80% of all events are tephra generating explosive eruptions, but less than 10 % of all known tephra layers have been mapped. Recent hazard assessment models show...... that the two key parameters for hazard assessment modeling are total grain size distribution (TGSD) and eruptive style. These two parameters have been determined for even fewer eruptive events in Iceland. One of the most hazardous volcanoes in Iceland is Katla and no data set of TGSD or other eruptive...... parameters exist. Katla has not erupted for 99 years, but at least 2 of the 20 eruptions since the settlement of Iceland in 871 have reached Northern Europe as visible tephra fall. These eruptions occurred in 1755 and 1625 and remain enigmatic both in terms of actual size and eruption dynamics. This work...

  2. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik⊥ and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  3. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  4. Complex layering of the Orange Mountain Basalt: New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, John H.; Block, Karin A.; Steiner, Jeffrey C.; Laskowich, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The Orange Mountain Basalt of New Jersey is a Mesozoic formation consisting of three units: a single lower inflated sheet lobe about 70 m thick (OMB1), a middle pillow basalt about 10 to 20 m thick (OMB2), and an upper compound pahoehoe flow about 20 to 40 m thick (OMB3). The Orange Mountain Basalt is part of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Quarry and road-cut exposures of OMB1 near Paterson, New Jersey, display some unusual layering that is the focus of this study. OMB1 exposures displays the typical upper crust, core, and basal crust layers of sheet lobes but throughout the Patterson area also display distinct light gray layers of microvesicular basalt mineralized with albite directly over the basal crust and under the upper crust. The lower microvesicular layer is associated with mega-vesicular diapirs. We propose that the upper and lower microvesicular layers were composed of viscous crust that was suddenly quenched before it could devolatilize immediately before the solidification of the core. During initial cooling, the bottom of the basal layer was mineralized with high concentrations of calcite and albite during a high-temperature hydrothermal event. Subsequent albitization, as well as zeolite, prehnite, and calcite precipitation events, occurred during burial and circulation of basin brine heated by recurring Palisades magmatism below the Orange Mountain Basalt. Some of the events experienced by the Orange Mountain Basalt are unusual and place constraints on the fluid dynamics of thick flood basalt flows in general. The late penetration of vesicular diapirs through the entire thickness of the flow interior constrains its viscosity and solidification history.

  5. Surface oxidization-reduction reactions in Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Yee, A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented which define principal oxidation-reduction reactions expected between ground water and iron in the Umtanum and Cohassett basalt flows of south central Washington. Data include kinetics of aqueous iron speciation, rates of O 2 uptake and nature of oxyhydroxide precipitates. Such data are important in predicting behavior of radionuclides in basalt aquifers including determination of valence states, speciation, solubility, sorption, and coprecipitation on iron oxyhydroxide substrates and colloids. Analyses of the basalt by XPS indicates that ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron on the surface and that the total iron decreases as a function of pH during experimental weathering. Iron oxyhydroxide phases did not form surface coating on basalt surfaces but rather nucleated as separate plases in solution. No significant increases in Cs or Sr sorption were observed with increased weathering of the basalt. Concurrent increases in Fe(II) and decreases in Fe(III) in slightly to moderately acid solutions indicated continued oxidization of ferrous iron in the basalt. At neutral to basic pH, Fe(II) was strongly sorbed onto the basalt surface (Kd = 6.5 x 10 -3 1 x m 2 ) resulting in low dissolved concentrations even under anoxic conditions. The rate of O 2 uptake increased with decreasing pH. Diffusion rates (-- 10 -14 cm 2 x s -1 ), calculated using a one-dimensional analytical model, indicate grain boundary diffusion. Comparisons of Eh values calculated by Pt electrode, dissolved O 2 and Fe(II)/Fe(III) measurements showed considerable divergence, with the ferric-ferrous couple being the preferred method of estimating Eh

  6. Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.

    2017-12-01

    The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock

  7. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  8. Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei

    2017-10-01

    Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.

  9. Stratigraphy of Oceanus Procellarum basalts - Sources and styles of emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1980-01-01

    The basaltic fill of Oceanus Procellarum has been formally subdivided into four lithostratigraphic formations: The Repsold Formation, the Telemann Formation, the Hermann Formation, and the Sharp Formation. The Repsold Formation is composed of high-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.75 + or - 0.05 b.y. and an estimated volume of about 2.1 x 10 to the 5th cu km. This is overlain by the Telemann Formation composed of very low-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.6 + or - 0.2 b.y. and a volume of 4.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The Hermann Formation, composed of intermediate basalts with an estimated age of 3.3 + or - 0.3 b.y., represents the next youngest unit with an estimated volume of 2.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The youngest materials in Procellarum are the medium-to-high-Ti basalts comprising the Sharp Formation with an estimated age of 2.7 + or - 0.7 b.y. and a volume of 1.8 x 10 to the 4th cu km.

  10. Similar microbial communities found on two distant seafloor basalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eSinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust forms two thirds of the Earth’s surface and hosts a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms. While advances have been made in the sedimentary realm, our understanding of the igneous rock portion as a microbial habitat has remained limited. We present the first comparative metagenomic microbial community analysis from ocean floor basalt environments at the Lō’ihi Seamount, Hawai’i, and the East Pacific Rise (EPR (9˚N. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of a total of 43 bacterial and archaeal mono-phyletic groups, dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, as well as Thaumarchaeota. Functional gene analysis suggests that these Thaumarchaeota play an important role in ammonium oxidation on seafloor basalts. In addition to ammonium oxidation, the seafloor basalt habitat reveals a wide spectrum of other metabolic potentials, including CO2 fixation, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation. Basalt communities from Lō’ihi and the EPR show considerable metabolic and phylogenetic overlap down to the genus level despite geographic distance and slightly different seafloor basalt mineralogy.

  11. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  12. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  13. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  14. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  15. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  16. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  17. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  18. Microbial community assembly patterns under incipient conditions in a basaltic soil system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Stegen, J.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Wang, Y.; Chorover, J.; Troch, P. A. A.; Maier, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In sub-surface environments, the biotic components are critically linked to the abiotic processes. However, there is limited understanding of community establishment, functional associations, and community assembly processes of such microbes in sub-surface environments. This study presents the first analysis of microbial signatures in an incipient terrestrial basalt soil system conducted under controlled conditions. A sub-meter scale sampling of a soil mesocosm revealed the contrasting distribution patterns of simple soil parameters such as bulk density and electrical conductivity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene indicated the presence of a total 40 bacterial and archaeal phyla, with high relative abundance of Actinobacteria on the surface and highest abundance of Proteobacteria throughout the system. Community diversity patterns were inferred to be dependent on depth profile and average water content in the system. Predicted functional gene analysis suggested mixotrophy lifestyles with both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms, likelihood of a unique salt tolerant methanogenic pathway with links to novel Euryarchea, signatures of an incomplete nitrogen cycle, and predicted enzymes of extracellular iron (II) to iron (III) conversion followed by intracellular uptake, transport and regulation. Null modeling revealed microbial community assembly was predominantly governed by variable selection, but the influence of the variable selection did not show systematic spatial structure. The presence of significant heterogeneity in predicted functions and ecologically deterministic shifts in community composition in a homogeneous incipient basalt highlights the complexity exhibited by microorganisms even in the simplest of environmental systems. This presents an opportunity to further develop our understanding of how microbial communities establish, evolve, impact, and respond in sub-surface environments.

  19. VLF emissions in the Venus foreshock - Comparison with terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. K.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of ELF/VLF emissions observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus shock, for the 100 Hz-30 kHz range, using data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter's electric field detector and magnetometer instruments. Detailed comparisons are made with terrestrial measurements for both the electron and ion foreshocks. The results obtained support the Crawford et al. (1990) identification of the Venus electron foreshock emissions as electron plasma oscillations, whose waves are generated in situ and act to isotropize the electron distributions.

  20. Terrestrial Analogs for Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H; Morris, Richard V.; Bristow, Thomas; Ming, Douglas W.; Achillies, Cherie; Bish, David L.; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Chipera, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediments of the Sheepbed unit, Gale Crater, were analyzed by the CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument on the Curiosity Rover. The sediments consist of typical basalt minerals (Fe-forsterite, augite, pigeonite, plagioclase), as well as Fe oxide/hydroxides, Fesulfides, amorphous material, and a phyllosilicate. The phyllosilicate has a broad 001 peak at approx 1.0 nm, consistent with a poorly ordered smectite. However, in the absence of diagnostic tests possible on Earth, its identity is not clear. The position of the 06L diffraction band is generally used to distinguish dioctahedral from trioctahedral smectite, but it is beyond CheMin's range of 2 Theta. The measured position of the 02L diffraction band (approx 22.5deg 2 Theta by CheMin), implies that the smectite is trioctahedral. The exact position and shape of the 02L band is determined by the cations in the 'M' sites of the smectite; to constrain those cations, we sought analogs among terrestrial smectites, emphasizing those developed from basaltic precursors. A potential analog for the Sheepbed smectite is 'griffithite,' a variety of trioctahedral smectite in altered basalt of the Topanga formation, Griffith Park, Los Angeles. 'Griffithite' has an 02L diffraction band that is close in position and shape to that of the Sheepbed smectite, although 'griffithite' has a very sharp 001 peak, indicating a high degree of layer ordering not seen in the Sheepbed smectite. A typical chemical formula for 'griffithite,' determined by electron microprobe, is (Ca0.59 Na0.03) (Mg4.28 Fe1.83) (Si6.64 Al1.36) O20 (OH)4, normalized to Si+Al=8. This formula is consistent with a fully trioctahedral Fe-Mg smectite with Ca and Na as interlayer cations. In the Topanga basalt, four types of 'griffithite' are present: fine-grained, filling cracks and vesicles; coarse-grained, filling vesicles; coarse-grained, replacing olivine phenocrysts; and coarse-grained, replacing glassy mesostasis. The fine-grained 'griffithite' formed first, and

  1. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  2. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  3. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  4. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmisciano, Salvatore; Rosa, Igor Maria De; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tamburrano, Alessio; Valente, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of basalt and E-glass woven fabric reinforced composites was performed. The fabrics were characterized by the same weave pattern and the laminates tested by the same fiber volume fraction. Results of the flexural and interlaminar characterization are reported. Basalt fiber composites showed higher flexural modulus and apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in comparison with E-glass ones but also a lower flexural strength and similar electrical properties. With this fiber volume fraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces enabled a better understanding both of the failure modes involved and of points of concern. Nevertheless, the results of this study seem promising in view of a full exploitation of basalt fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMCs).

  5. Corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Cheol; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This experiment has examined the corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials. There were slight changes of weight after the occurring of corrosion based on time and H2SO4 concentration, but in general, the weight increased. It is assumed that this happens due to the basalt fiber precipitate. Prior to the corrosion, friction-wear behavior showed irregular patterns compared to metallic materials, and when it was compared with the behavior after the corrosion, the coefficient of friction was 2 to 3 times greater. The coefficient of friction of all test specimen ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. Such a result has proven that the basalt fiber, similar to the resin rubber, shows regular patterns regardless of time and H2SO4 concentration because of the space made between resins and reinforced materials.

  6. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  7. What Should the FeO Content of a Terrestrial Planet Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Basalts from the Earth, the Moon, Mars, and Vesta are strongly depleted in elements that prefer to reside in the metallic state (siderophile elements). Therefore, it is believed that all these bodies have metallic cores. We do not yet have siderophile element analyses of venusian or mercurian basalts, but we assume that Venus, too, as a terrestrial planet, has a metallic core. For the Earth, Moon, Mercury, and Mars, the moments-of-inertia of these bodies are consistent with metallic cores of various sizes. Because Venus rotates so slowly, it may be difficult to determine the moment-of-inertia of Venus in order to confirm this assumption. However, despite many possible complexities, it seems likely that most of the major and minor terrestrial planets have experienced some sort of metal/silicate equilibration, and we will use this as a boundary condition. One immediate contrast between the Earth and Moon is the difference in FeO content between lunar and terrestrial basalts. Both bodies presumably formed near 1 AU and formed from the same feeding zone of planetesimals, judging by their oxygen isotopes [13]. If, for example, the Moon formed from the Earth by a giant impact, then this event must have occurred before high-pressure equilibria had the opportunity to deplete the Earth s mantle in FeO. Alternatively, the bulk silicate Moon may be dominated by material from the impactor. Regardless, it would be useful to know the pressures where FeO incorporation into a metallic core is not of interest. If the Giant Impact hypothesis is correct, this should set an upper limit for the size of the proto-Earth at the time of the impact.

  8. On causal links between flood basalts and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V.; Jaupart, C.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Besse, J.

    1999-03-01

    Temporal coincidence between continental flood basalts and breakup has been noted for almost three decades. Eight major continental flood basalts have been produced over the last 300 Ma. The most recent, the Ethiopian traps, erupted in about 1 Myr at 30 Ma. Rifting in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and possibly East African rift started at about the same time. A second trap-like episode occurred around 2 Ma and formation of true oceanic crust is due in the next few Myr. We find similar relationships for the 60 Ma Greenland traps and opening of the North Atlantic, 65 Ma Deccan traps and opening of the NW Indian Ocean, 132 Ma Parana traps and South Atlantic, 184 Ma Karoo traps and SW Indian Ocean, and 200 Ma Central Atlantic Margin flood basalts and opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The 250 Ma Siberian and 258 Ma Emeishan traps seem to correlate with major, if aborted, phases of rifting. Rifting asymmetry, apparent triple junctions and rift propagation (towards the flood basalt area) are common features that may, together with the relative timings of flood basalt, seaward dipping reflector and oceanic crust production, depend on a number of plume- and lithosphere- related factors. We propose a mixed scenario of `active/passive' rifting to account for these observations. In all cases, an active component (a plume and resulting flood basalt) is a pre-requisite for the breakup of a major oceanic basin. But rifting must be allowed by plate-boundary forces and is influenced by pre-existing heterogeneities in lithospheric structure. The best example is the Atlantic Ocean, whose large-scale geometry with three large basins was imposed by the impact points of three mantle plumes.

  9. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/l Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to 10 -6 mol/l and 8 x 10 -7 mol/l under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 references, 6 figures

  10. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee)

    1984-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/L Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to approx. 10 -6 mol/L and 8 x 10 -7 mol/L under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  12. Distribution and stratigraphy of basaltic units in Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis: A Clementine perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmon, D.; Spudis, P.

    2004-01-01

    Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis have been mapped based on Clementine image mosaics and derived iron and titanium maps. Impact craters served as stratigraphic probes enabling better delineation of compositionally different basaltic units, determining the distribution of subsurface basalts, and providing estimates of total basalt thickness and the thickness of the surface units. Collected data indicate that volcanism in these maria started with the eruption of low-Ti basalts and evolved toward medium- and high-Ti basalts. Some of the high-Ti basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis began erupting early and were contemporaneous with the low- and medium-Ti basalts; these units form the oldest units exposed on the mare surface. Mare Tranquillitatis is mostly covered with high- Ti basalts. In Mare Fecunditatis, the volume of erupting basalts clearly decreased as the Ti content increased, and the high-Ti basalts occur as a few patches on the mare surface. The basalt in both maria is on the order of several hundred meters thick and locally may be as thick as 1600 m. The new basalt thickness estimates generally fall within the range set by earlier studies, although locally differ. The medium- to high-Ti basalts exposed at the surfaces of both maria are meters to tens of meters thick.

  13. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  14. Feasibility of storing radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968 Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company initiated a study to assess the feasibility of final geologic storage of Hanford defense, radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in the Columbia River flood basalts. The project, which included geologic studies, hydrologic tests, heat flow analysis, compatibility analysis, and tectonic studies, was suspended in 1972 before completion of interpretive work. In 1976 the interpretation and documentation were completed. These data may be valuable in qualifying the Columbia River flood basalts as a viable medium for final geologic storage of commercial radioactive waste. The findings to date are summarized, and the proposed future work is presented

  15. Friction Joint Between Basalt-Reinforced Composite and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Glejbøl, Kristian; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing the frictio......The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing...

  16. Experimental Alteration of Basalt to Support Interpretation of Remote Sensing and In Situ Meausrements from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Major occurrences of hydrous alteration minerals on Mars have been found in Noachian impact craters formed in basaltic targets and detected using visible/near infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy. Until recently phyllosilicates were detected only in craters in the southern hemisphere [1, 2]. However, it has been reported that at least nine craters in the northern plains apparently excavated thick layers of lava and sediment to expose phyllosilicates [3] as well. The MER (Mars Exploration Rovers) rovers previously reported results of in situ measurement indicating the presence of alteration minerals on Mars [4,5] and it was recently reported that the Mars Curiosity rover has detected alteration phases in situ at Yellowknife Bay in Gale crater as well [6,7]. An important discovery for Mars geochronology is that the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument on Curiosity detected phyllosilicates indicating that phyllosilicate formation on Mars extended beyond the Noachian Epoch [8]. These discoveries indicate that Mars was globally altered by water in the past but does not constrain formation conditions for alteration phase occurrences, which have important implications for the evolution of the surface and the biological potential on Mars. Understanding the alteration assemblages produced by a range of conditions is vital for the interpretation of phyllosilicate spectral signatures as well as in situ measurements and to decipher the environment and evolution of early Mars. The martian surface has been intensely altered by meteorite impacts whose effects include brecciation and melting of target materials as well as the initiation of hydrothermal circulation in a hydrous target [9,10,11,12]. Impact effects may facilitate aqueous alteration of a basaltic target because the rate of silicate dissolution is a function of the degree of crystallinity, surface area, and temperature. The resultant alteration mineralogies from shocked basaltic target material

  17. Collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  18. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  19. Shocks near Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  20. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  1. Shock formation of HCO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  2. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1976-11-01

    Volume II comprises four appendices: analytical data and sample locations for basalt flow type localities; Analytical data and sample locations for measured field sections in Yakima basalts; core hole lithology and analytical data; and geophysical logs. (LK)

  3. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Mourya, B.S.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Meena, R.M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral...

  4. Petrographical indicators of petrogenesis: Examples from Central Indian Ocean Basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographical features of the Central Indian Basin (CIOB) basalts were studied to understand their genetic significance. The fresh basaltic pillows show three textural zones from the top glassy (zone A) through the intermediate (zone B...

  5. Use of solar power for the production of basalt-based mineral fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D. D.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Tokunov, S. G.; Kim, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining basalt mineral fibers using concentrating solar power and melt-quench technique is shown. The microstructure and physicochemical properties of basalt fibers are analyzed. (author)

  6. Deep Basalt Aquifers in Orcus Patera, Elysium Basin Mars: Perspectives for Exobiology Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Direct indicators of shorelines, spillways, and terraces allowed to determine the extent of the Elysium Paleolake between the contour-lines 1000 and 500 m below the Martian datum. The Elysium Paleolake is bordered north by Orcus Patera (14N/181W), which lies west of the Tartarus Montes and Tartarus Colles. The Orcus Patera displays an ellipse-shaped collapsed caldera of 360-km long and 100-km wide. Viking topographic data show that the bottom of the caldera is located at 2500 below the Martian datum, and surrounded by a steep-walled ram art which crest is located at about 0 m elevation. Considering the localization of Orcus Patera in the Elysium paleolake, its altimetry, and the magmatic origin of this caldera, we propose the existence of a paleolake in Orcus Patera generated (a) by juvenile water from magma during the Noachian period, and (b) by intermittent influx of the Elysium Basin from Hesperian to Amazonian. Results are encouraging to consider this site as a potential high-energy source environment for microbial communities. are circumscribed by a 50-km wide lava field mapped as Noachian material. The structure of Orcus Patera represents the record of material erupted from a magmatic reservoir. The caldera is enclosed by steep inner walls (25% measured from topographic data), values which could be in agreement with the presence of a deep magmatic reservoir, as suggested by the typology of Crumpler et.al. The depth of the caldera might be due to the collapse of the magma reservoir, and the release of gases accompanying the magma thermal evolution. Origins of water for the paleolake(s): The water that generated a paleolake in Orcus Patera may have come from two origins: (1) Juvenile water: Plescia and Crips estimated a magma H20 content by weight between 0.5% and 1.5% using for the first value a comparison with terrestrial basalt, and for the second values from a Martian meteorite. The amount of H20 can be estimated by the volume of erupted lava, and the lava

  7. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  8. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang

    2015-01-01

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber?s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then th...

  9. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  10. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  11. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  12. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  13. Flame-resistant pure and hybrid woven fabrics from basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshaid, H.; Mishra, R.; Militky, J.

    2017-10-01

    This work has been formulated to investigate the burning behavior of different type of fabrics. The main concentration is to see how long the fabric resists after it catches the fire and the propagation of fire can be reduced by using flame resistant fiber i.e basalt. Basalt fiber is an environmental friendly material with low input, high output, low energy consumption and less emission. The goal of present investigations is to show the dependence of fabric flammability on its structure parameters i.e weave type, blend type etc. Fabric weaves have strong effect on flammability properties. Plain weave has the lowest burning rate as the density of the plain weave fabric is more and the structure is tight which gives less chances of flame passing through the fabric. Thermal stability is evaluated with TGA of all hybrid and nonhybrid fabrics and compared. The thermal stability of the basalt fiber is excellent. When comparing thermal analysis curves for hybrid samples it demonstrates that thermal stability of the samples containing basalt is much higher than the non- hybrid samples. Percentage weight loss is less in hybrid samples as compared to non-hybrid samples. The effectiveness of hybridization on samples may be indicated by substantial lowering of the decomposition mass. Correlation was made between flammability with the infrared radiations (IR)

  14. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  15. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test

  16. Genetic aspects of basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    of the CR rocks are sparse. The bulk chemical, mineral chemical and ore mineralization aspects of the dredged basalts from a segment of the CR (at 3°37¢N, 64°57¢E) are synthesized to indicate the influence of fractional crystallization coupled with magma...

  17. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  18. Petrology of spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Liri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Al2O3), and Al-rich spinel occur in alkali basalts from Liri, South of the ... these spinel lherzolite xenoliths are reported, along with the analyses of ...... erupted in the Liri region. .... and temperatures with controlled activities of water, carbon.

  19. Petrography and chemistry of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    interior through a variolitic zone. The silica-alkalies relation show these basalts to be of sub-alkaline nature. Variable normative compositions and Mg number, increase in alkali index, differences in Al2O3/CaO and FeO/MgO ratios, variable trace element...

  20. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Swaidani Aref M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction. Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289 and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260 have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida’a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  1. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This project is aimed at examining the feasibility and providing the technology to design and construct a radwaste repository in basalt formations beneath and within the Hanford Site. The project is divided into seven areas: systems integration, geosciences, hydrologic studies, engineered barriers, near-surface test facility, engineering testing, and repository engineering. This annual report summarizes key investigations in these seven areas

  2. Evaluation of basalt flows as a waste isolation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Activities in basalt waste isolation programs in the Columbia River basin are reported. Work during the period is summarized for the overall program which is divided into systems integration, geology, hydrology, engineered barriers studies, engineering testing, and the construction of a near-surface test facility

  3. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the ~52–50 Ma Vastan lignite sequence, western India: Implication for Early Eocene MORB volcanism offshore Arabian Sea. Sarajit Sensarma Hukam Singh R S Rana Debajyoti Paul ...

  4. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...

  5. Hydrologic testing methodology and results from deep basalt boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A.; Jackson, R.L.; Pidcoe, W.W.

    1982-05-01

    The objective of the hydrologic field-testing program is to provide data for characterization of the groundwater systems wihin the Pasco Basin that are significant to understanding waste isolation. The effort is directed toward characterizing the areal and vertical distributions of hydraulic head, hydraulic properties, and hydrochemistry. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. These models are then used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. The groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site and surrounding area consists of a thick, accordantly layered sequence of basalt flows and associated sedimentary interbed that primarily occur in the upper part of the Columbia River basalt. Permeable horizons of the sequence are associated with the interbeds and the interflow zones within the basalt. The columnar interiors of a flow act as low-permeability aquitards, separating the more-permeable interflows or interbeds. This paper discusses the hydrologic field-gathering activities, specifically, field-testing methodology and test results from deep basalt boreholes

  6. Heat resistance study of basalt fiber material via mechanical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Jia, C.; Meng, L.; Li, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the fracture strength of basalt rovings and temperature. Strong stretching performance of the rovings has been tested after the treatment at fixed temperatures but different heating time and then the fracture strength of the rovings exposed to the heating at different temperatures and cooled in different modes investigated. Finally, the fracture strength of the basalt material after the heat treatment was studied. The results showed that the room-temperature strength tends to decrease with an increase of the heat treatment time at 250 °C, but it has the local maximum after 2h heating. And the basalt rovings strength increased after the heat treatment up to 200 °C. It was 16.7 percent higher than the original strength. The strength depends not only on the temperature and duration of the heating, but also on the cooling mode. The value of the strength measured after cold water cooling was less by 6.3% compared with an ambient air cooling mode. The room-temperature breaking strength of the rovings heated at 200 °C and 100 °C for 2 hours each increased by about 14.6% with respect to unpretreated basalt rovings.

  7. Depleted basaltic lavas from the proto-Iceland plume, Central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Baker, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    New geochemical and isotopic data are presented for volumetrically minor, depleted low-Ti basalts that occur in the Plateau Basalt succession of central East Greenland (CEG), formed during the initial stages of opening of the North Atlantic at 55 Ma. The basalts have MORB-like geochemistry (e.g. ...

  8. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  9. Behaviour of rare earth elements, as natural analogues of transuranium elements, during weathering of basaltic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daux, V.; Crovisier, J.L.; Petit, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Subglacial basaltic glasses from Iceland have been studied in order to investigate REE behaviour low-temperature weathering. Just as actinides accumulate in the hydrated superficial corrosion layer of borosilicate glasses, REEs are found to be enriched in the natural corrosion layer of basaltic glasses (palagonite). However, this enrichment is only relative for basaltic glasses [fr

  10. Comparison of three methods for the estimation of cross-shock electric potential using Cluster data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cluster four point measurements provide a comprehensive dataset for the separation of temporal and spatial variations, which is crucial for the calculation of the cross shock electrostatic potential using electric field measurements. While Cluster is probably the most suited among present and past spacecraft missions to provide such a separation at the terrestrial bow shock, it is far from ideal for a study of the cross shock potential, since only 2 components of the electric field are measured in the spacecraft spin plane. The present paper is devoted to the comparison of 3 different techniques that can be used to estimate the potential with this limitation. The first technique is the estimate taking only into account the projection of the measured components onto the shock normal. The second uses the ideal MHD condition E·B = 0 to estimate the third electric field component. The last method is based on the structure of the electric field in the Normal Incidence Frame (NIF for which only the potential component along the shock normal and the motional electric field exist. All 3 approaches are used to estimate the potential for a single crossing of the terrestrial bow shock that took place on the 31 March 2001. Surprisingly all three methods lead to the same order of magnitude for the cross shock potential. It is argued that the third method must lead to more reliable results. The effect of the shock normal inaccuracy is investigated for this particular shock crossing. The resulting electrostatic potential appears too high in comparison with the theoretical results for low Mach number shocks. This shows the variability of the potential, interpreted in the frame of the non-stationary shock model.

  11. Technology shocks matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  12. The geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: Two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazierski, Paul F.; King, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets.

  13. Derivation of intermediate to silicic magma from the basalt analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site, Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Geochemical modeling using the basalt composition analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site indicates that intermediate to silicic liquids can be generated by fractional crystallization and equilibrium partial melting. Fractional crystallization modeling using variable pressures (0.01 GPa to 0.5 GPa) and relative oxidation states (FMQ 0 and FMQ -1) of either a wet (H2O = 0.5 wt%) or dry (H2O = 0 wt%) parental magma can yield silicic (SiO2 > 60 wt%) compositions that are similar to terrestrial ferroan rhyolite. Hydrous (H2O = 0.5 wt%) partial melting can yield intermediate (trachyandesite to andesite) to silicic (trachydacite) compositions at all pressures but requires relatively high temperatures (≥ 950°C) to generate the initial melt at intermediate to low pressure whereas at high pressure (0.5 GPa) the first melts will be generated at much lower temperatures (< 800°C). Anhydrous partial melt modeling yielded mafic (basaltic andesite) and alkaline compositions (trachybasalt) but the temperature required to produce the first liquid is very high (≥ 1130°C). Consequently, anhydrous partial melting is an unlikely process to generate derivative liquids. The modeling results indicate that, under certain conditions, the Vega 2 composition can generate silicic liquids that produce granitic and rhyolitic rocks. The implication is that silicic igneous rocks may form a small but important component of the northeast Aphrodite Terra.

  14. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  15. Material Evidence for Ocean Impact from Shock-Metamorphic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Continental impact reveals an excavated crater that has few fresh fine ejecta showing major high shock metamorphism due to weathering [1]. A giant ocean impact rarely remains as an excavated crater mainly due to crushing by dynamic plate-tectonic movements on the crust [2]. However, all impact materials, including fine-grained ejecta, can be obtained with artificial impact experiments [3]. The purpose of this study is to discuss material evidence for ocean impact based on shock-metamorphic experiments. Artificial impact experiments indicate that fine shocked quartz (SQ) aggregates can be formed on several target rocks (Table 1) [1]. It is found in Table 1 that (1) the largest-density deviation of SQ grain is found not at the wall-rock or the impact crater but at fine-grained ejecta, and (2) silica-poor rocks of basalt, gabbro, and anorthosite can also make fine SQ aggregates by impact. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows formations of fine shocked quartz aggregates from ocean-floor rocks of basalt, gabbroic anorthosite, and granite [3]. An asteroid (about 10 km across) hits the Earth ~65 m.y. ago [4] to result in global catastrophe by titanic explosion and climate change. But shocked quartz grains found in the K/T boundary layer were considered to come from crystalline continental rocks [5]. The present result as listed in Table 1 indicates that fine SQ aggregates can also be formed at sea-floor basaltic and gabbroic rocks [3]. The present result of formation of the SQ grains from sea- floor target rocks is nearly consistent with the finding of a sea-impact crater at the K/T boundary near the Caribbean [6]. Impact-induced volcanism at the K/T boundary can explained by the penetration from thin ocean crust to upper mantle reservoirs, if giant impact of a 10-km- diameter asteroid hit the ocean [2,7]. The present result can explain "phreatomagmatic (magmatic vapor) explosion," which is created by abrupt boiling between high-temperature magma and cold

  16. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  17. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  18. Miocene Basaltic Lava Flows and Dikes of the Intervening Area Between Picture Gorge and Steens Basalt of the CRBG, Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E. B.; Streck, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mid-Miocene basaltic lavas and dikes are exposed in the area between the southern extent of the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB) and the northern extent of Steens Basalt in a wide corridor of the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon. An approximate mid-Miocene age of sampled basaltic units is indicated by stratigraphic relationships to the 16 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff. Lavas provide an opportunity to extend and/or revise distribution areas of either CRBG unit and explore the petrologic transition between them. The PGB and the Steens Basalt largely represent geochemically distinct tholeiitic units of the CRBG; although each unit displays internal complexity. Lavas of PGB are relatively primitive (MgO 5-9 wt.%) while Steens Basalt ranges in MgO from >9 to 3 wt.% but both units are commonly coarsely porphyritic. Conversely, Steens Basalt compositions are on average more enriched in highly incompatible elements (e.g. Rb, Th) and relatively enriched in the lesser incompatible elements (e.g. Y, Yb) compared to the Picture Gorge basalts. These compositional signatures produce inclined and flat patterns on mantle-normalized incompatible trace element plots but with similar troughs and spikes, respectively. New compositional data from our study area indicate basaltic lavas can be assigned as PGB lava flows and dikes, and also to a compositional group chemically distinct between Steens Basalt and PGB. Distribution of lava flows with PGB composition extend this CRBG unit significantly south/southeast closing the exposure gap between PGB and Steens Basalt. We await data that match Steens Basalt compositions but basaltic lavas with petrographic features akin to Steens Basalt have been identified in the study area. Lavas of the transitional unit share characteristics with Upper Steens and Picture Gorge basalt types, but identify a new seemingly unique composition. This composition is slightly more depleted in the lesser incompatible elements (i.e. steeper pattern) on mantle normalized

  19. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  20. Surface modification of basalt with silane coupling agent on asphalt mixture moisture damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yahong; Fang, Ying; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yinhui; Li, Wensheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yuan, Jianmin [College of Materials Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tan, Ligang [College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Shuangyin [State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wu, Zhenjun, E-mail: wooawt@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on KH570. • Basalt surface was modified using the new silane coupling agent. • Chemical bond between basalt and the new silane coupling agent was formed. • Asphalt mixture which used modified basalt show superior water stability. - Abstract: A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on γ-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH570). The surface of basalt rocks was modified by KH570 and the new silane coupling agent (NSCA), and the interfacial interaction between silane coupling agent and basalt was also studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the silane coupling agent molecule bound strongly with basalt rocks. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that a thin layer of coupling agent was formed on the surface of modified basalt. The boiling test and immersion Marshall test confirmed that the moisture sensitivity of basalt modified with the new silane coupling agent increased more significantly than that untreated and treated with KH570. The Retained Marshall Strength of basalt modified with the new coupling agent increased from 71.74% to 87.79% compared with untreated basalt. The results indicated that the new silane coupling agent played an important role in improving the interfacial performance between basalt and asphalt.

  1. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi, H.; Zamani, H.

    2010-06-01

    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1). Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2). Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3). Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4). Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one material with

  2. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1. Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2. Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3. Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4. Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one

  3. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  4. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  5. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  6. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  7. Shocks in fragile matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  8. Quantifying the Effects of Spatial Uncertainty in Fracture Permeability on CO2 Leakage through Columbia River Basalt Flow Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierzynski, A.; Pollyea, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that continental flood basalts may be suitable for geologic carbon sequestration, due to fluid-rock reactions that mineralize injected CO2 on relatively short time-scales. Flood basalts also possess a morphological structure conducive to injection, with alternating high-permeability (flow margin) and low-permeability (flow interior) layers. However, little information exists on the behavior of CO2 migration within field-scale fracture networks, particularly within flow interiors and at conditions near the critical point for CO2. In this study, numerical simulation is used to investigate the influence of fracture permeability uncertainty during gravity-driven CO2 migration within a jointed basalt flow interior as CO2 undergoes phase change from supercritical fluid to a subcritical phase. The model domain comprises a 2D fracture network mapped with terrestrial LiDAR scans of Columbia River Basalt acquired near Starbuck, WA. The model domain is 5 m × 5 m with bimodal heterogeneity (fracture and matrix), and initial conditions corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure gradient between 750 and 755 m depth. Under these conditions, the critical point for CO2 occurs 1.5 m above the bottom of the domain. For this model scenario, CO2 enters the base of the fracture network at 0.5 MPa overpressure, and matrix permeability is assumed constant. Fracture permeability follows a lognormal distribution on the basis of fracture aperture values from literature. In order to account for spatial uncertainty, the lognormal fracture permeability distribution is randomly located in the model domain and CO2 migration is simulated within the same fracture network for 50 equally probable realizations. Model results suggest that fracture connectivity, which is independent of permeability distribution, governs the path taken by buoyant CO2 as it rises through the flow interior; however, the permeability distribution strongly governs the CO2 flux magnitude. In particular

  9. Structure of oblique subcritical bow shocks: ISEE 1 and 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellott, M.M.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the structural elements, including shock ramps and precursor wave trains, of a series of oblique low-Mach number terrestrial bow shocks. We used magnetic field data from the dual ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft to determine the scale lengths of various elements of shock structure as well as wavelengths and wave polarizations. Bow shocks structure under these conditions is esstentially that of a large-amplitude damped whistler mode wave which extends upstream in the form of a precursor wave train. Shock thicknesses, which are determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma, are too broad to support current-driven electrostatic waves, ruling out such turbulence as the source of dissipation in these shocks. Dissipative processes are reflected in the damping of the precursors, and dissipative scale lengths are approx.200--800 km (several times greater than shock thicknesses). Precursor damping is not related to shock normal angle or Mach number, but is correlated with T/sub e//T/sub t/. The source of the dissipation in the shocks does not appear to be wave-wave decay of the whistlers, for which no evidence is found. We cannot rule out the possibility of contribution to the dissipation from ion acoustic and, or lower hybrid mode turbulence, but interaction of the whistler itself with upstream electrons offers a simpler and more self-consistent explanation for the observed wave train damping

  10. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  11. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  12. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  13. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Des Marias, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Milam, K.A.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; De Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain ???25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mo??ssbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  14. Petrogeochemistry of Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoguang; Li Ziying; Wei Sanyuan; Qi Da'neng

    2009-01-01

    Through the discussion on petrogeochemistry of Later Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan Basin in Manzhouli area, combined with field observation and the predecessors' study, its magma evolution,genesis and diagenetic structural environment are discussed, and some suggestion are provided for the further work. Basaltic magma in this area is believed to be derived from mantle with incompatible elements which were later participated by some crustal materials. It is a partially melting product of mantle by early metasomatized fluid under lithosphere extension. Through petrogeochemical analysis of the volcanics and the contrast to the adjacent uranium-producing volcanics, it is concluded that this region has structural environment to form magma evolution series which are more favorable for volcanic hydrothermal-type uranium and polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  15. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  16. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  17. Environmental resistance and mechanical performance of basalt and glass fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bin; Cao Hailin; Song Shenhua

    2010-01-01

    The treated basalt and glass fibers with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions for different times were analyzed, respectively. This paper summarized the mass loss ratio and the strength maintenance ratios of the fibers after treatment. The fibers' surface corrosion morphologies were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The acid resistance was much better than the alkali resistance for the basalt fibers. Nevertheless, for the glass fibers the situation is different: the acid resistance was almost the same as the alkali resistance. Among the two types of aqueous environments evaluated, the alkali solution is the most aggressive to the fibers' surface. The possible corrosion mechanisms are revealed.

  18. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  19. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  20. Rock mass deformation properties of closely jointed basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Cramer, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The deformational behavior of the Columbia River basalt is being investigated as part of a comprehensive site characterization program intended to determine the feasibility of constructing a nuclear waste repository in basalt at Hanford, Washington. Direct field measurements were conducted in a 2-m cube of basalt to obtain truly representative rock mass deformation properties. Load was applied to the test block in three orthogonal directions through the use of flat jacks in two perpendicular planes and a cable anchor system in the third. This configuration allowed the block to be placed in a simulated triaxial stress state at stress levels up to 12.5 MPa. The deformation at the center of the test block was monitored through the use of an optical measurement system developed for this project. The results indicate that the vertically oriented columnar joints have a significant influence on the deformation behavior of the basalt. The modulus in the direction parallel to the column axis was approx. 30 GPa, while the modulus value perpendicular to the columns was approx. 20 GPa. Laboratory measurements of intact specimens taken from this area yielded a value of 80 GPa with no indication of anisotropy. Hysteresis was observed in all loading cycles, but was distinctly more pronounced perpendicular to the column axis, indicative of significant joint displacement in this direction. The results of this test represent the first true rock mass modulus data obtained in closely jointed rock on a large scale. These measurement methods have eliminated many of the ambiguities associated with borehole jacking and surface measurement techniques

  1. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  2. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  3. The Age of Rift-Related Basalts in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, G. L.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Kaminsky, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Lambert Rift, which is a large intracontinental rift zone in East Antarctica, developed over a long period of geological time, beginning from the Late Paleozoic, and its evolution was accompanied by magmatic activity. The latest manifestation of magmatism is eruption of alkaline olivine-leucite basalts on the western side of the Lambert Rift; Rb-Sr dating referred its time to the Middle Eocene, although its genesis remained vague. In order to solve this problem, we found geochronometer minerals in basaltic samples and 68 apatite grains appeared to be suitable for analysis. Their ages and ages of host basalts, determined by the U-Pb local method on the SIMS SHRIMP-II, were significantly different (323 ± 31 Ma) from those assumed earlier. This age corresponds to the earliest stage of crustal extension in East Antarctica and to most of Gondwana. The new data crucially change the ideas about the evolution of Lambert Rift and demonstrate the ambiguity of K-Ar dates of the alkali effusive formed under long-term rifting.

  4. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies

  5. Dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater: Mechanism and rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.; Honnorez, J.; Eberhart, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Basaltic glasses are considered as natural analogues for nuclear waste glasses. Thermodynamic computer codes used to evaluate long term behavior of both nuclear waste and basaltic glasses require the knowledge of the dissolution mechanism of the glass network. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments designed to study the structure and chemical composition of alteration layers formed on the surface of artificial tholeiitic glass altered in artificial seawater. Experiments were performed at 60 degree C, 1 bar and 350 bars in non-renewed conditions. A natural sample from Palagonia (Sicily) has been studied by electron microscopy and comparison between natural and experimental palagonitic layers is made. The behavior of dissolved silica during experiments, and both the structure and the chemical composition of the palagonitic layers, indicate that they form by precipitation of secondary minerals from solution after a total breakdown of the glassy network, i.e., congruent dissolution of the glass. Hence the dissolution equation necessary for thermodynamic modelling of basaltic glass dissolution in seawater at low temperature must be written as a simple stoichiometric process. These experiments indicate that the transformation of glass to palagonitic material is not isovolumetric. Hence it is preferable to use Fe or Ti as conservative elements for chemical budget calculations

  6. Characterization of iron-enriched synthetic basalt for transuranic containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Kelsey, P.V.; Tallman, R.L.; Welch, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the slagging pyrolytic incineration process, combustibles are burned and noncombustibles, including metals, are oxidized into a molten , an electromelter, where the molten slag, with further processing conducted in a heated tundish, e.g. is allowed to homogenize (within a reasonable time period) and then cast into large, cylindrical metal containers. Analyses of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste slags show them similar in composition and appearance to natural basalts, but rich in iron. The electromelt process and the resulting iron-rich castings offer great promise for rendering nuclear waste into a stable form. The process offers great flexibility with regard to both compositional variation of the incoming waste and the high rates at which the waste can be introduced and cast. The cast product, a fine-grained basalt-like material, shows excellent homogeneity with little or no reaction to the steel containment. The preliminary mechanical and chemical durability data show the form to have adequate containment properties for TRU waste. However, work presently underway to improve these properties through additives and controlled cooling cycles has greatly enhanced the durability of the waste form. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that divalent iron (Fe 2+ ) included in the crystalline phases of granites and basalts imparts a resistance to leaching of uranium and other actinide ions

  7. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  8. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  9. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  10. Strontium isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the saddle mountains and Grande Ronde Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group displays significant variations in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions. These compositions reflect complex and variable origins for the CRB magmas. Among the most varied is the Saddle Mountains Basalt (SMB) in which Sr ratios vary from 0.7078 to 0.7147 +- 0.002. The higher ratios reflect contamination through consistent correlations with major element compositions. Modeling suggests contamination by assimilation of 4.4 to 9.4 wt % of radiogenic crustal rocks. High delta 18 O values (up to +7.68 per mil) support the model. Age and field relations suggest that the contamination flowrocks are not the result of progressive contamination of a single magma, but rather reflect the contamination of independent magmas during this ascent

  11. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  12. Thermoluminescence of annealed and shock-loaded feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmetz, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of oligoclase and bytownite were shock-loaded to a variety of pressures, and annealed for a variety of temperatures and times. The effect of Mrad doses of gamma-rays on oligoclase TL were also studied. After these treatments, thermoluminescence (TL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were made to: (1) determine the effects of shock on terrestrial feldspar and compare with variations in the TL emission of ordinary chondrites (OCs); (2) determine if disordering in feldspar was responsible for any related changes in TL properties of OCs; (3) determine if the combined effect of shock plus annealing causes the changes in TL properties; (4) see if radiation damage from cosmic ray exposure plays a role in the TL variations; (5) examine the implications of this work to the thermal and shock histories of OCs. The lightly shock-loaded and annealed oligoclase samples have a dominant peak temperature of 120-140 C, identical to type 3.3-3.5 OCs. The heavily shocked samples dominant peak is at 230C, similar to type > 3.5 OCs . While the heavily annealed/disordered oligoclase samples have a peak at 280C, this peak is rarely observed in OCs. Radiation damage from Mrad doses of gamma-rays produced no change in peak temperature, but facilitated the shift to higher peak temperatures. The TL sensitivity of the shocked samples decreased by a factor of 25. Samples annealed at low temperatures (438-533C) showed a factor of 2 decrease in TL, but at the highest temperatures, the TL was a factor of 8 higher

  13. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts and gabbros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, O. U.; di Meo-Savoie, C. A.; Nakagawa, T.; van Nostrand, J. D.; Rosner, M.; Maruyama, A.; Zhou, J.; Fisk, M. R.; Giovannoni, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Oceanic crust covers nearly 70% of the Earth's surface, of which, the upper, sediment layer is estimated to harbor substantial microbial biomass. Marine crust, however, extends several kilometers beyond this surficial layer, and includes the basalt and gabbro layers. The microbial diversity in basalts is well characterized, yet metabolic diversity is unknown. To date, the microflora associated with gabbros, including microbial and metabolic diversity has not been reported. In our analyses basaltic and gabbroic endoliths were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and microarray analysis of functional genes. Our results suggest that despite nearly identical chemical compositions of basalt and gabbro the associated microflora did not overlap. Basalt samples harbor a surprising diversity of seemingly cosmopolitan microorganisms, some of which appear to be basalt specialists. Conversely, gabbros have a low diversity of endoliths, none of which appear to be specifically adapted to the gabbroic environment. Microarray analysis (GeoChip) was used to assay for functional gene diversity in basalts and gabbros. In basalt genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation were present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. Similar processes were observed in gabbroic samples, yet metabolic inference from phylogenetic relationships of gabbroic endoliths with other microorganisms, suggests that hydrocarbon oxidation is the prevailing metabolism in this environment. Our analyses revealed that the basalt and gabbro layers harbor microorganisms with the genetic potential to significantly impact biogeochemical cycling in the lithosphere and overlying hydrosphere.

  14. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  15. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  16. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  17. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  18. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  19. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  20. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  1. The origin of methane and biomolecules from a CO2 cycle on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Knížek, Antonín; Ivanek, Ondřej; Kubelík, Petr; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Ferus, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the chemical evolution of newly formed terrestrial planets involves uncertainties in atmospheric chemical composition and assessing the plausibility of biomolecule synthesis. In this study, an original scenario for the origin of methane on Mars and terrestrial planets is suggested. Carbon dioxide in Martian and other planetary atmospheres can be abiotically converted into a mixture of methane and carbon monoxide by `methanogenesis' on porous mineral photoactive surfaces under soft ultraviolet irradiation. On young planets exposed to heavy bombardment by interplanetary matter, this process can be followed by biomolecule synthesis through the reprocessing of reactive reducing atmospheres by impact-induced shock waves. The proposed mechanism of methanogenesis may help to answer the question concerning the formation of methane and carbon monoxide by photochemical processes, the formation of biomolecules on early Earth and other terrestrial planets, and the source and seasonal variation of methane concentrations on Mars.

  2. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  3. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  4. UTILIZATION OF BASALT FIBERS AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR CLAY CERAMIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan Vichaphund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the possibility of utilization basalt fibers as a raw material for ceramic production. Both quartz and feldspar were replaced partially or entirely by basalt fiber in the range of 10-25 wt%. The mixture of ceramic powders and basalt fibers were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 1000 and 1200°C for 1 h. The substitution of basalt fibers in ceramic compositions demonstrated the positive effect on the physical and mechanical properties. The addition of basalt fibers in an appropriate amount enhance the densification and reduce sintering temperature of clay-based ceramics (CB-0 from 1200 to 1150°C. The highest density and strength were 2.40 g/cm³ and 116 MPa, respectively, when replacing feldspar and quartz with basalt up to 20 wt% (CB-20 and sintering at 1150°C.

  5. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  6. Effects of shock pressure on 40Ar-39Ar radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of shock to the drop in the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio seen at high release temperatures in some neutron-irradiated lunar samples is investigated through measurements of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio in gas samples released by stepwise heating of rock samples previously subjected to shock, either in the laboratory or in nature. Explosives were used to shock solid pieces and powder of a basalt from a diabase dike in Liberia to calculated pressures of 65, 150 and 270 kbar. These, an unshocked sample of the powder, two naturally shocked samples from the Brent impact crater in Canada, one unshocked sample from near the crater, and appropriate monitors were irradiated. Ar from stepwise heating was analyzed. The unshocked basalt shows a good 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar plateau at age 198 +-9 m.y. in agreement with a previous result of 186 +- 2 m.y. The shocked samples contain varying amounts of implanted atmospheric Ar, the isotopes of which have experienced mass fractionation. This effect is small enough in four samples so that the linearity of their graphs of 39 *Ar/ 40 Ar vs 36 Ar/ 40 Ar is evidence of a plateau. The ages of these samples are then 201 +- 10, 205 +- 12 and 201 +-9 m.y. It appears that the shock has had little effect on the 40 Ar- 39 Ar age spectrum, although the release patterns of the 39 *Ar are shifted downward by the order of 200 0 C. Shock implantation of Ar was at lower shock pressure, in the presence of less Ar, and into a less porous material than previously demonstrated. The Brent Crater samples do not all show good plateaus, but do indicate an age of 420 m.y. for the crater event and 795 +- 24 m.y. for the rock formation, in agreement with previous results. None of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar profiles shows a drop at high temperature, but a possible role of shock implantation of Ar is indicated in the production of this effect. Further experiments are suggested. (author)

  7. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  8. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  9. Methods of simulating low redox potential (Eh) for a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Basalt groundwaters have inherently low redox potentials, approximately -0.4V, which can be measured with platinum electrodes, but are difficult to reproduce during leaching experiments. In the presence of deionized water, crushed basalt reaches the measured Eh-pH values of a basalt repository. Other waste package components, such as iron, will interact with groundwater in different ways under oxic or anoxic conditions since the presence of any redox active solid will affect the groundwater Eh. 26 references, 4 figures

  10. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed

  11. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  12. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-01-01

    The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes) indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Tim...

  13. Relative Shock Effects in Mixed Powders of Calcite, Gypsum, and Quartz: A Calibration Scheme from Shock Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    The shock behavior of calcite and gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets. Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of CO2 or SO2 to better understand their role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [e.g., papers in 1,2,3,4]. Devolatilization of carbonate is also important because the dispersion and fragmentation of ejecta is strongly controlled by the expansion of large volumes of gas during the impact process as well [5,6]. Shock recovery experiments for calcite yield seemingly conflicting results: early experimental devolatilization studies [7,8,9] suggested that calcite was substantially outgassed at 30 GPa (> 50%). However, the recent petrographic work of [10,11,12] presented evidence that essentially intact calcite is recovered from 60 GPa experiments. [13] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of those phases with silica. Their observations indicate little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another (preliminary) report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, [14] observe calcite recrystallization when shock loaded at 61 GPa, only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa. [15] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa. All of the quartz grains were trans-formed to glass and the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggest that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid state transformation. [16] reanalyzed the calcite and anhydrite shock

  14. Hf-Nd Isotopic Correlation in the Deccan Flood Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Basu, A. R.; Barling, J.; Anbar, A. D.; Hooper, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Hafnium isotopes along with other isotopic and geochemical characteristics, including incompatible trace elements, of several of the lower formations of the Deccan Flood Basalt Province were analyzed to characterize petrogenesis of different tholeiitic lava suites, especially with respect to potential mantle and crustal sources. The rare earth elements of the different formations (from top to bottom- Mahabaleshwar, Ambenali, Bushe, Khandala and Neral) all show an LREE-enriched signature, concentrations varying between 30 to 60 times chondrite for La. (La/Lu)n values range from 4.1 to above 8 with the exception of Ambenali, which has a less LREE-enriched signature with (La/Lu)n values ranging between 3.6 to 5.3. Hafnium isotopic data of the lower formations of the Deccan show initial \\epsilonHf(T) values covering a range from -3 to -28. 176Lu/177Hf varies between 0.20 to 0.70. f(Lu/Hf) varies within a narrow range, between -0.90 to -0.97 while f(Sm/Nd) ranges from -0.84 to -0.86. Bushe gives the lowest range of \\epsilonHf(T) from -21 to -28 with the corresponding \\epsilonNd(T) varying between -4.0 and -16.9, while Khandala for almost the same range of neodymium isotopic values has \\epsilonHf(T) between -11 and -15. The \\epsilonHf(T) values of Neral is in between those of Khandala and Bushe, around -19. Ambenali, has the narrowest range with \\epsilonHf(T) of -3 and \\epsilonNd(T) between 3 and 5. The Ambenali suite reflects the least contaminated of the Deccan suite of lavas as analyzed here and previously confirmed by other isotopic studies. In Hf-Nd isotope correlation plot, the lower Deccan formations of Neral, Khandala and Bushe define individual subparallel arrays that are shallower than the oceanic basalt array and the overall terrestrial array, including the crustal array, although the bulk of the lower formation data fall within the crustal array of Vervoort et al (1999). From these subparallel Hf-Nd arrays, it is evident that the other end

  15. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  16. A Brillouin scattering study of hydrous basaltic glasses: the effect of H2O on their elastic behavior and implications for the densities of basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hu, Bo; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Hydrous basalt glasses with water contents of 0-6.82% were synthesized using a multi-anvil press at 1.0-2.0 GPa and 1200-1400 °C. The starting materials were natural Mesozoic basalts from the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Their sound velocities and elastic properties were measured by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The longitudinal ( V P) and shear ( V S) wave velocities decreased with increasing water content. Increasing the synthesis pressure resulted in the glass becoming denser, and finally led to an increase in V P. As the degree of depolymerization increased, the V P, V S, and shear and bulk moduli of the hydrous basalt glasses decreased, whereas the adiabatic compressibility increased. The partial molar volumes of water (ν) under ambient conditions were independent of composition, having values of 11.6 ± 0.8, 10.9 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 0.5 cm3/mol for the FX (Feixian), FW (Fuxin), and SHT (Sihetun) basalt glasses, respectively. However, the {{V}_{{{{H}}_{{2}}}{O}}} values measured at elevated temperatures and pressures are increasing with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. The contrasting densities of these hydrous basalt melts with those previously reported for mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that hydrous basalt melts may not maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle.

  17. Geology of the Sabie River Basalt Formation in the Southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Sweeney

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sabie River Basalt Formation (SRBF in the central Lebombo is a virtually continuous sequence of basaltic lavas some 2 500 m thick that was erupted 200 - 179 Ma ago. Flows are dominantly pahoehoe in character and vary from 2 m to 20 m in thickness. Dolerite dykes cross-cutting the basalt sequence probably represent feeders to this considerable volcanic event. Volcanological features observed within the SRBF are described. Two chemically distinct basaltic magma types are recognised, the simultaneous eruption of which presents an intriguing geochemical problem as to their origins.

  18. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [HHK Technologies, Houston (United States); Tkaczyk, Alan Henry, E-mail: alan@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications.

  19. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaeva, E; Rogozhnikov, A; Nikitin, V; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A

    2015-01-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice. (paper)

  20. Basalt Fiber for Volcanic Slag Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Research on the Impact of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Li, Gen-zhuang

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the effect of basalt fiber on the mechanical properties and durability of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete, the experimental study on the flexural strength, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of volcanic slag concrete with different basalt fiber content were carried out, the basalt fiber was surface treated with NaOH and water glass, the results show that the surface treatment of basalt fiber can significantly improve the mechanical properties, durability and other properties of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete.

  1. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  2. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr; Biland, Alex; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications

  3. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  4. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  6. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  7. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  8. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  9. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  10. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  11. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  12. The Shock Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  13. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of

  14. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well

  15. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms were centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure was 1/3 kbar. All prisms showed large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration reacted readily to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms were coated with a calcium smectite, and the last two prisms were covered with discrete patches of potassium-rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The results indicated that clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  16. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms are centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure is 1/3 kbar. All prisms show large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration readily reacts to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms are coated with a Ca-smectite while the last two prisms are covered with discrete patches of K rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  17. Environmental issue identification for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, K.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental issues is provided in this report. It contains summary of the thought process that was used during the area characterization studies for a geological repository for high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental issues are discussed separately for construction, operation, and long term isolation aspects of a repository in basalt. During construction the primary environmental concerns are public perception and water resources; intermediate concerns are air quality, ecosystems, physical resources, and cultural and social resources. During operation, the primary environmental issues concern the transport of radioactive materials and physical resources. Long term environmental issues envolve water resources and borehole plugging

  18. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    In conjunction with the small-scale, melt-concrete interaction tests being conducted at Sandia Laboratories, an acoustic technique has been used to monitor the penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete. Real time plots of the position of the melt/concrete interface have been obtained, and they illustrate that the initial penetration rate of the melt may be of the order of 80 mm/min. Phenomena deduced by the technique include a non-wetted melt/concrete interface

  20. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.H.; Wildrick, L.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is part of the hydrologic data compilation effort of the Columbia Plateau Hydrology Study, Rockwell Hanford Operations' Waste Isolation Program. It includes references on both surface and subsurface hydrology directly or indirectly related to the Washington State portion of the Columbia River basalts. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell Hanford Operations under the Pasco Basin Hydrology Study. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  1. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  2. Melt density and the average composition of basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.; Walker, D.

    1980-01-01

    Densities of residual liquids produced by low pressure fractionation of olivine-rich melts pass through a minimum when pyroxene and plagioclase joint the crystallization sequence. The observation that erupted basalt compositions cluster around the degree of fractionation from picritic liquids corresponding to the density minimum in the liquid line of descent may thus suggest that the earth's crust imposes a density fiber on the liquids that pass through it, favoring the eruption of the light liquids at the density minimum over the eruption of denser more fractionated and less fractionated liquids.

  3. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  4. ION ACCELERATION AT THE QUASI-PARALLEL BOW SHOCK: DECODING THE SIGNATURE OF INJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Haynes, Christopher T.; Burgess, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Mazelle, Christian X. [IRAP, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III-CNRS, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2016-03-20

    Collisionless shocks are efficient particle accelerators. At Earth, ions with energies exceeding 100 keV are seen upstream of the bow shock when the magnetic geometry is quasi-parallel, and large-scale supernova remnant shocks can accelerate ions into cosmic-ray energies. This energization is attributed to diffusive shock acceleration; however, for this process to become active, the ions must first be sufficiently energized. How and where this initial acceleration takes place has been one of the key unresolved issues in shock acceleration theory. Using Cluster spacecraft observations, we study the signatures of ion reflection events in the turbulent transition layer upstream of the terrestrial bow shock, and with the support of a hybrid simulation of the shock, we show that these reflection signatures are characteristic of the first step in the ion injection process. These reflection events develop in particular in the region where the trailing edge of large-amplitude upstream waves intercept the local shock ramp and the upstream magnetic field changes from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel. The dispersed ion velocity signature observed can be attributed to a rapid succession of ion reflections at this wave boundary. After the ions’ initial interaction with the shock, they flow upstream along the quasi-parallel magnetic field. Each subsequent wavefront in the upstream region will sweep the ions back toward the shock, where they gain energy with each transition between the upstream and the shock wave frames. Within three to five gyroperiods, some ions have gained enough parallel velocity to escape upstream, thus completing the injection process.

  5. New high pressure experiments on sulfide saturation of high-FeO∗ basalts with variable TiO2 contents - Implications for the sulfur inventory of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuo; Hough, Taylor; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2018-02-01

    picritic glasses, mare basalts, to young lunar meteorites vary from 2600 to 4800 ppm for basalt equilibration with a pure FeS melt and from 1400 to 2600 ppm for basalt equilibration with a Fe-rich sulfide melt containing 30 wt.% Ni. The measured S contents in these proposed near-primary lunar magmas are lower than the predicted SCSS at the conditions of their last equilibration with the lunar mantle, indicating no sulfide retention in the lunar mantle source during partial melting. Sulfide exhaustion during partial melting in the lunar mantle also supports the notion that the bulk silicate moon is depleted in highly siderophile elements. Based on the measured S contents and the estimated degree of melting, the estimated S contents for the mantle source of A15 green glass and A15 mare basalts is 10-23 ppm; for A17 orange glass is 25-62 ppm, for A12 mare basalts is 27-92 ppm, and for A11 basalt is 35-120 ppm. Consideration of SCSS decrease due to the presence of Ni in the sulfide melt does not change these mantle S abundance estimates for <30 wt.% Ni in the sulfide. The inferred S contents suggest that the lunar mantle is heterogeneous in terms of S. Although variable among different groups, the inferred S abundance of up to 120 ppm in the lunar mantle falls near the lower end of the S content of the depleted terrestrial mantle such as the MORB source.

  6. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  7. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  8. Memories of Earth Formation in the Modern Mantle: W Isotopic Composition of Flood Basalt Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Horan, M. F.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Francis, D.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Four and a half billion years of geologic activity has overprinted much of the direct evidence for processes involved in Earth's formation and its initial chemical differentiation. Xenon isotopic ratios [1] and 3He/22Ne ratios [2] suggest that heterogeneities formed during Earth's accretion have been preserved to the present time. New opportunities to learn about early Earth history have opened up with the development of analytical techniques that allow high precision analysis of short-lived isotopic systems. The Hf-W system (t½ = 8.9 Ma) is particularly valuable for studying events that occurred during the first ~50 Ma of Solar System history. Here we report new data for ~ 60 Ma Baffin Bay and ~ 120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau lava samples. Both are large igneous provinces that may have sampled a primitive, less degassed deep mantle reservoir that has remained isolated since shortly after Earth formation [3,4]. Three samples analyzed have 182W/184W ratios that are 10 to 48 ppm higher than our terrestrial standard. These excesses in 182W are the highest ever measured in terrestrial rocks, and may reflect 182W ingrowth in an early-formed high Hf/W mantle domain that was produced by magma ocean differentiation [5]. Long and short-lived Sm-Nd systematics in these samples, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. The 182W excessses could rather reflect the derivation of these lavas from a mantle reservoir that was isolated from late accretionary additions [6]. The chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions and highly siderophile element abundances of these samples, however, are inconsistent with this interpretation. Tungsten concentrations for the Baffin Bay and Ontong Java Plateau samples range from 23 ppb to 62 ppb, and are negatively correlated with their 182W/184W ratios. We propose that the source reservoirs for these flood basalts likely formed through Hf/W fractionation caused by core-forming events occuring over a protacted time interval during Earth

  9. Dust coatings on basaltic rocks and implications for thermal infrared spectroscopy of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Christensen, P.R.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin coatings of atmospherically deposited dust can mask the spectral characteristics of underlying surfaces on Mars from the visible to thermal infrared wavelengths, making identification of substrate and coating mineralogy difficult from lander and orbiter spectrometer data. To study the spectral effects of dust coatings, we acquired thermal emission and hemispherical reflectance spectra (5-25 μm; 2000-400 cm-1) of basaltic andesite coated with different thicknesses of air fall-deposited palagonitic soils, fine-grained ceramic clay powders, and terrestrial loess. The results show that thin coatings (10-20 μm) reduce the spectral contrast of the rock substrate substantially, consistent with previous work. This contrast reduction continues linearly with increasing coating thickness until a "saturation thickness" is reached, after which little further change is observed. The saturation thickness of the spectrally flat palagonite coatings is ~100-120 μm, whereas that for coatings with higher spectral contrast is only ~50-75 μm. Spectral differences among coated and uncoated samples correlate with measured coating thicknesses in a quadratic manner, whereas correlations with estimated surface area coverage are better fit by linear functions. Linear mixture modeling of coated samples using the rock substrate and coating materials as end-members is also consistent with their measured coating thicknesses and areal coverage. A comparison of ratios of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of dark and bright intracrater and windstreak deposits associated with Radau crater suggests that the dark windstreak material may be coated with as much as 90% areal coverage of palagonitic dust. The data presented here also will help improve interpretations of upcoming mini-TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) observations of coated Mars surface materials.

  10. Archaeal Viruses Contribute to the Novel Viral Assemblage Inhabiting Oceanic, Basalt-Hosted Deep Subsurface Crustal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, O. D.; Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Steward, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fluids contained in the basalt-hosted deep subsurface of the world's oceans represent one of the most inaccessible and understudied biospheres on earth. Recent improvements in sampling infrastructure have allowed us to collect large volumes of crustal fluids (~104 L) from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) placed in boreholes located on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). We detected viruses within these fluids by TEM and epifluorescence microscopy in samples collected from 2010 to 2014. Viral abundance, determined by epifluorescence counts, indicated that concentrations of viruses in subsurface basement fluids (~105 ml-1) are lower than the overlying seawater, but are higher in abundance than microbial cells in the same samples. Analysis of TEM images revealed distinct viral morphologies (rod and spindle-shaped) that resemble the morphologies of viral families infecting archaea. There are very few, if any, direct observations of these viral morphologies in marine samples, although they have been observed in enrichment cultures and their signature genes detected in metagenomic studies from hydrothermal vents and marine sediments. Analysis of metagenomes from the JdFR crustal fluids revealed sequences with homology to archaeal viruses from the rudiviridae, bicaudaviridae and fuselloviridae. Prokaryotic communities in fluids percolating through the basaltic basement rock of the JdFR flank are distinct from those inhabiting the overlying sediments and seawater. Similarly, our data support the idea that the viral assemblage in these fluids is distinct from viral assemblages in other marine and terrestrial aquatic environments. Our data also suggest that viruses contribute to the mortality of deep subsurface prokaryotes through cell lysis, and viruses may alter the genetic potential of their hosts through the processes of lysogenic conversion and horizontal gene transfer.

  11. Geochemical Characterization Of Cherts From The 3.46Ga Apex Basalt To Assess The Origins Of Possible Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.; Ackerson, M. R.; Bullock, E. S.; Green, O. R.; Fries, M.; Conrad, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Many terrestrial cherts contain compelling microtextures and mineral phases that are indicative of ancient life in hydrothermal systems on early Earth. In volcanically-derived hydrothermal deposits, cherts have undergone multiple alteration events often resulting in separate generations of quartz veins that are much younger than the host rocks. In some cases, multiple episodes of hydrothermal alteration obscure otherwise syngenetic biosignatures and likewise create false signatures in the form of secondary carbon emplacement or diagenetic phase changes. To better identify possible biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits and understand their origins, we used confocal micro Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging to characterize the quartz fabrics, mineral phases, trace elements, and macromolecular carbon (MMC) in quartz veins from the 3.46 Ga Apex Basalt chert samples. MMC, anatase (TiO2), pyrite (Fe2S), jarosite-alunite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 - Kal3(SO4)2(OH)6), chamosite-phyllosilicates, and Fe-oxides all occur in close association in multiple generations of quartz veins throughout the sample suite. Mineral phases xenotime (YPO4), scorodite (FeAsO4 . H2O), apatite (CaPO4), pentlandite ((Fe,Ni)9S8), barite (BaSO4), sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S), dolomite ((CaMg(CO3)2) and halides occur in specific generations of quartz. Trace elements (Cr, Mn, Mo, Cu, Sc, Va, Sb, and Co) are heterogeneously distributed within individual samples and likely occur due to fluid scavenging of the host basalts. CL imaging of quartz demonstrates that the majority of silicate material in the Apex cherts underwent recrystallization. This could result in the alteration of MMC and associated mineral assemblages. The biogencity and true origins of morphological features and chemical signatures in the Apex cherts are hotly debated, yet discovering the causes and nature of these puzzling attributes will be key for determining the usefulness of interrogating

  12. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug

  13. The Disruption of Tephra Fall Deposits by Basaltic Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.

    2010-12-01

    Complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents of the Roza Member in the Columbia River Basalt Province, (CRBP), USA, illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter tephra fall deposits. Thin pahoehoe lobes and sheet lobes occur intercalated with tephra deposits and provide evidence for synchronous effusive and explosive activity. Tephra that accumulated on the tops of inflating pahoehoe flows became disrupted by tumuli, which dissected the overlying sheet into a series of mounds. During inflation of subjacent tumuli tephra percolated down into the clefts and rubble at the top of the lava, and in some cases came into contact with lava hot enough to thermally alter it. Lava breakouts from the tumuli intruded up through the overlying tephra deposit and fed pahoehoe flows that spread across the surface of the aggrading tephra fall deposit. Non-welded scoria fall deposits were compacted and welded to a depth of ~50 cm underneath thick sheet lobes. These processes, deduced from the field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in proximal regions. We also demonstrate that, when the advance of lava and the fallout of tephra are synchronous, the contacts of some tephra sheets can be diachronous across their extent. The net effect is to reduce the usefulness of pyroclastic deposits in reconstructing eruption dynamics.

  14. Network topology of olivine-basalt partial melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Chaney, Molly M.; Emmerich, Adrienne L.; Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu

    2017-07-01

    The microstructural relationship between melt and solid grains in partially molten rocks influences many physical properties, including permeability, rheology, electrical conductivity and seismic wave speeds. In this study, the connectivity of melt networks in the olivine-basalt system is explored using a systematic survey of 3-D X-ray microtomographic data. Experimentally synthesized samples with 2 and 5 vol.% melt are analysed as a series of melt tubules intersecting at nodes. Each node is characterized by a coordination number (CN), which is the number of melt tubules that intersect at that location. Statistically representative volumes are described by coordination number distributions (CND). Polyhedral grains can be packed in many configurations yielding different CNDs, however widely accepted theory predicts that systems with small dihedral angles, such as olivine-basalt, should exhibit a predominant CN of four. In this study, melt objects are identified with CN = 2-8, however more than 50 per cent are CN = 4, providing experimental verification of this theoretical prediction. A conceptual model that considers the role of heterogeneity in local grain size and melt fraction is proposed to explain the formation of nodes with CN ≠ 4. Correctly identifying the melt network topology is essential to understanding the relationship between permeability and porosity, and hence the transport properties of partial molten mantle rocks.

  15. Smectite Formation from Basaltic Glass Under Acidic Conditions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Massive deposits of phyllosilicates of the smectite group, including Mg/Fe-smectite, have been identified in Mars's ancient Noachian terrain. The observed smectite is hypothesized to form through aqueous alteration of basaltic crust under neutral to alkaline pH conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere suggested for ancient Mars were favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, the detection of large-scale carbonate deposits is limited on Mars. We hypothesized that smectite deposits may have formed under acidic conditions that prevented carbonate precipitation. In this work we investigated formation of saponite at a pH of approximately 4 from Mars-analogue synthetic Adirondack basaltic glass of composition similar to Adirondack class rocks located at Gusev crater. Hydrothermal (200º Centigrade) 14 day experiments were performed with and without 10 millimoles Fe(II) or Mg under anoxic condition [hereafter denoted as anoxic_Fe, anoxic_Mg and anoxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)] and under oxic condition [hereafter denoted as oxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)]. Characterization and formation conditions of the synthesized saponite provided insight into the possible geochemical conditions required for saponite formation on Mars.

  16. Characterization and recognition of intraflow structures, Grande Ronde Basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This investigation was carried out as part of a feasibility study for long-term storage of nuclear waste at depth in the Pasco Basin. Three general types of intraflow structures were found at Sentinel Gap: flows with stubby, irregular columns that lack a well-developed entablature; flows consisting of multiple tiers of largely entablature-type columns; and flows with a well-developed colonnade and entablature showing a sharp break between the two. Certain features occur locally in all three types of intraflow structures: variations in fracture morphology, primary platey fracture zones, pillow-palagonite zones, and tectonically induced zones of closely spaced fractures. Fractures in each of the three types of flows were logged both at the surface and in core from Core Hole DH-5, and petrographic textures of basalt sampled from surface exposures were examined. The textures of the basalt correlate with the intraflow structures and provide a technique for identifying flows as to their general type of intraflow structure, locating internal contacts between intraflow structures and possibly estimating fracture density within flows. Fracture logging, on the other hand, does not accurately delimit intraflow structures

  17. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Design approaches for access plugs in a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes research, laboratory testing, and analytical approaches taken toward the development of designs for sealing boreholes, shafts, and tunnels penetrating from ground surface to a deep, mined nuclear waste repository in basalt. A material selection process leading to identification of preferred sealing materials is discussed, and the laboratory testing program to define the geochemical and geotechnical performance of these materials is described. Analysis of the environmental conditions in the Columbia Plateau basalt flows leads to identification of tentative design criteria for plug systems. These design criteria include performance of the plug as a hydraulic barrier and as a radionuclide barrier. An important problem for effective performance of a plug system as a hydraulic barrier is shown to be a potentially disturbed zone surrounding the excavation in the stressed and jointed host rock. An idealized one-dimensional numerical model is described for analyzing the performance of the plug as a barrier to radionuclide transport. The preliminary analyses led to the conclusion that the composition and dimensions of practical candidate plugs can satisfy both hydraulic and radionuclide barrier criteria. Examples of candidate designs are shown for boreholes, shafts, and tunnels. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables

  19. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  20. Nano-scale observations of interface between lichen and basaltic rock: Pseudomorphic growth of amorphous silica on augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Kebukawa, Y.; Takagi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, lichens as the earliest colonizers of terrestrial habitats are recognized to accelerate the mineral degradation at the interface between lichens and surface rocks. Much interest has been therefore devoted in recent years to the weathering induced by the lichen colonization. Here, we report nano-scale observations of the interface between lichens and basaltic rock by TEM and STXM techniques. Some samples of basaltic rocks totally covered by lichens were collected from the 1986 lava flows on the northwest part of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan. To prepare specimens for the nano-scale observation, we utilized the focused ion beam (FIB) system. The microstructure and local chemistry of the specimens were thoroughly investigated by TEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Chemical components and chemical heterogeneity at the interface were observed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at Advanced Light Source branch line 5.3.2.2. The collected rocks were classified into the augite-pigeonite-bronzite basalt including 6 to 8% plagioclase phenocrysts. The lichens adhering to the rocks were mainly Stereocaulon vesuvianum, fruticose lichen, which are widespread over the study area. The metabolites of the Stereocaulon vesuvianum exhibited a mean pH of 4.5 and dominance by acids. The STEM-EDX observations revealed that the interface between augite and the lichen was completely covered with amorphous silica multilayer with a thickness of less than 1 µm. Ca L-edge XANES spectra of the augite showed that the energy profile of the absorption edge at 349 eV was varied with the depth from the surface, indicating that the M2 site coordination accommodating Ca2+ undergoes significant change in shape as a function of distance from the surface. This behavior results from the fact that the M2 site is more distorted and more flexible in the C2/c clinopyroxene phase. Taking into consideration that the S. vesuvianum can produce acidic organic compounds

  1. Evaluation of thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; McKenzie, Dan; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2017-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of solid fragments in kimberlite and alkali basalts, generally called "xenoliths", provides information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle, based on which various chemical, thermal, and rheological models of lithosphere have been constructed (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; McKenzie et al., 2005; Ave Lallemant et al., 1980). Geothermobarometry for spinel-bearing peridotite fragments, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987), has essential difficulties, and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for them (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). Ozawa et al. (2016; EGU) proposed a method of geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments. They applied the method to mantle fragments in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco (Raffone et al. 2009; El Azzouzi et al., 2010; Witting et al., 2010; El Messbahi et al., 2015). Ozawa et al. (2016) obtained 0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for 100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C). However, it is imperative to verify the results on the basis of completely independent data. There are three types of independent information: (1) time scale of solid fragment extraction, which may be provided by kinetics of reactions induced by heating and/or decompression during their entrapment in the host magma and transportation to the Earth's surface (Smith, 1999), (2) depth of the host basalt formation, which may be provided by the petrological and geochemical studies of the host basalts, and (3) lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depths, which may be estimated by geophysical observations. Among which, (3) is shown to be consistent with the result in Ozawa et al. (2016). We here present that the estimated thermal structure just before the fragment extraction is fully supported by the information of (1) and (2). Spera (1984) reviewed

  2. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  3. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  4. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shock in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...... failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. RESULTS: We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100...

  6. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  7. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  8. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  9. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui. Hejiu; Neal, Clive, R.; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2012-01-01

    Pristine Apollo 14 (A-14) high-Al basalts represent the oldest volcanic deposits returned from the Moon [1,2] and are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (>11 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%). Literature Rb-Sr isotopic data suggest there are at least three different eruption episodes for the A-14 high-Al basalts spanning the age range approx.4.3 Ga to approx.3.95 Ga [1,3]. Therefore, the high-Al basalts may record lunar mantle evolution between the formation of lunar crust (approx.4.4 Ga) and the main basin-filling mare volcanism (groups [5,6], and then regrouped into three with a possible fourth comprising 14072 based on the whole-rock incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios and Rb-Sr radiometric ages [7]. However, Rb-Sr ages of these basalts from different laboratories may not be consistent with each other because of the use of different 87Rb decay constants [8] and different isochron derivation methods over the last four decades. This study involved a literature search for Rb-Sr isotopic data previously reported for the high-Al basalts. With the re-calculated Rb-Sr radiometric ages, eruption episodes of A-14 high-Al basalts were determined, and their petrogenesis was investigated in light of the "new" Rb-Sr isotopic data and published trace element abundances of these basalts.

  10. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  11. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  12. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2008-09-30

    We used molecular techniques to analyze basalts of varying ages that were collected from the East Pacific Rise, 9 oN, from the rift axis of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and from neighboring seamounts. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Polymorphism data revealed that basalt endoliths are distinct from seawater and that communities clustered, to some degree, based on the age of the host rock. This age-based clustering suggests that alteration processes may affect community structure. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes revealed twelve different phyla and sub-phyla associated with basalts. These include the Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, the candidate phylum SBR1093 in the c, andin the Archaea Marine Benthic Group B, none of which have been previously reported in basalts. We delineated novel ocean crust clades in the gamma-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria that are composed entirely of basalt associated microflora, and may represent basalt ecotypes. Finally, microarray analysis of functional genes in basalt revealed that genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation are present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. These novel processes could exert a profound influence on ocean chemistry.

  13. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    by Irvine and Baragar (1971) or MacDonald and. Katsura (1964) were not included here because of the considerable uncertainty that exists in such a classification scheme (see Sheth et al 2002 for more explanation). The Andaman ophiolite samples are mainly basalts (20 samples), with some basaltic andesites.

  14. Effect of basalt, silica sand and fly ash on the mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-17

    May 17, 2018 ... For this, we first manufactured binary PCs of epoxy/basalt ... Keywords. Polymer concrete; mechanical strength; mixture design; fly ash; silica sand; basalt. 1. .... To reduce the production cost of PCs, it is necessary to minimize ...

  15. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  16. From mantle roots to surface eruptions: Cenozoic and Mesozoic continental basaltic magmatism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kämpf, H.; Németh, K.; Puziewicz, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Geissler, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1909-1912 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : continental basaltic volcanism * BASALT 2013 conference * Cenozoic * Mesozoic Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  17. Post-Columbia River Basalt Group stratigraphy and map compilation of the Columbia Plateau, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqui, S.M.; Bunker, R.C.; Thoms, R.E.; Clayton, D.C.; Bela, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of reconnaissance mapping of sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The project area covers parts of the Dalles, Pendleton, Grangeville, Baker, Canyon City, and Bend. The mapping was done to provide stratigraphic data on the sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group. 160 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  18. Glass and mineral chemistry of northern central Indian ridge basalts: Compositional diversity and petrogenetic significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Basavalingu, B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    -88)), diopside (Wo sub(45-51), En sub(25-37), Fs sub14-24)), and titanomagnetite (FeO sub(t) approx. 63.5 wt% and Ti0 sub(2) approx. 22.69 wt%). The whole-rock composition of these basalts has similar Mg [mole Mg/mole(Mg+Fe sup(2+))] (VT basalt: approx. 0...

  19. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  20. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  1. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  2. Magmatic evolution of the fresh basalts from the Ridge axis near Egaria Fracture Zone, Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.

    was run through a computer programme of the least square and mass balance calculations for understanding the evolutionary path by differentiating minerals present in these basalts. The results indicate that the basalts under study represent a set...

  3. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  4. Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.

  5. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  6. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  7. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  8. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  9. Influence of surface modified basalt fiber on strength of cinder lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Li, Jiheng; Liu, Qingshun

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the bonding and bridging effect between volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete cement and basalt fiber, The basalt fiber was subjected to etching and roughening treatment by NaOH solution, and the surface of the basalt fiber was treated with a mixture of sodium silicate and micro-silica powder. The influence of modified basalt fiber on the strength of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete was systematically studied. The experimental results show that the modified basalt fiber volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete has a flexural strength increased by 47%, the compressive strength is improved by 16% and the toughness is increased by 27% compared with that of the non-fiber.

  10. Using ESEM to analyze the microscopic property of basalt fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Gao

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor Kf. Keywords: Road engineering, Asphalt concrete, Basalt fiber, Microscopic analysis

  11. Potential for microbial oxidation of ferrous iron in basaltic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mai Yia; Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Roden, Eric E

    2015-05-01

    Basaltic glass (BG) is an amorphous ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-containing material present in basaltic rocks, which are abundant on rocky planets such as Earth and Mars. Previous research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial metabolism, which has important ramifications for potential past and present microbial life on Mars. However, to date there has been no direct demonstration of microbially catalyzed oxidation of Fe(II) in BG. In this study, three different culture systems were used to investigate the potential for microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in BG, including (1) the chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing "Straub culture"; (2) the mixotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organism Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain G2; and (3) indigenous microorganisms from a streambed Fe seep in Wisconsin. The BG employed consisted of clay and silt-sized particles of freshly quenched lava from the TEB flow in Kilauea, Hawaii. Soluble Fe(II) or chemically reduced NAu-2 smectite (RS) were employed as positive controls to verify Fe(II) oxidation activity in the culture systems. All three systems demonstrated oxidation of soluble Fe(II) and/or structural Fe(II) in RS, whereas no oxidation of Fe(II) in BG material was observed. The inability of the Straub culture to oxidize Fe(II) in BG was particularly surprising, as this culture can oxidize other insoluble Fe(II)-bearing minerals such as biotite, magnetite, and siderite. Although the reason for the resistance of the BG toward enzymatic oxidation remains unknown, it seems possible that the absence of distinct crystal faces or edge sites in the amorphous glass renders the material resistant to such attack. These findings have implications with regard to the idea that Fe(II)-Si-rich phases in basalt rocks could provide a basis for chemolithotrophic microbial life on Mars, specifically in neutral-pH environments where acid-promoted mineral dissolution and

  12. Short-circuiting magma differentiation from basalt straight to rhyolite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Winslow, H.

    2017-12-01

    Silicic magmas are the product of varying degrees of crystal fractionation and crustal assimilation/melting. Both processes lead to differentiation that is step-wise rather than continuous for example during melt separation from a crystal mush (Dufek and Bachmann, 2010). However, differentiation is rarely efficient enough to evolve directly from a basaltic to a rhyolitic magma. At Volcán Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, the magma series is dominated by crystal fractionation where mixing trends between primitive and felsic end members in the bulk rock compositions are almost absent (e.g. P, FeO, TiO2 vs. SiO2). How effective fraction is in this magmatic system is not well-known. The 2011-12 eruption at Cordón Caulle provides new constraints that rhyolitic melts may be derived directly from a basaltic mush. Minor, but ubiquitous mafic, crystal-rich enclaves co-erupted with the predominantly rhyolitic near-aphyric magma. These enclaves are among the most primitive compositions erupted at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle and geochemically resemble closely basaltic magmas that are >10 ka old (Singer et al. 2008) and that have been identified as a parental tholeiitic mantle-derived magma (Schmidt and Jagoutz, 2017) for the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. The vesiculated nature, the presence of a microlite-rich groundmass, and a lack of a Eu anomaly in these encalves suggest that they represent recharge magma/mush rather than sub-solidus cumulates and therefore have potentially a direct petrogenetic link to the erupted rhyolites. Our results indicate that under some conditions crystal fractionation can be very effective and the presence of rhyolitic magmas does not require an extensive polybaric plumbing system. Instead, primitive mantle-derived magmas source directly evolved magmas. In the case, of the magma system beneath Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, which had three historic rhyolitic eruptions (1921-22, 1960, 2011-12) these results raise the question whether rhyolite magma extraction

  13. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  14. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartquist, T.W.; Oppenheimer, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km s -1 Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H 2 S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds

  15. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  16. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  17. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  18. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...

  19. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...

  20. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  1. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  2. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-11-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests with methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater have shown that in the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane has little influence on the glass dissolution rate. Gamma radiolysis tests at fluxes of 5.5 x 10 5 and 4.4 x 10 4 R/hr showed that methane-saturated groundwater was more reducing than identical experiments where Ar was substituted for CH 4 . Dissolved methane, therefore, may be beneficial to the waste package in limiting the solubility of redox sensitive radionuclides such a 99 Tc. Hydrocarbon polymers known to form under the irradiation conditions of these tests were not produced. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers, however, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  4. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Continental crustal formation and recycling: Evidence from oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. D.; Tarney, J.; Norry, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the wealth of geochemical data for subduction-related magma types, and the clear importance of such magmas in the creation of continental crust, there is still no concensus about the relative magnitudes of crustal creation versus crustal destruction (i.e., recycling of crust into the mantle). The role of subducted sediment in the formation of the arc magmas is now well documented; but what proportion of sediment is taken into the deeper mantle? Integrated isotopic and trace element studies of magmas erupted far from presently active subduction zones, in particular basaltic rocks erupted in the ocean basins, are providing important information about the role of crustal recycling. By identifying potential chemical tracers, it is impossible to monitor the effects of crustal recycling, and produce models predicting the mass of material recycled into the mantle throughout long periods of geological time.

  6. Geoscience parameter data base handbook: granites and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for selecting and constructing Federal repositories for radioactive waste. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission must license such repositories prior to construction. The basic requirement in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste is stated as: placement in a geologic host whereby the radioactive waste is not in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium with the object of preventing physical or chemical migration of radionuclides into the biosphere or hydrosphere in hazardous concentration (USGS, 1977). The object of this report is to document the known geologic parameters of large granite and basalt occurrences in the coterminous United States, for future evaluation in the selection and licensing of radioactive waste repositories. The description of the characteristics of certain potential igneous hosts has been limited to existing data pertaining to the general geologic character, geomechanics, and hydrology of identified occurrences. A description of the geochemistry is the subject of a separate report.

  7. Geoscience parameter data base handbook: granites and basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for selecting and constructing Federal repositories for radioactive waste. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission must license such repositories prior to construction. The basic requirement in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste is stated as: placement in a geologic host whereby the radioactive waste is not in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium with the object of preventing physical or chemical migration of radionuclides into the biosphere or hydrosphere in hazardous concentration (USGS, 1977). The object of this report is to document the known geologic parameters of large granite and basalt occurrences in the coterminous United States, for future evaluation in the selection and licensing of radioactive waste repositories. The description of the characteristics of certain potential igneous hosts has been limited to existing data pertaining to the general geologic character, geomechanics, and hydrology of identified occurrences. A description of the geochemistry is the subject of a separate report

  8. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.S.; Schmidt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt is described. Nuclear waste packages are placed in holes drilled into the floor of tunnels at a depth of 3700 ft. About 100 miles of tunnels are required to receive 35,000 packages. Five shafts bring waste packages, ventilation air, excavated rock, personnel, material, and services to and from the subsurface. The most important surface facility is the waste handling building, located over the waste handling shaft, where waste is received and packaged for storage. Two independent ventilation systems are provided to avoid potential contamination of spaces that do not contain nuclear waste. Because of the high temperatures at depth, an elaborate air chilling system is provided. Because the waste packages deliver a considerable amount of heat energy to the rock mass, particular attention is paid to heat transfer and thermal stress studies. 3 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  9. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  10. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  11. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  12. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  13. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  14. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  15. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  16. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  17. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  18. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  19. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  20. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  1. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi 2 (5180 km 2 ) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process

  2. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  3. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  4. Sulfur degassing due to contact metamorphism during flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallup, Christine; Edmonds, Marie; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a study aimed at quantifying the potential for generating sulfur-rich gas emissions from the devolatilization of sediments accompanying sill emplacement during flood basalt eruptions. The potential contribution of sulfur-rich gases from sediments might augment substantially the magma-derived sulfur gases and hence impact regional and global climate. We demonstrate, from a detailed outcrop-scale study, that sulfur and total organic carbon have been devolatilized from shales immediately surrounding a 3-m thick dolerite sill on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Localized partial melting occurred within a few centimetres of the contact in the shale, generating melt-filled cracks. Pyrite decomposed on heating within 80 cm of the contact, generating sulfur-rich gases (a mixture of H2S and SO2) and pyrrhotite. The pyrrhotite shows 32S enrichment, due to loss of 34S-enriched SO2. Further decomposition and oxidation of pyrrhotite resulted in hematite and/or magnetite within a few cm of the contact. Iron sulfates were produced during retrogressive cooling and oxidation within 20 cm of the contact. Decarbonation of the sediments due to heating is also observed, particularly along the upper contact of the sill, where increasing δ13C is consistent with loss of methane gas. The geochemical and mineralogical features observed in the shales are consistent with a short-lived intrusion, emplaced in desulfurization, as well as decarbonation, of shales adjacent to an igneous intrusion. The liberated fluids, rich in sulfur and carbon, are likely to be focused along regions of low pore fluid pressure along the margins of the sill. The sulfur gases liberated from the sediments would have augmented the sulfur dioxide (and hydrogen sulfide) yield of the eruption substantially, had they reached the surface. This enhancement of the magmatic sulfur budget has important implications for the climate impact of large flood basalt eruptions that erupt through thick, volatile-rich sedimentary

  5. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  6. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth’s largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Olsen, Paul E.; Eglinton, Timothy; Brookfield, Michael E.; Sambrotto, Raymond N.

    2010-01-01

    A leading hypothesis explaining Phanerozoic mass extinctions and associated carbon isotopic anomalies is the emission of greenhouse, other gases, and aerosols caused by eruptions of continental flood basalt provinces. However, the necessary serial relationship between these eruptions, isotopic excursions, and extinctions has never been tested in geological sections preserving all three records. The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) at 201.4 Ma is among the largest of these extinctions and is tied to a large negative carbon isotope excursion, reflecting perturbations of the carbon cycle including a transient increase in CO2. The cause of the ETE has been inferred to be the eruption of the giant Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Here, we show that carbon isotopes of leaf wax derived lipids (n-alkanes), wood, and total organic carbon from two orbitally paced lacustrine sections interbedded with the CAMP in eastern North America show similar excursions to those seen in the mostly marine St. Audrie’s Bay section in England. Based on these results, the ETE began synchronously in marine and terrestrial environments slightly before the oldest basalts in eastern North America but simultaneous with the eruption of the oldest flows in Morocco, a CO2 super greenhouse, and marine biocalcification crisis. Because the temporal relationship between CAMP eruptions, mass extinction, and the carbon isotopic excursions are shown in the same place, this is the strongest case for a volcanic cause of a mass extinction to date. PMID:20308590

  7. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  8. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  9. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Remote Sensing and Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Remote Sensing and Terrestrial Analogs" included the following:Physical Meaning of the Hapke Parameter for Macroscopic Roughness: Experimental Determination for Planetary Regolith Surface Analogs and Numerical Approach; Near-Infrared Spectra of Martian Pyroxene Separates: First Results from Mars Spectroscopy Consortium; Anomalous Spectra of High-Ca Pyroxenes: Correlation Between Ir and M ssbauer Patterns; THEMIS-IR Emissivity Spectrum of a Large Dark Streak near Olympus Mons; Geomorphologic/Thermophysical Mapping of the Athabasca Region, Mars, Using THEMIS Infrared Imaging; Mars Thermal Inertia from THEMIS Data; Multispectral Analysis Methods for Mapping Aqueous Mineral Depostis in Proposed Paleolake Basins on Mars Using THEMIS Data; Joint Analysis of Mars Odyssey THEMIS Visible and Infrared Images: A Magic Airbrush for Qualitative and Quantitative Morphology; Analysis of Mars Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data Using Large Mineral Reference Libraries ; Negative Abundance : A Problem in Compositional Modeling of Hyperspectral Images; Mars-LAB: First Remote Sensing Data of Mineralogy Exposed at Small Mars-Analog Craters, Nevada Test Site; A Tool for the 2003 Rover Mini-TES: Downwelling Radiance Compensation Using Integrated Line-Sight Sky Measurements; Learning About Mars Geology Using Thermal Infrared Spectral Imaging: Orbiter and Rover Perspectives; Classifying Terrestrial Volcanic Alteration Processes and Defining Alteration Processes they Represent on Mars; Cemented Volcanic Soils, Martian Spectra and Implications for the Martian Climate; Palagonitic Mars: A Basalt Centric View of Surface Composition and Aqueous Alteration; Combining a Non Linear Unmixing Model and the Tetracorder Algorithm: Application to the ISM Dataset; Spectral Reflectance Properties of Some Basaltic Weathering Products; Morphometric LIDAR Analysis of Amboy Crater, California: Application to MOLA Analysis of Analog Features on Mars; Airborne Radar Study of Soil Moisture at

  11. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  12. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts

  13. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  14. Analysis of shock implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C. (Polytechnic Inst. of New York, Brooklyn (USA))

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant ..gamma... To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient over the whole classical interval 1<..gamma..

  15. Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron-enriched basalt, a rock-like waste form developed for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Review of commercial TRU wastes from mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources, indicates that iron-enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron-enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron-enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU-bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock-like iron-enriched basalt monolith. Recommendations are given for testing the applicability of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes

  16. Stratigraphic imaging of sub-basalt sediments using waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.; Gao, F.; Pratt, G.; Zelt, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    The oil industry is interested in imaging the fine structures of sedimentary formations masked below basalt flows for commercial exploration of hydrocarbons. Seismic exploration of sediments hidden below high-velocity basalt cover is a difficult problem because near-vertical reflection data are contaminated with multiples, converted waves and scattering noise generated by interbeds, breccia and vesicles within the basalt. The noise becomes less prominent as the source-receiver offset increases, and the signals carrying sub-surface information stand out at the wide-angle range. The tomography of first arrival traveltime data can provide little information about the underlying low-velocity sediments. Traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data including both first arrivals and identifiable wide-angle reflected phases has been an important tool in the delineation of the large-scale velocity structure of sub-basalt sediments, although it lacks the small-scale velocity details. Here we apply 2-D full-waveform inversion ("waveform tomography") to wide-angle seismic data with a view to extracting the small-scale stratigraphic features of sedimentary formations. Results from both synthetic data, generated for a realistic earth model, and field dataset from the basalt covered Saurashtra peninsula, India, will be presented. This approach has potential to delineate thin sedimentary layers hidden below thick basalt cover also, and may serve as a powerful tool to image sedimentary basins, where they are covered by high-velocity materials like basalts, salts, carbonates, etc. in various parts of the world.

  17. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  18. Elevation of surficial sediment/basalt contact in the Subsurface Disposal Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is presented to provide a data base for future remedial actions at this site. About 1,300 elevation data from published and unpublished reports, maps, and surveyors notes were compiled to generate maps and cross-sections of the surficial sediment/basalt contact. In general, an east to west trending depression exists in the south central portion of the SDA with basalt closer to land surface on the northern and southern boundaries of the SDA. The lowest elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact is 4,979 ft and the greatest is land surface at 5,012 ft. The median elevation of the sediment/basalt interface is 4,994 ft. The median depth to basalt in the SDA is 16 ft if land surface elevation is assumed to be 5,010 ft. The depth from land surface to the sediment/basalt interface ranges from 24 ft in the southeast corner of the SDA to less than 3 ft at the north-central boundary of the SDA

  19. Petrochemistry and origin of basalt breccia from Ban Sap Sawat area, Wichian Buri, Phetchabun, central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Limtrakun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Asia collision during theLate Cenozoic, and basaltic volcanism took place in this extensional period. This volcanism generated both subaqueous andsubaerial lava flows with tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic magma. The subaqueous eruptions represented by the studied WichianBuri basalts, Ban Sap Sawat in particular, are constituted by two main types of volcanic lithofacies, including lava flows andbasalt breccias. The lava flows are commonly porphyritic with olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and microphenocrysts,and are uncommonly seriate textured. The basalt breccias are strongly vitrophyric texture with olivine and plagioclasephenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Chemical analyses indicate that both lava flows and basalt breccias have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were solidified from the same magma. Their chondrite normalized REE patternsand N-MORB normalized patterns are closely analogous to the Early to Middle Miocene tholeiites from central Sinkhote-Alinand Sakhalin, northeastern margin of the Eurasian continent which were erupted in a continental rift environment. The originfor the Wichian Buri basalts show similarity of lava flows and basalt breccias, in terms of petrography and chemical compositions, signifying that they have been formed from the same continental within-plate, transitional tholeiitic magma.

  20. Radionuclide sorption kinetics and column sorption studies with Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and desorption reactions in basalt-groundwater systems were evaluated at 60 degrees C using a batch equilibration method. It was found that many sorption reactions on surfaces of fresh (unaltered) basalt from the Umtanum and Cohassett flows are slow. Some reactions require more than 50 days to reach a steady state. Sorption of neptunium and uranium in oxidizing (air saturated) groundwater appears to be controlled by slow reduction of these elements by the basalt surfaces. The resulting lower oxidation states are more strongly sorbed. Technetium and selenium, which are anionic under oxidizing conditions, are not measurably sorbed on fresh basalt surfaces, but are slightly sorbed on the altered surfaces of flow top basalt. Under reducing conditions, where the groundwater contains dilute hydrazine, sorption is faster for neptunium, uranium, technetium, selenium, and lead. Plutonium sorption rates were not affected by the groundwater Eh. It was shown that radium was precipitated rather than sorbed under the conditions of these experiments. Umtanum flow top material sorbed radionuclides much faster than fresh basalt surfaces due to its greater surface area and cation exchange capacity. Desorption rates for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, technetium, and selenium were generally much less than sorption rates (especially for reducing conditions). These radionuclides are irreversibly sorbed on the basalts. 25 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs

  1. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Il Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber’s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  2. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-30

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber's suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  3. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  4. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  5. Evaluation of meteorites as habitats for terrestrial microorganisms: Results from the Nullarbor Plain, Australia, a Mars analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Wilson, Siobhan A.; Tomkins, Andrew G.; Gagen, Emma J.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Southam, Gordon

    2017-10-01

    Unambiguous identification of biosignatures on Mars requires access to well-characterized, long-lasting geochemical standards at the planet's surface that can be modified by theoretical martian life. Ordinary chondrites, which are ancient meteorites that commonly fall to the surface of Mars and Earth, have well-characterized, narrow ranges in trace element and isotope geochemistry compared to martian rocks. Given that their mineralogy is more attractive to known chemolithotrophic life than the basaltic rocks that dominate the martian surface, exogenic rocks (e.g., chondritic meteorites) may be good places to look for signs of prior life endemic to Mars. In this study, we show that ordinary chondrites, collected from the arid Australian Nullarbor Plain, are commonly colonized and inhabited by terrestrial microorganisms that are endemic to this Mars analogue site. These terrestrial endolithic and chasmolithic microbial contaminants are commonly found in close association with hygroscopic veins of gypsum and Mg-calcite, which have formed within cracks penetrating deep into the meteorites. Terrestrial bacteria are observed within corrosion cavities, where troilite (FeS) oxidation has produced jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6]. Where terrestrial microorganisms have colonized primary silicate minerals and secondary calcite, these mineral surfaces are heavily etched. Our results show that inhabitation of meteorites by terrestrial microorganisms in arid environments relies upon humidity and pH regulation by minerals. Furthermore, microbial colonization affects the weathering of meteorites and production of sulfate, carbonate, Fe-oxide and smectite minerals that can preserve chemical and isotopic biosignatures for thousands to millions of years on Earth. Meteorites are thus habitable by terrestrial microorganisms, even under highly desiccating environmental conditions of relevance to Mars. They may therefore be useful as chemical and isotopic ;standards; that preserve evidence of

  6. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  7. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  8. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  9. Experimental Study on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Clay Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lei; Hu, Guohui; Xu, Nan; Fu, Junyi; Xiang, Chao; Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism and effect of basalt fiber reinforced clay soil, a series of unconfined compressive strength tests conducted on clay soil reinforced with basalt fiber have been performed under the condition of optimum water content and maximum dry density. Both the content and length of basalt fiber are considered in this paper. When the effect of content is studied, the 12 mm long fibers are dispersed into clay soil at different contents of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0...

  10. Comparison of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE reinforced with basalt fibers and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Qitao, Huang; Ivanova, L. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with basalt fibers and particles under dry sliding friction and abrasion were investigated. It is shown that adding of the basalt particles provides higher wear resistance under the dry sliding friction while at abrasion filling by the basalt fibers is more efficient since the wear resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE composites is by 3.7 times higher in contrast with the neat polymer. Wear mechanisms of the polymeric UHMWPE composites under various types of wear are discussed.

  11. Chemical heterogeneities in the interior of terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Mantle chemical heterogeneities that can strongly influence the interior dynamics have been inferred for all terrestrial bodies of the Solar System and range from local to global scale. Seismic data for the Earth, differences in surface mineral compositions observed in data sets from space missions, and isotopic variations identified in laboratory analyses of meteorites or samples indicate chemically heterogeneous systems. One way to generate large scale geochemical heterogeneities is through the fractional crystallization of a liquid magma ocean. The large amount of energy available in the early stages of planetary evolution can cause melting of a significant part or perhaps even the entire mantle of a terrestrial body resulting in a liquid magma ocean. Assuming fractional crystallization, magma ocean solidification proceeds from the core-mantle boundary to the surface where dense cumulates tend to form due to iron enrichment in the evolving liquid. This process leads to a gravitationally unstable mantle, which is prone to overturn. Following cumulate overturn, a stable stratification may be reached that prevents efficient material transport. As a consequence, mantle reservoirs may be kept separate, possibly for the entire thermo-chemical evolution of a terrestrial body. Scenarios assuming fractional crystallization of a liquid magma ocean have been suggested to explain lavas with distinct composition on Mercury's surface [1], the generation of the Moon's mare basalts by sampling a reservoir consisting of overturned ilmenite-bearing cumulates [2], and the preservation of Mars' geochemical reservoirs as inferred by isotopic analysis of the SNC meteorites [3]. However, recent studies have shown that the style of the overturn as well as the subsequent density stratification are of extreme importance for the subsequent thermo-chemical evolution of a planetary body and may have a major impact on the later surface tectonics and volcanic history. The rapid formation of a

  12. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  13. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  14. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  15. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  16. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  17. Petrological, magnetic and chemical properties of basalt dredged from an abyssal hill in the North-east pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendyk, B.P.; Engel, C.G.

    1969-01-01

    OVER the years, samples of basalt from the oceanic crust have been taken mainly from seamounts, fracture zones and ridge and rise crests1-6, and rarely from the vast fields of abyssal hills which cover a large part of the deep-sea floor. The basalt sampled from the deeper regions of the oceanic crust (for example, on fault scarps) is a distinct variety of tholeiitic basalt, while alkali basalt is restricted to the volcanic edifices4. Oceanic tholeiitic basalt differs from alkali basalt and continental tholeiite chiefly in having a relatively low percentage of K2O (0.2 weight per cent)4. Some authors have speculated that this type of tholeiitic basalt is the major extrusion from the upper mantle and constitutes the predominant rock type in the upper oceanic crust. ?? 1969 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  19. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  20. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wave-Number Spectra and Intermittency in the Terrestrial Foreshock Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Treumann, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Wave-number spectra of magnetic field fluctuations are directly determined in the terrestrial foreshock region (upstream of a quasiparallel collisionless shock wave) using four-point Cluster spacecraft measurements. The spectral curve is characterized by three ranges reminiscent of turbulence: energy injection, inertial, and dissipation range. The spectral index for the inertial range spectrum is close to Kolmogorov's slope, -5/3. On the other hand, the fluctuations are highly anisotropic and intermittent perpendicular to the mean magnetic field direction. These results suggest that the foreshock is in a weakly turbulent and intermittent state in which parallel propagating Alfven waves interact with one another, resulting in the phase coherence or the intermittency

  2. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gloag

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  3. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  4. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  5. Observation of a flare-generated shock wave at 9.7 AU by Pioneer 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.; Collard, H.R.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.; Warwick, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The period March 15 to May 15, 1976, was declared in advance to be the internationally recognized Study of Traveling Interplanetary Phenomena Interval II. A variety of ground- and space-based equipment was requested to make coordinated studies during this part of the minimum of solar cycle 20. Following an absence of solar activity for a long period, several type II radio bursts on March 20, 1976, produced by two solar flares behind the east limb heralded a series of solar interplanetary, and terrestrial events. These solar radio astronomical observations were followed by non-Io-associated radio emission from Jupiter and solar wind plasma detection at Pioneer 10 at 9.7 AU of an apparent shock wave on March 30 and April 9, 1976, respectively. In view of the fact that the solar flares on March 20 were essentially at central meridian with respect to Jupiter and Pioneer 10 and also that the sun was extremely inactive prior to that date we consider the circumstantial evidence that at least one solar-flare-generated shock wave propagated to the position of Pioneer 10. The average velocities of this shock wave, together with the inferred type II velocity, support previous observations and theory concerning the rapid deceleration and survival of interplanetary shock waves to distances at least as large as approx.10 AU. It is therefore believed that dissipation (other than that within shocks themselves) plays an insignificant role in shock wave dynamics within the solar wind

  6. Interplanetary shock transmitted into the Earth's magnetosheath: Cluster and Double Star observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pallocchia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available On day 7 May 2005, the plasma instruments on board Double Star TC1 and Cluster SC3 spacecraft register inside the magnetosheath, at 19:15:12 and 19:16:20 UT, respectively, a strong pressure pulse due to the impact of an interplanetary shock wave (IS on the terrestrial bow shock. The analysis of this event provides clear and quantitative evidences confirming and strengthening some results given by past simulations and observational studies. In fact, here we show that the transmitted shock is slowed down with respect to the incident IS (in the Earth's reference frame and that, besides the transmitted shock, the IS – bow shock interaction generates a second discontinuity. Moreover, supported also by a special set three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we discuss, as further effects of the interaction of the IS with the magnetosphere, other two interesting aspects of the present event, that is: the TC1 double crossing of the bow shock (observed few minutes after the impact of the IS and the presence, only in the SC3 data, of a third discontinuity produced inside the magnetosheath.

  7. Multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts at 1350 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenghuan; Zhang, Youxue

    2018-05-01

    Nine successful diffusion couple experiments were conducted in an 8-component SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O system at ∼1350 °C and at 1 GPa, to study multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts. At least 3 traverses were measured to obtain diffusion profiles for each experiment. Multicomponent diffusion matrix at 1350 °C was obtained by simultaneously fitting diffusion profiles of diffusion couple experiments. Furthermore, in order to better constrain the diffusion matrix and reconcile mineral dissolution data, mineral dissolution experiments in the literature and diffusion couple experiments from this study, were fit together. All features of diffusion profiles in both diffusion couple and mineral dissolution experiments were well reproduced by the diffusion matrix. Diffusion mechanism is inferred from eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix, and it shows that the diffusive exchange between network-formers SiO2 and Al2O3 is the slowest, the exchange of SiO2 with other oxide components is the second slowest with an eigenvalue that is only ∼10% larger, then the exchange between divalent oxide components and all the other oxide components is the third slowest with an eigenvalue that is twice the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of FeO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the fourth slowest with an eigenvalue that is 5 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of MgO with FeO + CaO is the third fastest with an eigenvalue that is 6.3 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of CaO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the second fastest with an eigenvalue that is 7.5 times the smallest eigenvalue, and the exchange of Na2O with all other oxide components is the fastest with an eigenvalue that is 31 times the smallest eigenvalue. The slowest and fastest eigenvectors are consistent with those for simpler systems in most literature. The obtained diffusion matrix was successfully applied to predict diffusion profiles during

  8. Petrogenesis of basalt-trachyte lavas from Olmoti Crater, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C., III; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    Olmoti Crater is part of the Plio-Pleistocene Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH) in northern Tanzania to the south of Gregory Rift. The Gregory Rift is part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) that stretches some 4000 km from the Read Sea and Gulf of Aden in the north to the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Here, we (1) characterize the chemistry and mineral compositions of lavas from Olmoti Crater, (2) determine the age and duration of Olmoti volcanic activity through 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Olmoti Crater wall lavas and (3) determine the genesis of Olmoti lavas and the relationship to other NVH and EARS volcanics and (4) their correlation with volcanics in the Olduvai and Laetoli stratigraphic sequences. Olmoti lavas collected from the lower part of the exposed crater wall section (OLS) range from basalt to trachyandesite whereas the upper part of the section (OUS) is trachytic. Petrography and major and trace element data reflect a very low degree partial melt origin for the Olmoti lavas, presumably of peridotite, followed by extensive fractionation. The 87Sr/ 86Sr data overlap whereas Nd and Pb isotope data are distinct between OLS and OUS samples. Interpretation of the isotope data suggests mixing of enriched mantle (EM I) with high-μ-like reservoirs, consistent with the model of Bell and Blenkinsop [Bell, K., Blenkinsop, J., 1987. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of East African carbonatites: implications for mantle heterogeneity. Geology 5, 99-102] for East African carbonatite lavas. The isotope ratios are within the range of values defined by Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB) globally and moderate normalized Tb/Yb ratios (2.3-1.6) in these lavas suggest melting in the lithospheric mantle consistent with other studies in the region. 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental-heating analyses of matrix and anorthoclase separates from Olmoti OLS and OUS lavas indicate that volcanic activity was short in duration, lasting ˜200 kyr from 2.01 ± 0.03 Ma to 1.80 ± 0

  9. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.

  10. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  11. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  12. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  13. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  14. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  15. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  16. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  17. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  18. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  19. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-. Cretaceous are ... produce a new scene that has the best of orig- ... developed from an olivine basalt parent magma, ..... Marcelino E, Formaggio A and Maeda E 2009 Landslide.

  20. Petrology of dune sand derived from basalt on the Ka'u Desert, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Dune sand from the Ka'u Desert, southwest flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is moderately well-sorted (median = 1.60 Phi, deviation = 0.60, skewness = 0.25, kurtosis = 0.68) and composed mostly of frosted subangular particles of basalt glass ('unfractionated' olivine-normative tholeitte), olivine, lithic fragments (subophitic and intersertal basalts; magnetite-ilmenite-rich basalts), reticular basalt glass, magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase, in approximately that order of abundance. Quantitative lithological comparison of the dune sand with sand-sized ash from the Keanakakoi Formation supports suggestions that the dune sand was derived largely from Keanakakoi ash. The dune sand is too well sorted to have been emplaced in its present form by base-surge but could have evolved by post-eruption reworking of the ash.

  1. Mineral chemistry of Carlsberg Ridge basalts at 3 degrees 35'- 3 degrees 41' N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    (approximately 91 mole %) are few and rarely zoned. The composition of plagioclase and olivine indicate low pressure equilibrium crystallization. The basalts were probably derived through fractional crystallization at shallow depths under low partial melting...

  2. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  3. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  4. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Timiş district and between 539–958 respectively, in case of the Racoş basalts (Braşov district. There is a certain variation of the hardness within the same sample, in various measurement points, within the theoretical limits of the hardnesses of the pyroxenes and that of the spinels.

  5. A note on sulphide-oxide mineralisation in Carlsberg Ridge basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Pillow basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge at 3 degrees 35'N contain disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite. The euhedral shape of the pyrite grains indicate them to be early formed and grown unobstructed while magnetite occurs as skeletal...

  6. Coupled geomechanical/hydrological modeling: an overview of basalt waste isolation project studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Case, J.B.; Patricio, J.G.

    1980-07-01

    Basalt Waste Isolation Project investigations of the Columbia River basalts are multi-disciplinary in nature with a broad scope spanning such areas as geology, seismology, geochemistry, hydrology, rock mechanics, and many other disciplines as well. In this paper, an overview is presented which surveys recent work on numerical modeling of geomechanical and hydrological processes in a basalt rock environment. A major objective of the ongoing numerical modeling work is to establish a predictive technology base with which to: interpret the interrelationships between geomechanical behavior of rock media, the natural hydrologic phenomena, and repository conditions; evaluate the effectiveness of preconceptual repository designs and assist in the design of in situ field testing; and assess the waste isolation capability of candidate host rocks within the Columbia River basalts. To accomplish this objective, a systems approach has been adopted which is based on the use of digital simulation models

  7. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  8. Enhancement of interfacial properties of basalt fiber reinforced nylon 6 matrix composites with silane coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work solution surface treatment was applied for producing basalt fiber reinforced PA6 matrix composites. Beyond scanning electron microscopy, static and dynamic mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical analysis of composites was used for qualifying the interfacial adhesion in a wide temperature range. The loss factor peak height of loss factor is particularly important, because it is in close relationship with the mobility of polymer molecular chain segments and side groups, hence it correlates with the number and strength of primary or secondary bondings established between the matrix and the basalt fibers. It was proven, that the interfacial adhesion between basalt fibers and polyamide can be largely improved by the application of silane coupling agents in the entire usage temperature range of composites. The presence of coupling agents on the surface of basalt fibers was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The best results were obtained by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent.

  9. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, which allows a shape to be formed prior to the cure, and is then pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Basalt fibers are used for the reinforcement in the composite system. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material.

  10. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  12. Sepsis and septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  13. Geological remote sensing signatures of terrestrial impact craters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, J.B.; Schnetzler, C.; Grieve, R.A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Geological remote sensing techniques can be used to investigate structural, depositional, and shock metamorphic effects associated with hypervelocity impact structures, some of which may be linked to global Earth system catastrophies. Although detailed laboratory and field investigations are necessary to establish conclusive evidence of an impact origin for suspected crater landforms, the synoptic perspective provided by various remote sensing systems can often serve as a pathfinder to key deposits which can then be targetted for intensive field study. In addition, remote sensing imagery can be used as a tool in the search for impact and other catastrophic explosion landforms on the basis of localized disruption and anomaly patterns. In order to reconstruct original dimensions of large, complex impact features in isolated, inaccessible regions, remote sensing imagery can be used to make preliminary estimates in the absence of field geophysical surveys. The experienced gained from two decades of planetary remote sensing of impact craters on the terrestrial planets, as well as the techniques developed for recognizing stages of degradation and initial crater morphology, can now be applied to the problem of discovering and studying eroded impact landforms on Earth. Preliminary results of remote sensing analyses of a set of terrestrial impact features in various states of degradation, geologic settings, and for a broad range of diameters and hence energies of formation are summarized. The intention is to develop a database of remote sensing signatures for catastrophic impact landforms which can then be used in EOS-era global surveys as the basis for locating the possibly hundreds of missing impact structures

  14. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  15. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  16. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  17. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  18. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  19. Corrosion of ferrous materials in a basaltic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The results of corrosion tests on A27 cast low-carbon steel are discussed. The corrosion performance of these materials was tested in condensed systems at temperature ranging from 50 C to 200 C and in air-steam mixtures between 150 C and 300 C. The groundwater used was a deoxygenated mild sodium chloride solution. When used, the packing material was 75 percent crushed basalt and 25 percent Wyoming sodium bentonite. In synthetic groundwater corrosion rates for both cast carbon steel and A387 steel in saturated packing and air-steam mixtures were low; maximum rates of 9 μm/a for A27 steel and 1.8 μm/a for A387 steel were observed. These maximum rates were observed at intermediate temperatures because of the formation of non-protective corrosion films. In A27 steel magnetite was the principal corrosion product, with non-protective siderite observed at 100 C. Pits were difficult to produce in saturated packing in A27 steel and did not grow. In air-steam mixtures corrosion rates of both steels were again very low, less than 1 μm/a. Magnetite and small amounts of hematite were detected in corrosion product films

  20. Off-gassing induced tracer release from molten basalt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Callow, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification (ISV) field tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1990 to assess ISV suitability for long-term stabilization of buried waste that contains transuranic and other radionuclide contaminants. The ISV process uses electrical resistance heating to melt buried waste and soil in place, which upon cooldown and resolidification fixes the waste into a vitrified (glass-like) form. In these two ISV field tests, small quantities of rare-earth oxides (tracers DY 2 O 3 , Yb 2 O 3 , and Tb 4 O 7 ) were placed in the test pits to simulate the presence of plutonium oxides and assess plutonium retention/release behavior. The analysis presented in this report indicates that dissolution of tracer oxides into basaltic melts can be expected with subsequent tracer molecular or microparticle carry-off by escaping gas bubbles, which is similar to adsorptive bubble separation and ion flotation processes employed in the chemical industry to separate dilute heavy species from liquids under gas sparging conditions. Gaseous bubble escape from the melt surface and associated aerosolization is believed to be responsible for small quantities of tracer ejection from the melt surface to the cover hood and off-gas collection system. Methods of controlling off-gassing during ISV would be expected to improve the overall retention of such heavy oxide contaminants during melting/vitrification of buried waste

  1. Underground engineering at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A special task group was organized by the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council to address issues relating to the geotechnical site characterization program for an underground facility to house high-level radioactive waste of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Intended to provide an overview of the geotechnical program, the study was carried out by a task group consisting of ten members with expertise in the many disciplines required to successfully complete such a project. The task group recognized from the outset that the short time frame of this study would limit its ability to address all geotechnical issues in detail. Geotechnical issues were considered to range from specific technical aspects such as in-situ testing for rock mass permeability; rock hardness testing in the laboratory; or geologic characterizations and quantification of joints, to broader aspects of design philosophy, data collection, and treatment of uncertainty. The task group chose to focus on the broader aspects of underground design and construction, recognizing that the BWIP program utilizes a peer review group on a regular basis which reviews the specific technical questions related to geotechnical engineering. In this way, it was hoped that the review provided by the task group would complement those prepared by the BWIP peer review group

  2. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Masahiko; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1991-01-10

    The noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea. We find a systematic enrichment in {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne relative to {sup 22}Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth. (author).

  3. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  4. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  5. Single and Multi-Date Landsat Classifications of Basalt to Support Soil Survey Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Basalt outcrops are significant features in the Western United States and consistently present challenges to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil mapping efforts. Current soil survey methods to estimate basalt outcrops involve field transects and are impractical for mapping regionally extensive areas. The purpose of this research was to investigate remote sensing methods to effectively determine the presence of basalt rock outcrops. Five Landsat 5 TM scenes (path 39, row 29 over the year 2007 growing season were processed and analyzed to detect and quantify basalt outcrops across the Clark Area Soil Survey, ID, USA (4,570 km2. The Robust Classification Method (RCM using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method and Random Forest (RF classifications was applied to individual scenes and to a multitemporal stack of the five images. The highest performing RCM basalt classification was obtained using the 18 July scene, which yielded an overall accuracy of 60.45%. The RF classifications applied to the same datasets yielded slightly better overall classification rates when using the multitemporal stack (72.35% than when using the 18 July scene (71.13% and the same rate of successfully predicting basalt (61.76% using out-of-bag sampling. For optimal RCM and RF classifications, uncertainty tended to be lowest in irrigated areas; however, the RCM uncertainty map included more extensive areas of low uncertainty that also encompassed forested hillslopes and riparian areas. RCM uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of bright soil reflectance, while RF uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of shadows. Quantification of basalt requires continued investigation to reduce the influence of vegetation, lichen and loess on basalt detection. With further development, remote sensing tools have the potential to support soil survey mapping of lava fields covering expansive areas in the Western United States and other regions of the world with similar

  6. NEW GEOCHEMICAL DATA OF BASALTS IN THE TSOROIDOG AREA, CENTRAL MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oyunchimeg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, geochemical data are widely used for reconstructing geodynamic settings, especially, volcanic rocks of mafic composition, i.e., basalts, because they are widespread in many orogenic belts and are indicative of different geodynamic environments. In general, we propose the reconstruction of the tectonic settings of basalts according to their relationships with associated ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS sediments, their petrogenesis and their geochemical features.

  7. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-11-19

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang-Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4-3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40-0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23-0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4-3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3-3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60-1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30-0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment-magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

  8. Material toughness, internal structure, and caldera-collapse frequencies in basaltic and composite edifices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Agust [Department of Earth Sciences, Queen' s Building, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 OEX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.gudmundsson@es.rhul.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    Formation of, and slip on existing, collapse calderas is much more common in basaltic edifices than in composite edifices. I suggest that this difference is partly due to the composite edifices being tougher and more resistant to ring-fault formation than a basaltic edifices. The high matieral toughness of composite edifices is related to their being composed of rock layers with widely different elastic properties, the elastic mismatch promoting deflection and/or arrest of potential ring faults at layer contacts.

  9. A study of the thermostimulated evolution of labelled hydrogen sulfide from the leached basalt fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznov, A.V.; Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Bekman, I.N.

    1991-01-01

    Thermostimulated separation of labelled hydrogen sulfide from basalt fibers leached by hydrochloric acid is investigated by the method of radioactive tracers. It is shown that the type of H 2 35 S thermosorption spectrum depends on the presence of water traces in a fibrous adsrobent. Formal order and activation energy of thermodesorption of labelled hydrogen sulfide as well as inhomogeneity of porous structure of adsorbents based on basalt fibers are established

  10. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  11. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  12. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  13. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  14. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  15. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, heat transfer and rock-waste compatibility studies conducted by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company to evaluate the feasibility of storing nuclear wastes in caverns mined out into the Columbia River basalts are discussed. The succession of Columbia River Plateau flood basalts was sampled at various outcrops and in core holes and the samples were analyzed to develop a stratigraphic correlation of the various basalt units and sedimentary interbeds. Hydrologic tests were made in one bore hole to assess the degree of isolation in the various deep aquifers separated by thick basalt accumulations. Earthquake and tectonic studies were conducted to assess the tectonic stability of the Columbia River Plateau. Studies were made to evaluate the extent of heat dissipation from stored radioactive wastes. Geochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the compatibility between the radioactive wastes and the basalt host rocks. Data obtained to-date have allowed development of a hydrostratigraphic framework for the Columbia River Plateau and a preliminary understanding of the deep aquifer systems. Finally, the compilation of this information has served as a basis for planning the studies necessary to define the effectiveness of the Columbia River basalts for permanently isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere

  16. Basaltic material in the main belt: a tale of two (or more) parent bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Lazzaro, D.; Fulvio, D.; Perna, D.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Medeiros, H.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-06-01

    The majority of basaltic objects in the main belt are dynamically connected to Vesta, the largest differentiated asteroid known. Others, due to their current orbital parameters, cannot be easily dynamically linked to Vesta. This is particularly true for all the basaltic asteroids located beyond 2.5 au, where lies the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. In order to investigate the presence of other V-type asteroids in the middle and outer main belt (MOVs) we started an observational campaign to spectroscopically characterize in the visible range MOV candidates. We observed 18 basaltic candidates from TNG and ESO - NTT between 2015 and 2016. We derived spectral parameters using the same approach adopted in our recent statistical analysis and we compared our data with orbital parameters to look for possible clusters of MOVs in the main belt, symptomatic for a new basaltic family. Our analysis seemed to point out that MOVs show different spectral parameters respect to other basaltic bodies in the main belt, which could account for a diverse mineralogy than Vesta; moreover, some of them belong to the Eos family, suggesting the possibility of another basaltic progenitor. This could have strong repercussions on the temperature gradient present in the early Solar System, and on our current understanding of differentiation processes.

  17. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO 2 . The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  18. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan, E-mail: O.Copuroglu@CiTG.TUDelft.NL [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Materials and Environment, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN, Delft (Netherlands); Andic-Cakir, Ozge [Ege University, Civil Engineering Dept., 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M. [Geological Survey of Norway, Dept. of Mineral Characterization, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kuehnel, Radko [Burgemeester Merkusstraat 5, 2645 NJ, Delfgauw (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO{sub 2}. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  19. The durability of fired brick incorporating textile factory waste ash and basaltic pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binici, Hanifi [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Univ., Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Yardim, Yavuz [Epoka Univ., Tirana (Albania). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2012-07-15

    This study investigates the durability of fired brick produced with additives of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice. The effects of incorporating waste ash and basaltic pumice on durability and mechanical properties of the clay bricks were studied. Samples were produced with different ratios of the textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice added and at different fire temperatures of 700, 900, and 1 050 C for 8 h. The bricks with additives were produced by adding equal amounts of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice, separately and together, with rates of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The produced samples were kept one year in sodium sulphate and sodium nitrate and tested under freezing - unfreezing and drying - wetting conditions. Then compression strength and mass loss of the samples with and without additives were investigated. The test results were compared with standards and results obtained from control specimens. The results showed that incorporations up to 10 wt.% of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice is beneficial to the fired brick. Both textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice were suitable additives and could be used for more durable clay brick production at 900 C fire temperature. (orig.)

  20. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO