WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial residue exposure

  1. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  2. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  3. Advancements in cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating of terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, K. F.; Jourdan, F.; Danišík, M.; Evans, N. J.

    2017-11-01

    Cosmogenic exposure dating of Ca-rich minerals using 38Ar on terrestrial rocks could be a valuable new dating tool to determine timescales of geological surface processes on Earth. Here, we show that advancement in analytical precision, using the new generation multi-collector ARGUSVI mass spectrometer on irradiated pyroxene and apatite samples, allows determination of cosmogenic 38Ar abundances above background values, as well as discrimination of 38Ar/36Ar ratios (1σ absolute precision of ±0.3%) from the non-cosmogenic background value. Four statistically significant cosmochron (38Ar/36Ar vs37Ar/36Ar) diagrams could be constructed for southeast Australian pyroxene samples from the Mt Elephant scoria cone for which a combined apparent exposure age of 313 ± 179 ka (2σ) was obtained when using a 38Ar production rate (Ca) of 250 atoms /g Ca/ yr. This exposure age overlaps within error with the known 40Ar/39Ar eruption age of 184 ± 15 ka (2σ). Although apatite shows much larger 38Ar abundances than pyroxene, our modelling and analyses of unirradiated apatite suggest that apatite suffers from both natural and reactor-derived chlorogenic as well as natural nucleogenic contributions of 38Ar. Hence, we suggest that cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating on irradiated Ca-rich (and eventually K-rich), but Cl-free, terrestrial minerals is a potential valuable and accessible tool to determine geological surface processes on timescales of a few Ma. Calculations show that with the new generation multi-collector mass spectrometers an analytical uncertainty better than 5% (2σ) can be achieved on samples with expected exposure ages of >4 Ma.

  4. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  5. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Tim; Wölfel, Maximilian; Ciba, Manuel; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-12-19

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health. In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17W/kg and 2.21W/kg were applied. In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  7. [Miscellaneous memos related to Terrestrial Residual Ecological Risk (TRER) Clearance: Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains a variety of correspondences related to the Terrestrial Residual Ecological Risk (TRER) soil sampling program, under the guidance of the...

  8. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  9. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...

  10. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... will be applicable over the last 100 ka. The method is ideally suited to in situ measurement using existing technology developed for space applications, and so offers for the first time the realistic possibility of direct determination of exposure ages of young non-terrestrial surfaces....

  11. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  12. Silver nanoparticle exposure causes apoptotic response in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapied, Emmanuel; Moudilou, Elara; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie; Oughton, Deborah Helen; Joner, Erik Jautris

    2010-08-01

    In terrestrial ecotoxicology there is a serious lack of data for potential hazards posed by engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This is partly due to complex interactions between ENPs and the soil matrix, but also to the lack of suitable toxicological end points in organisms that are exposed to ENPs in a relevant manner. Earthworms are key organisms in terrestrial ecosystems, but so far only physiological end points of low sensitivity have been used in ecotoxicity studies with ENPs. We exposed the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to silver nanoparticles and measured their impact on apoptosis in different tissues. Increased apoptotic activity was detected in a range of tissues both at acute and sublethal concentrations (down to 4 mg/kg soil). Comparing exposure in water and soil showed reduced bioavailability in soil reflected in the apoptotic response. Apoptosis appears to be a sensitive end point and potentially a powerful tool for quantifying environmental hazards of ENPs.

  13. Can plastic bag derived-microplastics act as vectors for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Hodson, Mark; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A.; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda; Thorpe, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics are widely reported contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems and studies have shown that they can be ingested by aquatic organisms and lead to potential negative effects on health. The effects can arise from the physical effects of the plastics (e.g. food displacement and blockages of the digestive tract) and from their potential to adsorb contaminants, primarily organic compounds, resulting in an increased exposure of the organism to toxic contaminants. Studies are beginning to emerge that also show a high abundance of microplastics in the terrestrial environment but there remains a lack of data on the impacts of these terrestrial microplastics or their interaction with other terrestrial pollutants. We conducted Zn adsorption experiments using HDPE microplastics, derived from plastic bags. Zinc adsorption to microplastics was similar to that observed in soils, but in the presence of both soil and microplastics, preferential adsorption onto the soil was observed. In desorption experiments, desorption of Zn from microplastics and soils was minimal (microplastics compared to 2 - 15 % for the soils. In earthworm exposure experiments Lumbricus terrestris earthworms cultivated in soils containing 0.35% by mass of Zn-bearing plastic (236 - 4505 mg kg-1) ingested the microplastics with no evidence for either preferential feeding or avoidance. There was no evidence for an accumulation of the microplastics in the earthworm gut or for signs of toxicity. Our experiments demonstrate that earthworms will ingest microplastics and that microplastics can adsorb metals and act as vectors for metal exposure in soil invertebrates. However, for Zn, the risk associated with this exposure appears to be minimal.

  14. Estimation of internal and external exposures of terrestrial reference organisms to natural radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J M [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Proehl, G [GSF, Postfach 1129, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Taranenko, V [GSF, Postfach 1129, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, an estimation of the doses absorbed by terrestrial reference organisms due to naturally occurring radionuclides is described. For terrestrial organisms under normal circumstances, external exposure is estimated to be of the order of 0.1-0.4 mGy a{sup -1}, depending on size and habitat, and the main contributor is {sup 40}K. Internal background exposures of terrestrial organisms are more variable. Again, {sup 40}K is an important contributor giving doses of the order of 0.3 mGy a{sup -1}. The exposures of muscles and plant tissues to uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium are lower, but liver, bone and kidney may be exposed at levels of 0.1-1 mGy a{sup -1} absorbed dose. There can also be significant increases in the received dose under specific environmental conditions as is the case for burrowing mammals that receive relatively high lung doses due to the inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  15. Effects of chronic exposure to clothianidin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Basley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L. terrestris individuals. We undertook three separate experiments, each with different exposure routes: treated soil only (experiment A, treated food and soil combined (experiment B and treated food only (experiment C. Mortality was negatively affected by exposure from treated soil only with greatest mortality observed in the groups exposed to the two highest concentrations (20 ppb and 100 ppb, but no clear effect on mortality was found in the other two experiments. When clothianidin was present in the food, an anti-feedant effect was present in months one and two which subsequently disappeared; if this occurs in the field, it could result in reduced rates of decomposition of treated crop foliage. We found no significant effects of any treatment on worm body mass. We cannot rule out stronger adverse effects if worms come into close proximity to treated seeds, or if other aspects of fitness were examined. Overall, our data suggest that field-realistic exposure to clothianidin has a significant but temporary effect on food consumption and can have weak but significant impacts on mortality of L. terrestris.

  16. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background The abundant use of tetracycline antibiotics in veterinary medicine may result in the presence of their residues in milk at unsafe concentrations that can adversely affect public health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of tetracycline residue (TET) intake via milk consumption amongst different age groups of human consumers in Iran. Methods To quantify the drug residues, HPLC analysis was performed under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 355?nm. Milk c...

  17. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Butinof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880. A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  18. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Radiometric Correction of Terrestrial LiDAR Data for Mapping of Harvest Residues Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Koenig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In precision agriculture detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role. Laser scanning already has been used to describe in-field variations of plant growth in 3D and over time and can serve as valuable complementary topographic data set for remote sensing, such as deriving soil properties from hyperspectral sensors. In this study full-waveform laser scanning data acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 instrument is used to classify 3D point clouds into post-harvest straw residues and bare soil. A workflow for point cloud based classification is presented using radiometric and geometric point features. A radiometric correction is performed by using a range-correction function f(r, which is derived from lab experiments with a reference target of known reflectance. Thereafter, the corrected signal amplitude and local height features are explored with respect to the target classes. The following procedure includes feature calculation, decision tree analysis, point cloud classification and finally result validation using detailed classified reference RGB images. The classification tree separates the classes of harvest residues and bare soil with an accuracy of 96% by using geometric and radiometric features. The LiDAR-derived harvest residue coverage value of 75% lies in accordance with the image-based reference (coverage of 68%. The results indicate the high potential of radiometric features for natural surface classification, particularly in combination with geometric features.

  20. Metal distribution and metallothionein induction after cadmium exposure in the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispard, Florian; Schuler, Dietmar; de Vaufleury, Annette; Scheifler, Renaud; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd2+ exposure on metallothionein (MT) induction and on the distribution of metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in the terrestrial pulmonate Helix aspersa. In particular, the soluble and nonsoluble pools of the accumulated metals and their tissue distribution in uncontaminated and contaminated edible snails were investigated after a two-week exposure to Cd2+. In the soluble cytosolic pool of the midgut gland of H. aspersa, three metal-specific putative MT isoforms were separated following a fractionation protocol with diethylaminoethyl cellulose, size-exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Interestingly, one of the above isoforms seems to bind both Cd and Cu, which may in addition mobilize, after induction by Cd2+, some of the intracellular Cu and, thus, perhaps increase the Cu pool in the cytosolic fraction. The cDNA and its translated amino acid sequence of a Cd2+-binding MT isoform from the snail midgut gland was characterized and attributed to one of the putative MT isoforms obtained by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of this Cd-MT isoform of H. aspersa differed from similar sequences described in other terrestrial pulmonates, such as Helix pomatia or Arianta arbustorum, by only a few amino acids (n = 4 and 8, respectively). That the identified Cd-MT from H. aspersa is inducible by Cd2+ also was shown, chromatographic evidence aside, by a specific polymerase chain reaction protocol on a cDNA basis, which included a noninducible housekeeping gene as a control.

  1. Modelling chronic exposure to contaminated soil: a toxicokinetic approach with the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Frédéric; de Vaufleury, Annette; Douay, Francis; Scheifler, Renaud; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2006-09-01

    To enlarge the possibilities of using organisms of the soil fauna to assess the bioaccumulative potential of chemicals, the kinetic of soil cadmium (Cd) transfer to the terrestrial gastropod Helix aspersa was investigated under laboratory conditions during a long-term experiment (6 months). During the exposure phase (3 months), juvenile snails were subjected to three different concentrations of Cd spiked in artificial ISO soil (ISO 0, 20 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)) and to a field soil (ME4) industrially contaminated by 20 mg Cd kg (-1). For both soils, internal steady-state Cd concentrations were reached in the viscera of the snails, the main storage organ for Cd, after 2 weeks of exposure whatever the Cd concentration in soil. The equilibrium concentrations in the viscera were 0.7 (+/-0.1), 11.3 (+/-2.4), 73.3 (+/-4.8) and 6.3 (+/-1.3) mg Cd kg(-1) dry mass for ISO 0, ISO 20, ISO 100 and ME4, respectively. During the depuration phase (3 months), from 0 to 52% of the accumulated Cd in the viscera were removed by excretion or relocation in the foot. However, the snails were not able to depurate down to initial concentrations. Data were modelled by integrating a specific growth rate constant into one-compartment toxicokinetic models. This allowed the calculation of Cd uptake rates that can be used as indicators of metal bioavailability. Since this parameter was found to be lower for snails exposed to the field soil ME4, we concluded that lower Cd bioavailability in this field soil was responsible of the lower transfer to the snails compared to the ISO 20 soil, even though they were polluted to similar extents. Internal validation showed that the toxicokinetic models could be applied for predictive purposes, promising for the development of a bioaccumulation directive for terrestrial environment.

  2. The relationship between dermal pesticide exposure by fruit harvesters and dislodgeable foliar residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, G; Leffingwell, J T; Popendorf, W

    1985-02-01

    Dermal pesticide exposure rates, expressed in mg/hr, by strawberry and blueberry harvesters and dislodgeable foliar pesticide residues were determined in 7 separate field experiments during 1981-1983 in California and Oregon. The pesticides which were studied included captan, vinclozolin, carbaryl, and methiocarb. A positive correlation between these two parameters was found and compared with literature values involving different pesticides and tree crops. The ratio between dermal exposure rate and dislodgeable foliar residues, the units of which are area/time, may have a possible use as an empirical factor for a first approximation of dermal exposure rates by fruit harvesters without the involvement of human subjects.

  3. Contaminant exposure and effects--terrestrial vertebrates database: Trends and data gaps for Atlantic Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Pearson, J.L.; Golden, N.H.; Cohen, J.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine the condition of biota in Atlantic coast estuaries, a ?Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates? database (CEE-TV) has been compiled through computerized search of published literature, review of existing databases, and solicitation of unpublished reports from conservation agencies, private groups, and universities. Summary information has been entered into the database, including species, collection date (1965-present), site coordinates, estuary name, hydrologic unit catalogue code, sample matrix, contaminant concentrations, biomarker and bioindicator responses, and reference source, utilizing a 98-field character and numeric format. Currently, the CEE-TV database contains 3699 georeferenced records representing 190 vertebrate species and >145,000 individuals residing in estuaries from Maine through Florida. This relational database can be directly queried, imported into a Geographic Information System to examine spatial patterns, identify data gaps and areas of concern, generate hypotheses, and focus ecotoxicological field assessments. Information on birds made up the vast majority (83%) of the database, with only a modicum of data on amphibians (75,000 chemical compounds in commerce, only 118 commonly measured environmental contaminants were quantified in tissues of terrestrial vertebrates. There were no CEE-TV data records in 15 of the 67 estuaries located along the Atlantic coast and Florida Gulf coast. The CEE-TV database has a number of potential applications including focusing biomonitoring efforts to generate critically needed ecotoxicological data in the numerous ?gaps? along the coast, reducing uncertainty about contaminant risk, identifying areas for mitigation, restoration or special management, and ranking ecological conditions of estuaries.

  4. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  5. Assessment of residual exposure to PCBs in metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostinelli, Jacopo; Catalani, Simona; Gaia, Alice; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-06-28

    To evaluate the occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 56 workers employed in 6 electric arc furnace steelmaking plants and 2 secondary aluminum smelting plants located in the highly industrialized area of Brescia, Northern Italy. Thirty-four PCB congeners were found in both environmental and biological samples from workers engaged in scrap yards, electric arc furnaces, casting and maintenance departments. The highest airborne PCB levels were found in the aluminum plant, even 100 times those detected in the steelwork plants. Dioxin-like PCB congeners (DL-PCBs) were poorly represented in all biological samples, whereas non Dioxin-Like PCB congeners (noDL-PCBs), in particular environmentally widespread congeners (PCB 153, 138, 180), could be detected in almost all samples. The mean total PCB serum level was 3.9 ng/ml, with a range of 1.3-10.3 ng/ml, while the geometric mean for airborne PCBs levels was 9305 pg/m3, with a range of 1138-217806 pg/m3. Despite the higher PCB values recorded in some metallurgical plant workplaces, we failed to find any significant difference between serum concentrations in workers from steel or aluminum production, even in consideration of different tasks or different job seniority, while positive association was found only according to the age of the workers. A possible explanation may be identified in the effectiveness of the individual and collective preventive measures adopted in the workplace. Assessment of the occupational exposure to such compounds, in consideration of the recent classifications as carcinogenic to humans, should be encouraged.

  6. Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program

    OpenAIRE

    Spanoghe, Pieter; Tessema, Dejene A; Steurbaut, Walter

    2012-01-01

    We assessed exposure of applicators, health risk of DDT to the applicators and evaluated the applicability of existing pesticide exposure models for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Patch sampling for dermal and personal air sampler for inhalation exposure were used in monitoring 57 applicators on the exposure assessment to DDT. The exposure of the applicators was also estimated using three exposure models. The mean actual dermal exposure was 449 mg total DDT per applicator per one house treat...

  7. Assessment of field re-entry exposure to pesticides: A dislodgeable foliar residue study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiotis, K.M.; Tsakirakis, A.N.; Richard Glass, C.; Charistou, A.N.; Anastassiadou, P.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Machera, K.

    2017-01-01

    A dislodgeable foliar residue study was conducted in greenhouse pepper and tomato on the island of Crete, Greece, following the spray application of an SC insecticide (with active substance (a.s.) tebufenozide) and an EC fungicide (a.s. bupirimate). Furthermore, for the assessment of worker exposure

  8. THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL LAWN APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This observational study examined the potential for indoor/outdoor pet dogs to be an important pathway for transporting diazinon residues into homes and onto occupants following residential lawn applications. The primary objective was to investigate the potential exposures of chi...

  9. Plastic bag derived-microplastics as a vector for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Mark Edward; Duffus-Hodson, Calum; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda Tendai; Thorpe, Karen Louise

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. 1 mm2 in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics . Desorption of the Zn was mini...

  10. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  12. Metallothionein Induction in the Coelomic Fluid of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following Heavy Metal Exposure: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are useful bioindicator organisms for soil biomonitoring. Recently the use of pollution biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated for soil monitoring and assessment. Earthworm coelomic fluid is particularly interesting from a toxicological perspective, because it is responsible for pollutant disposition and tissue distribution to the whole organism. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of heavy metal exposure on metallothionein (Mt induction in the coelomic fluid of Lumbricus terrestris in view of future use as sensitive biomarker suitable for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment. L. terrestris coelomic fluid showed a detectable Mt concentration of about 4.0±0.6 μg/mL (mean ± SEM, n=10 in basal physiological condition. When the animals were exposed to CuSO4 or CdCl2 or to a mixture of the two metals in OECD soils for 72 h, the Mt specific concentration significantly (P<0.001 increased. The Mt response in the coelomic fluid perfectly reflected the commonly used Mt response in the whole organism when the two responses were compared on the same specimens. These findings indicate the suitability of Mt determination in L. terrestris coelomic fluid as a sensitive biomarker for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment.

  13. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  14. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Toumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC and liquid chormatograhphy (LC analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc. and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg measured in the rose samples. It appears from the

  15. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  16. Dietary exposure assessment of ß-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bažulić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary screening report of the occurrence of β-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market. The intensive animal production sometimes leads to the unavoidable presence of residues of veterinary drugs in food. However, it is possible to reduce the presence of residues in foods of animal origin by using the principles of good veterinary and good manufacturing practices, continuous control of food and using risk assessment approach. Method used for determination of these antibiotics were validated according to the guidelines laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The estimated dietary exposure based on the data on average consumption of milk and the estimated concentration of amoxicillin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, cephapirin, cefazolin, cefoperazone and ceftiofur does not exceed relevant toxicological reference value (acceptable daily intake. These indicate that milk on Croatian market contain very low levels of β-lactam antibiotic residues and toxsicological risk with regard to consuming of milk could not be considered as a public health problem.

  17. Acute Exposure to Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has effects on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram, consistent with vagal nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adrian P; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Seri, Stefano; Hawken, Malcolm B; Heard, Andrew; Neasham, David; Little, Mark P; Elliott, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely used by police and emergency services around the world. The Stewart Report on mobile telephony and health raised questions about possible health effects associated with TETRA signals. This study investigates possible effects of TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in human volunteers. Blinded randomized provocation study with a standardized TETRA signal or sham exposure. In the first of two experiments, police officers had a TETRA set placed first against the left temple and then the upper-left quadrant of the chest and the electroencephalogram was recorded during rest and active cognitive processing. In the second experiment, volunteers were subject to chest exposure of TETRA whilst their electroencephalogram and heart rate variability derived from the electrocardiogram were recorded. In the first experiment, we found that exposure to TETRA had consistent neurophysiological effects on the electroencephalogram, but only during chest exposure, in a pattern suggestive of vagal nerve stimulation. In the second experiment, we observed changes in heart rate variability during exposure to TETRA but the electroencephalogram effects were not replicated. Observed effects of exposure to TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram (first experiment) and electrocardiogram are consistent with vagal nerve stimulation in the chest by TETRA. However given the small effect on heart rate variability and the lack of consistency on the electroencephalogram, it seems unlikely that this will have a significant impact on health. Long-term monitoring of the health of the police force in relation to TETRA use is on-going. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiative Transfer Study of Exposure of Terrestrial and Martian Organisms During a Large Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, J.; Smith, D. S.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo code for calculations of the transport of high-energy irradiation of the atmospheres of ancient and contemporary Earth and Mars by solar flares and stellar explosions. We have calculated the dose spectrum to which surface organisms would be exposed during a large solar flare. We include details of Compton scattering and X-ray photoabsorption and an approximate treatment of the redistribution of the incident energy to ultraviolet and visible radiation by secondary electron excitation of atmospheric molecules, and its transfer to the surface, using Rayleigh scattering and scaled terrestrial ozone distribution as examples of UV shields. We find that for thick atmospheres (column densities greater than about 100 g/cm2 much of the incident ionizing radiation can be redistributed to biologically and chemically important ultraviolet wavelengths, a significant fraction of which can reach the surface. This radiation will consist primarily of a large number of auroral-like emission bands. This result is relevant to Earth and early Mars. For contemporary Mars, most of the energy reaches the surface as X-rays due to Compton scattering and photoabsorption, with a characteristic spectrum that is essentially independent of atmospheric composition. We calculate the dose per unit flare energy for water and for a DNA action spectrum, and we estimate the frequency of biologically significant flares from the Sun at Mars as a function of time using present-day flare statistics and studies of solar proxies of various ages. The question of sterilization of exposed organisms at the Martian surface is discussed using lethal dose data for prokaryotic and eukaryotic terrestrial organisms.

  19. Allometric methodology for the assessment of radon exposures to terrestrial wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jordi.vives.i.batlle@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Copplestone, D. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [SJ Scientific Ltd, 13 Fern Bank, Cockermouth, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    A practical approach to calculate {sup 222}Rn daughter dose rates to terrestrial wildlife is presented. The method scales allometrically the relevant parameters for respiration in different species of wildlife, allowing inter-species calculation of the dose per unit radon concentration in air as simple base-and-exponent power functions of the mass. For plants, passive gas exchange through the leaf surface is assumed, also leading to specific power relationships with mass. The model generates conservative predictions in which the main contributor to the dose rate of target tissues of the respiratory system is from {alpha} radiation arising from {sup 222}Rn daughters. Tabulated {sup 222}Rn DPURn values are given for 69 species used by the England and Wales Environment Agency for habitats assessments. The approach is then applied to assess the authorised discharges of {sup 222}Rn from sites in England, demonstrating that, from a whole-body dose perspective, the biota considered are protected from effects at the population level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allometric method developed to calculate radon daughter doses to 69 species of terrestrial wildlife. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model satisfactorily compared with previous studies of lung dose rates for mammals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main contributor to the dose rate of the respiratory system is internal {alpha}-radiation from the {sup 222}Rn daughters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air immersion is the principal contributor to the external dose rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment for 7 authorised sites in England suggests that wildlife populations are adequately protected from the anthropogenic radon emissions considered in this study.

  20. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

    2010-06-09

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  1. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Postbox 55, No-1332 Oesteras (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Yu, C [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 900, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States); Copplestone, D [England and Wales Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Gaschak, S [International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Olyslaegers, G [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Radioecology Section, Radiation Protection Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Smith, J T [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  2. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58. Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%, of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%. Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%. Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple pesticide residues in live and poisoned honeybees - Preliminary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Gaweł, Marta; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej; Pohorecka, Krystyna

    2017-05-01

    Study combines data about the exposure of honeybees to pesticides from plant protection products and veterinary medicinal products. Residues of 200 pesticide and pesticide metabolites in 343 live and 74 poisoned honeybee samples, obtained during the years of 2014-2015, were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. In 44% of live honeybee 48 different pesticide residues were found, mainly amitraz metabolites (DMF, DMPF) and chlorpyrifos. In 98% of poisoned honeybee 57 pesticides and metabolites were detected, mainly chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and clothianidin. In total 84 different pesticides were detected both in live and poisoned honeybees, they indicate 30 various modes of action. Differences between mean number of pesticide residues detected in live and poisoned honeybees clearly indicate the impact of multiple pesticides on honeybee health. Possible impact of systemic fungicides on the health of honeybees was studied. Applicability of hazard quotient counted as ratio between concentration of pesticides in honeybees and lethal dose in the interpretation whether detected concentration indicates acute toxic effects was shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  6. Endocrine disruption in a terrestrial isopod under exposure to bisphenol A and vinclozin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, M.F.L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness about the possible consequences of human and wildlife exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) are EDCs which impacts on vertebrates have been largely investigated.

  7. Terrestrial exposure and effects of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide (Headline(®) Fungicide--Headline(®) Fungicide and Headline AMP(®) Fungicide are registered trademarks of BASF) is toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, these studies were performed in a laboratory setting of a worst-case direct exposure in clean media. Interception of spray by the crop canopy and ground cover used by animals for security cover will influence exposure. Thus, risk to amphibians is unclear in an environmentally realistic field environment. We tested exposure and toxicity of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide to amphibians in multiple agricultural habitat scenarios (e.g., within treated crop vs. grassy areas adjacent to crop) and at two rates during routine aerial application. Specifically, we placed Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii) and Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in enclosures located within treated and untreated corn (VT stage, approximate height = 3 m), and in the potential drift area (adjacent to treated corn) during aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide at either 731 or 1052 ml/ha (70 and 100 % the maximum application rate in corn, respectively). Mean concentrations of pyraclostrobin measured at ground level were ≤19 % of nominal application rate in all areas. Overall, mean mortality of recovered individuals of both species was ≤15 %, and mortality within Headline AMP Fungicide-treated corn (where risk was anticipated to be highest) was <10 %. It is important to understand that application timing, interception by the crop canopy (which varies both within and between crop systems), and timing of amphibian presence in the crop field influences risk of exposure and effects; however, our results demonstrate that amphibians inhabiting VT stage corn during routine aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide are at low risk for acute mortality, matching existing laboratory results from acute toxicity studies of

  8. Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bennie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in electric light usage across the globe has led to increasing presence of artificial light in natural and semi-natural ecosystems at night. This occurs both due to direct illumination and skyglow - scattered light in the atmosphere. There is increasing concern about the effects of artificial light on biological processes, biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. We combine intercalibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS images of stable night-time lights for the period 1992 to 2012 with a remotely sensed landcover product (GLC2000 to assess recent changes in exposure to artificial light at night in 43 global ecosystem types. We find that Mediterranean-climate ecosystems have experienced the greatest increases in exposure, followed by temperate ecosystems. Boreal, Arctic and montane systems experienced the lowest increases. In tropical and subtropical regions, the greatest increases are in mangroves and subtropical needleleaf and mixed forests, and in arid regions increases are mainly in forest and agricultural areas. The global ecosystems experiencing the greatest increase in exposure to artificial light are already localized and fragmented, and often of particular conservation importance due to high levels of diversity, endemism and rarity. Night time remote sensing can play a key role in identifying the extent to which natural ecosystems are exposed to light pollution.

  9. Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Exposure Measurement and Risk Estimates in the Environments of Major Industries In Ota, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abodunrin Oluwasayo Peter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When fast estimates are required, the in-situ method is more appropriate as this allows for quick results; preventing further exposure of the public and permitting quick intervention. Measurements of the terrestrial gamma radiation exposure have been carried out in the environments of major industries in Ota using a portable survey meter. The motivation for this study resulted from the uncertainty in the general public opinion on the effect of the presence, and activities of some of these industries in their environment. Measurements were taken twice daily within the vicinity of each industry to determine the dose levels. The mean values obtained range from 0.11 – 1.80 µSv/h. These values are within the results obtained from normal background areas except for site number 10. Annual effective dose values range from 0.25 – 5.21 mSv with a mean value of 1.21 mSv. Routine activities in some of these environments may have contributed significantly to the ambient natural background radiation resulting in high values as obtained in some of these locations. The total risks disparately estimated for cancer and genetic effects resulting from the results obtained range from 0.17 x 10-4 – 3.80 x 10-4 with a mean value of 0.94 x 10-4. These levels are within the range of the average annual risk for accidental death for all industries.

  10. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C K; Mendonça, M T

    2006-08-01

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  11. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  12. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miličević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  13. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  14. Spalling behavior and residual resistance of fibre reinforced Ultra-High performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Ming-Xiang; Richard Liew, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of spalling and residual mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures are presented in this paper. The compressive strength of the ultra-high performance concrete ranged from 160 MPa~185 MPa. This study aimed to discover the effective way to prevent spalling for the ultra-high performance concrete and gauge its mechanical properties after it was subjected to fire. The effects of fiber type, fiber dosage, heating rate and cur...

  15. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  16. Sensitive determination of mixtures of neonicotinoid and fungicide residues in pollen and single bumblebees using a scaled down QuEChERS method for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Botías, Cristina; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Goulson, Dave; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    To accurately estimate exposure of bees to pesticides, analytical methods are needed to enable quantification of nanogram/gram (ng/g) levels of contaminants in small samples of pollen or the individual insects. A modified QuEChERS extraction method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was tested to quantify residues of 19 commonly used neonicotinoids and fungicides and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in 100 mg samples of pollen and in samples of individual bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Final recoveries ranged from 71 to 102 % for most compounds with a repeatability of below 20 % for both pollen and bumblebee extracts spiked at 5 and 40 ng/g. The method enables the detection of all compounds at sub-ng/g levels in both matrices and the method detection limits (MDL) ranged from 0.01 to 0.84 ng/g in pollen and 0.01 to 0.96 ng/g in individual bumblebees. Using this method, mixtures of neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiacloprid) and fungicides (carbendazim, spiroxamine, boscalid, tebuconazole, prochloraz, metconazole, fluoxastrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) were detected in pollens of field bean, strawberry and raspberry at concentrations ranging from neonicotinoids and from MDL, and in some bees, the fungicides carbendazim, boscalid, tebuconazole, flusilazole and metconazole were present at concentrations between 0.80 to 30 ng/g. This new method allows the analysis of mixtures of neonicotinoids and fungicides at trace levels in small quantities of pollen and individual bumblebees and thus will facilitate exposure assessment studies.

  17. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Part of the mission of the National Park Service is to preserve the natural resources, processes, systems, and associated values of its units in an unimpaired condition. Environmental contamination and pollution processes are well recognized stressors addressed by its management policies and plans. A recent study indicates that contemporary terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data are lacking for 59 of 126 Park Service units located in coastal watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution. Based upon these findings, a more in-depth evaluation of contaminant threats and ecotoxicological data gaps related to terrestrial vertebrates was undertaken at 23 Inventory and Monitoring National Park units in National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic Networks.

  18. Incorporation of 13C labelled root-shoot residues in soil in the presence of Lumbricus terrestris: An isotopic and molecular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Alexis, Marie; Nguyen Tu, Thanh Tu; Anquetil, Christelle; Vaury, Véronique; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Litter from plant biomass deposited on soil surface can either be mineralized; releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, or transferred into the soil as organic compounds. Both pathways depend on biotic factors such as litter characteristics and the of soil organism activity. During the last decades, many studies have focused on the origin of organic matter, with a particular attention to the fate of root and shoot litter. It is generally admitted that roots decompose at a slower rate than shoots, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in soil for compounds originating from roots. Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition and carbon cycling, ingesting both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed and dejected in the form of casts at the soil surface or along earthworm burrows. The simultaneous impact of earthworms and root-shoot on soil carbon cycling is still poorly understood. This study aimed at (1) defining the rate of incorporation of root and shoot litter with or without earthworms and (2) characterizing the molecular composition of soil organic matter upon litter decomposition, after one year of experimentation. A mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass root and shoot litter in the soil, in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as surface casts, at the beginning and after 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 54 weeks of experiment. Organic carbon content and δ13C values were determined for all the samples with Elemental Analysis - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Lipid-free soil and cast samples after 54 weeks of incubation were analyzed with Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Pyrolysis products were grouped into six classes: polysaccharides, lignin derived compounds, phenols, N-compounds, aliphatic compounds and sterols. Each pyrolysis product was quantified thanks to its peak area, relative to the total area of the

  19. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  20. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium...

  2. Determination of Salbutamol Residues in Goat Various Tissues After Exposure to Growth-promoting Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujuan; Gu, Xu; Dong, Yingchao; Li, Junguo; Ni, Haiqiu; Xue, Moyong; Zhao, Zhen; Sun, Zhiwei; Qin, Yuchang

    2017-09-04

    In order to monitor salbutamol (SAL) use in goats as a repartitioning, we determined SAL residues in various tissues of goats after repeated oral SAL administration at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg daily for 21 days. SAL concentrations were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in extracts of tissues from goats sacrificed 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the last dose. Our results showed that on Day 0.25 of the withdrawal period, the residual proportions of SAL (expressed as percentage) in liver, kidney, lung, hair, stomachs and muscle were 19.5%, 15.3%, 3.3%, 9.6%, 28.2% and 0.8%, respectively. As the withdrawal time increased, the SAL concentrations in most tissues (except hair) decreased rapidly over the first 3 days and more slowly in the following 25 days. After a 28-day withdrawal period, hair, lung, muscle, liver, fat, eyes, rumen, kidney and abomasum still contained ~32.3%, 15.3%, 7.1%, 6.5%, 5.6%, 1.5%, 0.8% and 0.5% compared to the initial residual concentrations determined on Day 0.25, respectively. On withdrawal Day 28, the highest concentrations of SAL were found in hair (16.58 ± 9.48 μg/kg), followed by liver (7.01 ± 0.94 μg/kg), lung (2.81 ± 1.23 μg/kg), kidney (0.64 ± 0.56 μg/kg), whereas the concentrations in other tissues were lower than limit of quantification (0.50 μg/kg). SAL residues were not detected in bile, plasma and brain on Days 7, 7 and 3 after discontinuation of dosing. These findings indicated that the distribution and depletion rates of SAL differed between tissues. It should be noted that SAL residues in stomach were higher than those in muscles during the early withdrawal. We conclude that hair is the preferred tissue to monitor the administration of SAL to living goats, whereas liver can be used to monitor SAL in the carcass for determination of compliance with food safety regulation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  3. An assessment of the potential radiation exposure from residual radioactivity in scrap metal for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Kun Jai [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low level waste (LLW), generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. This may include operational wastes, metal and rubble, office waste and discrete items from decommissioning or decontamination operations. Materials that contain only trivial quantities of radionuclides could realistically be exempted or released from regulatory control for recycle or reuse. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection measures need not be taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests an annual effective doses of 10 {mu} Sv as a limit for the individual radiation dose. In 1990, new recommendation on radiation protection standards was developed by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Adoption of these recommendations necessitated a revision of the Commission`s secondary limits contained in Publication 30, Parts 1 {approx} 4. This study summarized the potential radiation exposure from valuable scrap metal considered to uncontrolled recycle by new ICRP recommendations. Potential exposure pathways to people following were analyzed and relevant models developed. Finally, concentrations leading to an individual dose of 10 {mu} Sv/yr were calculated for 14 key radionuclides. These potential radiation exposures are compared with the results of an IAEA study. 12 refs., 6 tabs., figs.

  4. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  5. High Temperature Exposure of HPC – Experimental Analysis of Residual Properties and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Zbyšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature exposure on properties of a newly designed High Performance Concrete (HPC is studied in the paper. The HPC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C respectively. Among the basic physical properties, bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured. The mechanical resistivity against disruptive temperature action is characterised by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. To study the chemical and physical processes in HPC during its high-temperature exposure, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA is performed. Linear thermal expansion coefficient is determined as function of temperature using thermodilatometry (TDA. In order to describe the changes in microstructure of HPC induced by high temperature loading, MIP measurement of pore size distribution is done. Increase of the total open porosity and connected decrease of the mechanical parameters for temperatures higher than 200 °C were identified.

  6. Infant With In Utero Ketamine Exposure: Quantitative Measurement of Residual Dosage in Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of ketamine exposure during late pregnancy detected by hair testing. We noted several clinical features in this case, including the infant being small for gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, remarkable hypo-tonia, and poor reflex responses. Although the mother denied the use of ketamine during the late stage of her pregnancy, significant amount of ketamine and norketamine was still found in hair samples (only 2 cm long and 25 mg from the infant.

  7. Quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in foods: implication for dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Tao, Lin; McLean, John; Lu, Chensheng

    2014-07-02

    This study quantitatively measured neonicotinoids in various foods that are common to human consumption. All fruit and vegetable samples (except nectarine and tomato) and 90% of honey samples were detected positive for at least one neonicotinoid; 72% of fruits, 45% of vegetables, and 50% of honey samples contained at least two different neonicotinoids in one sample, with imidacloprid having the highest detection rate among all samples. All pollen samples from New Zealand contained multiple neonicotinoids, and five of seven pollens from Massachusetts detected positive for imidacloprid. These results show the prevalence of low-level neonicotinoid residues in fruits, vegetables, and honey that are readily available in the market for human consumption and in the environment where honeybees forage. In light of new reports of toxicological effects in mammals, the results strengthen the importance of assessing dietary neonicotinoid intakes and the potential human health effects.

  8. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: Residue levels and inter-species differences in the accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Tang, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge is limited about the bioaccumulation of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in terrestrial wildlife. Several PHCs, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (designated as DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) were analyzed in the muscle of four terrestrial passerines, Parus major, Copsychus saularis, Pycnonotus sinensis and Pycnonotus jocosus, from a nature reserve in South China. P. major had the highest PHC concentrations, with median values of 1060, 401, 92, 25 and 0.3 ng/g lipid weight for DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE and BTBPE, respectively. Fractions of DDT in P. jocosus and PCBs 153, 118 and 180 in C. saularis were higher compared with the other species. The inter-species differences in PHC concentrations and profiles could be attributed to the differences in trophic level, diet, living habits and metabolic capacity among the birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple approach for a spatial terrestrial exposure assessment of the insecticide fenoxycarb, based on a high-resolution landscape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kai; Resseler, Herbert; Spatz, Robert; Hendley, Paul; Sweeney, Paul; Urban, Martin; Kubiak, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to refine the standard regulatory exposure scenario used in plant protection product authorisations by developing a more realistic landscape-related GIS-based exposure assessment for terrestrial non-target arthropods. We quantified the proportion of adjacent off-target area in agricultural landscapes potentially exposed to insecticide drift from applications of the active substance fenoxycarb. High-resolution imagery, landscape classification and subsequent stepwise analysis of a whole landscape using drift and interception functions were applied to selected areas in representative fruit-producing regions in Germany. Even under worst-case assumptions regarding treated area, use rate and drift, less than 12% of the non-agricultural habitat area would potentially be exposed to fenoxycarb drift above regulatory acceptable concentrations. Additionally, if the filtering effect of tall vegetation were taken into account, this number would decrease to 6.6%. Further refinements to landscape elements and application conditions indicate that less than 5% of the habitat area might be exposed above regulatory acceptable concentrations, meaning that 95% of the non-agricultural habitat area will be unimpacted (i.e. no unacceptable effects) and can serve as refuge for recolonisation. Approaches and tools are proposed for standardisable and transparent refinements in regulatory risk assessments on the landscape level. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: Summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we

  12. Mitigating N2O emissions from clover residues by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) without adverse effects on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, YunFeng; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In EU-28, temporary grasslands constitute more than 10% of the total arable land. Grassland tillage will return up to 400 kg N ha−1 in residues that can lead to a pulse of N2O emissions. Here a novel application of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) was evaluated...... cumulative N2O emissions in PL from 241 to 146 mg N m−2; the reduction in RO was smaller, from 103 to 94 mg N m−2, and not significant, possibly due to higher oxygen and soil NO3− availability. After 28 d incubation, on average > 90% of the earthworms were recovered, and in vivo N2O production from L...

  13. Chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure of children to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) through indoor residual spraying: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkentan, A O; Evans, D

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a significant public health problem in endemic regions of the world, most especially in sub-Saharan Africa. As part of the global efforts to control malaria, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a cheap and effective chemical, was endorsed by the World Health Organization for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, in the light of evidence on the acute toxicity of DDT, concerns have grown about the safety or the possible chronic health effects from the continued use of this persistent chemical, generating much debate and research efforts over the years. The purpose of this study was to identify, appraise and synthesise evidence about the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure to DDT in children, 0-18 years, in zones where IRS is practised, in order to contribute to informing policy decisions. Twenty-seven electronic databases were systematically searched using pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two were trial registers while 25 others indexed studies of various designs. Other complementary methods were also employed in searching for both published and grey literature. Eligible studies were critically appraised using amended versions of available validated guidelines (and in a case, an improvised guideline) and a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Only nine studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 3281 hits generated. Five of the studies are of high quality while four are of moderate quality. For the three studies on neurodevelopment, evidence suggestive of negative impact of DDT was found. For the three studies on endocrine/congenital disorders, ambivalent evidence existed. In the case of the immunity-related outcome, there was growing but insufficient evidence of negative effect. The only study on survival outcome was inconclusive. Empirically, insufficient evidence exists with regard to the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure of children to DDT through IRS. Considering the dearth of studies and the

  14. Adaption of the microbial community to continuous exposures of multiple residual antibiotics in sediments from a salt-water aquacultural farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiuping; Wang, Min; Chen, Yongshan; Yu, Shen; Hong, Youwei; Ma, Jun; Wu, Qian; Lin, Qiaoyin; Xu, Xiangrong

    2015-06-15

    Residual antibiotics from aquacultural farming may alter microbial community structure in aquatic environments in ways that may adversely or positively impact microbially-mediated ecological functions. This study investigated 26 ponds (26 composited samples) used to produce fish, razor clam and shrimp (farming and drying) and 2 channels (10 samples) in a saltwater aquacultural farm in southern China to characterize microbial community structure (represented by phospholipid fatty acids) in surface sediments (0-10 cm) with long-term exposure to residual antibiotics. 11 out of 14 widely-used antibiotics were quantifiable at μg kg(-1) levels in sediments but their concentrations did not statistically differ among ponds and channels, except norfloxacin in drying shrimp ponds and thiamphenicol in razor clam ponds. Concentrations of protozoan PLFAs were significantly increased in sediments from razor clam ponds while other microbial groups were similar among ponds and channels. Both canonical-correlation and stepwise-multiple-regression analyses on microbial community and residual antibiotics suggested that roxithromycin residuals were significantly related to shifts in microbial community structure in sediments. This study provided field evidence that multiple residual antibiotics at low environmental levels from aquacultural farming do not produce fundamental shifts in microbial community structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spalling behavior and residual resistance of fibre reinforced Ultra-High performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong, Ming-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of spalling and residual mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures are presented in this paper. The compressive strength of the ultra-high performance concrete ranged from 160 MPa~185 MPa. This study aimed to discover the effective way to prevent spalling for the ultra-high performance concrete and gauge its mechanical properties after it was subjected to fire. The effects of fiber type, fiber dosage, heating rate and curing condition were investigated. Test results showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the ultra-high performance concrete declined slower than those of normal strength concrete after elevated temperatures. Polypropylene fiber rather than steel fiber was found effective to prevent spalling but affected workability. The effective fiber type and dosage were recommended to prevent spalling and ensure sufficient workability for casting and pumping of the ultra-high performance concrete.En este trabajo se presentan los resultados más relevantes del trabajo experimental realizado para valorar la laminación y las propiedades mecánicas residuales de hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones tras su exposición a altas temperaturas. La resistencia a la compresión del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones osciló entre 160 MPa~185 MPa. El objetivo de este estudio fue descubrir una manera eficaz de prevenir desprendimientos y/o laminaciones en este hormigón y medir sus propiedades mecánicas después de ser sometido al fuego. Las variables estudiadas fueron la presencia y dosificación de fibras, velocidad de calentamiento y condiciones de curado. Los resultados mostraron, tras la exposición a altas temperaturas, que la resistencia a compresión y el módulo de elasticidad del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones disminuían más lento que las de un hormigón con resistencia normal. La fibra de polipropileno resultó más eficaz para prevenir

  16. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of moraines at Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada of California and slip rate estimate for the West Tahoe Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ian K. D.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2017-12-01

    Two sets of Pleistocene moraines (Tioga and Tahoe) are preserved at Cascade Lake along the west side of Lake Tahoe. The 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages for two younger Tioga moraines yield an average age of 22.3 ± 1.2 ka, coincident with the global Last Glacial Maximum. The ages suggest that the Tioga glaciation may have reached its maximum several thousand years earlier in the Lake Tahoe basin than to the south along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada. The oldest 10Be age (120 ± 8 ka) determined for an additional suite of 10 boulders exhibiting significant scatter in 10Be ages is interpreted to be the minimum age of formation for older Tahoe moraines in the Tahoe basin, suggesting they were deposited during marine oxygen isotope stage 6. The moraines at Cascade Lake are displaced by the West Tahoe Fault that strikes northward for 45 km along the western edge of the Lake Tahoe basin. Vertical displacements of the crests of the Tahoe and Tioga moraines are 59 ± 10 and 32 ± 12 m respectively. Averaged over the time since the formation of the Tahoe and Tioga moraines, the average vertical separation rates are < 0.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.7 mm/y respectively. The measured vertical separation across the broad graben on the Tioga moraine may be accentuated by its deposition on a preexisting scarp and, in this regard, the increase in slip rate since the Tioga glaciation may be apparent rather than real. The fault slip rate and accompanying horizontal rate of extension averaged over the time since the formation of the older Tahoe moraines are respectively 0.6 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm/y. The slip rate averaged over the time since emplacement of the Tahoe moraine is in general accord with prior geologic studies reporting slip rate estimates elsewhere along the fault, and the horizontal extension rate is at the lower end of extension rates estimated by others with geodesy across the Tahoe basin.

  17. Assessment of Nonoccupational Exposure to DDT in the Tropics and the North: Relevance of Uptake via Inhalation from Indoor Residual Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Roland; Scheringer, Martin; MacLeod, Matthew; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Background People who live in dwellings treated with indoor residual spraying (IRS) of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] for disease–vector control in the tropics and indigenous populations in the Arctic who comsume marine mammals experience high nonoccupational exposure to DDT. Although the use of DDT in IRS is rising, the resulting nonoccupational exposure is poorly characterized. Objectives We have provided a comparative assessment of exposure to DDT and its metabolites in the general population of the tropical and northern regions and in highly exposed populations in these regions. Methods We compiled > 600 average or median DDT concentrations from the peer-reviewed literature, representing > 23,000 individual measurements in humans, food, air, soil, and dust. We use Monte Carlo sampling of distributions based on these data to estimate distributions of population- and route-specific uptake. We evaluate our exposure estimates by comparing them with biomonitoring data. Results DDT concentrations are highest in people living in IRS-treated houses and lowest in the northern general population, differing by a factor of about 60. Inuits and the general population in the tropics have similar concentrations. Inhalation exposure explains most of the difference in concentration between the highly exposed and the general population in the Tropics. Calculated exposure levels are consistent with human biomonitoring data. Conclusions Nonoccupational inhalation exposure is a relevant exposure pathway for people living in homes treated by IRS of DDT. Continued monitoring of time trends and DDE to DDT ratios in the Tropics and in the North is needed to identify a possible slowdown in concentration decline and the influence of ongoing DDT use. PMID:21536537

  18. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  19. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  20. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hager Tarek H; Mahboub, Heba Hassan H

    2016-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP). In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates). Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone), respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 µg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping exposure to it. It is concluded that NP is a toxic

  1. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Tarek H. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP. In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates. Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone, respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 μg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping

  2. Terrestrial Dispersal and Potential Environmental Transmission of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available Dispersal and exposure to amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd is not confined to the aquatic habitat, but little is known about pathways that facilitate exposure to wild terrestrial amphibians that do not typically enter bodies of water. We explored the possible spread of Bd from an aquatic reservoir to terrestrial substrates by the emergence of recently metamorphosed infected amphibians and potential deposition of Bd-positive residue on riparian vegetation in Cusuco National Park, Honduras (CNP. Amphibians and their respective leaf perches were both sampled for Bd presence and the pathogen was detected on 76.1% (35/46 of leaves where a Bd-positive frog had rested. Although the viability of Bd detected on these leaves cannot be discerned from our quantitative PCR results, the cool air temperature, closed canopy, and high humidity of this cloud forest environment in CNP is expected to encourage pathogen persistence. High prevalence of infection (88.5% detected in the recently metamorphosed amphibians and frequent shedding of Bd-positive residue on foliage demonstrates a pathway of Bd dispersal between aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This pathway provides the opportunity for environmental transmission of Bd among and between amphibian species without direct physical contact or exposure to an aquatic habitat.

  3. Terrestrial Dispersal and Potential Environmental Transmission of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Berger, Lee; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L.; Jocque, Merlijn; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal and exposure to amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is not confined to the aquatic habitat, but little is known about pathways that facilitate exposure to wild terrestrial amphibians that do not typically enter bodies of water. We explored the possible spread of Bd from an aquatic reservoir to terrestrial substrates by the emergence of recently metamorphosed infected amphibians and potential deposition of Bd-positive residue on riparian vegetation in Cusuco National Park, Honduras (CNP). Amphibians and their respective leaf perches were both sampled for Bd presence and the pathogen was detected on 76.1% (35/46) of leaves where a Bd-positive frog had rested. Although the viability of Bd detected on these leaves cannot be discerned from our quantitative PCR results, the cool air temperature, closed canopy, and high humidity of this cloud forest environment in CNP is expected to encourage pathogen persistence. High prevalence of infection (88.5%) detected in the recently metamorphosed amphibians and frequent shedding of Bd-positive residue on foliage demonstrates a pathway of Bd dispersal between aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This pathway provides the opportunity for environmental transmission of Bd among and between amphibian species without direct physical contact or exposure to an aquatic habitat. PMID:25927835

  4. Toxic effects seen in a herd of beef cattle following exposure to ash residues contaminated by lead and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Tataruch, F; Hauser, S; Leschnik, M; Url, A; Baumgartner, W

    2007-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in three cattle along with increased mercury levels in the liver and kidney tissues of two of these animals. The clinical signs were different in each case and included salivation, anorexia, delayed menace response, delayed withdrawal reflex, head pressing, localized muscle fasciculation, reduced tongue tone, ataxia, rumen atony and seizures. Blood lead concentration was increased in all three cases to 0.76, 0.37 and 0.454ppm. Post mortem changes characteristic of lead poisoning were only recognized in one case and included cerebro-cortical oedema, cortical neuronal necrosis and endothelial proliferation, especially at the tips of the cerebral gyri. The animals were poisoned by ingestion of lead-contaminated ash residues from a bonfire. The abnormal levels of mercury in the liver and kidney tissues of two animals may also be at least partly attributable to the intake of the metal in the ash residues. The levels of mercury in the three samples from the ash residue were relatively low (1.31, 0.7 and 2.1ppm).

  5. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  6. Risk assessment of the dietary exposure to contaminants and pesticide residues in young children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Bakker, R.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Rossum, van C.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The diet of children aged 2 to 6 years in the Netherlands is safe regarding the exposure to fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, patulin (toxic compounds produced by fungi), nitrate and organophosphorus pesticides. For dioxins, that are mainly present in animal fats, there is a limited probability that an

  7. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to residual oil fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Natalia D; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O2 species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O2 species involved in lung O2 metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1h after instillation. Tissue O2 consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H2O2 and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O2 consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O2 consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H2O2 production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O2 consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O2(-) production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O2 species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety analysis of occupational exposure of healthcare workers to residual contaminations of cytotoxic drugs using FMECA security approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Laetitia Minh Mai; Reitter, Delphine; He, Sophie; Bonle, Franck Té; Launois, Amélie; Martinez, Diane; Prognon, Patrice; Caudron, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Handling cytotoxic drugs is associated with chemical contamination of workplace surfaces. The potential mutagenic, teratogenic and oncogenic properties of those drugs create a risk of occupational exposure for healthcare workers, from reception of starting materials to the preparation and administration of cytotoxic therapies. The Security Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) was used as a proactive method to assess the risks involved in the chemotherapy compounding process. FMECA was carried out by a multidisciplinary team from 2011 to 2016. Potential failure modes of the process were identified based on the Risk Priority Number (RPN) that prioritizes corrective actions. Twenty-five potential failure modes were identified. Based on RPN results, the corrective actions plan was revised annually to reduce the risk of exposure and improve practices. Since 2011, 16 specific measures were implemented successively. In six years, a cumulative RPN reduction of 626 was observed, with a decrease from 912 to 286 (-69%) despite an increase of cytotoxic compounding activity of around 23.2%. In order to anticipate and prevent occupational exposure, FMECA is a valuable tool to identify, prioritize and eliminate potential failure modes for operators involved in the cytotoxic drug preparation process before the failures occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  10. Effect of short LED lamp exposure on wear resistance, residual monomer and degree of conversion for Filtek Z250 and Tetric EvoCeram composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Hilde M; Johnsen, Gaute F; Lamolle, Sébastien; Kleven, Inger S; Wellendorf, Hanne; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-08-01

    The latest LED dental curing devices claim sufficient curing of restorative materials with short curing times. This study evaluates mechanical and chemical properties as a function of curing time of two commercial composite filling materials cured with three different LED lamps. The composites were Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the LED curing devices were bluephase 16i (Ivoclar Vivadent), L.E.Demetron II (Kerr) and Mini L.E.D. (Satelec). Control samples were cured with a QTH-lamp (VCL 400, Kerr). The wear resistance after simulated tooth brushing, degree of conversion, curing depth, and amounts of residual monomers were measured after different curing times. The results of this study show that short curing time with high-intensity LEDs may influence the bulk properties of the materials, resulting in lower curing depth and increased residual monomer content. The measured surface properties of the materials, degree of conversion and wear resistance, were not affected by short curing times to the same extent. This study demonstrates that reduced exposure time with high intensity LEDs can result in composite restorations with inferior curing depth and increased leaching of monomers. Dentists are recommended to use sufficient curing times even with high intensity LEDs to ensure adequate curing and minimize the risk of monomer leaching. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    detected trends in global primary productivity are even smaller (33 Tg-C y -2 ). Yet residual carbon balance methods infer that the terrestrial biosphere is experiencing a significant and growing carbon sink. Possible explanations for this large and growing net land sink include roles of land use change and greening of the land, regional enhancement of photosynthesis, and down regulation of plant and soil respiration with warming temperatures. Longer time series of variables needed to provide top-down and bottom-up assessments of the carbon cycle are needed to resolve these pressing and unresolved issues regarding how, why, and at what rates gross and net carbon fluxes are changing.

  12. Short-term exposure of mice to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash produces proximal airspace enlargements and airway epithelium remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.C. Biselli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with inflammatory cell reactions, tissue destruction and lung remodeling. Many signaling pathways for these phenomena are still to be identified. We developed a mouse model of COPD to evaluate some pathophysiological mechanisms acting during the initial stage of the disease. Forty-seven 6- to 8-week-old female C57/BL6 mice (approximately 22 g were exposed for 2 months to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash (ROFA, a concentrate of air pollution. We measured lung mechanics, airspace enlargement, airway wall thickness, epithelial cell profile, elastic and collagen fiber deposition, and by immunohistochemistry transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, macrophage elastase (MMP12, neutrophils and macrophages. We observed regional airspace enlargements near terminal bronchioles associated with the exposure to smoke or ROFA. There were also increases in airway resistance and thickening of airway walls in animals exposed to smoke. In the epithelium, we noted a decrease in the ciliated cell area of animals exposed to smoke and an increase in the total cell area associated with exposure to both smoke and ROFA. There was also an increase in the expression of TGF-β1 both in the airways and parenchyma of animals exposed to smoke. However, we could not detect inflammatory cell recruitment, increases in MMP12 or elastic and collagen fiber deposition. After 2 months of exposure to cigarette smoke and/or ROFA, mice developed regional airspace enlargements and airway epithelium remodeling, although no inflammation or increases in fiber deposition were detected. Some of these phenomena may have been mediated by TGF-β1.

  13. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmick, Danika M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Hopkins, William A; Rowe, Christopher L

    2007-02-01

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs), largely derived from coal-fired electrical generation, are rich in numerous trace elements that have the potential to induce sublethal effects including oxidative stress, alterations in antioxidant status and DNA single strand breaks (SSB). CCRs are frequently discharged into natural and man-made aquatic systems. As the effects of CCRs have received relatively little attention in estuarine systems, the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was chosen for this study. Grass shrimp were exposed in the laboratory to CCR-enriched sediments and food over a full life cycle. Survival to metamorphosis was significantly reduced in CCR-exposed larvae (17+/-4 versus 70+/-13% in the controls) but not in the juveniles or adults. The COMET assay, a general but sensitive assay for genotoxicity, was used to quantify DNA SSB in the adults. Total antioxidant potential was examined to assess the overall antioxidant scavenging capacity of CCR-exposed and non-exposed adult grass shrimp. Grass shrimp exposed to CCR significantly accumulated selenium and cadmium compared to unexposed shrimp, although an inverse relationship was seen for mercury accumulation. Chronic CCR exposure caused DNA SSB in hepatopancreas cells, as evidenced by the significantly increased percent tail DNA, tail moment, and tail length as compared to reference shrimp. However, no significant difference was observed in total antioxidant potential. Our findings suggest that genotoxicity may be an important mode of toxicity of CCR, and that DNA SSB may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure and effect of this very common, complex waste stream.

  14. Solid-phase microextraction to predict bioavailability and accumulation of organic micropollutants in terrestrial organisms after exposure to a field-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Leon; Jager, Tjalling; Fleuren, Roel H L J; Barendregt, Arjan; Sinnige, Theo L; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hermens, Joop L M

    2004-09-15

    The risk posed by soil contaminants strongly depends on their bioavailability. In this study, a partition-based sampling method was applied as a tool to estimate bioavailability in soil. The accumulation of organic micropollutants was measured in two earthworm species (Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea caliginosa) and in 30-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fibers after exposure to two field-contaminated soils. Within 10 days, steady state in earthworms was reached, and within 20 days in the SPME fibers. Steady-state concentrations in both earthworm species were linearly related to concentrations in fibers over a 10,000-fold range of concentrations. Measured concentrations in earthworms were compared to levels calculated via equilibrium partitioning theory and total concentrations of contaminants in soil. In addition, freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate concentrations in earthworms. Measured concentrations in earthworms were close to estimated concentrations from the SPME fiber measurements. Freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate bioconcentration factors (BCF) in earthworms. A plot of log BCFs against the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) was linear up to a log Kow of 8. These results show that measuring concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals in a PDMS-coated fiber represents a simple tool to estimate internal concentrations of chemicals in biota exposed to soil.

  15. Cosmogenic He in terrestrial rocks: The summit lavas of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H; Poreda, R J

    1986-04-01

    We have identified terrestrial cosmic rayproduced (3)He in three lava flows on the crest of Haleakala Volcano on Maui, 3 km above sea level, and approximately 0.5 million years old. Although these lavas, like all oceanic basalts, contain primordial (3)He from the mantle, the "cosmogenic" component ((3)He(C)) can be identified unambiguously because it is extractable only by high-temperature vacuum fusion. In contrast, a large fraction of the mantle helium resides in fluid inclusions and can be extracted by vacuum crushing, leaving a residual component with (3)He/(4)He ratios as high as 75x those in the atmosphere, which can be liberated by melting the crushed grains. Cosmogenic (3)He is present in both olivines and clinopyroxenes at 0.8-1.2 x 10(-12) ml(STP)/g and constitutes 75% +/- 5% of the total (3)He present. The observed (3)He(C) levels require a cosmic ray exposure age of only some 64,000 years, much less than the actual age of the lavas, if there is no erosion. Using a model that includes effects of uplift or submergence as well as erosion, we calculate an apparent "erosion rate" of the order of 8.5 m/10(6) years for the western rim of the summit crater, as an example of the application of measurements of cosmogenic rare gases to terrestrial geological problems.

  16. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, Rick J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  17. Exposure of tropoelastin to peroxynitrous acid gives high yields of nitrated tyrosine residues, di-tyrosine cross-links and altered protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y; Mariotti, Michele; Hammer, Astrid; Hoefler, Gerald; Hägglund, Per; Malle, Ernst; Wise, Steven G; Davies, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30-57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibres. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidising and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo from superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Considerable evidence supports ONOOH formation in the inflamed artery wall, and a role for this species in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions, with ONOOH-damaged extracellular matrix implicated in lesion rupture. We demonstrate that TE is highly sensitive to ONOOH, with this resulting in extensive dimerization, fragmentation and nitration of Tyr residues to give 3-nitrotyrosine (3-nitroTyr). This occurs with equimolar or greater levels of oxidant and increases in a dose-dependent manner. Quantification of Tyr loss and 3-nitroTyr formation indicates extensive Tyr modification with up to two modified Tyr per protein molecule, and up to 8% conversion of initial ONOOH to 3-nitroTyr. These effects were modulated by bicarbonate, an alternative target for ONOOH. Inter- and intra-protein di-tyrosine cross-links have been characterized by mass spectrometry. Examination of human atherosclerotic lesions shows colocalization of 3-nitroTyr with elastin epitopes, consistent with TE or elastin modification in vivo, and also an association of 3-nitroTyr containing proteins and elastin with lipid deposits. These data suggest that exposure of TE to ONOOH gives marked chemical and structural changes to TE and altered matrix assembly, and that such damage accumulates in human arterial tissue during the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; final recommendations on the revision of the permitted daily exposures for two solvents, n-methylpyrrolidone and tetrahydrofuran, according to the maintenance procedures for the guidance Q3C Impurities: Residual Solvents; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing final recommendations to revise the permitted daily exposures (PDEs) for two solvents, n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), according to the maintenance procedures for the guidance for industry entitled "Q3C Impurities: Residual Solvents." The final recommendations were reached under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).

  19. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eatin...

  20. Neotropical woodlice (isopoda colonizing leaf-litter of pioneer plants in a coal residue disposal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Regina Podgaiski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The irregular disposal of coal combustion residues has adverse impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Pioneer plants and soil invertebrates play an important role in the recovery of these areas. The goal of this study was to investigate the colonization patterns of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea in leaf litter of three spontaneous pioneer plants (grass - Poaceae, shrub - Euphorbiaceae, tree - Anarcadiaceae at sites used for fly ash or boiler slag disposal. The experiment consisted of eight blocks (four per disposal site of 12 litter bags each (four per plant species that were randomly removed after 6, 35, 70 or 140 days of field exposure. Three isopod species were found in the litter bags: Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 (Philosciidae; n = 116, Benthana taeniata Araujo & Buckup, 1994 (Philosciidae; n = 817 and Balloniscus sellowii (Brandt, 1833 (Balloniscidae; n = 48. The isopods colonized the three leaf-litter species equally during the exposure period. However, the pattern of leaf-litter colonization by these species suggests a conflict of objectives between high quality food and shelter availability. The occurrence of A. floridana and the abundance and fecundity of B. taeniata were influenced by the residue type, indicating that the isopods have different degrees of tolerance to the characteristics of the studied sites. Considering that terrestrial isopods are abundant detritivores and stimulate the humus-forming processes, it is suggested that they could have an indirect influence on the soil restoration of this area.

  1. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

  2. Exposición a plaguicidas en agroaplicadores terrestres de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina: factores condicionantes Pesticide exposure of terrestrial agricultural applicators in Cordoba, Argentina: conditionants factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Lantieri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, ha sufrido una gran expansión de su superficie cultivada, y con ello, de los volúmenes aplicados de plaguicidas. Éstos poseen un gran impacto ambiental y producen efectos adversos en seres vivos, incluido el hombre. El presente trabajo propuso caracterizar a una población de aplicadores terrestres de plaguicidas de Córdoba y describir los factores condicionantes de la exposición y adopción de medidas de protección, mediante el análisis de asociaciones con sus características sociodemográficas, sus prácticas laborales y uso de tecnologías. Se implementó un cuestionario autoadministrado en 629 sujetos de toda la provincia. Se obtuvo información acerca de uso de plaguicidas, hábitos de vida y valoración de la exposición actual y pasada a plaguicidas. El 30% de los trabajadores vive a menos de 100 m del cultivo más cercano y más de la mitad aplican anualmente hasta 5000 ha; el 60% no utiliza protección. Los sujetos con pareja conviviente usan mayor nivel de protección personal. El uso de maquinarias equipadas con filtro de carbono activado e implementación de receta firmada por ingeniero agrónomo se asociaron positivamente al uso de equipos de protección personal.The Province of Cordoba, Argentina, has suffered a great expansion of its cultivated surface and, accordingly, of the volume of pesticides applied. They have a strong environmental impact and produce adverse effects upon the living beings, including the human being. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of terrestrial applicators of pesticides from Cordoba and also to describe determinants of pesticide exposure and use of personal protective equipment in relation to their social and demographic characteristics, work practices and use of technologies. Six hundred twenty nine applicators completed a self reported questionnaire to assess pesticides use, life style and present and past occupational exposure to

  3. Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) program of the Department of Interior is focused to identify and understand effects of contaminant...

  4. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  6. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  7. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First t...

  8. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  9. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  10. Study of external exposure doses received by Cuban population due to terrestrial component of the environmental radiation sources; Estudio de las dosis por exposicion externa que recibe la poblacion cubana debidas a la componente terrestre de la radiacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Brigido Flores, Osvaldo [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Camaguey (Cuba); Hernandez Perez, Alberto [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Oriente, Holguin (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The work presents the results of the study carried out to evaluate the doses that the Cuban population receives for the external exposition to the terrestrial component of the environmental sources of radiation. Starting from the carried out measurements it was possible to estimate the doses effective representative annual stockings that the Cuban population receives for external exposition to the terrestrial radiation, considering the permanency in indoors and outdoors. The dose received due to this component was 180{+-}14 mSv/year. These values are in the range of those reported internationally. (author)

  11. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  12. Target vs non-target analysis to determine pesticide residues in fruits from Saudi Arabia and influence in potential risk associated with exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Yolanda; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Barceló, Damià

    2017-11-09

    The occurrence of pesticide residues in fruits was determined by a target method for 62 analytes and a wide scope screening method against a database of 500 pesticides. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.5 to 6.3 μg kg-1 for the target method and from 0.5 to 119 μg kg-1 for the non-target. Thirty samples: dates, apples, oranges, tangerines, lemons and grapefruits were selected because their high consumption, except lemons and grapefruits that were to cover all citrus fruits. Using the target method, 15 compounds (mostly insecticides and fungicides) out of 62 pesticides (organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, chloroacetanilides, triazines, triazoles, imidazoles, etc.) were detected. Residues were in 100% of the samples, 80% contained at or below maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 20% above. Non-target method identified several additional pesticides (cypronil, fludioxonil, boscalid and pyraclostrobin in apples). The highest acute risk were for acrinathrin, chlorpyrifos and imazalil with estimated short-term intake (ESTI) > 100% acute reference dose (ARfD), followed by imidacloprid and thiabendazole with ESTI ≥ 70% ARfD. The higher chronic risk were for ethion and fluvalinate with estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of 8.8 and 1.5% of the admissible daily intake (ADI), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  14. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  15. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  16. Evaluating catchment-scale hydrological modeling by means of terrestrial gravity observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.; Bogaart, P.W.; Kroner, C.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Hasan et al., 2006) we applied time series analysis and distributed hydrological modeling techniques to investigate the effect of hydrological processes on observed terrestrial gravity residuals. In this study we apply terrestrial gravity observations (measured in one location)

  17. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    satellite for polar cap passes during large SEP events to determine the experimental geographic cutoff latitudes for the two energy ranges. 9 These...E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) Shea, M.A., and D.F. Smart, Overview of the Effects of Solar Terrestrial Phenomena...Conference, Invited, Rapporteurs, & Highlight Papers, edited by N. Iucci and E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) 27

  18. Endocrine-disrupting compounds in reclaimed water and residential ponds and exposure potential for dislodgeable residues in turf irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Harmanpreet S; Wilson, Patrick C; O'Connor, George A

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) occur in reclaimed water (RW), which may serve as an exposure source for humans. The presence of EDCs in RW used to irrigate turf and in nearby water-retention ponds was determined. In addition, the total dislodgeable mass of each EDC was determined after irrigation (using RW) to simulate exposure of a 3-year-child playing in turf grass recently irrigated with RW. Five EDCs (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, bisphenol A, and 4-n-nonylphenol) were quantified in 28 samples of RWs (wastewater-treatment plant effluents) and 88 samples from residential surface water-retention ponds. St. Augustine variety of turf grass was irrigated with spiked RW to study dislodgement of the five EDCs overtime using a drag-sled method. Grass clippings were analyzed to relate masses of EDC on grass with masses dislodged. EDCs were detected in both RW and ponds at ng/L concentrations. Maximum EDC masses were dislodged immediately after irrigation. Dislodged masses of estrone and 17β-estradiol are two separate EDCs, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol decreased rapidly and were lower than detection limits 4 h after application. Dislodged bisphenol-A and nonylphenol decreased more slowly but were not detected 6 h after application. Avoiding contact with recently irrigated turf grass should decrease the risks of exposure to these EDCs.

  19. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps.......The Terrestrial Steering Group (TSG), has initiated the implementation phase of the CBMP Terrestrial Plan. The CBMP Terrestrial Steering Group, along with a set of invited experts (see Appendix A for a participants list), met in Iceland from February 25-27th to develop a three year work plan...... to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. This report describes the outcome of that workshop. The aim of the workshop was to develop a three year work plan to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. The participants were tasked with devising an approach to both (a) determine what...

  20. Clenbuterol Residues in Plasma and Urine Samples of Food-Producing Pigs During and After Subchronic Exposure to a Growth-Promoting Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomira Gojmerac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the suitability of plasma and urine as matrices for clenbuterol residue determination during and after its subchronic administration at a growth-promoting dose to male pigs, using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA as a screening method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as a confirmation method. A high correlation coefficient between these analytical methods was obtained for both urine (R=0.9800 and plasma (R=0.9970 concentrations. Study results show the plasma and urine concentration to vary greatly during oral treatment with clenbuterol for 28 days. The peak urine concentration ((88.54±50.54 ng/mL recorded on day 21 was 40-fold peak plasma concentration ((2.25±1.54 ng/mL. After withdrawal period, the peak urine clenbuterol concentration ((42.93±10.52 ng/mL recorded on day 0 was 24-fold plasma concentration ((1.79±0.97 ng/mL. The maximum allowed concentration of 0.5 ng/g in the liver as a regulated matrix for control of clenbuterol abuse was achieved in plasma on day 3 ((0.52±0.26 ng/mL and in urine on day 7 of treatment withdrawal ((0.45±0.11 ng/mL. Study results indicate that urine and plasma may be suitable matrices for the control of clenbuterol abuse during fattening of food-producing pigs but have a limited value because of the rapidly decreasing concentration upon treatment withdrawal, in plasma in particular.

  1. Terrestrial Ages of Antarctic Meteorites: Up Date 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    We are continuing our ongoing study of cosmogenic nuclides in Antarctic meteorites. In addition to the studies of exposure histories of meteorites, we study terrestrial ages and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and desert meteorites. Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites provide information on meteorite accumulation mechanisms, mean weathering lifetimes, and influx rates. The determination of Cl-36 (half-life=3.01 x 10(exp 5) y) terrestrial ages is one of our long-term on-going projects, however, in many instances neither Cl-36 or C-14 (5,730 y) yields an accurate terrestrial age. Using Ca-41 (1.04 x 10(exp 5) y) for terrestrial age determinations solves this problem by filling the gap in half-life between C-14 and Cl-36 ages. We are now applying the new Ca-41 - Cl-36 terrestrial age method as well as the Cl-36 - Be-10 method to Antarctic meteorites. Our measurements and C-14 terrestrial age determinations by the University of Arizona group are always complementary.

  2. Microstructure of terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics); Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-12-15

    The theory of evolution involving episodic terrestrial catastrophism predicts that the Oort cloud is disturbed by close encounters with massive nebulae. Each disturbance generates bombardment pulses of a few million years duration, the pulse frequencies being determined by the Sun's passage through the spiral arms and central plane of the Galaxy where nebulae concentrate. The structure within a pulse is shown here to be dominated by a series of 'spikes' of approx. 0.01-0.1 Myr duration separated by approx. 0.1-1.0 Myr, each caused by the arrival in circumterrestrial space of the largest comets followed by their disintegration into short-lived Apollo asteroids. Evidence is presented that a bombardment pulse was induced 3-5 Myr ago and that a 'spike' in the form of debris from a Chiron-like progenitor of Encke's comet has dominated the terrestrial environment for the last 0.02 Myr.

  3. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3US Wales (United Kingdom); Cocquerelle, Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-09-15

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  4. Cosmogenic 3He in terrestrial rocks: The summit lavas of Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H.; Poreda, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    We have identified terrestrial cosmic rayproduced 3He in three lava flows on the crest of Haleakala Volcano on Maui, 3 km above sea level, and ≈0.5 million years old. Although these lavas, like all oceanic basalts, contain primordial 3He from the mantle, the “cosmogenic” component (3HeC) can be identified unambiguously because it is extractable only by high-temperature vacuum fusion. In contrast, a large fraction of the mantle helium resides in fluid inclusions and can be extracted by vacuum crushing, leaving a residual component with 3He/4He ratios as high as 75× those in the atmosphere, which can be liberated by melting the crushed grains. Cosmogenic 3He is present in both olivines and clinopyroxenes at 0.8-1.2 × 10-12 ml(STP)/g and constitutes 75% ± 5% of the total 3He present. The observed 3HeC levels require a cosmic ray exposure age of only some 64,000 years, much less than the actual age of the lavas, if there is no erosion. Using a model that includes effects of uplift or submergence as well as erosion, we calculate an apparent “erosion rate” of the order of 8.5 m/106 years for the western rim of the summit crater, as an example of the application of measurements of cosmogenic rare gases to terrestrial geological problems. PMID:16593671

  5. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  6. Undisturbed dust as a metric of long-term indoor insecticide exposure: Residential DDT contamination from indoor residual spraying and its association with serum levels in the VHEMBE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bornman, Riana; Crause, Madelein; Obida, Muvhulawa; Barr, Dana Boyd; Bradman, Asa; Bouwman, Henk; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although approximately 123 million people may be exposed to high levels of insecticides through the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control, few studies exist on indoor insecticide contamination due to IRS and its relationship with human exposure. In the present study, we developed a sampling method to collect undisturbed dust from 50 homes in Limpopo, South Africa, a region where dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used in IRS programs to prevent malaria for ~70years. We quantified DDT and its degradation products, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in dust samples to determine dust loading levels and compared these levels to paired serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in women residents. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE had the highest detection frequencies in both dust (58% and 34% detection, respectively) and serum samples (98% and 100% detection, respectively). Significantly higher detection frequencies for o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD were observed in dust samples collected in buildings that had been previously sprayed for malaria control. We also observed a significant, positive association between dust loading and serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE (Spearman's rho=0.68 and 0.54, respectively). Despite the low detection frequency in dust, our results indicate that undisturbed dust may be a good metric to quantify long-term home exposure to DDT-related compounds and that contamination of the home environment may be an important determinant/source of DDT and DDE exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  8. Space Weather: Terrestrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Tuija

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects arise from the dynamic conditions in the Earth’s space environment driven by processes on the Sun. While some effects are influenced neither by the properties of nor the processes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, others are critically dependent on the interaction of the impinging solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field and plasma environment. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to space weather influences, understanding and predicting hazards posed by the active solar events has grown in importance. This review introduces key dynamic processes within the magnetosphere and discusses their relationship to space weather hazards.

  9. The fate of mercury in Arctic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Loseto, Lisa L.; MacDonald, Robie W.

    2012-01-01

    into the Arctic by oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial pathways. Our focus is on the movement, transformation and bioaccumulation of Hg in aquatic (marine and fresh water) and terrestrial ecosystems. The processes most relevant to biological Hg uptake and the potential risk associated with Hg exposure...

  10. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposição ocupacional a resíduos de gases anestésicos Exposición ocupacional a residuos de gases anestésicos Occupational exposure to anesthetic gases residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Degrandi Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    ventilación y extracción adecuados, y también su mantenimiento.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the absence of negative effects of prolonged exposure to anesthetic gases residue has been reported, controversies on the subject still linger. Contradictory data on the variability in individual response to different agents can be found in the literature. The objective of this report was to present a review of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases residue. CONTENTS: The results of the main articles on the subject, as well as the causes of contamination of the surgical environment, ventilation, exhaust system, monitoring, and dosage of anesthetic gases residues are discussed. Recommendations to minimize the supposed effects of inhalational agents are emphasized. CONCLUSIONS: Even in task-forces studies of renowned international regulating institutions, there are some controversies on the risks of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases residue. Minimal values for occupational exposure are stipulated, but acknowledging the lack of epidemiological evidence of any type of damage caused by said exposure in places where standard measures of ventilation and exhaust systems and the use of anesthetic equipment are observed. In our country, most of the time those measures are not implemented and, when they are, they are not supervised properly. Besides, differences in techniques and working conditions have to be considered. Taking into consideration the multifactorial nature of the exposure of health care professionals, measures should be undertaken to minimize occupational exposure to agents with known or probable toxic potential. The demand for better equipped operating rooms, with adequate ventilation and exhaust systems as well as their maintenance should be stimulated.

  12. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  13. Terrestrial Subsurface Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-10-15

    The Earth’s crust is a solid cool layer that overlays the mantle, with a varying thickness of between 30-50 km on continental plates, and 5-10 km on oceanic plates. Continental crust is composed of a variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks that weather and re-form over geologic cycles lasting millions to billions of years. At the crust surface, these weathered minerals and organic material combine to produce a variety of soils types that provide suitable habitats and niches for abundant microbial diversity (see Chapter 4). Beneath this soil zone is the subsurface. Once thought to be relatively free of microorganisms, recent estimates have calculated that between 1016-1017 g C biomass (2-19% of Earth’s total biomass) may be present in this environment (Whitman et al., 1998;McMahon and Parnell, 2014). Microbial life in the subsurface exists across a wide range of habitats: in pores associated with relatively shallow unconsolidated aquifer sediments to fractures in bedrock formations that are more than a kilometer deep, where extreme lithostatic pressures and temperatures are encountered. While these different environments contain varying physical and chemical conditions, the absence of light is a constant. Despite this, diverse physiologies and metabolisms enable microorganisms to harness energy and carbon for growth in water-filled pore spaces and fractures. Carbon and other element cycles are driven by microbial activity, which has implications for both natural processes and human activities in the subsurface, e.g., bacteria play key roles in both hydrocarbon formation and degradation. Hydrocarbons are a major focus for human utilization of the subsurface, via oil and gas extraction and potential geologic CO2 sequestration. The subsurface is also utilized or being considered for sequestered storage of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generation and residual waste from past production of weapons grade nuclear materials. While our

  14. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  15. Repression and Recuperation of Brood Production in Bombus terrestris Bumble Bees Exposed to a Pulse of the Neonicotinoid Pesticide Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cresswell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days ‘on dose’ followed by 14 days ‘off dose’) to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae) produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers). During the initial ‘on dose’ period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg−1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following ‘off dose’ period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg−1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop. PMID:24224015

  16. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Laycock

    Full Text Available Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose' to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers. During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  17. Terrestrial ecosystems and their change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Eric Gustafson; A. David McGuire; Vjacheslav I. Kharuk; Dmitry G. Schepaschenko; Herman H. Shugart; Nadezhda M. Tchebakova; Natalia N. Vygodskaya; Alexander A. Onuchin; Daniel J. Hayes; Ian McCallum; Shamil Maksyutov; Ludmila V. Mukhortova; Amber J. Soja; Luca Belelli-Marchesini; Julia A. Kurbatova; Alexander V. Oltchev; Elena I. Parfenova; Jacquelyn K. Shuman

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers the current state of Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and major biometric characteristics. Ongoing climate change and the dramatic increase of accompanying anthropogenic pressure provide different but mostly negative impacts on Siberian ecosystems. Future climates of the region may lead to substantial drying on large...

  18. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  19. Terrestrial hyperspectral image shadow restoration through fusion with terrestrial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Preston J.; Glennie, Craig L.; Finnegan, David C.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from exclusively airborne observations to include terrestrial modalities. In contrast to airborne collection geometry, hyperspectral imagery captured from terrestrial cameras is prone to extensive solar shadowing on vertical surfaces leading to reductions in pixel classification accuracies or outright removal of shadowed areas from subsequent analysis tasks. We demonstrate the use of lidar spatial information for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize sunlit and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We examine the effectiveness of radiometrically calibrated lidar intensity in identifying these similar materials in sun and shade conditions and further evaluate a restoration technique that leverages ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multispectral lidar, indicate the potential for HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance of shadowed HSI pixels is quantified for imagery of a geologic outcrop through improvements in spectral shape, spectral scale, and HSI band correlation.

  20. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  1. Mars : a small terrestrial planet

    OpenAIRE

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, David; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for rem...

  2. THE LAST STAGES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION: DYNAMICAL FRICTION AND THE LATE VENEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yin Qingzhu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [UCD, Department of Geology, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} of chondritic material was delivered as 'late veneer' by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii {approx}< 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars {approx}({rho}{sub Circled-Plus }/{rho}{sub mars})(R{sub Circled-Plus }/R{sub mars}){sup 4} {approx} 17, which

  3. Effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam at field-realistic levels on microcolonies of Bombus terrestris worker bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cotterell, Katie C; O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Cresswell, James E

    2014-02-01

    Neonicotinoid pesticides are currently implicated in the decline of wild bee populations. Bumble bees, Bombus spp., are important wild pollinators that are detrimentally affected by ingestion of neonicotinoid residues. To date, imidacloprid has been the major focus of study into the effects of neonicotinoids on bumble bee health, but wild populations are increasingly exposed to alternative neonicotinoids such as thiamethoxam. To investigate whether environmentally realistic levels of thiamethoxam affect bumble bee performance over a realistic exposure period, we exposed queenless microcolonies of Bombus terrestris L. workers to a wide range of dosages up to 98 μgkg(-1) in dietary syrup for 17 days. Results showed that bumble bee workers survived fewer days when presented with syrup dosed at 98 μg thiamethoxamkg(-1), while production of brood (eggs and larvae) and consumption of syrup and pollen in microcolonies were significantly reduced by thiamethoxam only at the two highest concentrations (39, 98 μgkg(-1)). In contrast, we found no detectable effect of thiamethoxam at levels typically found in the nectars of treated crops (between 1 and 11 μgkg(-1)). By comparison with published data, we demonstrate that during an exposure to field-realistic concentrations lasting approximately two weeks, brood production in worker bumble bees is more sensitive to imidacloprid than thiamethoxam. We speculate that differential sensitivity arises because imidacloprid produces a stronger repression of feeding in bumble bees than thiamethoxam, which imposes a greater nutrient limitation on production of brood. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pulmonary compliance and lung volume are related to terrestriality in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip C; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Hillman, Stanley S

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration tolerance of anuran amphibians is directly related to their ability to mobilize lymphatic reserves, with more terrestrial species having more effective lymph mobilization dependent on specialized skeletal muscles acting directly on the lymph sacs and via pulmonary ventilation. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that pulmonary compliance, lung volume, and femoral lymphatic sac volume were related to terrestriality-and, hence, lymph mobilization-for 18 species of aquatic, semiaquatic, or terrestrial anuran amphibians. Lung compliance and volume were significantly related to body mass, but there was no significant phylogenetic pattern. There were significant habitat-related patterns for mass-corrected and phylogenetically corrected residuals for these pulmonary variables. Femoral lymph volume was significantly related to body mass, with no significant phylogenetic pattern, and there was only a weak correlation for habitat with mass-corrected and phylogenetically corrected residuals. These results suggest that pulmonary volume and compliance are strongly related to terrestriality in anuran amphibians and are under significant selection pressure to enhance lymph mobilization, but lymph sac volume does not appear to have a major role in adaptation to terrestriality.

  5. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.

  6. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  7. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  8. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-06-01

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  9. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  10. Consumer Control of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.

    2012-12-01

    More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface is grazed by large herbivores and their effects on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen processes are large and widespread. Yet the large effects of these animals on terrestrial processes have largely been ignored in global change models. This presentation will explore the many pathways that consumers affect short and long time-scale terrestrial nitrogen and carbon processes. Large herbivores influence the quality of soil organic matter and the size of the active (i.e., labile) pool of soil carbon and nitrogen in several ways. Herbivory leads to greater abundance of species producing low quality material in forest and dry grassland, via feeding preferentially on high quality forage, and high quality material in mesic grassland habitat, via the high quality of material that regrows after a plant is grazed. Defoliation stimulates the rate of root exudation that enhances rhizospheric processes and the availability of nitrogen in the plant rhizosphere. Herbivores also change the species composition of mycorrhizae fungal associates that influence plant growth and affect soil structure and the turnover rate of soil carbon. Recent radiocarbon measurements have revealed that herbivores also markedly affect the turnover dynamics of the large pool of old soil carbon. In Yellowstone Park, ungulates slow the mean turnover of the relatively old (i.e., slow and passive) 0 - 20 cm deep soil organic carbon by 350 years in upland, dry grassland and speed up that rate in slope-bottom, mesic grassland by 300 years. This represents a 650 year swing in the turnover period of old soil carbon across the Yellowstone landscape. By comparison, mean turnover time for the old pool of 0 - 10 cm deep soil organic carbon shifts by about 300 years across the steep climatic gradient that includes tropical, temperate, and northern hardwood forest, and tallgrass, shortgrass and desert grassland. This large body of evidence suggests consumers play a

  11. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  12. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  13. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  14. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  15. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  16. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  17. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, F.W. (Allied-General Nuclear Services, Barnwell, SC (USA)); Ng, Y.C. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.); Palms, J.M. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1981-11-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except /sup 137/Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For /sup 137/Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes.

  18. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  19. Extreme solar-terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme solar-terrestrial events are those in which very energetic solar ejections hit the earth?s magnetosphere, causing intense energization of the earth?s ring current. Statistically, their occurrence is approximately once per Gleissberg solar cycle (70-100yrs). The solar transient occurred on July, 23rd (2012) was potentially one of such extreme events. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME), however, was not ejected towards the earth. Instead, it hit the STEREO A spacecraft, located 120 degrees away from the Sun-Earth line. Estimates of the geoeffectiveness of such a CME point to a scenario of extreme Space Weather conditions. In terms of the ring current energization, as measured by the Disturbance Storm-Time index (Dst), had this CME hit the Earth, it would have caused the strongest geomagnetic storm in space era.

  20. Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H M; Dodsworth, J A; Goodman, R M

    2000-10-01

    Microorganisms that colonize plant roots are recruited from, and in turn contribute substantially to, the vast and virtually uncharacterized phylogenetic diversity of soil microbiota. The diverse, but poorly understood, microorganisms that colonize plant roots mediate mineral transformations and nutrient cycles that are central to biosphere functioning. Here, we report the results of epifluorescence microscopy and culture-independent recovery of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences showing that members of a previously reported clade of soil Crenarchaeota colonize both young and senescent plant roots at an unexpectedly high frequency, and are particularly abundant on the latter. Our results indicate that non-thermophilic members of the Archaea inhabit an important terrestrial niche on earth and direct attention to the need for studies that will determine their possible roles in mediating root biology.

  1. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure...... system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (72), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data...

  2. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  3. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  4. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  5. Modeling of residue stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Arjona, A.; Castro, M.D.L. de [Univ. of Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Izquierdo, A. [Gemasur, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of R and D

    1999-04-01

    Because of the variety in anthropogenic toxic residues produced by human activity, the establishment of a general procedure for the destruction of these residues or transformation into less toxic materials is difficult. A study was made on the decrease in toxicity of various contaminated residues when treated with three different stabilizers. General criteria of the requirements for stabilization were also established, which depended on both the toxicity and nature of the toxic substances. The modeling of the stabilization process will allow nonspecialized personnel to carry out the operations and will also standardize the modus operandi of such enterprises.

  6. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, M. José; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Sousa, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. All reproduction tests were performed with natural soil from a Mediterranean agricultural area (with no pesticide residues) in order to improve the relevance of laboratory data to field...

  7. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  8. Pesticide Residues, Results from the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    the beginning of the 1960, Denmark has monitored fruit and vegetables for pesticides residues. For the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2003, results were collated and the dietary exposure was calculated. In this report data for the analyses carried out in the period 2004-2011 are reported as well as the exposure...

  9. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  10. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  11. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  12. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R; Puttick, Mark N; Blaxter, Mark; Vinther, Jakob; Olesen, Jørgen; Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Pisani, Davide

    2016-07-19

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  14. Mars: a small terrestrial planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for remote-sensing data and have opened a new era in the study of Mars geology. While large sections of Mars science have made progress and new topics have emerged, a major question in Mars exploration—the possibility of past or present life—is still unsolved. Without entering into the debate around the presence of life traces, our review develops various topics of Mars science to help the search of life on Mars, building on the most recent discoveries, going from the exosphere to the interior structure, from the magmatic evolution to the currently active processes, including the fate of volatiles and especially liquid water.

  15. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    amolecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route...... to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land...

  16. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicklighter, David W. [Ecosystem Center, The; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Mcclelland, James W [University of Texas; Peterson, Bruce [Marine Biological Laboratory; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western

  17. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

  18. Effects of metal-contaminated forest soils from the Canadian shield to terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feisthauer, Natalie C; Stephenson, Gladys L; Princz, Juliska I; Scroggins, Richard P

    2006-03-01

    The effects of elevated metal concentrations in forest soils on terrestrial organisms were investigated by determining the toxicity of six site soils from northern Ontario and Quebec, Canada, using a battery of terrestrial toxicity tests. Soils were collected from three sites on each of two transects established downwind of nickel (Sudbury, ON, Canada) and copper (Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada) smelting operations. Site soils were diluted to determine if toxicity estimates for the most-contaminated site soils could be quantified as a percent of site soil. Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic following acute exposure (14 d) to plants, but not to invertebrates (7 d for collembola and 14 d for earthworms). However, Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic to all species following chronic exposure (21, 35, and 63 d for plants, collembola, and earthworms, respectively). The toxicity of the Rouyn-Noranda site soils did not correspond to the gradient of metal concentrations in soil. Metal-contaminated Sudbury soils were toxic to plants but not to invertebrates, following acute exposure. Chronic exposure to Sudbury soils caused adverse effects to plant growth and invertebrate survival and reproduction. The toxicity of Sudbury soils corresponded to the metal concentration gradient, with one exception: The reference soil collected in October was toxic to collembola following acute and chronic exposure. This study evaluated the applicability of the new Environment Canada terrestrial toxicity test methods, developed using agricultural soils, to forest soils and also provided useful data to assess the ecological risk associated with mixtures of metals in soil.

  19. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders (ed.) (EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The ecosystem is in most cases the link between radionuclides released from a repository and the exposure of humans and other biota to them. This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing and performing cross-disciplinary analyses of data from a large number of reports produced during the site investigations, Figure 1-2. The report describes the terrestrial landscape, divided here into the three main categories: forests, wetlands and agriculture land, by identifying properties that are important for element accumulation and transport

  20. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  2. Terrestrial Radiodetermination Potential Users and Their Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    The report summarizes information gathered during a preliminary study of the application of electronic techniques to geographical position determination on land and on inland waterways. Systems incorporating such techniques have been called terrestri...

  3. Transfer of terrestrial technology for lunar mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; Green, Patricia A.

    The functions, operational procedures, and major items of equipment that comprise the terrestrial mining process are characterized. These data are used to synthesize a similar activity on the lunar surface. Functions, operations, and types of equipment that can be suitably transferred to lunar operation are identified. Shortfalls, enhancements, and technology development needs are described. The lunar mining process and what is required to adapt terrestrial equipment are highlighted. It is concluded that translation of terrestrial mining equipment and operational processes to perform similar functions on the lunar surface is practical. Adequate attention must be given to the harsh environment and logistical constraints of the lunar setting. By using earth-based equipment as a forcing function, near- and long-term benefits are derived (i.e., improved terrestrial mining in the near term vis-a-vis commercial production of helium-3 in the long term.

  4. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  5. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition......The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...

  6. Experimental study on viscosity reduction for residual oil by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xintong; Zhou, Cuihong; Suo, Quanyu; Zhang, Lanting; Wang, Shihan

    2018-03-01

    Because of characteristics of large density, high viscosity and poor mobility, the processing and transportation of residual oil are difficult and challenging, viscosity reduction of residual oil is of great significance. In this paper, the effects of different placement forms of ultrasonic transducers on the sound pressure distribution of ultrasonic inside a cubic container have been simulated, the characteristics of oil bath heating and ultrasonic viscosity reduction were compared, viscosity reduction rule of residual oil was experimentally analyzed by utilizing Response Surface Method under conditions of changing ultrasonic exposure time, power and action mode, the mechanism of viscosity reduction was studied by applying Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the viscosity retentivity experiment was carried out at last. Experiments were conducted using two kinds of residual oil, and results show that ultrasonic effect on the viscosity reduction of residual oil is significant, the higher viscosity of residual oil, the better effect of ultrasonic, ultrasonic power and exposure time are the significant factors affecting the viscosity reduction rate of residual oil. The maximum viscosity reduction rate is obtained under condition of ultrasonic power is 900W, exposure time is 14min and action mode of exposure time is 2s and interrupting time is 2s, viscosity reduction rate reaching up to 63.95%. The infrared spectroscopy results show that light component in residual oil increased. The viscosity retentivity experiment results show that the viscosity reduction effect remains very well. This paper can provide data reference for the application of ultrasonic in the field of viscosity reduction for residual oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the probabilistic exposure modeling in the frame of the radioactive residues final repository long-term safety analysis; Weiterentwicklung der probabilistischen Expositionsmodellierung im Rahmen der Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse von Endlagern fuer radioaktive Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecior, Willy

    2017-04-28

    The long-term safety analysis of repositories for radioactive waste is based on the modeling of the releases of nuclides from the waste matrix and the subsequent transport through the near and far field of the repository system to the living part of the environment (biosphere). For the conversion of the nuclide release into a potential hazard (e. g. into an effective dose), a conceptual biosphere model and a mathematical exposure model is used. The parametrization of the mathematical model can be carried out deterministic as well as probabilistic using distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. However, to date, particularly in the context of the probabilistic safety analysis for deep-geological repositories, there is no uniform procedure for the derivation of the distributions to be used. The distributions used by the analyst are mostly chosen according to personal conviction and often illogical with respect to the underlying nature of the actual model parameter, but model results are in part very dependent on the type of the selected distributions of the input parameters. Furthermore, there less studies available on the influence of interactions and correlations or other dependencies between the radiological input parameters of the model. Therefore, the impact of different types of distributions (empirical, parametric) for different input parameters as well as the influence of interactions and correlations between input parameters on the results of the mathematical exposure modeling were analyzed in the present study. The influence of the type of distribution for the representation of the variability of the physical input parameter as well as their interactions and dependencies could be identified as less relevant. However, by means of Monte Carlo simulation of the second order, the composition of the corresponding samples or the condition of the sample moments to be used for the construction of parametric distributions were determined as the essential factors for

  8. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  9. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  10. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  11. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  12. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  13. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  15. ESTIMATING RESIDUAL HEDGING RISK WITH LEAST-SQUARES MONTE CARLO

    OpenAIRE

    STEFAN ANKIRCHNER; CHRISTIAN PIGORSCH; NIKOLAUS SCHWEIZER

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, dynamic hedging strategies minimizing risk exposure are not given in closed form, but need to be approximated numerically. This makes it difficult to estimate residual hedging risk, also called basis risk, when only imperfect hedging instruments are at hand. We propose an easy to implement and computationally efficient least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate residual hedging risk. The algorithm approximates the variance minimal hedging strategy within general diffusion mod...

  16. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  17. Ecological risk assessment of multimedia hazardous air pollutants: estimating exposure and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroymson, R A; Murphy, D L

    2001-07-02

    Hazardous air pollutants, some of which have the potential for multimedia distribution, raise several hurdles for ecological risk assessment including: (1) the development of an adequate transport, fate and exposure model; and (2) the selection of exposure-response models that can accommodate multiple exposure routes for ecological receptors. To address the first issue, the EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has developed TRIM.FaTE, a mass-balance, fate, transport, and ecological exposure model that is a component of the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) for air pollutants. In addition to abiotic transfers and transformations, TRIM.FaTE estimates the uptake of a chemical by terrestrial and aquatic organisms with time. Measures of exposure that TRIM.FaTE can provide include: (1) body burdens or tissue concentrations; (2) doses averaged over any time period; or (3) concentrations of chemicals in abiotic media. The model provides the user with the flexibility to choose the exposure-response thresholds or dose-response relationships that are best suited to data availability, routes of exposure, and the mechanism of toxicity of the chemical to an ecological receptor. One of the challenges of incorporating TRIM.FaTE into a risk assessment methodology lies in defining a streamlined model simulation scenario for initial screening-level risk assessments. These assessments may encompass multiple facilities that emit a variety of pollutants near diverse ecosystems. The information on ecological risk assessment methodology that is described is applicable to the EPA Residual Risk Program with emphasis on multimedia pollutants and the role of TRIM.FaTE.

  18. Numerical simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation using two-planet model. At that time, the protostar has formed for about 3 Myr and the gas disk has dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. We also consider variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Myr, and the accretion rate is about 60%–80%. In each simulation, 3–4 terrestrial planets are formed inside “Jupiter” with masses of 0.15–3.6 M⊕. In the 0.5–4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion may also happen a few times between two giant planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108 yr.

  19. Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Keenan, Trevor F; Smith, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems sequester roughly 30% of anthropogenic carbon emission. However this estimate has not been directly deduced from studies of terrestrial ecosystems themselves, but inferred from atmospheric and oceanic data. This raises a question: to what extent is the terrestrial carbon cycle intrinsically predictable? In this paper, we investigated fundamental properties of the terrestrial carbon cycle, examined its intrinsic predictability, and proposed a suite of future research directions to improve empirical understanding and model predictive ability. Specifically, we isolated endogenous internal processes of the terrestrial carbon cycle from exogenous forcing variables. The internal processes share five fundamental properties (i.e., compartmentalization, carbon input through photosynthesis, partitioning among pools, donor pool-dominant transfers, and the first-order decay) among all types of ecosystems on the Earth. The five properties together result in an emergent constraint on predictability of various carbon cycle components in response to five classes of exogenous forcing. Future observational and experimental research should be focused on those less predictive components while modeling research needs to improve model predictive ability for those highly predictive components. We argue that an understanding of predictability should provide guidance on future observational, experimental and modeling research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phytolith carbon sequestration in global terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-15

    Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes. Total phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes is 156.7±91.6TgCO2yr-1. Grassland (40%), cropland (35%), and forest (20%) biomes are the dominant producers of phytolith-based carbon; geographically, the main contributors are Asia (31%), Africa (24%), and South America (17%). Practices such as bamboo afforestation/reforestation and grassland recovery for economic and ecological purposes could theoretically double the above phytolith C sink. The potential terrestrial phytolith C sequestration during 2000-2099 under such practices would be 15.7-40.5PgCO2, equivalent in magnitude to the C sequestration of oceanic diatoms in sediments and through silicate weathering. Phytolith C sequestration contributes vitally to the global C cycle, hence, it is essential to incorporate plant-soil silica cycling in biogeochemical C cycle models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  2. Results from the Danish monitoring programme for pesticide residues from the period 2004–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The Danish pesticide residue monitoring programme evaluates compliance with the maximum residue levels established by the EU and monitors the residue levels in foods to enable an evaluation of the exposure of the Danish population to pesticides. The latter part of the programme included 25...... in samples of foreign origin than in samples of Danish origin both for samples with residues above or below the MRLs. Overall, pesticide residues were more frequently found in fruits and vegetables than the other groups of commodities; fruits had higher frequencies than vegetables. Residues above the MRLs...... were found in 2.6% of the samples. In plant commodities, 163 different substances were found in measurable concentrations. Residues of more than one pesticide (multiple residues) were found in 27% of all samples. A comparison of the frequencies of pesticide residues in commodities from different...

  3. Pesticide residues in imported, organic, and "suspect" fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K

    2012-05-09

    Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms.

  4. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  5. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  6. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  7. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  8. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  9. Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Witton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid footprint record, suggestions that the expansive uropatagia common to early pterosaurs would restrict hindlimb motion in walking or running, and the presence of sprawling forelimbs in some species. Here, these arguments are re-visited and mostly found problematic. Restriction of limb mobility is not a problem faced by extant animals with extensive fight membranes, including species which routinely utilise terrestrial locomotion. The absence of non-pterodactyloid footprints is not necessarily tied to functional or biomechanical constraints. As with other fully terrestrial clades with poor ichnological records, biases in behaviour, preservation, sampling and interpretation likely contribute to the deficit of early pterosaur ichnites. Suggestions that non-pterodactyloids have slender, mechanically weak limbs are demonstrably countered by the proportionally long and robust limbs of many Triassic and Jurassic species. Novel assessments of pterosaur forelimb anatomies conflict with notions that all non-pterodactyloids were obligated to sprawling forelimb postures. Sprawling forelimbs seem appropriate for species with ventrally-restricted glenoid articulations (seemingly occurring in rhamphorhynchines and campylognathoidids. However, some early pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon macronyx and wukongopterids, have glenoid arthrologies which are not ventrally restricted, and their distal humeri resemble those of pterodactyloids. It seems fully erect forelimb stances were possible in these pterosaurs, and may be probable given proposed correlation between pterodactyloid-like distal humeral morphology and forces incurred through erect forelimb postures. Further indications of terrestrial habits include

  10. Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid footprint record, suggestions that the expansive uropatagia common to early pterosaurs would restrict hindlimb motion in walking or running, and the presence of sprawling forelimbs in some species. Here, these arguments are re-visited and mostly found problematic. Restriction of limb mobility is not a problem faced by extant animals with extensive fight membranes, including species which routinely utilise terrestrial locomotion. The absence of non-pterodactyloid footprints is not necessarily tied to functional or biomechanical constraints. As with other fully terrestrial clades with poor ichnological records, biases in behaviour, preservation, sampling and interpretation likely contribute to the deficit of early pterosaur ichnites. Suggestions that non-pterodactyloids have slender, mechanically weak limbs are demonstrably countered by the proportionally long and robust limbs of many Triassic and Jurassic species. Novel assessments of pterosaur forelimb anatomies conflict with notions that all non-pterodactyloids were obligated to sprawling forelimb postures. Sprawling forelimbs seem appropriate for species with ventrally-restricted glenoid articulations (seemingly occurring in rhamphorhynchines and campylognathoidids). However, some early pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon macronyx and wukongopterids, have glenoid arthrologies which are not ventrally restricted, and their distal humeri resemble those of pterodactyloids. It seems fully erect forelimb stances were possible in these pterosaurs, and may be probable given proposed correlation between pterodactyloid-like distal humeral morphology and forces incurred through erect forelimb postures. Further indications of terrestrial habits include antungual

  11. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  12. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Baldocchi

    2016-09-01

    , and detected trends in global primary productivity are even smaller (33 Tg-C y-2. Yet residual carbon balance methods infer that the terrestrial biosphere is experiencing a significant and growing carbon sink. Possible explanations for this large and growing net land sink include roles of land use change and greening of the land, regional enhancement of photosynthesis, and down regulation of plant and soil respiration with warming temperatures. Longer time series of variables needed to provide top-down and bottom-up assessments of the carbon cycle are needed to resolve these pressing and unresolved issues regarding how, why, and at what rates gross and net carbon fluxes are changing.

  13. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  14. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  15. Risks associated with the transfer of toxic organo-metallic mercury from soils into the terrestrial feed chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques, B.; Rodrigues, S.M.; Coelho, C.; Cruz, N.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the transfer of organo-metallic mercury (OrgHg) in aquatic foodwebs has long been studied, it has only been recently recognized that there is also accumulation in terrestrial systems. There is still however little information about the exposure of grazing animals to OrgHg from soils and

  16. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, by the presence of antibodies to the parasite, was documented in 47 Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan Institution. One animal had samples collected on two occasions (November 2010 and October 2011), and 19 (4...

  17. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy from terrestrial organic matter through the Monterey event, Miocene, New Jersey margin (IODP Expedition 313)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linhao; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    The stratigraphic utility of carbon-isotope values from terrestrial organic matter is explored for Miocene siliciclastic sediments of the shallow shelf, New Jersey margin, USA (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] Expedition 313). These shallow marine strata, rich in terrestrial organic matter...... consistently in palynological preparation residues, concentrated woody phytoclasts, and individually picked woody phytoclasts obtained from the New Jersey sediments. A bulk organic matter curve shows somewhat different stratigraphic trends but, when corrected for mixing of marine-terrestrial components...... as environmental factors affecting vegetation in the sediment source areas. These possible factors are assessed on the basis of pyrolysis data, scanning electron microscope observations, and comparison to palynological indices of environmental change. Some evidence is found for localized degradation and...

  18. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  19. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  20. Dental anomaly in Tapirus terrestris (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    A male skull of Tapirus terrestris (L.) originating from Dutch Guiana (Leiden Museum, reg. no. 11632), received from the Rotterdam Zoological Garden through the kind intermediary of Mr. F. J. APPELMAN on July 15, 1952, is remarkable for the abnormal development of its right P1. The full permanent

  1. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  2. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  3. Factors influencing the toxicity of Headline® fungicides to terrestrial stage toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2017-10-01

    Amphibians are susceptible to exposure from contaminants via multiple pathways. Pyraclostrobin fungicides have been shown to be toxic to terrestrial amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations; however, these studies did not account for factors that may influence exposure and effects, such as fungicide formulation, age of the individual, exposure route, and physiological state of the individual. We examined Headline® and Headline AMP® fungicide toxicity to adult Anaxyrus cognatus and Anaxyrus woodhousii by direct overspray, as well as acute toxicity of Headline AMP to juvenile A. cognatus through direct overspray, previously exposed soils, and diet. We also assessed effects of hydration state on fungicide toxicity in juvenile A. cognatus and sublethal effects of fungicide exposure on prey-orientation ability of juvenile A. cognatus. Neither formulation of Headline caused mortality of adult A. cognatus and A. woodhousii at up to 5 times the maximum label rate in North American corn (1052 and 879 mL formulation/ha for Headline AMP and Headline fungicides, respectively, corresponding to 1.52 and 2.2 μg pyraclostrobin/cm(2) , respectively). Exposures of juvenile A. cognatus to Headline AMP via direct overspray and previously exposed soils (2 types) resulted in median lethal rate (LR50) values of 2.4, 3.34, and 3.61 μg pyraclostrobin/cm(2) , respectively. Dietary Headline AMP exposure was not toxic, prey-orientations were not influenced by exposure, and effects were similar between dehydrated and hydrated treatments (LR50 = 2.4 and 2.3 μg pyraclostrobin/cm(2) , respectively). These results, combined with exposure concentrations reported in previous studies, suggest that risk of acute mortality for amphibians in terrestrial environments is low and is dictated by body size and site-specific factors influencing exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2679-2688. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  5. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Arthropods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purposes of the terrestrial arthropod surveys are to: develop a species list of native and non-native terrestrial arthropods on land portions of the refuge;...

  6. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  7. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  8. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  9. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  10. Terrestrial bitumen analogue of orgueil organic material demonstrates high sensitivity to usual HF-HCl treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korochantsev, A. V.; Nikolaeva, O. V.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the chemical composition and the interlayer spacing (d002) of organic materials (OM's) is known for various terrestrial OM's. We improved this general trend by correlation with corresponding trend of natural solid bitumens (asphaltite-kerite-anthraxolite) up to graphite. Using the improved trend we identified bitumen analogs of carbonaceous chondrite OM's residued after HF-HCl treatment. Our laboratory experiment revealed that these analogs and, hence, structure and chemical composition of carbonaceous chondrite OM's are very sensitive to the HF-HCl treatment. So, usual extraction of OM from carbonaceous chondrites may change significantly structural and chemical composition of extracted OM.

  11. Bureau of Meteorology solar exposure monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgan, B.W. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Global Atmosphere Watch Section

    1996-12-31

    Concern about the solar network in the Australian Bureau of Meteorology lead to a study being commissioned to look at the network and its reason for existence. The final report highlighted the importance of climate record of the basic radiation quantities. As a consequence of the study, a project plan was developed for a new radiation network with the primary objective being to produce quality proven solar and terrestrial exposure data products worthy of customer use in the areas of research and community activity. The objectives, benchmarks and methodology for the new solar and terrestrial exposure measurement system are presented. The system comprises a three tier system including basic and research quantity surface stations and satellite derived solar exposure products. The current status of the new system and the old network are described, including data status, quality control, quality assurance, and instrumentation. Future plans for data dissemination, including satellite derived data are also outlined. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 8 refs.

  12. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  13. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  14. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  15. Planet Detection Algorithms for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Braems, I.

    2005-12-01

    Critical to mission planning for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph (TPF-C) is the ability to estimate integration times for planet detection. This detection is complicated by the presence of background noise due to local and exo-zodiacal dust, by residual speckle due optical errors, and by the dependence of the PSF shape on the specific coronagraph. In this paper we examine in detail the use of PSF fitting (matched filtering) for planet detection, derive probabilistic bounds for the signal-to-noise ratio by balancing missed detection and false alarm rates, and demonstrate that this is close to the optimal linear detection technique. We then compare to a Bayesian detection approach and show that for very low background the Bayesian method offers integration time improvements, but rapidly approaches the PSF fitting result for reasonable levels of background noise. We confirm via monte-carlo simulations. This work was supported under a grant from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and by a fellowship from the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA).

  16. Globally consistent registration of terrestrial laser scans via graph optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, Pascal Willy; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the automatic registration of multiple terrestrial laser scans. The proposed method can handle arbitrary point clouds with reasonable pairwise overlap, without knowledge about their initial orientation and without the need for artificial markers or other specific objects. The framework is divided into a coarse and a fine registration part, which each start with pairwise registration and then enforce consistent global alignment across all scans. While we put forward a complete, functional registration system, the novel contribution of the paper lies in the coarse global alignment step. Merging multiple scans into a consistent network creates loops along which the relative transformations must add up. We pose the task of finding a global alignment as picking the best candidates from a set of putative pairwise registrations, such that they satisfy the loop constraints. This yields a discrete optimization problem that can be solved efficiently with modern combinatorial methods. Having found a coarse global alignment in this way, the framework proceeds by pairwise refinement with standard ICP, followed by global refinement to evenly spread the residual errors. The framework was tested on six challenging, real-world datasets. The discrete global alignment step effectively detects, removes and corrects failures of the pairwise registration procedure, finally producing a globally consistent coarse scan network which can be used as initial guess for the highly non-convex refinement. Our overall system reaches success rates close to 100% at acceptable runtimes < 1 h, even in challenging conditions such as scanning in the forest.

  17. Studies on neutral exopolysaccharides produced by the ectomycorrhiza Thelephora terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaku, Clarice A; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Zancan, Glaci T; Iacomini, Marcello

    2002-11-05

    The ectomycorrhizal hymenomycete Thelephora terrestris was grown in synthetic pure culture and the production of extracellular polysaccharide was monitored. The exopolysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation and then fractionated into two components using a DEAE-Sepharose column. A neutral fraction (NeP) was fractionated on Sepharose CL-6B, which resulted in three peaks: NeP1, NeP2 and NeP3. NeP1 was filtered through an exclusion membrane and two polysaccharides were obtained (fractions: NeA, NeB). Fraction NeB was submitted to methylated derivatives and 1H-, 13C- and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These analyses showed a main chain of a (1-->6)-linked alpha-D-Manp units substituted at O-2 by a variety of side chains containing alpha-Fucp, beta-Xylp and beta-Galp residues. The main fraction corresponds to mannan as shown by methylation analysis. Size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC-MALLS) of fraction NeB showed a main component of 15.0 kDa. It contained mannose, galactose, fucose and xylose in a molar ratio of 50:29:11:10. The fractions NeP2 and NeP3 were characterised as a (1-->6)-linked beta-glucan (pustulan) and (1-->3)-linked beta-glucan, respectively.

  18. Differentiating the degradation dynamics of algal and terrestrial carbon within complex natural dissolved organic carbon in temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, François; McCallister, S. Leigh; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    It has often been hypothesized that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool of algal origin in lakes is more bioavailable than its terrestrial counterpart, but this hypothesis has seldom been directly tested. Here we test this hypothesis by tracking the production and isotopic signature of bacterial respiratory CO2 in 2 week lake water incubations and use the resulting data to reconstruct and model the bacterial consumption dynamics of algal and terrestrial DOC. The proportion of algal DOC respired decreased systematically over time in all experiments, suggesting a rapid consumption and depletion of this substrate. Our results further show that the algal DOC pool was used in proportions and at rates twice and 10 times as high as the terrestrial DOC pool, respectively. On the other hand, the absolute amount of labile terrestrial DOC was on average four times higher than labile algal DOC, accounting for almost the entire long-term residual C metabolism, but also contributing to short-term bacterial C consumption. The absolute amount of labile algal DOC increased with chlorophyll a concentrations, whereas total phosphorus appeared to enhance the amount of terrestrial DOC that bacteria could consume, suggesting that the degradation of these pools is not solely governed by their respective chemical properties, but also by interactions with nutrients. Our study shows that there is a highly reactive pool of terrestrial DOC that is processed in parallel to algal DOC, and because of interactions with nutrients, terrestrial DOC likely supports high levels of bacterial metabolism and CO2 production even in more productive lakes.

  19. Terrestrial freshwater lenses: Unexplored subterranean oases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laattoe, Tariq; Werner, Adrian D.; Woods, Juliette A.; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-10-01

    Freshwater lenses are lenticular bodies of fresh (TDS lenses in coastal aquifers, the formation, location and persistence of freshwater lenses in terrestrial settings are poorly understood. This is despite inland aquifers commonly containing saline groundwater, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates, and the local occurrences of freshwater being critical for ecosystems and human endeavour. We identify and classify known terrestrial freshwater lenses (TFLs) using four formation categories, namely topography, geology, groundwater-surface water interaction and recharge mechanisms. The resulting typology highlights the importance of buoyancy in the formation of TFLs in otherwise unlikely situations, implying that TFLs may be more prevalent than previously thought. TFLs represent some of the most vulnerable and precious freshwater resources on Earth that require considerably more research into mechanisms of formation and threats to their existence.

  20. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms.

  1. Innovative Technologies for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aplin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing and monitoring terrestrial, or land, surface features, such as forests, deserts, and cities, are fundamental and continuing goals of Earth Observation (EO. EO imagery and related technologies are essential for increasing our scientific understanding of environmental processes, such as carbon capture and albedo change, and to manage and safeguard environmental resources, such as tropical forests, particularly over large areas or the entire globe. This measurement or observation of some property of the land surface is central to a wide range of scientific investigations and industrial operations, involving individuals and organizations from many different backgrounds and disciplines. However, the process of observing the land provides a unifying theme for these investigations, and in practice there is much consistency in the instruments used for observation and the techniques used to map and model the environmental phenomena of interest. There is therefore great potential benefit in exchanging technological knowledge and experience among the many and diverse members of the terrestrial EO community. [...

  2. The overlooked terrestrial impacts of mountaintop mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Nicholson, Matthew C.; Jenkins, William; Druckenbrod, Daniel; Suter, Glenn W.; Strager, Michael P.; Mazzarella, Christine; Galloway, Walter; Amos, John

    2013-01-01

    Ecological research on mountaintop mining has been focused on aquatic impacts because the overburden (i.e., the mountaintop) is disposed of in nearby valleys, which leads to a wide range of water-quality impacts on streams. There are also numerous impacts on the terrestrial environment from mountaintop mining that have been largely overlooked, even though they are no less wide ranging, severe, and multifaceted. We review the impacts of mountaintop mining on the terrestrial environment by exploring six broad themes: (1) the loss of topographic complexity, (2) forest loss and fragmentation, (3) forest succession and soil loss, (4) forest loss and carbon sequestration, (5) biodiversity, and (6) human health and well-being.

  3. Residues of veterinary drugs in milk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Faro de Novaes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Veterinary drugs are used in dairy cattle management mainly for therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, which chemicals may leave residues in milk. Human exposure and the unintentional consumption of residues of drugs can lead to side effects and development of resistant bacteria, representing a considerable concern to consumer health. This paper presents the occurrence of residues of veterinary drugs in milk from 2009 to 2011 in Brazil, monitored by the Official Program for Analysis of Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods of Animal Origin. A total of 961 samples were collected in the retail and evaluated for the main β-lactams, tetracyclines, amphenicol, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides and avermectins. Residues of veterinary drugs did not exceed maximum residue limit (MRL; although, there is a considerable use of critically/highly important antimicrobials and avermectins in dairy cows, especially quinolones and tetracyclines. Doxycycline (9% and abamectin (1.6% were detected, even though these substances are not intended to be used in milk producing animals for human consumption. Norfloxacin (15% was observed; although, there are no MRL established, consequently, no residue level should have been detected. No residues of streptomycin, chloramphenicol and β-lactams were confirmed. Milk in Brazil contains low levels of veterinary drugs so that toxicological risk regarding milk consumption could not be considered as a public health concern. However, due to the nature of the samples, which correspond to milk from several farms, it could occur a dilution effect. The absence of MRL established for norfloxacin prevents suitable interpretation of the findings and makes tough the control of these chemical residues in food. Detection of some antimicrobials and avermectins may be linked to extra-label use or noncompliance withdrawal periods suggesting that good veterinary practices are not being followed, since residues of unauthorized

  4. Formation and evolution of Martian gullies: a terrestrial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Martian Gullies (alcove-fan systems) are among the youngest landforms that may have formed by liquid water on Mars, and therefore of critical importance in resolving the planet's most recent climatic history. Water-free sediment flows, often associated to CO2 ice, debris flows and fluvial flows have all been identified in gullies. These processes require different amounts of liquid water, and therefore their contribution to gully-formation is of key importance for climatic inferences. In contrast to CO2-aided flows, there are terrestrial analogues for debris flows and fluvial flows. Here I compare the morphology, morphometry and sedimentology of the surface and subsurface deposits of Martian gullies as seen on HiRISE imagery to terrestrial analogues in order to determine their formative processes and the climate in which Martian gullies formed. Terrestrial analogues from the hyperarid Atacama Desert (Chile) and Death Valley (USA), the arctic region of Svalbard and a small-scale experimental setup are visited to do so. Secondly, a sediment budget analysis is performed on geophysical-flow deposits in Martian gullies, to infer their return period as well as the amounts of water needed for their formation. Finally, the effect of time on Martian gully evolution is evaluated by comparing the size and morphology of gullies and associated landforms with their host crater age (and thus their time of potential activity). In short, the sedimentology in vertical exposures in Martian gullies is consistent with a formation by debris flows, while surficial debris-flow signatures have often been removed by erosion. Boulder mobility calculations imply that significant gully formation by fluvial sheetfloods is unlikely. Sediment budget analyses of debris-flow deposits in Istok crater imply that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars and that melting must have yielded centimeters of liquid water in the gully

  5. Terrestrial imaging of military test centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Steven D.

    2010-04-01

    Military test centers require detailed site descriptions. Test agencies demand significant written and visual information of test sites in order to facilitate successful test preparation and execution. New terrestrial imaging techniques (360 degree FOV collection) have recently become feasible to collect in the field. Combined with GIS and mapping applications, image and video data is now provided to test agencies for their use. Test sites for this study include locations in Alaska and Panama with planned image data collection in Arizona and Maryland.

  6. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  7. Tidally driven evolution of differentiated terrestrial exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterova, M.; Behounkova, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a numerical model of tidally driven orbital evolution based on the solution of continuum mechanics equations for a differentiated spherical body, whose mantle is governed by either the Maxwell or the Andrade viscoelastic rheology. The model enables generally heterogeneous structure of the mantle, making thus possible the analysis of coupling between the internal and the orbital evolution of terrestrial exoplanets or icy moons.

  8. WOODS, THE MOST COMPLEX TERRESTRIAL ECOSISTEM

    OpenAIRE

    BLAJ Robert; SAND Camelia; Gligor CIORTEA

    2012-01-01

    A forest ecosystem is a terrestrial unit of living organisms (plants, animals and microorganisms), all interacting among themselves and with the environment (soil, climate, water and light) in which they live. The environmental "common denominator" of that forest ecological community is a tree, who most faithfully obeys the ecological cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. A forest ecosystem would be considered having boundaries and would include a forest of trees out to the limit of ...

  9. Material Utilization of Organic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  10. Terrestrial Impack Cratering Chronology : A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kyu Moon

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We have recently compiled a database of the properties of 192 impact craters, which supercedes previous compilations. Using our database, the impact structures found in North America, Europe and Australia have been examined; these cratonic areas have been relatively stable for considerably long geological periods, and thus have been best preserved. It is confirmed that there is a close correlation between the geological epoch boundaries, the epochs of mass extinctions, and the ``timing'' of impacts. In addition, the terrestrial cumulative flux of objects >20km is found to be 1.77×10-15km-2yr-1, over the last 120 Myr, which is much smaller than the published values in McEwen et al. (1997 and Shoemaker (1998 (5.6±2.8×10-15km-2yr-1. For terrestrial impact structures with D>50 km, the apparent cumulative flux over the last 2450 Myr is ~50 times smaller than the corresponding value for the Moon. If we assume that the Earth and the Moon suffered the same level of bombardment over this time, this would mean that the actual flux of impacting bodies, capable of making craters with D>50 km, was ~ 50 times larger than the apparent flux estimated from the currently known terrestrial records.

  11. Obliquity and Eccentricity Constraints for Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Torres, Stephanie M.

    2017-11-01

    Exoplanet discoveries over recent years have shown that terrestrial planets are exceptionally common. Many of these planets are in compact systems that result in complex orbital dynamics. A key step toward determining the surface conditions of these planets is understanding the latitudinally dependent flux incident at the top of the atmosphere as a function of orbital phase. The two main properties of a planet that influence the time-dependent nature of the flux are the obliquity and orbital eccentricity of the planet. We derive the criterion for which the flux variation due to obliquity is equivalent to the flux variation due to orbital eccentricity. This equivalence is computed for both the maximum and average flux scenarios, the latter of which includes the effects of the diurnal cycle. We apply these calculations to four known multi-planet systems (GJ 163, K2-3, Kepler-186, and Proxima Centauri), where we constrain the eccentricity of terrestrial planets using orbital dynamics considerations and model the effect of obliquity on incident flux. We discuss the implications of these simulations on climate models for terrestrial planets and outline detectable signatures of planetary obliquity.

  12. Determining Steady-state Tissue Residues for Invertebrates in Contaminated Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    ER D C/ EL T R -1 0 -2 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Determining Steady-state Tissue Residues for Invertebrates ...2010 Determining Steady-state Tissue Residues for Invertebrates in Contaminated Sediment Alan J. Kennedy, Guilherme R. Lotufo, Jeffery A. Steevens...involves quantification of compounds in tissues via laboratory bioaccumulation exposures of benthic invertebrates . However, the standard 28-day expo

  13. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  14. Effect of Thermal Annealing on Machining-Induced Residual Stresses in Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, A.; Aperribay, J.; Arrazola, P. J.; Esnaola, J. A.; Hormaetxe, E.; Garay, A.; Ostolaza, K.

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys are widely employed in the manufacturing of aero-engines. These alloys are difficult to machine, and tensile residual stresses are generated during machining. These tensile residual stresses can negatively affect the performance of aero-engine components. Nevertheless, residual stresses can vary due to thermal or mechanical loading. These variations must be considered to evaluate the real influence of residual stresses on component behavior. This paper studies the effect of thermal loads on machining-induced residual stresses in the alloy Inconel 718. A ring-shaped Inconel 718 part was face-turned, and specimens were extracted from it. Specimens were exposed at 550 and 650 °C for 10 min, 1 and 10 h. Residual stresses were measured, and microstructure was observed before and after thermal exposure. Residual stress variations found after thermal exposure were the consequence of two factors: relaxation of strain bands during the early stage of exposure and diffusion-controlled creep. In addition, a modified Zener-Wert-Avrami model is proposed to predict residual stress relaxation caused by the diffusion-controlled creep. Once having fitted the modified Zener-Wert-Avrami model, the study was extended for a wider range of temperatures (400-650 °C). This analysis showed that surface residual stresses do not relax significantly at temperatures below 500 °C.

  15. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, microplastics in the litter than at 7% w/w and in the control (0%). Growth rate was significantly reduced at 28, 45, and 60% w/w microplastics, compared to the 7% and control treatments. Due to the digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of microplastics in the casts was microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    CAPPELLETTI, MARINELLA; Price, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia ? a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts ? is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  18. Gasification of shredder residue (AUTOGAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Suomalainen, M.; Maekinen, T. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Jalkanen, H.; Huitu, K. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The disposal of shredder residue is presently based worldwide on landfilling. However, the current trend in the legislation of European Union is to emphasise, at a first priority, material recycling and, in addition, to prefer energy recovery to landfilling. Gasification is a potential option to utilise shredder residue in energy production in environmentally acceptable way. In addition some metals in shredder residue may be recovered from gasification ash leading to increase in material recycling. An air blown fluidised bed gasification process for thermal treatment of shredder residue will be developed in the project. The process will produce fuel gas, which will be clean enough to be used as replacement of other fuels in coal fired boilers, industrial kilns or other applications. Attention is also paid on the economic feasibility of the process concept. Three authentic shredder residue samples delivered by shredders were characterised by chemical analysis and then used as a feedstock in bench- scale and PDU-scale fluidised bed gasification test trials. The results indicated that the process concept is a potential application for treating shredder residue. Based on the gasification test results, a preliminary evaluation of technological and economic feasibility of the process concept was carried out. The overall conclusion after the preliminary evaluation was that air-blown gasification of shredder residue is a very interesting and economically competitive alternative for treating shredder residue. However, there are still needs for further development of process details. (orig.)

  19. Use of Residues in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Olivieri de Nobile

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a revision of the abstracts of The XX Brazilian Meeting of Fertility of the Soil and Nutrition of Plants, realizado in Piracicaba-São Paulo. The agronomic use of residues pressuposes a diverse number of applications such as their use in: animal feeding, substrate for fermentations, organic or organo-mineral fertilizer manufacture, soil coverages in different creations and substitutes of raw material for the agroindustrial or similar activities. However, the objective of this presentation is restricted to the aspects of the use of residues in the soil, understanding the aspects related to the characterization of these residues, the benefits or inconveniences of the application to the soil and the parameters that must be observed when the intention is to give this destination to the residues. In this way, this subject can be divided in two basic aspects: the residues and the soils. Concerning the residues, the main factors that affect their application to the soil are: chemical composition, physical characteristics, sanitary aspects, generated amount and regimen of release. In relation to soil, we must consider all those characteristics which are responsible for the capacity of the soil in deactivating and stabilizing the residues, through physical chemical and biological mechanisms. It is in this general framework that we intend to approach some specific aspects which are considered more important for the use of residues in soil.

  20. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  1. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  2. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Mogren

    Full Text Available The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1. Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  3. Teppeki, selective insecticide about Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, Angela; Filì, Vittorio; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    At a time when a highly controversial debate about the causes of the widespread deaths of bees is taking place all over Europe, which accused the agriculture and its practices with particular reference to the harmful effects of some insecticides, it seems important to point out as another insecticide, the Teppeki, can be selective about bumble and have a good compatibility with the activity of the apiaries. This insecticide has the active ingredient flonicamid (500 g/kg) belonging to a new chemical class, called pyridinecarboxamides: the product works systemic and is known as having a long lasting efficacy against all important aphid species. Bioagritest test facility of Pignola (PZ, Italy) has conducted in two successive production cycles an experimental trial on a tomato hydroponic cultivation within the Agricola Bonsai farm in Sibari (CS, Italy), whose objective was to measure the selectivity of flonicamid on Bombus terrestris, insects playing an important role in the pollination of certain species grown in greenhouse such as Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Cucumber. On the pollinated flower B. terrestris leaves some trace of its visit, a typical dark trademark: on the detection of the marking of flowers was based the testing program conducted by Bioagritest. Two thesis were compared: A, standard) treatment with a foliar insecticide, the neonicotinoide acetamiprid, normally used for control of aphids and whiteflies (unlike other neonicotinoides--imidacloprid and thiametoxam--quite selective about B. terrestris) and B, Teppeki) foliar treatment with Teppeki, to the maximum dose indicated on the label. The experimental design included the use of randomized blocks with 4 repetitions (4 plots/thesis with 100 plants each). In every thesis six B. terrestris hives were placed 2 days before treatment: the respective holes remained closed during the treatment and the 12 following hours. In order to verify the pollination, by the detection of the flower marking, 2 flowers

  4. Stochasticity and predictability in terrestrial planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Volker; Grimm, Simon L.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This is a result of the chaotic evolution of trajectories which are highly sensitive to minuscule displacements. We determine that differences between systems evolved from virtually identical initial conditions can be larger than the differences between systems evolved from very different initial conditions. This implies that individual simulations lack predictive power. For example, there is not a reproducible mapping between the initial and final surface density profiles. However, some key global properties can still be extracted if the statistical spread across many simulations is considered. Based on these spreads, we explore the collisional growth and orbital properties of terrestrial planets, which assemble from different initial conditions (we vary the initial planetesimal distribution, planetesimal masses, and giant planet orbits.). Confirming past work, we find that the resulting planetary systems are sculpted by sweeping secular resonances. Configurations with giant planets on eccentric orbits produce fewer and more massive terrestrial planets on tighter orbits than those with giants on circular orbits. This is further enhanced if the initial mass distribution is biased to the inner regions. In all cases, the outer edge of the system is set by the final location of the ν6 resonance and we find that the mass distribution peaks at the ν5 resonance. Using existing observations, we find that extrasolar systems follow similar trends. Although differences between our numerical modelling and exoplanetary systems remain, we suggest that CoRoT-7, HD 20003 and HD 20781 may host undetected giant planets.

  5. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  6. Global analytic treatment of terrestrial photogrammetric networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoud, M

    1980-01-01

    In order to solve certain special CERN metrology problems, analytical terrestrial photogrammetry may have some advantages which are first discussed along with their drawbacks and limitations. In this application, it is necessary to carry out a rigorous and global adjustment of the observations and simultaneously process all the perspective ray bundles. The basic principles, the least squares solution and the stochastic analysis of the results are presented. However, for the CERN project, one wonders if the production of digital theodolites is going to reduce the advantages of the photogrammetric method. (12 refs).

  7. Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kamide, Y

    2007-01-01

    The Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment is a unique compendium. Recognized international leaders in their field contribute chapters on basic topics of solar physics, space plasmas and the Earth's magnetosphere, and on applied topics like the aurora, magnetospheric storms, space weather, space climatology and planetary science. This book will be of highest value as a reference for researchers working in the area of planetary and space science. However, it is also written in a style accessible to graduate students majoring in those fields.

  8. Terrestrial exoplanets: diversity, habitability and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selsis, Franck [CRAL: Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CNRS), Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Kaltenegger, Lisa [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Paillet, Jimmy [ESTEC SCI-SA, Keplerlaan 1, PO Box 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: franck.selsis@ens-lyon.fr, E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jpaillet@rssd.esa.int

    2008-08-15

    After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the sensitivity to gain information on the physical structure and chemical content of some of the detected planets and also to find planets of less than 10 M{sub +}. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planets is approaching rapidly and dedicated space observatories are already in operation (CoRoT) or in the development phase (Kepler, Darwin and TPF-I/C). In this paper, we explore the domain of terrestrial planets, emphasizing habitable worlds. We discuss the possibility of performing a spectral characterization of their properties using the next generation of astronomical instruments.

  9. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  10. International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, R.; Muhonen, D.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1991-01-01

    The International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program is a large, multi-national program involving three space agencies and up to eight spacecraft. NASA, together with the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science (ISAS) and the European Space Agency (ESA), has agreed in principle to coordinate their efforts in investigating the Sun and the Earth. Each agency is planning to construct and operate different spacecraft as part of this cooperative venture: Geotail provided by ISAS, the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Cluster (four spacecraft) contributed by ESA, and Wind and Polar by NASA. A general description of the program is presented.

  11. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  12. Residual effect of lambdacyhalothrin on Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ferro

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal residual effect and triatomine infestation rates in houses of a community fumigated with lambdcyhalothrin (Icon are reported. No mortality was observed in 5th-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on three different surfaces, one month after fumigation for a dose of 31.5 mg am/m2. However, during post-exposure observation a mortality of 60% was recorded for those insect exposed on sprayed woodboard. The results observed with mud-containing treated walls, were markedly poorer (0% of mortality. Twelve month after spraying 40% of mortality was observed on first-instar T. infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on woodboard, but lower mortality rates were observed in mud-containing materials. When the effect of deltamethrin (109 mg ai/m2 and lambdcyhalothrin (94 mg ai/m2 was compared, the former did not appear to be superior at similar loads. Both have showed a mortality rate of 30% on 5th-instar T. infestans nymphs three months post-fumigation. The dose utilized in the field fumigation was enough to get a significant (p < 0.0001 control of triatomine domestic infestation, since it was sufficient to keep 95% of the houses uninfested throughout 21 months following treatment, when compared with baseline situation. A remarkable knock-down effect on adult and nymphs forms of the insect and a high in situ mortality were observed as a result of its application, even at very low doses.

  13. Plastic bag and facial cleanser derived microplastic do not affect feeding behaviour and energy reserves of terrestrial isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec Kokalj, Anita; Horvat, Petra; Skalar, Tina; Kržan, Andrej

    2017-10-06

    Current data regarding the effects of microplastic (MP) on terrestrial organisms are very scarce. Isopods play an important role in plant litter decomposition processes and are commonly used test species in terrestrial ecotoxicity studies. Their altered feeding behaviour and energy reserves are established biomarkers of adverse effects upon stressor exposure. For this study we assessed the effects of MP derived from plastic bag film (mean size 183±93μm) and particles from a facial cleanser (mean size 137±51μm) on the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. Isopods were exposed to MP via feeding on food pellets (4mgg(-1) dry weight; 0.4% w w(-1)) for 14days under laboratory conditions. A control group was exposed to food pellets with no MP added. In line with previously suggested modes of MP action on animal ingestion, we assessed the food ingestion rate, defecation rate, food assimilation rate and efficiency, body mass change, mortality and energy reserves (proteins, carbohydrates, and triglycerides) in the digestive glands (hepatopancreas) of individual isopods. Contrary to our expectations, no effects on either end-point were observed under the given exposure conditions. Further work should be carried out to investigate the potential longer-term effects of such exposure. We conclude that 14days exposure to plastic bag and facial cleanser MP is not severely hazardous to isopods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evolution of toll-like receptors in the context of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishengoma, Edson; Agaba, Morris

    2017-02-16

    at least one of giraffe altered sites coincides with TLR3 residue known to play a critical role in receptor signaling activity. There is overall structural conservation in TLRs among giraffe, okapi and cattle indicating that the mechanism for innate immune response utilizing TLR pathways may not have changed very much during the evolution of these species. However, a broader phylogenetic analysis revealed signatures of adaptive evolution among terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans, including the observed selection divergence in TLR3. This suggests that long term ecological dynamics has led to species-specific innovation and functional variation in the mechanisms mediating innate immunity in terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans.

  15. Tectonic evolution of the terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J W; Solomon, S C

    1981-07-03

    The style and evolution of tectonics on the terrestrial planets differ substantially. The style is related to the thickness of the lithosphere and to whether the lithosphere is divided into distinct, mobile plates that can be recycled into the mantle, as on Earth, or is a single spherical shell, as on the moon, Mars, and Mercury. The evolution of a planetary lithosphere and the development of plate tectonics appear to be influenced by several factors, including planetary size, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources. Vertical tectonic movement due to lithospheric loading or uplift is similar on all of the terrestrial planets and is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. The surface of Venus, although known only at low resolution, displays features both similar to those on Earth (mountain belts, high plateaus) and similar to those on the smaller planets (possible impact basins). Improved understanding of the tectonic evolution of Venus will permit an evaluation of the relative roles of planetary size and chemistry in determining evolutionary style.

  16. Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2013-12-07

    Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha(-1) y(-1)). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C-Si diatom interactions.

  17. Biomarkers in terrestrial invertebrates for ecotoxicological soil risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammenga, J E; Dallinger, R; Donker, M H; Köhler, H R; Simonsen, V; Triebskorn, R; Weeks, J M

    2000-01-01

    This review has served to present the most recent information on a selected series of biomarker studies undertaken on soil invertebrates during two extensive European-funded scientific consortia, BIOPRINT and BIOPRINT-II. The goals were to develop and validate methods for the analysis of markers of stress in a range of soil-dwelling organisms. We have discussed the potential and limitations of the following invertebrate biomarkers for soil risk assessment purposes: heat shock proteins, histological and ultrastructural markers, metallothioneins and metal-binding proteins, esterases, lysosomal integrity, and the novel biomarker histidine. The hsp response in soil invertebrates is especially suitable to indicate the effects of exposure to comparatively low concentrations for a range of toxicants and can be regarded as a biomarker of general stress. The application of MTs and other metal-binding proteins as biomarkers for exposure in soil invertebrates has been well described, and new methods are being developed for analyzing MT induction both at the protein and molecular level, and reliable and reproducible methods are now available. (Cd)-MT is well characterized for the springtails and its MT concentration is a useful biomarker for exposure as well as for effect. For snails, (Cd)-MT can accumulate in the midgut gland over extended periods of time and therefore its concentration is a biomarker not only for recent intoxication but also for events of cadmium exposure that snails may have experienced a long time before the measurement took place. Cellular and histological alterations can be regarded as reflecting the "health" state of a cell, which may be a measure for the presence of toxicants. Histopathological work on terrestrial invertebrates, however, is still scarce. Isozymes have been poorly studied in soil invertebrates despite their promising role as potential biomarkers in aquatic organisms. Among the large diversity of isozymes, the most well studied are

  18. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  19. Terrestrial quarantine considerations for unmanned sample return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Stavro, W.; Miller, L. W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding some of the possible implications of a terrestrial quarantine constraint on a mission and for developing a basic approach which can be used to demonstrate compliance beyond that developed for Apollo, a terrestrial quarantine study was performed. It is shown that some of the basic tools developed and used by the planetary quarantine community have applicability to terrestrial quarantine analysis. By using these tools, it is concluded that: (1) the method of biasing the earth aiming point when returning from the planet is necessary but, by itself, may not satisfy terrestrial quarantine constraints; and (2) spacecraft and container design significantly influence contamination transfer.

  20. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  1. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  2. Occurrence of pesticide residues in Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Calatayud, Fernando; Simó, Enrique; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-12-15

    Beeswax from Spain was collected during 2016 to determine pesticide residues incidence. The 35 samples were divided in foundation, old combs, cappings or virgin beeswax to compare pesticide content between groups. Wax was screened for 58 pesticides or their degradation products by QuEChERS extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Beeswax was uniformly contaminated with acaricides and, to a much lesser extent, with insecticide and fungicide residues. Virgin followed by cappings were less contaminated than foundation and old combs beeswax. The miticides applied in-hive had a contribution to average pesticide load higher than 95%. Compounds widely used as acaricides, as coumaphos (100%), fluvalinate (86%) and amitraz (83%), were the pesticides most frequently detected with maximum concentrations of 26,858, 3593 and 6884ng·g-1, respectively. Chlorfenvinphos, acrinathrin and flumethrin, also acaricides, were detected in 77, 71 and 54%, respectively. Frequencies of pesticides used in crops were 40% for chlorpyrifos, 29% for dichlofenthion, 9% for malathion, 6% for fenthion-sulfoxide and 3% for azinphos-methyl, carbendazim, ethion, hexythiazox, imazalil and pyriproxyfen. Pesticide assessment in beeswax could be an excellent monitoring tool to establish veterinary treatments applied by beekeepers and environmental contaminants exposure of honey bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Plants on Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Chlorine (Cl), one of the 20 most abundant elements on Earth, is crucial for life as a regulator of cellular ionic strength and an essential co-factor in photosynthesis. Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) molecules are surprisingly abundant in soils, in fact many studies during the last decades show that Clorg typically account for more than 60% of the total soil Cl pool in boreal and temperate forest soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. The natural and primarily biotic formation of this Clorg pool has been confirmed experimentally but the detailed content of the Clorg pool and the reasons for its high abundance remains puzzling and there is a lack of Cl budgets for different ecosystems. Recently, the radioisotope 36Cl has caused concerns because of presence in radioactive waste, a long half-life (301 000 years), potential high mobility, and limited knowledge about Cl residence times, speciation and uptake by organisms in terrestrial environments. The chlorination of organic molecules may influence the pool of available Cl- to organisms and thereby the Cl cycling dynamics. This will prolong residence times of total Cl in the soil-vegetation system, which affects exposure times in radioactive 36Cl isotope risk assessments. We tested to what extent the dominating tree species influences the overall terrestrial Cl cycling and the balance between Cl- and Clorg. Total Cl and Clorg were measured in different tree compartments and soil horizons in the Breuil experimental forest, Bourgogne, established in 1976 and located at Breuil-Chenue in Eastern France. The results from this field experiment show how the dominating tree species affected Cl cycling and accumulation over a time period of 30 years. Cl uptake by trees as well as content of both total Cl and Clorg in soil humus was much higher in experimental plots with coniferous forests compared to deciduous forests. The amounts of Clorg found in plant tissue indicate significant Clorg production inside

  4. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  5. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  6. The origin of modern terrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2007-01-01

    The study of the origin of life covers many areas of expertise and requires the input of various scientific communities. In recent years, this research field has often been viewed as part of a broader agenda under the name of “exobiology” or “astrobiology.” In this review, we have somewhat narrowed this agenda, focusing on the origin of modern terrestrial life. The adjective “modern” here means that we did not speculate on different forms of life that could have possibly appeared on our planet, but instead focus on the existing forms (cells and viruses). We try to briefly present the state of the art about alternative hypotheses discussing not only the origin of life per se, but also how life evolved to produce the modern biosphere through a succession of steps that we would like to characterize as much as possible. PMID:19404443

  7. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole......In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  9. Cornice Monitoring with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Alexander; Hancock, Holt

    2017-04-01

    Cornice failure poses a threat to infrastructure and human life in central Svalbard, where cornice fall avalanches comprise a significant portion of all observed avalanche activity. Cornice accretion occurs seasonally on the plateau edges of the mountains that border Longyearbyen - Svalbard's primary settlement - where snow entrained over the long fetches of the plateau summits is deposited by the prevailing winds. Here, we present the preliminary results from our first season regularly monitoring these cornice systems with the Riegl VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner. We demonstrate the applicability of TLS data acquisition for monitoring cornice system dynamics and discuss the utility of such measurements for hazard management purposes. Finally, we show how this unique high spatial resolution data will act as a reference dataset for modeling exercises to improve the process understanding of cornice development and failure - in arctic environments and throughout the world.

  10. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  11. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Kolotkov, D. Y.; O'Connell, D.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Rowlands, G.

    2016-12-01

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  12. Physiological and behavioural effects of imidacloprid on two ecologically relevant earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Nils; Triebskorn, Rita; Moser, Isabelle; Capowiez, Yvan

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms play key roles in soils and sub-lethal effects of environmental toxicants on these organisms should be taken seriously, since they might have detrimental effects on higher ecological levels. In laboratory experiments we have assessed sub-lethal effects (body mass change and cast production) of imidacloprid on two earthworm species commonly found in different agricultural soils (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa). After 7 days of exposure in contaminated soil, a significant loss of body mass was found in both species exposed to imidacloprid concentrations as low as 0.66 mg kg(-1) dry soil. These losses ranged from 18.3 to 39% for A. caliginosa and from 7.4 to 32.4% for L. terrestris, respectively. Changes in cast production, a new biomarker previously validated using L. terrestris, was assessed by soil sieving using the recommended mesh size (5.6 mm) for L. terrestris and three different mesh sizes for A. caliginosa (5.6, 4 and 3.15 mm). The 4 mm mesh size proved to be the most suitable sieve size for A. caliginosa. Cast production increased by 26.2% in A. caliginosa and by 28.1% in L. terrestris at the lowest imidacloprid concentration tested (0.2 mg kg(-1) dry soil), but significantly decreased at higher concentrations (equal to and above 0.66 mg kg(-1) dry soil) in both earthworm species after the 7 days exposure experiment. These decreases in cast production ranged from 44.5 to 96.9% in A. caliginosa and from 42.4 to 95.7% in L. terrestris. The EC(50) for cast production were 0.84 (L. terrestris) and 0.76 mg kg(-1) dry soil (A. caliginosa), respectively. The detected sub-lethal effects were found close to the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of imidacloprid, which is in the range of 0.33-0.66 mg kg(-1) dry soil. The biomarkers used in the present study, body mass change and changes in cast production, may be of ecological relevance and have shown high sensitivity for imidacloprid exposure of earthworms. The measurement of

  13. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  14. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results

  15. Natural ionizing radiation exposure of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera, M; Matarranz, J L; Martínez, M; Salas, R; Ramos, L

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 1.6 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (18%), terrestrial gamma radiation (30%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (18%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors were derived from the MARNA (natural gamma radiation map of Spain); indoor exposure was obtained multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by an experimentally calculated conversion factor. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion, data from a detailed study on consumption habits in Spain and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR have been considered. The variability in the exposures among individuals in the population has been explicitly taken into account in the assessment.

  16. Increased gene expression of a facilitated diffusion urea transporter in the skin of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) during massively elevated post-terrestrialization urea excretion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hung, Carrie Y C; Galvez, Fernando; Ip, Yuen K; Wood, Chris M

    2009-01-01

    .... Upon re-immersion in water after 33 days of air exposure ('terrestrialization'), lungfish exhibited a massive rise in urea-N excretion which peaked at 12-30 h with rates of 2000-5000 micromol-N kg(-1) h(-1...

  17. Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-04-22

    Herbivores induce plants to undergo diverse processes that minimize costs to the plant, such as producing defences to deter herbivory or reallocating limited resources to inaccessible portions of the plant. Yet most plant tissue is consumed by decomposers, not herbivores, and these defensive processes aimed to deter herbivores may alter plant tissue even after detachment from the plant. All consumers value nutrients, but plants also require these nutrients for primary functions and defensive processes. We experimentally simulated herbivory with and without nutrient additions on red alder (Alnus rubra), which supplies the majority of leaf litter for many rivers in western North America. Simulated herbivory induced a defence response with cascading effects: terrestrial herbivores and aquatic decomposers fed less on leaves from stressed trees. This effect was context dependent: leaves from fertilized-only trees decomposed most rapidly while leaves from fertilized trees receiving the herbivory treatment decomposed least, suggesting plants funnelled a nutritionally valuable resource into enhanced defence. One component of the defence response was a decrease in leaf nitrogen leading to elevated carbon : nitrogen. Aquatic decomposers prefer leaves naturally low in C : N and this altered nutrient profile largely explains the lower rate of aquatic decomposition. Furthermore, terrestrial soil decomposers were unaffected by either treatment but did show a preference for local and nitrogen-rich leaves. Our study illustrates the ecological implications of terrestrial herbivory and these findings demonstrate that the effects of selection caused by terrestrial herbivory in one ecosystem can indirectly shape the structure of other ecosystems through ecological fluxes across boundaries. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  19. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water use efficiency; global terrestrial ecosystems; MODIS; net primary production; evapotranspiration;. Köppen–Geiger climate classification. ... Terrestrial plants fix or trap carbon dioxide via photosynthesis to produce the material ...... S W 2007 Evaluating water stress controls on primary production in biogeochemical and ...

  20. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  1. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Bloom, J.; Exbrayat, J.; Feng, L.; Williams, M.

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  2. Estimation of evapotranspiration over the terrestrial ecosystems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianglan Li; Shunlin Liang; Wenping Yuan; Guirui Yu; Xiao Cheng; Yang Chen; Tianbao Zhao; Jinming Feng; Zhuguo Ma; Mingguo Ma; Shaomin Liu; Jiquan Chen; Changliang Shao; Shenggong Li; Xudong Zhang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ge Sun; Shiping Chen; Takeshi Ohta; Andrej Varlagin; Akira Miyata; Kentaro Takagi; Nobuko Saiqusa; Tomomichi Kato

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regional evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental constraints are particularly important for understanding water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. However, a large uncertainty in the regional estimation of ET still remains for the terrestrial ecosystems in China. This study used ET measurements of 34 eddy covariance sites within China and...

  3. Plant reproductive organs and the origin of terrestrial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy V. Stadnitsky

    1991-01-01

    It is widely believed that plants facilitated the evolution of terrestrial insects (Southwood 1973). However, the mechanisms by which this evolution occurred are not yet fully understood. I therefore propose a hypothesis about one possible mode of formation of terrestrial insects and fauna. The soil, warm shallow lagoons, tidal zones, and accumulations of detritus are...

  4. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The carbon and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, which are strongly coupled via water use efficiency (WUE), are influenced by global climate change. To explore the relationship between the carbon and water cycles and predict the effect of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to study the WUE in ...

  5. Effect of target color and scanning geometry on terrestrial LiDAR point-cloud noise and plane fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Martinez, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Point-cloud coordinate information derived from terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is important for several applications in surveying and civil engineering. Plane fitting and segmentation of target-surfaces is an important step in several applications such as in the monitoring of structures. Reliable parametric modeling and segmentation relies on the underlying quality of the point-cloud. Therefore, understanding how point-cloud errors affect fitting of planes and segmentation is important. Point-cloud intensity, which accompanies the point-cloud data, often goes hand-in-hand with point-cloud noise. This study uses industrial particle boards painted with eight different colors (black, white, grey, red, green, blue, brown, and yellow) and two different sheens (flat and semi-gloss) to explore how noise and plane residuals vary with scanning geometry (i.e., distance and incidence angle) and target-color. Results show that darker colors, such as black and brown, can produce point clouds that are several times noisier than bright targets, such as white. In addition, semi-gloss targets manage to reduce noise in dark targets by about 2-3 times. The study of plane residuals with scanning geometry reveals that, in many of the cases tested, residuals decrease with increasing incidence angles, which can assist in understanding the distribution of plane residuals in a dataset. Finally, a scheme is developed to derive survey guidelines based on the data collected in this experiment. Three examples demonstrate that users should consider instrument specification, required precision of plane residuals, required point-spacing, target-color, and target-sheen, when selecting scanning locations. Outcomes of this study can aid users to select appropriate instrumentation and improve planning of terrestrial LiDAR data-acquisition.

  6. The early evolution of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Raulin, François; Muller, Christian; Nixon, Conor; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings : Volume 35

    2013-01-01

    “The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets” presents the main processes participating in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. A group of experts in the different fields provide an update of our current knowledge on this topic. Several papers in this book discuss the key role of nitrogen in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. The earliest setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of terrestrial planets is directly associated with accretion, chemical differentiation, outgassing, stochastic impacts, and extremely high energy fluxes from their host stars. This book provides an overview of the present knowledge of the initial atmospheric composition of the terrestrial planets. Additionally it includes some papers about the current exoplanet discoveries and provides additional clues to our understanding of Earth’s transition from a hot accretionary phase into a habitable world. All papers included were reviewed by experts in their respective fields. We are ...

  7. Terrestrial short-term ecotoxicity of a green formicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiepo, Erasmo N; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Resgalla, Charrid; Cotelle, Sylvie; Férard, Jean-François; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2010-07-01

    When ants become annoying, large quantities of formicide are applied to terrestrial ecosystems in tropical regions, but awareness of the health and environmental impacts related to the use of synthetic pesticides has been increasing. The use of green pesticides to combat target organisms could reduce these impacts. In this regard, terrestrial ecotoxicity tests with higher plants (Brassica olaracea, Lactuca sativa and Mucuna aterrima), annelids (Eisenia foetida), Collembola (Folsomia candida) and soil enzyme activity analysis (diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis) were used to evaluate short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity of a green pesticide prepared from naturally-occurring organic compounds. At the highest formicide concentration tested in these experiments (i.e., 50 g kg(-1) soil) no toxicity toward terrestrial organisms was observed. The lack of short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity suggest that this green formicide can be classed as an environmentally friendly product as compared to the ecotoxicity of the most commonly used commercialized formicides. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  9. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  10. The Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Postflight Terrestrial Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; McDonald, P. V.; Layne, C. S.; Merkle, L. A.; Cohen, H. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    1999-01-01

    Locomotion is a complex task requiring the coordinated integration of multiple sensorimotor subsystems. This coordination is exemplified by the precise control of segmental kinematics that allows smooth progression of movement in the face of changing environmental constraints. Exposure to the microgravity environment encountered during space flight induces adaptive modification in the central processing of sensory input to produce motor responses appropriate for the prevailing environment. This inflight adaptive change in sensorimotor function is inappropriate for movement control in 1-g and leads to postflight disturbances in terrestrial locomotor function. We have previously explored the effects of short-duration (7-16 days) space flight on the control of locomotion. The goal of the present set of studies was to investigate the effects of long-duration spaceflight (3-6 months) on the control of locomotion with particular emphasis on understanding how the multiple interacting systems are adaptively modified by prolonged microgravity exposure.

  11. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  12. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For cropping systems, quantification of the fate of fertiliser N and residual N is essential, to develop management practices that optimise N use efficiency. A field study was conducted in Saharan Morocco to assess the fate of fertiliser N in a wheat (Triticum durum var. Karim) - wheat cropping sequence. Therefore 85 kg ha-1 ...

  13. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  14. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-01-01

    .... Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats...

  15. Evaluation of the MERIS terrestrial Chlorophyll Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J.; Curran, P.

    The MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), one of the payloads on Envisat, has fine spectral resolution, moderate spatial resolution and a three day repeat cycle. This makes MERIS a potentially valuable sensor for the measurement and monitoring of terrestrial environments at regional to global scales. The red edge, which results from an abrupt change in reflectance in red and near-infrared wavelengths has a location that is related directly to the chlorophyll content of vegetation. A new index called the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI) uses data in three red and NIR wavebands centred at 681.25nm, 705nm and 753.75nm (bands 8, 9 and 10 in the MERIS standard band setting). The MTCI is easy to calculate and can be automated. Preliminary indirect evaluation using model, field and MERIS data suggested its sensitivity, notably to high values of chlorophyll content and its limited sensitivity to spatial resolution and atmospheric effects. As a result this index is now a standard level-2 product of the European Space Agency. For direct MTCI evaluation two different approaches were used. First, the MTCI/chlorophyll content relationship were determined using a surrogate of chlorophyll content for sites in southern Vietnam and second, the MTCI/chlorophyll relationship was determined using actual chlorophyll content for sites in the New Forest, UK and for plots in a greenhouse. Forests in southern Vietnam were contaminated heavily with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The contamination levels were so high that it led to a long term decrease in chlorophyll content within forests that have long since regained full canopy cover. In this approach the amount of Agent Orange dropped onto the forest between 1965 and 1971 was used as a surrogate for contemporary chlorophyll content and was related to current MTCI at selected forest sites. The resulting relationship was positive. Further per pixel investigation of the MTCI/Agent Orange concentration relationship

  16. The Valanginian terrestrial carbon-isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, D. R.; Price, G. D.; Baraboshkin, E.; Mutterlose, J.; Ruffell, A. H.

    2003-04-01

    A stratigraphic, biostratigraphic and isotopic investigation has been performed on a Crimean section located on the Kacha River, Verkhorechie Village, SW Crimea. This clastic-dominated succession consists of a series of bioturbated inter-bedded shallow-marine silty sands, claystones and some oolitic sands. A published detailed study of the ammonite fauna has been undertaken and has revealed that the succession can be compared to standard Tethyan schemes. The lower part of the succession is dated on the basis of the ammonite fauna as Early Valanginian (otopeta-campylotoxus ammonite Zones), although this latter zone is highly condensed. A more expanded Late Valanginian is present (verrucosum, callidiscus and tauricum ammonite Zones), and is overlain by sand-dominated sediments of Early Hauterivian age. Throughout this section woody plant matter ranging in preservation from charcoal to coal has been collected and analyzed for stable carbon-isotope ratios. There is no correlation between state of preservation and carbon-isotope ratios. Carbon-isotope ratios range in the Early Valanginian from -24 ppm to -22 ppm, and in the mid-verrucosum Zone values shift abruptly towards more positive values and peak at -18 ppm in the lower callidiscus Zone. Wood carbon-isotope ratios decrease gradually through the remainder of the callidiscus Zone and return to pre-excursion values in the tauricum Zone. The remaining Hauterivian values fluctuate between -24 ppm to -21 ppm. The structure, magnitude and timing of the terrestrial carbon-isotope curve is very similar to the marine carbonate curve (from +1 ppm to +3 ppm) for the Valanginian. This would indicate, based on a delta-delta relationship between organic matter and carbonate, that there was very little change in atmospheric CO_2 concentrations during the Valanginian, and that the isotopic composition of the global carbon reservoir shifted. Future research on an Early Cretaceous (Valanginian-Hauterivian) interval from the Yatria

  17. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement and health hazard along river Alaknanda and Ganges in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of absorbed dose rate in air due to exposure from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation and assessment of consequent public health hazard continues to be of environmental and public concern. Present study was aimed to establish a baseline data of annual effective dose and to assess the associated health risk from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation along the river Alaknanda and Ganges of India. Terrestrial γ radiation exposure doses (excluding cosmic radiation were measured using a Plastic Scintillation Counter. Absorbed dose rates in air were measured at eight designated locations from Nandprayag to Allahabad along the river. From the average absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose (AED and excess life time cancer risks (ELCR were calculated by standard method. Results showed that absorbed dose rates in air ranged between 81.33 ± 2.34 nSv.h−1 and 144 ± 5.77 nSv.h−1 and calculated AED ranged between 0.10 ± 0.012 mSv.y−1 to 0.18 ± 0.007 mSv.y−1 at the designated locations along these rivers. Calculated ELCR were found in the range of 0.375 × 10−3 to 0.662 × 10−3. Present study measured the outdoor γ radiation levels along the rivers. The calculated annual effective doses and life time cancer risk were found higher than the world average value at higher altitudes. But the measured doses and calculated risks at plains were close to that of reported average values.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards.

  19. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  20. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  1. Sagebrush Biomass Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsoy, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Clark, P. E.; Spaete, L.; Mitchell, J.; Shrestha, R.

    2012-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a proven tool for inventory of many vegetation types. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been demonstrated for estimation of biomass of trees, but the relatively low number of laser points (1-10 m-2) typical of ALS datasets makes estimating biomass of shrubs and small stature vegetation challenging. This study uses terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to estimate sagebrush biomass (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) by relating destructively sampled estimates to TLS-derived volumetric estimates. At close range, TLS can commonly provide in excess of 100,000 3-D points for a single sagebrush of approximately 1 m3 in volume. In this study, thirty sagebrush were scanned and destructively sampled at 6 sites within Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The 3-D point cloud data are converted into 1-cm voxels to give quantitative estimates of shrub volume. The accuracy of the TLS-based metrics for estimating biomass are then compared to several traditional plot sampling methods including point-intercept and simple crown dimension measurements. The findings of this study are expected to provide guidance on methods for data collection and analysis such that biomass can be accurately estimated across plot-scales (e.g., 100 m x 100 m).

  2. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  3. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Sfendourakis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the world catalog of terrestrial isopods some ten years ago by Schmalfuss has facilitated research on isopod diversity patterns at a global scale. Furthermore, even though we still lack a comprehensive and robust phylogeny of Oniscidea, we do have some useful approaches to phylogenetic relationships among major clades which can offer additional insights into isopod evolutionary dynamics. Taxonomic diversity is one of many approaches to biodiversity and, despite its sensitiveness to biases in taxonomic practice, has proved useful in exploring diversification dynamics of various taxa. In the present work, we attempt an analysis of taxonomic diversity patterns among Oniscidea based on an updated world list of species containing 3,710 species belonging to 527 genera and 37 families (data till April 2014. The analysis explores species diversity at the genus and family level, as well as the relationships between species per genera, species per families, and genera per families. In addition, we consider the structure of isopod taxonomic system under the fractal perspective that has been proposed as a measure of a taxon’s diversification. Finally, we check whether there is any phylogenetic signal behind taxonomic diversity patterns. The results can be useful in a more detailed elaboration of Oniscidea systematics.

  4. Terrestrial vegetation dynamics and global climate controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Boriah, Shyam; Steinbach, Michael; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Klooster, Steven [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Monthly data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and its predecessor satellite sensors was used to reconstruct vegetation dynamics in response to climate patterns over the period 1983-2005. Results suggest that plant growth over extensive land areas of southern Africa and Central Asia were the most closely coupled of any major land area to El Nino-southern oscillation (ENSO) effects on regional climate. Others land areas strongly tied to recent ENSO climate effects were in northern Canada, Alaska, western US, northern Mexico, northern Argentina, and Australia. Localized variations in precipitation were the most common controllers of monthly values for the fraction absorbed of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) over these regions. In addition to the areas cited above, seasonal FPAR values from MODIS were closely coupled to rainfall patterns in grassland and cropland areas of the northern and central US. Historical associations between global vegetation FPAR and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) anomalies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere can contribute major fluxes of CO{sub 2} during major drought events, such as those triggered by 1997-1998 El Nino event. (orig.)

  5. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  6. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715

  7. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  8. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    have the potential for exposure to infectious material, for example blood ... body fluid; wound causing bleeding and produced by sharp instrument ... Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test. HIV screening. Pregnancy test if EFV is considered. Two weeks. Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test.

  9. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  10. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavate...

  11. Reduced terrestrial ecosystem carbon uptake under future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, C.; Larsen, K. S.; Ambus, P.; Ibrom, A.; Arndal, M. F.; Schmidt, I. K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide stimulates plant productivity and ecosystem carbon gain but may also stimulate respiratory processes and thereby ecosystem carbon loss with the net balance being generally uncertain. In addition, climate driven warming and altered precipitation regimes under future climate also affects both uptake and release of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems making the net effect of climate change on ecosystem carbon budgets highly uncertain. In order to understand the response of these climate change driven changes, a large number of ecosystem experiments with single climate change factors have been conducted providing insight into the response of processes as well as ecosystems. However, ecosystems may respond in a complex and interactive way when all drivers of biological activity change in concert, which may not be well covered by past experiments nor reflected in existing Earth System Models causing potential over-prediction of future ecosystem carbon storage. It is therefore critical for future climate projections to understand better how changes in climate will interact with the effects of elevated CO2. In a Danish climate change experiment, CLIMAITE, a shrubland ecosystem was exposed to all three main climate change factors, elevated CO2 and temperature and altered precipitation and the impacts on a range of ecosystem processes as well as the overall feedback to the atmosphere were studied and quantified. The measurements include direct measurements of carbon feedback from each experimental plot, which is almost never measured in elevated CO2 experiments for practical reasons. Our unique results show that long-term (seven years) simultaneous exposure to all climate change factors reduced the carbon storage of the shrubland ecosystem while in contrast, exposure to single factors individually led to either no change or increased carbon storage. This demonstrates significant interactions among climate change factors, especially when CO2

  12. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  13. Bayesian calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models: a study of advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Walker, Anthony; Safta, Cosmin; Munger, William

    2017-09-01

    Calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models is important but challenging. Bayesian inference implemented by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling provides a comprehensive framework to estimate model parameters and associated uncertainties using their posterior distributions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method strongly depend on the MCMC algorithm used. In this work, a differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm is used to estimate posterior distributions of 21 parameters for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model using 14 years of daily net ecosystem exchange data collected at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site eddy-flux tower. The calibration of DREAM results in a better model fit and predictive performance compared to the popular adaptive Metropolis (AM) scheme. Moreover, DREAM indicates that two parameters controlling autumn phenology have multiple modes in their posterior distributions while AM only identifies one mode. The application suggests that DREAM is very suitable to calibrate complex terrestrial ecosystem models, where the uncertain parameter size is usually large and existence of local optima is always a concern. In addition, this effort justifies the assumptions of the error model used in Bayesian calibration according to the residual analysis. The result indicates that a heteroscedastic, correlated, Gaussian error model is appropriate for the problem, and the consequent constructed likelihood function can alleviate the underestimation of parameter uncertainty that is usually caused by using uncorrelated error models.

  14. Impact of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment on North America Plate Specific Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Thomas; Melbourne, Tim; Murray, Mark; Floyd, Mike; Szeliga, Walter; King, Robert; Phillips, David; Puskas, Christine

    2017-04-01

    We examine the impact of incorporating glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in determining the Euler poles for plate specific terrestrial reference frames. We will specifically examine the impact of GIA models on the realization of a North America Reference frame. We use a combination of the velocity fields determined by the Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility which analyzes GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other geodetic quality GPS sites in North America, and from the ITRF2014 re-analysis. Initial analysis of the GAGE velocity field shows reduced root-mean-square (RMS) scatter of velocity estimate residuals when the North America Euler pole is estimated including the ICE-6G GIA mode. The reduction in the north-south direction is from 0.69 mm/yr to 0.52 mm/yr, in the east-west direction from 0.34 mm/yr to 0.30 mm/yr and in height from 0.93 mm/yr to 0.72 mm/yr. The reduction in the height RMS is not surprising since the contemporary geodetic height velocity estimates are used in the developing the ICE-6G model. Contemporary horizontal motions are not used the GIA model development, and the reduction in horizontal RMS provides a partial validation of the model. There is no reduction in the horizontal velocity residual when the ICE-5G model is used. Although removing the ICE-6G model before fitting an Euler pole for the North American plate reduces the RMS of the residuals, the pattern of residuals is still systematic suggesting possibly that a spherically symmetric viscosity model might not be adequate for accurate modeling of the horizontal motions associated with GIA in North America. This presentation in focus on the prospects and impacts of incorporating GIA models in plate-specific Euler poles with emphasis on North America.

  15. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.

    1979-03-30

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed.

  16. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  17. Relationship Between Landscape Character, UV Exposure, and Amphibian Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, C. M.; Brooks, P. D.; Corn, P. S.; Muths, E.; Campbell, D. H.; Diamond, S.; Tonnessen, K.

    2001-12-01

    Widespread reports of amphibian declines have been considered a warning of large-scale environmental degradation, yet the reasons for these declines remain unclear. This study suggests that exposure to ultraviolet radiation may act as an environmental stressor that affects population breeding success or susceptibility to disease. Ultraviolet radiation is attenuated by dissolved and particulate compounds in water, which may be of either terrestrial or aquatic origin. UV attenuation by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is primarily due to compounds in the fulvic acid fraction, which originate in soil environments. These terrestrially-derived fulvic acids are transported to during hydrologic flushing events such as snowmelt and episodic precipitation and play an important role in controlling UV exposure in surface waters. As part of a previously published project, amphibian surveys were conducted at seventeen sites in Rocky Mountain National Park both during, and subsequent to, a three-year drought (1988 - 1990). During this period, ten sites lost one amphibian species, while only one site gained a previously unreported species. One possible explanation for these localized species losses is increased exposure to UV radiation, mediated by reduced terrestrial DOC inputs during dry periods. Several subsequent years of water chemistry data showed that the sites with documented species losses were characterized by a range of DOC concentrations, but tended to have a greater proportion of terrestrial DOC than sites that did not undergo species loss. This suggests that terrestrial inputs exert a strong control on DOC concentrations that may influence species success. We used physical environmental factors to develop a classification scheme for these sites. There are many physical factors that can influence terrestrial DOC inputs, including landscape position, geomorphology, soil type, and watershed vegetation. In addition, we considered the possible effects on internal aquatic

  18. Towards improved diagnostics in terrestrial and solar spectropolarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Thomas Ryan

    The dissertation focuses on developing new technologies in sensitive spectropolarimetry, applied to observations of (I) the polarized sky, aurorae, and (II) solar photosphere. In Part I, I demonstrate the need for accurate daytime sky polarization measurements for use in calibrating large aperture telescopes. We have developed an instrument (WAASP) capable of measuring the complete full-sky polarization vector over visible/near-infrared broad bands with a 1% polarimetric sensitivity in the time frame of constant sky illumination patterns. Observations also assist to characterize the background polarization above Haleakala, strongly dependent on such effects as multiple-scattering, aerosols, and time-dependent cloud formations. A first analysis of the polarization properties of the local daytime sky are presented. The instrument is also used to measure the full-sky polarization of Earth aurorae, to an extent which had not yet been achieved, demonstrating it as a new tool for potential thermospheric weather diagnostics. Finally, such terrestrial observations allow validation of atomic scattering and high-altitude polarization models. In Part II, I detail an effort to measure the infrared polarized solar spectrum at the limb at the 0.01% level. At this sensitivity, spectropolarimetric signatures appear due to coherent scattering processes in the upper solar atmosphere, but can be difficult to detect due to instrument and seeing-induced polarization crosstalk. We have developed an infrared fiber spectropolarimeter that, coupled with improved guiding on the SOLARC coronagraph, can achieve 1E-4 polarimetric sensitivity for moderate spectral resolution (R=30,000). We employ new techniques that can flat-field and remove residual seeing-induced crosstalk, using the actual data frames. These methods allow, for example, a 1E-4 sensitivity of limb polarization at a wavelength of 1 micron in roughly 15 minute integrations. The theoretical interpretation of certain

  19. A review of measured bioaccumulation data in terrestrial plants for organic chemicals: Metrics, variability and the need for standardized measurement protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, William J; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Dettenmaier, Erik M

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the transfer of organic chemicals from the environment into terrestrial plants is essential for assessing human and ecological risks, using plants as environmental contamination biomonitors, and predicting phytoremediation effectiveness. Experimental data describing chemical uptake...... bioaccumulation data for 310 organic chemicals and 112 terrestrial plant species. Various experimental approaches have been used; therefore, inter-study comparisons and data quality evaluations are difficult. Key exposure and plant growth conditions were often missing, and units were often unclear or not reported...... of organic chemical uptake by plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in

  1. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in plant growth has

  2. A Microseismometer for Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W.; Kaiser, W.; Vanzandt, T.

    1993-01-01

    The scientific and technical requirements of extraterrestrial seismology place severe demands on instrumentation. Performance in terms of sensitivity, stability, and frequency band must match that of the best terrestrial instruments, at a fraction of the size, mass, and power. In addition, this performance must be realized without operator intervention in harsh temperature, shock, and radiation environments. These constraints have forced us to examine some fundamental limits of accelerometer design in order to produce a small, rugged, sensitive seismometer. Silicon micromachined sensor technology offers techniques for the fabrication of monolithic, robust, compact, low-power and -mass accelerometers. However, currently available sensors offer inadequate sensitivity and bandwidth. Our implementation of an advanced silicon micro machined seismometer is based on principles developed at JPL for high-sensitivity position sensor technology. The use of silicon micro machining technology with these new principles should enable the fabrication of a 10(exp -11) g sensitivity seismometer with a bandwidth of at least 0.01 to 20 Hz. The low Q properties of pure single-crystal silicon are essential in order to minimize the Brownian thermal noise limitations generally characteristic of seismometers with small proof masses. A seismometer consists of a spring-supported proof mass and a transducer for measuring its motion. For long period motion a position sensor is generally used, for which the displacement is proportional to the ground acceleration. The mechanical sensitivity can be increased either by increasing the proof mass or decreasing the spring stiffness, neither of which is desirable for planetary applications. Our approach has been to use an ultra sensitive capacitive position sensor with a sensitivity of better than 10(exp -13) m/Hz(exp 1/2). This allows the use of a stiffer suspension and a smaller proof mass. We have built several prototypes using these principles

  3. Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.

  4. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  5. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Camargo, G; Fischer, E

    2011-04-01

    Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant--for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare--for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger.

  6. Tidal Heating in Multilayered Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R(sub E) is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  7. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry, E-mail: wade.g.henning@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R{sub E} is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  8. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  9. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  10. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  11. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  12. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph High Accuracy Optical Propagation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project is considering several approaches to discovering planets orbiting stars far from earth and assessing their suitability to...

  13. Maryland ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for river otters in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set represent the terrestrial mammal...

  14. Western Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  15. Traceable radiometry underpinning terrestrial- and helio-studies (TRUTHS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference

  16. Virginia ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the northern river otter in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  17. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  18. Mixotrophy in the terrestrial green alga Apatococcus lobatus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavs, Lydia; Schumann, Rhena; Karsten, Ulf; Lorenz, Maike

    2016-04-01

    The green microalga Apatococcus lobatus is widely distributed in terrestrial habitats throughout many climatic zones. It dominates green biofilms on natural and artificial substrata in temperate latitudes and is regarded as a key genus of obligate terrestrial consortia. Until now, its isolation, cultivation and application as a terrestrial model organism has been hampered by slow growth rates and low growth capacities. A mixotrophic culturing approach clearly enhanced the accumulation of biomass, thereby permitting the future application of A. lobatus in different types of bio-assays necessary for material and biofilm research. The ability of A. lobatus to grow mixotrophically is assumed as a competitive advantage in terrestrial habitats. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Use of retrospective data to assess ecotoxicological monitoring needs for terrestrial vertebrates residing in Atlantic coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates' (CEE-TV) database contains 4,336 records of ecotoxicological information for free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in Atlantic and Florida Gulf coast estuaries and their drainages. To identify spatial data gaps, those CEE-TV records for which the specific study location were known (n=2,740) were combined with watershed and wildlife management unit boundaries using Geographic Information Systems software. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Index of Watershed Indicators (IWI), which classifies watersheds based on water quality and their vulnerability to pollution, was used to prioritize these data gaps. Of 136 watersheds in the study area, 15 that are classified by the IWI as having water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution lacked terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological monitoring or research in the past decade. Older studies within some of these watersheds documented high levels of contaminants in wildlife tissues. Of 90 National Wildlife Refuge units, 42 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Of 40 National Park units larger than 1 km2, 17 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Issues encountered in this analysis highlighted the need for spatially and temporally replicated field monitoring programs that utilize random sampling. Without data from such studies, it will be difficult to perform unbiased assessments of regional trends in contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates.

  20. Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the

  1. Parallels between astronauts and terrestrial patients - Taking physiotherapy rehabilitation "To infinity and beyond".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie; Lambrecht, Gunda; Ramdharry, Gita; Cusack, Rebecca; Bloomberg, Jacob; Stokes, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment induces physiological changes in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems in healthy astronauts. As space agencies prepare for extended duration missions, it is difficult to predict the extent of the effects that prolonged exposure to microgravity will have on astronauts. Prolonged bed rest is a model used by space agencies to simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, and bed rest studies have provided some insights into the effects of immobilisation and inactivity. Whilst microgravity exposure is confined to a relatively small population, on return to Earth, the physiological changes seen in astronauts parallel many changes routinely seen by physiotherapists on Earth in people with low back pain (LBP), muscle wasting diseases, exposure to prolonged bed rest, elite athletes and critically ill patients in intensive care. The medical operations team at the European Space Agency are currently involved in preparing astronauts for spaceflight, advising on exercises whilst astronauts are on the International Space Station, and reconditioning astronauts following their return. There are a number of parallels between this role and contemporary roles performed by physiotherapists working with elite athletes and muscle wasting conditions. This clinical commentary will draw parallels between changes which occur to the neuromuscular system in the absence of gravity and conditions which occur on Earth. Implications for physiotherapy management of astronauts and terrestrial patients will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Delivery of Water During Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David P.; Izidoro, Andre; Jacobson, Seth A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Rubie, David C.

    2018-02-01

    The planetary building blocks that formed in the terrestrial planet region were likely very dry, yet water is comparatively abundant on Earth. Here we review the various mechanisms proposed for the origin of water on the terrestrial planets. Various in-situ mechanisms have been suggested, which allow for the incorporation of water into the local planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region or into the planets themselves from local sources, although all of those mechanisms have difficulties. Comets have also been proposed as a source, although there may be problems fitting isotopic constraints, and the delivery efficiency is very low, such that it may be difficult to deliver even a single Earth ocean of water this way. The most promising route for water delivery is the accretion of material from beyond the snow line, similar to carbonaceous chondrites, that is scattered into the terrestrial planet region as the planets are growing. Two main scenarios are discussed in detail. First is the classical scenario in which the giant planets begin roughly in their final locations and the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region extends all the way into the outer asteroid belt region. Second is the Grand Tack scenario, where early inward and outward migration of the giant planets implants material from beyond the snow line into the asteroid belt and terrestrial planet region, where it can be accreted by the growing planets. Sufficient water is delivered to the terrestrial planets in both scenarios. While the Grand Tack scenario provides a better fit to most constraints, namely the small mass of Mars, planets may form too fast in the nominal case discussed here. This discrepancy may be reduced as a wider range of initial conditions is explored. Finally, we discuss several more recent models that may have important implications for water delivery to the terrestrial planets.

  3. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jameel Mohd; Ansari Javed Akhtar; Ali Abuzer; Ahamad Javed; Ali M; Tamboli Ennus

    2012-01-01

    The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form) of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) are of imm...

  5. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheyer, Torsten; Sander, P. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys que...

  6. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  7. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  8. Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Anderson Abel; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane; Hempel, Stefan; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-12-15

    Microplastics (plastics microplastics might first interact with biota eliciting ecologically relevant impacts. This article introduces the pervasive microplastic contamination as a potential agent of global change in terrestrial systems, highlights the physical and chemical nature of the respective observed effects, and discusses the broad toxicity of nanoplastics derived from plastic breakdown. Making relevant links to the fate of microplastics in aquatic continental systems, we here present new insights into the mechanisms of impacts on terrestrial geochemistry, the biophysical environment, and ecotoxicology. Broad changes in continental environments are possible even in particle-rich habitats such as soils. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that microplastics interact with terrestrial organisms that mediate essential ecosystem services and functions, such as soil dwelling invertebrates, terrestrial fungi, and plant-pollinators. Therefore, research is needed to clarify the terrestrial fate and effects of microplastics. We suggest that due to the widespread presence, environmental persistence, and various interactions with continental biota, microplastic pollution might represent an emerging global change threat to terrestrial ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  10. Planetary Protection: Two Relevant Terrestrial Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, C.

    2002-09-01

    Concerns about potential pathogens in returned samples from Mars ("Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations", National Research Council, 1997) or planetary satellites ("Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies", National Research Council, 1998) focus on two potential types of pathogenesis, toxic and infectious. The National Research Council reports cited above state that the chances of extraterrestrial organisms proving either toxic or infectious to humans are extremely low, but cannot be entirely ruled out. Here I discuss recently discovered terrestrial examples relevant to each possibility, in order to make these concerns concrete. The first example concerns the production of hepatotoxins (toxins affecting the liver) and neurotoxins by cyanobacteria in glacial lakes on alpine pastures in Switzerland. In this example, mat-forming benthic cyanobacteria are implicated in a hundred cattle poisonings that have been reported from alpine pasteurs in southeastern Switzerland over the past twenty-five years (e.g. K. Mez et al, Hydrobiologia 368, 1-15 (1998)). It is unlikely that these cyanobacteria evolved the toxins in response to dairy cows; rather the susceptibility of cattle to these toxins seems simply to be an unfortunate coincidence of a toxin working across a large evolutionary distance. The second example concerns the recent demonstration that the decimation of shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral is due to infection by a common fecal enterobacterium associated with the human gut (K. L. Patterson et al., PNAS 99, 8725-8730 (2002)). The bacterium, Serratia marcenscens, is also a free-living microbe in water and soil, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in a variety of animal species. The distance between humans and corals emphasizes the possibility that certain organisms may prove pathogenic across a wide evolutionary divide. Of course, in neither of these cases are the evolutionary

  11. Geochemical Evidence for a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    The aftermath of phase separation and crystal-liquid fractionation in a magma ocean should leave a planet geochemically differentiated. Subsequent convective and other mixing processes may operate over time to obscure geochemical evidence of magma ocean differentiation. On the other hand, core formation is probably the most permanent, irreversible part of planetary differentiation. Hence the geochemical traces of core separation should be the most distinct remnants left behind in the mantle and crust, In the case of the Earth, core formation apparently coincided with a magma ocean that extended to a depth of approximately 1000 km. Evidence for this is found in high pressure element partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between liquid silicate and liquid iron alloy, and with the Ni-Co ratio and the abundance of Ni and Co in the Earth's upper mantle. A terrestrial magma ocean with a depth of 1000 km will solidify from the bottom up and first crystallize in the perovskite stability field. The largest effect of perovskite fractionation on major element distribution is to decrease the Si-Mg ratio in the silicate liquid and increase the Si-Mg ratio in the crystalline cumulate. Therefore, if a magma ocean with perovskite fractionation existed, then one could expect to observe an upper mantle with a lower than chondritic Si-Mg ratio. This is indeed observed in modern upper mantle peridotites. Although more experimental work is needed to fully understand the high-pressure behavior of trace element partitioning, it is likely that Hf is more compatible than Lu in perovskite-silicate liquid pairs. Thus, perovskite fractionation produces a molten mantle with a higher than chondritic Lu-Hf ratio. Arndt and Blichert-Toft measured Hf isotope compositions of Barberton komatiites that seem to require a source region with a long-lived, high Lu-Hf ratio. It is plausible that that these Barberton komatiites were generated within the majorite stability field by remelting a perovskite

  12. Can Terrestrial Microbes Grow on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The theme for AbSciCon 2012 is "Exploring Life: Past and Present, Near and Far." The conference will address our current understanding of life - from processes at the molecular level to those which operate at planetary scales. Studying these aspects of life on Earth provides an essential platform from which to examine the potential for life on other worlds, both within our solar system and beyond. Mars exhibits a variety of extreme environments characterized by high UV and ionizing radiation flux, low pressure anoxic atmosphere, scarce or absent liquid water, extreme low temperatures, etc. The ability of terrestrial microorganisms to survive and adapt to the Mars environment has profound implications for astrobiology, planetary protection, and Mars life detection missions. At the NASA Ames Synthetic Biology Initiative, we believe that synthetic biology has the potential to revolutionize human space exploration. As such, the initiative is dedicated to applying the tools and techniques of synthetic biology to space exploration and astrobiology. Biological solutions will be invaluable for space exploration because they are not resource intensive, and they are versatile and self-renewing. An understanding of how to work with DNA in an unfavorable environment is paramount to utilizing biological tools on space missions. Furthermore, the ability to adjust life to the parameters of Mars is vital both to discovering what life on Mars might look like, and to using biological tools under such conditions. As a first step, we need an energy-efficient, low cost means of transporting, storing, and protecting genomic DNA, DNA parts, and whole microbial strains. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate viable and superior alternatives to standard DNA storage methods, which can be optimized to the conditions of space exploration, using synthetic biology as a tool. This includes protocols and kit designs for easy and repeatable DNA and strain recovery from protective storage

  13. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  15. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  16. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  17. Terrestrial adaptation of green algae Klebsormidium and Zygnema (Charophyta) involves diversity in photosynthetic traits but not in CO2 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Ryšánek, David; Lang, Ingeborg; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    The basal streptophyte Klebsormidium and the advanced Zygnema show adaptation to terrestrialization. Differences are found in photoprotection and resistance to short-term light changes, but not in CO 2 acquisition. Streptophyte green algae colonized land about 450-500 million years ago giving origin to terrestrial plants. We aim to understand how their physiological adaptations are linked to the ecological conditions (light, water and CO2) characterizing modern terrestrial habitats. A new Klebsormidium isolate from a strongly acidic environment of a former copper mine (Schwarzwand, Austria) is investigated, in comparison to Klebsormidium cf. flaccidum and Zygnema sp. We show that these genera possess different photosynthetic traits and water requirements. Particularly, the Klebsormidium species displayed a higher photoprotection capacity, concluded from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and higher tolerance to high light intensity than Zygnema. However, Klebsormidium suffered from photoinhibition when the light intensity in the environment increased rapidly, indicating that NPQ is involved in photoprotection against strong and stable irradiance. Klebsormidium was also highly resistant to cellular water loss (dehydration) under low light. On the other hand, exposure to relatively high light intensity during dehydration caused a harmful over-reduction of the electron transport chain, leading to PSII damages and impairing the ability to recover after rehydration. Thus, we suggest that dehydration is a selective force shaping the adaptation of this species towards low light. Contrary to the photosynthetic characteristics, the inorganic carbon (C i ) acquisition was equivalent between Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Despite their different habitats and restriction to hydro-terrestrial environment, the three organisms showed similar use of CO2 and HCO3- as source of Ci for photosynthesis, pointing out a similar adaptation of their CO2-concentrating mechanisms to terrestrial

  18. Frequency behavior of the residual current devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Lung, C.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Muresan, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into the operating characteristic of residual current devices when in presence of a residual current at a frequency of 60Hz. In order to protect persons and equipment effectively the residual current devices are made to be very sensitive to the ground fault current or the touch current. Because of their high sensitivity the residual current circuit breakers are prone to tripping under no-fault conditions.

  19. Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

  20. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  1. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  2. High resolution measurement of light in terrestrial ecosystems using photodegrading dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Roales

    Full Text Available Incoming solar radiation is the main determinant of terrestrial ecosystem processes, such as primary production, litter decomposition, or soil mineralization rates. Light in terrestrial ecosystems is spatially and temporally heterogeneous due to the interaction among sunlight angle, cloud cover and tree-canopy structure. To integrate this variability and to know light distribution over time and space, a high number of measurements are needed, but tools to do this are usually expensive and limited. An easy-to-use and inexpensive method that can be used to measure light over time and space is needed. We used two photodegrading fluorescent organic dyes, rhodamine WT (RWT and fluorescein, for the quantification of light. We measured dye photodegradation as the decrease in fluorescence across an irradiance gradient from full sunlight to deep shade. Then, we correlated it to accumulated light measured with PAR quantum sensors and obtained a model for this behavior. Rhodamine WT and fluorescein photodegradation followed an exponential decay curve with respect to accumulated light. Rhodamine WT degraded slower than fluorescein and remained unaltered after exposure to temperature changes. Under controlled conditions, fluorescence of both dyes decreased when temperatures increased, but returned to its initial values after cooling to the pre-heating temperature, indicating no degradation. RWT and fluorescein can be used to measure light under a varying range of light conditions in terrestrial ecosystems. This method is particularly useful to integrate solar radiation over time and to measure light simultaneously at different locations, and might be a better alternative to the expensive and time consuming traditional light measurement methods. The accuracy, low price and ease of this method make it a powerful tool for intensive sampling of large areas and for developing high resolution maps of light in an ecosystem.

  3. Retrospective ecotoxicological data and current information needs for terrestrial vertebrates residing in coastal habitat of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Golden, N.H.; McKernan, M.A.; Hothem, R.L.; Custer, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Contaminant Exposure and Effects—Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database was developed to conduct simple searches for ecotoxicological information, examine exposure trends, and identify significant data gaps. The CEE-TV database contains 16,696 data records on free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in estuarine and coastal habitats of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Great Lakes. Information in the database was derived from over 1800 source documents, representing 483 unique species (about 252,000 individuals), with sample collection dates spanning from 1884 to 2003. The majority of the records contain exposure data (generally contaminant concentrations) on a limited number (n = 209) of chlorinated and brominated compounds, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, economic poisons, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons, whereas only 9.3% of the records contain biomarker or bioindicator effects data. Temporal examination of exposure data provides evidence of declining concentrations of certain organochlorine pesticides in some avian species (e.g., ospreys, Pandion haliaetus), and an apparent increase in the detection and possibly the incidence of avian die-offs related to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. To identify spatial data gaps, 11,360 database records with specific sampling locations were combined with the boundaries of coastal watersheds, and National Wildlife Refuge and National Park units. Terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data were lacking in 41.9% of 464 coastal watersheds in the continental United States. Recent (1990–2003) terrestrial vertebrate contaminant exposure or effects data were available for only about half of the National Wildlife Refuge and National Park units in the geographic area encompassed by the database. When these data gaps were overlaid on watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems and/or high vulnerability to pollution, 72 coastal watersheds, and

  4. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital......We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  5. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  6. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  7. Dermal Danger? Estimating Pesticide Exposure and Accumulation in Terrestrial Phase Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registration is required in the US. The EPA must ensure, when used according to label directions: reasonable certainty of no harm to human health, wildlife, fish, and plants, including endangered and non-target species, as well as surface and groundwater.

  8. Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Benbrook

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that organically produced food has lower risks of pesticide contamination than food that is not organically produced. However, organically produced food is not entirely free of pesticide residues. A large, high-quality U.S. Department of Agriculture database reports pesticide residues in several dozen organic and conventionally grown foods on an annual basis, and supports detailed analyses of the frequency of residues in conventional and organic food, the number of residues found in an average sample of food, residue levels, and potential dietary risk. These data are used to estimate pesticide dietary exposures and relative risk levels, and to assess the impacts of the current pesticide-related provisions of the National Organic Program (NOP rule. Fraud appears to be rare based on the available data. Most prohibited residues found in organic produce are detected at levels far below the residues typically found in food grown with pesticides. Relatively high-risk residues are more common in imported foods—both organic and conventional—compared to domestically grown food. The authors conclude that incorporating relative dietary risk into the organic standard would be a more precautionary, risk-based approach than targeting enforcement to organic foods found to contain 5% or more of the applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA tolerance.

  9. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  10. Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Kati; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Kaartinen, Harri; Krooks, Anssi; Manninen, Terhikki; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihelä, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo; Thölix, Laura; Karjalainen, Tuure

    2010-05-01

    The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland during 2008-2009. The SNORTEX is a 3-years investigation (started in 2008) piloted by Météo-France and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The key objectives of SNORTEX are to improve the characterization of snow-melting patterns in boreal regions using a multiscale approach supported by multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing information, and to build an integrated database for snow variables (albedo, fraction, water equivalent) in a forested environment for the validation of the SAF (Satellite Application Facilities) snow-related products. Validation data for EUMETSAT Land, Climate and Hydrological SAFs will be gathered in the campaign. The focus of the 2009 campaign was on the melting season. The field work was scheduled to include different snow/weather conditions and to include a time period with fractional snow cover. There will be one more field measurement period in spring 2010. The field survey took place at Sodankylä in Finnish Lapland. The existing facilities of FMI-ARC (The Arctic Research Center of the Finnish Meteorological Institutes) (67.4 °N 26.6 °E) were used. The studied area was chosen for this campaign because it is located far from the coasts, which makes the climate continental. The winters are long and cold during which the snow usually does not completely melt and several layers form in the snow pack. The area is partially forested which makes it possible to observe how the forests affect snow, snow cover and albedo. In addition to this the topography of the area is relatively plain which makes the area ideal for

  11. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  12. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  13. Digital cranial endocast of Hyopsodus (Mammalia, "Condylarthra": a case of paleogene terrestrial echolocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva J Orliac

    Full Text Available We here describe the endocranial cast of the Eocene archaic ungulate Hyopsodus lepidus AMNH 143783 (Bridgerian, North America reconstructed from X-ray computed microtomography data. This represents the first complete cranial endocast known for Hyopsodontinae. The Hyopsodus endocast is compared to other known "condylarthran" endocasts, i. e. those of Pleuraspidotherium (Pleuraspidotheriidae, Arctocyon (Arctocyonidae, Meniscotherium (Meniscotheriidae, Phenacodus (Phenacodontidae, as well as to basal perissodactyls (Hyracotherium and artiodactyls (Cebochoerus, Homacodon. Hyopsodus presents one of the highest encephalization quotients of archaic ungulates and shows an "advanced version" of the basal ungulate brain pattern, with a mosaic of archaic characters such as large olfactory bulbs, weak ventral expansion of the neopallium, and absence of neopallium fissuration, as well as more specialized ones such as the relative reduction of the cerebellum compared to cerebrum or the enlargement of the inferior colliculus. As in other archaic ungulates, Hyopsodus midbrain exposure is important, but it exhibits a dorsally protruding largely developed inferior colliculus, a feature unique among "Condylarthra". A potential correlation between the development of the inferior colliculus in Hyopsodus and the use of terrestrial echolocation as observed in extant tenrecs and shrews is discussed. The detailed analysis of the overall morphology of the postcranial skeleton of Hyopsodus indicates a nimble, fast moving animal that likely lived in burrows. This would be compatible with terrestrial echolocation used by the animal to investigate subterranean habitat and/or to minimize predation during nocturnal exploration of the environment.

  14. VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN): Innovative Vascular Mappings for Astronaut Exploration Health Risks and Human Terrestrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Kao, David; Valizadegan, Hamed; Martin, Rodney; Murray, Matthew C.; Ramesh, Sneha; Sekaran, Srinivaas

    2017-01-01

    Currently, astronauts face significant health risks in future long-duration exploration missions such as colonizing the Moon and traveling to Mars. Numerous risks include greatly increased radiation exposures beyond the low earth orbit (LEO) of the ISS, and visual and ocular impairments in response to microgravity environments. The cardiovascular system is a key mediator in human physiological responses to radiation and microgravity. Moreover, blood vessels are necessarily involved in the progression and treatment of vascular-dependent terrestrial diseases such as cancer, coronary vessel disease, wound-healing, reproductive disorders, and diabetes. NASA developed an innovative, globally requested beta-level software, VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) to map and quantify vascular remodeling for application to astronaut and terrestrial health challenges. VESGEN mappings of branching vascular trees and networks are based on a weighted multi-parametric analysis derived from vascular physiological branching rules. Complex vascular branching patterns are determined by biological signaling mechanisms together with the fluid mechanics of multi-phase laminar blood flow.

  15. Comparison of Jovian and Terrestrial Lightning as Observed from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Boccippio, Dennis; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We compare the images of Jovian lightning taken by Galileo spacecraft with the images of terrestrial lightning observed by Lightning Imaging Spectrometer (LIS) onboard the TERRA spacecraft. Both data sets have good spatial resolution: Galileo's pixel is 25 km, or about half the atmospheric scale height, LIS pixel is 3-6 km, also about half of the scale height. This good resolution allows us to see that both Jovian and terrestrial lightning spots look diffuse because of the scattering in the clouds above. Previously we used the appearance of the diffuse spots on Jupiter to model lightning depths and the opacity and shape of the overlying clouds (Dyudina and Ingersoll, 2000). The comparison with LIS data allowed us to verify that the model is valid for terrestrial lightning. The irregular shapes of large terrestrial lightning suggests 30-km scale horizontal bolts. On Jupiter the spots, projected onto the horizontal plane, are nearly circular suggesting that the large size of the spots is mostly due to the horizontal diffusion of the photons scattered in the clouds. Unlike the Galileo observations, LIS has fine temporal resolution of 2 ms, or about 250 frames per single lightning flash. We will discuss the temporal evolution of terrestrial flashes and its implications for Jupiter.

  16. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  17. Clearance of ingested neonicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, James E; Robert, François-Xavier L; Florance, Hannah; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    Bees in agricultural landscapes are exposed to dietary pesticides such as imidacloprid when they feed from treated mass-flowering crops. Concern about the consequent impact on bees makes it important to understand their resilience. In the laboratory, the authors therefore fed adult worker bees on dosed syrup (125 μg L(-1) of imidacloprid, or 98 μg kg(-1)) either continuously or as a pulsed exposure and measured their behaviour (feeding and locomotory activity) and whole-body residues. On dosed syrup, honey bees maintained much lower bodily levels of imidacloprid than bumblebees (feeding and locomotory activity in bumblebees. After the pulsed exposure, bumblebees cleared bodily imidacloprid after 48 h and recovered behaviourally. The differential behavioural resilience of the two species can be attributed to the observed differential in bodily residues. The ability of bumblebees to recover may be environmentally relevant in wild populations that face transitory exposures from the pulsed blooming of mass-flowering crops. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  19. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  20. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  1. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  2. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.es; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  3. Mercury toxicity to terrestrial snails in a partial life cycle experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Frédéric; Perrier, Fanny; Caire, Ange-Lyne; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2016-02-01

    Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in the terrestrial environment, only a few toxicity data are available for soil invertebrates. The chronic toxicity of inorganic Hg-Hg(II)--through food or soil contaminations was therefore assessed for the snail Cantareus aspersus, a well-recognized soil quality bioindicator. The 28-day EC50s (the concentrations causing 50% effect) for the snail growth were 600 and 5048 mg Hg kg(-1) for food and soil, respectively. A survey of growth over its entire duration (91 days) allowed to show that the effects took place rapidly after the beginning of exposure and persisted in the long term. Reproduction was also impaired, and we established 28-day EC50s for sexual maturation and fecundity of 831 and 339 mg Hg kg(-1), respectively, for food and 1719 and 53 mg Hg kg(-1), respectively, for soil. Total Hg analyses in snails exposed to contaminated matrices revealed important bioaccumulation capacities up to 2000 mg Hg kg(-1) viscera. Critical limits in internal Hg concentration of about 500 and 1000 mg Hg kg(-1) were determined as thresholds for the induction of growth toxicity through food and soil exposure, respectively. These different values underlined differences in the uptake and toxicological dynamics of Hg according to its bioavailability in the source of exposure.

  4. Selecting passive dosimetry technologies for measuring the external dose of terrestrial wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrun, Phakphum; Beresford, Nicholas A; Wood, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Dosimeters attached to wild animals can be used to validate regulatory assessment approaches and models for estimating radiation exposure of wild animals. Such measurements are also necessary to ensure that robust dose-effect relationships can be developed from the results of field research programmes. This paper presents the first comprehensive evaluation of the different dosimetry technologies available for specifically measuring the external exposure of wildlife. Guidance is provided on the selection of appropriate passive dosimetry approaches for directly measuring external exposure of terrestrial wildlife under field conditions. The characteristics and performance of four available dosimetry technologies (thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD), radiophotoluminescent dosimeter (RPLD) and direct ion storage, (DIS)) are reviewed. Dosimeter properties, detection limit and dose range, study organisms and the intended application are variables that need to be considered when selecting a suitable dosimetry technology. Evaluated against these criteria, it is suggested that LiF based and Al2O3:C TLDs, OSLD and RPLD could all be used to estimate doses to wildlife. However, only LiF based TLDs have been used to directly measure wildlife doses in field studies to date. DIS is only suitable for comparatively large species (e.g. medium to large mammals), but has the advantage that temporal variation in dose can be recorded. In all cases, dosimeter calibration is required to ensure that the dose measurements reported can be interpreted appropriately for the organisms of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-destructive measurement and role of surface residual stress monitoring in residual life assessment of a steam turbine blading material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Gajanana; Rawat, M. S.; Prasad, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Steam turbine blades in power generation equipment are made from martensitic stainless steels having high strength, good toughness and corrosion resistance. However, these steels are susceptible to pitting which can promote early failures of blades in the turbines, particularly in the low pressure dry/wet areas by stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue. Presence of tensile residual stresses is known to accelerate failures whereas compressive stresses can help in delaying failures. Shot peening has been employed as an effective tool to induce compressive residual stresses which offset a part of local surface tensile stresses in the surface layers of components. Maintaining local stresses at stress raisers, such as pits formed during service, below a threshold level can help in preventing the initiation microcracks and failures. The thickness of the layer in compression will, however, depend of the shot peening parameters and should extend below the bottom of corrosion pits. The magnitude of surface compressive drops progressively during service exposure and over time the effectiveness of shot peening is lost making the material susceptible to micro-crack initiation once again. Measurement and monitoring of surface residual stress therefore becomes important for assessing residual life of components in service. This paper shows the applicability of surface stress monitoring to life assessment of steam turbine blade material based on data generated in laboratory on residual surface stress measurements in relation to fatigue exposure. An empirical model is proposed to calculate the remaining life of shot peened steam turbine blades in service.

  6. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayno, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  8. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  9. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: Inter-comparison of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.P., E-mail: mathew.johansen@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Barnett, C.L., E-mail: clb@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Cerne, M., E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Howard, B.J., E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kamboj, S., E-mail: skamboj@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Keum, D.-K., E-mail: dkkeum@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Smodis, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jvbatll@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Wood, M.D., E-mail: m.d.wood@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Yu, C., E-mail: cyu@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Radiological doses to terrestrial wildlife were examined in this model inter-comparison study that emphasised factors causing variability in dose estimation. The study participants used varying modelling approaches and information sources to estimate dose rates and tissue concentrations for a range of biota types exposed to soil contamination at a shallow radionuclide waste burial site in Australia. Results indicated that the dominant factor causing variation in dose rate estimates (up to three orders of magnitude on mean total dose rates) was the soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides that included variation in transfer parameter values as well as transfer calculation methods. Additional variation was associated with other modelling factors including: how participants conceptualised and modelled the exposure configurations (two orders of magnitude); which progeny to include with the parent radionuclide (typically less than one order of magnitude); and dose calculation parameters, including radiation weighting factors and dose conversion coefficients (typically less than one order of magnitude). Probabilistic approaches to model parameterisation were used to encompass and describe variable model parameters and outcomes. The study confirms the need for continued evaluation of the underlying mechanisms governing soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides to improve estimation of dose rates to terrestrial wildlife. The exposure pathways and configurations available in most current codes are limited when considering instances where organisms access subsurface contamination through rooting, burrowing, or using different localised waste areas as part of their habitual routines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of modelled dose rates to terrestrial biota from radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substantial variation among current approaches is quantifiable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dominant variable was soil

  10. Quantitative ecological risk assessment of inhabitants exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Pinyakong, O.; Viyakarn, V.; Chavanich, S. A.; Bo, C.; Khumsup, C.; Kittikoon, I.; Hirunyatrakul, P.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to conduct a quantitative ecological risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica. Generally, the average PAH concentrations detected in King George Terrestrial Soils (KGS) were appreciably lower than those of World Marine Sediments (WMS) and World Terrestrial Soils (WTS), highlighting the fact that Antarctica is one of the most pristine continents in the world. The total concentrations of twelve probably carcinogenic PAHs (ΣPAHs: a sum of Phe, An, Fluo, Pyr, B[a]A, Chry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P, Ind, D[a,h]A and B[g,h,i]P) were 3.21 ± 1.62 ng g-1, 5749 ± 4576 ng g-1, and 257,496 ± 291,268 ng g-1, for KGS, WMS and WTS, respectively. In spite of the fact that KGS has extremely low ΣPAHs in comparison with others, the percentage contribution of Phe is exceedingly high with the value of 50%. By assuming that incidental ingestion and dermal contact are two major exposure pathways responsible for the adverse human health effects, the cancer and non-cancer risks from environmental exposure to PAHs were carefully evaluated based on the ;Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions; memorandum provided by US-EPA. The logarithms of cancer risk levels of PAH contents in KGS varied from -11.1 to -7.18 with an average of -7.96 ± 7.73, which is 1790 times and 80,176 times lower than that of WMS and WTS, respectively. All cancer risk levels of PAH concentrations observed in KGS are significantly (p PAHs were found in ;acceptable level;.

  11. Predictors of Residual Renal Function Decline in Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Chung, Sebastian; Yu, Vincent; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Law, Man-Ching; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic indicator in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We determined the predictors of RRF loss in a cohort of incident CAPD patients. ♦ Methods: We reviewed the record of 645 incident CAPD patients. RRF loss is represented by the slope of decline of residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as the time to anuria. ♦ Results: The average rate of residual GFR decline was -0.083 ± 0.094 mL/min/month. The rate of residual GFR decline was faster with a higher proteinuria (r = -0.506, p anuria, while a higher baseline GFR was protective. Each 1 g/day of proteinuria is associated with a 13.2% increase in the risk of progressing to anuria, each 10 g/day higher glucose exposure is associated with a 2.5% increase in risk, while each peritonitis episode confers a 3.8% increase in risk. ♦ Conclusions: Our study shows that factors predicting the loss of residual solute clearance and urine output are different. Proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics are independently related to the rate of RRF decline in CAPD patients, while proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes are independent predictors for the development of anuria. The role of anti-proteinuric therapy and measures to prevent peritonitis episodes in the preservation of RRF should be tested in future studies. PMID:24497594

  12. Observing terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimel, David [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Pavlick, Ryan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Fisher, Joshua B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Asner, Gregory P. [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama St. Stanford CA 94305 USA; Saatchi, Sassan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Townsend, Philip [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Miller, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Frankenberg, Christian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Hibbard, Kathy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999 MSIN: K9-34 Richland WA 99352 USA; Cox, Peter [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road Streatham Campus Harrison Building Exeter EX4 4QF UK

    2015-02-06

    Modeled terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute substantial uncertainty to projections of future climate. The limitations of current observing networks contribute to this uncertainty. Here we present a current climatology of global model predictions and observations for photosynthesis, biomass, plant diversity and plant functional diversity. Carbon cycle tipping points occur in terrestrial regions where fluxes or stocks are largest, and where biological variability is highest, the tropics and Arctic/Boreal zones. Global observations are predominately in the mid-latitudes and are sparse in high and low latitude ecosystems. Observing and forecasting ecosystem change requires sustained observations of sufficient density in time and space in critical regions. Using data and theory available now, we can develop a strategy to detect and forecast terrestrial carbon cycle-climate interactions, by combining in situ and remote techniques.

  13. From terrestrial to aquatic habitats and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; Barfod, Anders S.

    2017-01-01

    for ancestral state reconstruction and biogeographic inference. We obtained moderately resolved phylogenetic trees, showing that two terrestrial species, one from Australasia and the other from temperate and tropical Asia, are the first diverging species and the remaining terrestrial species are scattered...... terrestrial habitats is yet to be addressed. The origin of its cosmopolitan distribution, especially to or from Australasia, remains uncertain. We assessed evolution of growth habit and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework using DNA sequence data from plastid DNA and the nuclear internal...... transcribed spacer region. These were separately analysed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multilocus data sets, excluding two species exhibiting conflicting placement, were then used for coalescent-based species-tree analysis and the resulting species tree was used...

  14. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  15. Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tuniz, C.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Production rates of cosmogenic nuclides made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.

  16. Applications of modern digital terrestrial photogrammetry to problems in glaciology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, W.

    2004-12-01

    Recent developments in digital photogrammetry allow reliable, accurate, stereometric models of detailed objects such as glaciers to be constructed at reduced cost and effort in comparison to conventional film-based aerial or terrestrial photogrammetric methods. These developments include: 1) Correction of lens distortion by digital remapping of images; 2) Digital measurement of image space coordinate measurements; 3) Ease with which multiple stereomodels may be combined, permitting redundancy and strong parallax. These improvements make stereophotogrammetry a practical and cost effective alternative to other mapping procedures (e.g. optical survey, laser profiling) for small- to medium-scale glaciology projects. The relative strengths of digital terrestrial photogrammetry are compared to traditional film-based photogrammetric procedures as well as to other ground-based and airborne survey methods and satellite imagery, and several examples of terrestrial photogrammetric applications to glaciers are presented, including topographic profiling, velocity determination, and structural mapping.

  17. A MULTI-RESIDUE METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INSECTICIDES COLLECTED ON COTTON SURFACE WIPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method was developed for the extraction, clean-up, and analysis of multiple pesticides from cotton wipe media used in human exposure studies to collect residues from residential hard surfaces. Measurements of pesticides are critical for estimating dermal and indirect ingestion ...

  18. Periodontal plastic procedure for the management of the residual gingival defect after excision of an epulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinal hypersensitivity and unesthetic appearance are common findings after excision of an epulis due to exposure of root and underlying bone. The simultaneous placement of subepithelial connective tissue grafting after excision of the lesion seems to be viable surgical option in such cases. Furthermore, this will avoid second surgical procedure for the management of the residual gingival defect.

  19. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  20. Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis strains on survival, reproduction and foraging behaviour in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Jans, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its protein crystals are used worldwide, either as a spray or when expressed in transgenic crops, for the control of pest insects. However, owing to their intensive use, there exists a debate regarding the involvement of this microbial insecticide in bee colony losses. In this study, in a tiered approach using laboratory microcolonies, an evaluation was made of the potential lethal and sublethal hazards on colony reproduction and foraging behaviour of workers of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) of two commercial Bt strains: kurstaki (Dipel) and aizawai (Xentari). Bumblebees, like honey bees, are intensively used in modern agriculture for pollination and fulfil a crucial role in the natural ecosystem. Exposure of bumblebees dermally or via treated pollen to either of the two Bt formulations at their field recommended rates (0.1%) caused no reduction in survival. However, when applied in the feeding sugar water, aizawai killed all workers at a concentration of 0.1%, but this lethal effect was lost at 0.01%. With respect to reproductive effects, kurstaki was harmless, while aizawai at 0.1% delivered in the feeding sugar water and pollen reduced reproduction by 100 and 31% respectively. Lower doses of 0.01% aizawai in the sugar water showed no more effect. In addition, kurstaki at 0.1% and aizawai at 0.01% in the feeding sugar water did not impair the foraging behaviour, resulting in normal nest colony performance. The results with kurstaki and aizawai demonstrated that, in general, the Bt strains are safe to B. terrestris bumblebees, although in some cases there were detrimental effects that depended on strain and route of exposure. In addition, the authors believe that to draw firm conclusions regarding the hazards of Bt to bumblebees would require more information on relevant concentrations of Bt products in the environment. Hence, routine testing for lethal and sublethal effects is recommended to ascertain combined use of Bt

  1. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  2. Regional terrestrial ecosystem dynamics and their interactions with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D.; Schimel, D.; Parton, W.; McKeown, R.

    2003-04-01

    Integration of land use with human dimensions, biological, atmospheric and hydrological processes is necessary for us to estimate net carbon exchange from the terrestrial biota. However, proper handling of scale across a set of divergent processes interconnecting the atmosphere and the biosphere is critical to the success of this analysis. Development of the new IGBP “Land” Project will develop a structure to better integrate research that has advanced during the past decade. Our understanding of the long term changes in the terrestrial biosphere will provide greater insight to the environmental sustainability under different stresses and provide an indication of how different regions may respond to changes in climate, disturbance regimes, and land use. This insight will provide a framework to better develop earth system science over the coming decade and to better incorporate the human-environmental system perspective. Our understanding of the biological controls of carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface (referring to the soil, vegetation, water system) is critical to our estimation of net terrestrial carbon fluxes and the connection of key natural resources (e.g., water, vegetation, soils, etc) to climate and land use changes. Terrestrial biological processes respond strongly to atmospheric temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, N-deposition, precipitation, and radiative transfers. The development of this integrated science perspective to understand the scope of effects human activities on land are affecting the feedbacks to the earth system and the impacts on the terrestrial human-environment system. The presentation will focus on the development of this framework and highlight recent advances in our observational and analytical components of terrestrial biosphere research.

  3. Kinematics of aquatic and terrestrial escape responses in mudskippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Brook O; Gibb, Alice C

    2004-11-01

    Escape responses in fishes are rapid behaviors that are critical for survival. The barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus) is an amphibious fish that must avoid predators in two environments. We compared mudskipper terrestrial and aquatic escapes to address two questions. First, how does an amphibious fish perform an escape response in a terrestrial environment? Second, how similar is a terrestrial escape response to an aquatic escape response? Because a mudskipper on land does not have to contend with the high viscosity of water, we predicted that, if the same behavior is employed across environments, terrestrial escape responses should have 'better' performance (higher velocity and more rapid completion of movements) when compared with aquatic escape responses. By contrast, we predicted that intervertebral bending would be similar across environments because previous studies of escape response behaviors in fishes have proposed that vertebral morphology constrains intervertebral bending. High-speed digital imaging was used to record mudskipper escapes in water and on land, and the resulting images were used to calculate intervertebral bending during the preparatory phase, peak velocity and acceleration of the center of mass during the propulsive phase, and relative timing of movements. Although similar maximum velocities are achieved across environments, terrestrial responses are distinct from aquatic responses. During terrestrial escapes, mudskippers produce greater axial bending in the preparatory phase, but only in the posterior region of the body and over a much longer time period. Mudskippers also occasionally produced the 'wrong' behavior for a given environment. Thus, it appears that the same locomotor morphology is recruited differently by the central nervous system to produce a distinct behavior appropriate for each environment.

  4. Global change and terrestrial ecosystems: the operational plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, W.L.; Walker, B.H.; Ingram, J.S.I.; Koch, G.W. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) has established a core project on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). The objectives of GCTE are: to predict the effects of changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and land use on terrestrial ecosystems, including agricultural and production forest systems; and to determine how these effects lead to feedbacks to the atmosphere and the physical climate system. The research plan has four foci: ecosystem physiology, change in ecosystem structure, global change impact on agriculture and forestry; and global change and ecological complexity. The research strategy is outlined. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... of their individual effects) rather than synergistic or antagonistic. We further show that (1) elevated CO2 , warming, N addition, P addition and increased rainfall, all exerted positive individual effects on plant C pools at both single-plant and plant-community levels; (2) plant C pool responses to individual...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  6. Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory devices

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ibe, Eishi; Yahagi, Yasuo; Kameyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in semiconductor memory devices are currently a major concern in reliability issues. Understanding the mechanism and quantifying soft-error rates are primarily crucial for the design and quality assurance of semiconductor memory devices. This book covers the relevant up-to-date topics in terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors, and aims to provide succinct knowledge on neutron-induced soft errors to the readers by presenting several valuable and unique features. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (238 KB). Table A.30 mentioned in Appendix A.6 on

  7. The Functionally-Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-02

    The Functionally-Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is a vegetation model for use in Earth system models (ESMs). The model includes a size- and age-structured representation of tree dynamics, competition between functionally diverse plant functional types, and the biophysics underpinning plant growth, competition, mortality, as well as the carbon, water, and energy exchange with the atmosphere. The FATES model is designed as a modular vegetation model that can be integrated within a host land model for inclusion in ESMs. The model is designed for use in global change studies to understand and project the responses and feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems and the Earth system under changing climate and other forcings.

  8. Theory and Realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Bolotin, S.; Gipson, J.; Gordon, D.; Le Bail, K.; MacMillan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of realizations of the terrestrial reference frame. IGN and DGFI both generated realizations of the terrestrial reference frame under the auspices of the IERS from combination of the same space geodetic data. We examined both results for VLBI sites using the full geodetic VLBI data set with respect to site positions and velocities and time series of station positions, baselines and Earth orientation parameters. One of the difficulties encountered was matching episodic breaks and periods of non-linear motion of the two realizations with the VLBI models. Our analysis and conclusions will be discussed.

  9. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  10. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  13. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  14. Bioaccumulation of microplastics in the terrestrial food chain: an example from home gardens in SE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Mendoza Vega, Jorge; Quej, Victor Ku; Chi, Jesus de los Angeles; Sanchez del Cid, Lucero; Quijano, Cesar; Escalona-Segura, Griselda; Gertsen, Henny; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Plastic in the aquatic environment has been studied since many years and is a well known problem. Plastic in the terrestrial environment is a neglected issue of high importance in regions with waste mismanagement. Therefore, we studied the bioaccumulation of plastics in the terrestrial food chain in home gardens of SE Mexico, a typical example for many countries in development. Plastic waste is not regularly collected and people burn it and burry the residues or the plastic waste directly into the soil of their home gardens, causing the risk of plastic fragmentation, formation of microplastics (MP) in the soil and accumulation in the food chain. To assess the risk, we sampled soil, earthworm cast and chicken feces as well as chicken gizzard and crop in 10 home gardens of Campeche, SE Mexico in September 2016. We analyzed their (micro)plastic content. (Micro)plastics were present in soil with 0.87±1.9 particles g-1, in earthworms casts with 14.8±28.8 particles g-1 casts and in chicken feces with 129.8±82.3 particles g-1 chicken feces), showing a magnification factor of 17±14.6 between the soil and the earthworms casts, and of 149±41.8 between the soil and the chicken feces. Macroplastics were also found in chicken gizzard (57±41.1 particles per chicken) and in the crop (32.4±15.1 particles per chicken). Chicken gizzard is a specialty in the Mexican kitchen and the intake of the present plastics form a strong risk for human health.

  15. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  16. Residues of isobornyl thiocyanoacetate (Thanite) and a metabolite in fish and treated ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.; Dawson, V.K.; Amel, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Isobornyl thiocyanoacetate (Thanite) is an insecticide that induces a surfacing response in fish and therefore has been considered to have potential as a fish collection agent. Analyses for residues of Thanite in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to chemical yielded only a trace of the parent compound. A metabolite, isobornyl a-(methylthio)acetate, was isolated and indentified by GC-MS,and a reference standard for the metabolite was synthesized. Residues of the metabolite were present in largemouth bass muscle tissue within 1 h after exposure to Thanite. The metabolite was also observed in the muscle, blood plasma, and bile of carp. Residues of the metaboliteare rapidly elimanated after the fish are transferred to Thanite-free water. Residues of Thanite in water, algae, and from soil from ponds treated with Thanite declined to undetectable levels within 28 days after treatment.

  17. Probability of the residual wavefront variance of an adaptive optics system and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Chao; Deng, Ke; Yao, Zhousi; Xian, Hao; Li, Xinyang

    2016-02-08

    For performance evaluation of an adaptive optics (AO) system, the probability of the system residual wavefront variance can provide more information than the wavefront variance average. By studying the Zernike coefficients of an AO system residual wavefront, we derived the exact expressions for the probability density functions of the wavefront variance and the Strehl ratio, for instantaneous and long-term exposures owing to the insufficient control loop bandwidth of the AO system. Our calculations agree with the residual wavefront data of a closed loop AO system. Using these functions, we investigated the relationship between the AO system bandwidth and the distribution of the residual wavefront variance. Additionally, we analyzed the availability of an AO system for evaluating the AO performance. These results will assist in designing and probabilistic analysis of AO systems.

  18. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid-liquid par......Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  19. Determining High-Quality Critical Body Residues for Multiple Species and Chemicals by Applying Improved Experimental Design and Data Interpretation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A.; Hermens, Joop L. M.; Sinnige, Theo L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept...

  20. Determining high-quality critical body residues for multiple species and chemicals by applying improved experimental design and data interpretation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A; Hermens, Joop L M; Sinnige, Theo L; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept

  1. Insecticide residues in the blood serum and domestic water source of cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosan, Mosudi B; Akingbohungbe, Amos E; Ojo, Isaac A O; Durosinmi, Muheez A

    2008-06-01

    The blood serum of cacao farmers and their domestic water sources were analyzed for insecticide residues in selected cacao growing communities of Southwestern Nigeria. The farmers were grouped into five exposure periods based on their years of involvement in insecticide application, viz, 20 years. The residue analyses revealed that 42 out of the 76 farmers had residues of diazinon, endosulfan, propoxur and lindane in their blood; and 47.6% out of these farmers belonged in the >20 years exposure duration period. About 34% of the farmers had diazinon with a mean concentration of 0.067 mg kg(-1), 29% endosulfan (mean=0.033 mg kg(-1)), 23% propoxur (mean=0.095 mg kg(-1)), and 17% lindane (mean=0.080 mg kg(-1)) in their blood. The residues of lindane, endosulfan and propoxur in all the exposure duration categories were found to be far below the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) while diazinon residues detected in the blood serum of the farmers in all the exposure duration categories exceeded the NOAEL of 0.02 mg kg(-1) for the insecticide. The study also revealed that the sources of drinking water had been contaminated with dazinon and propoxur in some of the farmers' localities; and the concentrations of the insecticides exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). It is concluded that cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria may have been occupationally exposed due to insecticide application for mirid control in their cacao plantations; and the exposure at times is of such magnitude as to be hazardous to the farmers and their respective communities.

  2. Human exposure to cyanotoxins and their effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Simeunović, Jelica; Baltić, Vladimir; Stanić, Dina; Svirčev, Zorica

    2013-06-01

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria. They pose a threat to human health and the environment. This review summarises the existing data on human exposure to cyanotoxins through drinking water, recreational activities (e.g., swimming, canoeing or bathing), the aquatic food web, terrestrial plants, food supplements, and haemodialysis. Furthermore, it discusses the tolerable daily intake and guideline values for cyanotoxins (especially microcystins) as well as the need to implement risk management measures via national and international legislation.

  3. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N.; Pereira, M. Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L.; Shore, Richard F.; Bullock, James M.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure. PMID:29298300

  4. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A; Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N; Pereira, M Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L; Shore, Richard F; Bullock, James M; Heard, Matthew S; Pywell, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  5. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  6. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  7. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  8. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia

  9. Foundations of residual-density analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Kathrin; Henn, Julian

    2008-05-01

    New and concise descriptors of the residual density are presented, namely the gross residual electrons, the net residual electrons and the fractal dimension distribution. These descriptors indicate how much residual density is present and in what way it is distributed, i.e. the extent to which the distribution is featureless. The amount of residual density present accounts for noise in the experimental data as well as for modeling inadequacies. Therefore, the minimization of the gross residual electrons during refinement serves as a quality criterion. In the case where only Gaussian noise is present in the residual density, the fractal distribution is parabolic in shape. Deviations from this shape therefore serve as an indicator for systematic errors. The new measures have been applied to simulated and experimental data in order to study the effects of noise, model inadequacies and truncation in the experimental resolution. These measures, although designed and examined with particular regard to applications of space residual density, are very general and can in principle also be applied to space and momentum residual densities in a one-, two-, three- or higher-dimensional Euclidean space.

  10. Origin of noble gases in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Current models of the origin of noble gases in the terrestrial planets are reviewed. Primary solar system volatile sources and processes are examined along with the current data base on noble gases and its applications to evolutionary processing. Models of atmospheric evolution by hydrodynamic escape are addressed.

  11. Anti-hyperglycaemic Activity of Tribulus terrestris L Aerial Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Tribulus terrestris L. Zygophyllaceae in glucose-loaded normal rabbits. Methods: The animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 5) and treated with a single oral dose. Group 1 served as normal control group and received distilled water; ...

  12. Differences in predatory pressure on terrestrial snails by birds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The evolution of shell polymorphism in terrestrial snails is a classic textbook example of the effect of natural selection in which avian and mammalian predation represents an important selective force on gene frequency. However, many questions about predation remain unclear, especially in the case of mammals.

  13. A Google Earth Grand Tour of the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Declan; Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Google Earth is a powerful instructional resource for geoscience education. We have extended the virtual globe to include all terrestrial planets. Downloadable Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files (Google Earth's scripting language) associated with this paper include lessons about Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars. We created "grand…

  14. Hydrological and biogeochemical constraints on terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Gruber, Nicolas; Davin, Edouard L.

    2017-01-01

    The feedbacks between climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration and the terrestrial carbon cycle are a major source of uncertainty in future climate projections with Earth systems models. Here, we use observation-based estimates of the interannual variations in evapotranspiration (ET), net biome productivity (NBP), as well as the present-day sensitivity of NBP to climate variations, to constrain globally the terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks as simulated by models that participated in the fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5). The constraints result in a ca. 40% lower response of NBP to climate change and a ca. 30% reduction in the strength of the CO2 fertilization effect relative to the unconstrained multi-model mean. While the unconstrained CMIP5 models suggest an increase in the cumulative terrestrial carbon storage (477 PgC) in response to an idealized scenario of 1%/year atmospheric CO2 increase, the constraints imply a ca. 19% smaller change. Overall, the applied emerging constraint approach offers a possibility to reduce uncertainties in the projections of the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a key determinant of the future trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentration and resulting climate change.

  15. Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution in the Lake Victoria surface water. ... Samples away from the river mouth provided C:N ratios within the Redfield ratio range (C:N:P; 106:16:1) indicating materials of phytoplanktonic origin. The POM isotopes composition indicated a maximum ä13C value of ...

  16. Experimental nutrient additions accelerate terrestrial carbon loss from stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan P. Benstead; Phillip M. Bumpers; Vladislav Gulis; John S. Kominoski; David W.P. Manning; Keller Suberkropp; J. Bruce. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pollution of freshwater ecosystems results in predictable increases in carbon (C) sequestration by algae. Tests of nutrient enrichment on the fates of terrestrial organic C, which supports riverine food webs and is a source of CO2, are lacking. Using whole-stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions spanning the equivalent of 27 years, we found that...

  17. Origin and evolution of life on terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Cockell, C S; Bérces, A; Belisheva, N K; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H(2)O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.

  18. Reducing uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Bonan, Gordon B.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon uptake by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere regulates atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and affects Earth’s climate, yet global carbon cycle projections over the next century are highly uncertain. Here, we quantify and isolate the sources of projection uncertainty in cumulative ocean and terrestrial carbon uptake over 2006-2100 by performing an analysis of variance on output from an ensemble of 12 Earth System Models. Whereas uncertainty in projections of global ocean carbon accumulation by 2100 is 160 Pg C and driven primarily by model structure. To statistically reduce uncertainty in terrestrial carbon projections, we devise schemes to weight the models based on their ability to represent the observed change in carbon accumulation over 1959-2005. The weighting schemes incrementally reduce uncertainty to a minimum value of 125 Pg C in 2100, but this reduction requires an impractical observational constraint. We suggest that a focus on reducing multi-model spread may not make terrestrial carbon cycle projections more reliable, and instead advocate for accurate observations, improved process understanding, and a multitude of modeling approaches.

  19. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeled estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration exceeds slightly the estimated NPP values, implying that carbon flux to and from the Volta river watershed is close to being in balance. In other words, the watershed releases annually more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than it takes. Apart from the terrestrial carbon flux ...

  20. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze

    2010-01-01

    climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems...

  1. Status and potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood products to estimate the net current annual C sequestration in West Virginia. Several management options within these components were simulated using a...

  2. Origins of the terrestrial flora: A symbiosis with fungi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selosse Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land phototrophs need to exploit both atmosphere (providing gas and light and substrate (furnishing water and minerals. Yet, their algal ancestors were poorly pre-adapted to such a life at the interface. We review the paleontological evidence that fungal symbioses which can exploit substrate resources, helped adaptation to land constraints. Diverse structures dating back to the Devonian present convincing evidence for lichens, (symbioses between fungi and microscopic algae but fossils remain scarce, so that early lichen abundance and ecological relevance remain questionable. Several enigmatic but abundant fossils from the Siluro-Devonian, such as Spongiophytonor the giant Prototaxites (Nematophytes, likely represent fungus-algal symbioses, which shaped early terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, these taxa are fully extinct, and do not have clear affinities with extant groups. Finally, terrestrialization of Embryophyta (land plants, which currently dominate land ecosystems, is linked to a symbiosis with Glomeromycetes. Today, these fungi form arbuscular mycorrhizae, which help most Embryophyta to exploit soil, and molecular data combined with paleontological evidence support the idea that this type of association is ancestral. The role of symbiotic Mucoromycetes during terrestrialization is not fully understood and mycorrhizal association diversified later in the evolution of Embryophyta. Fungal-algal symbioses thus recurrently contributed to terrestrialization of phototrophs.

  3. A Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry to Terrestrial Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the photogrammetric and laser scan survey of an excavated section of the Laetoli hominid track-way in Tanzania. The survey was designed to allow for comparison to a prior detailed survey of the track-way carried out in 1995, and serves as a means to compare terrestrial laser scanning with ...

  4. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  5. The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of a temporary stream in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of an intermittent stream was examined in the absence of surface flows within the context of the flood pulse concept. ... The concept of the flood pulse should be expanded to include aseasonal and secular variations in flow which in temporary streams create lateral movements that provide ...

  6. Remote sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Wade T. Tinkham; Alan F. Talhelm; John D. Marshall; Andrew T. Hudak; Luigi Boschetti; Michael J. Falkowski; Jonathan A. Greenberg; John W. Anderson; Andrew Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Robert F. Keefe; James R. Gosz

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the species composition, structure, and function of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems. These changes can also impact the essential ecosystem goods and services derived from these ecosystems. Following disturbances, remote-sensing datasets have been used to monitor the disturbance and describe antecedent conditions as a means of...

  7. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Melodie A. McGeoch; Hendrik Sithole; Samways, Michael J.; Simaika, John P; Pryke, James S.; Mike Picker; Charmaine Uys; Armstrong, Adrian J.; Ansie S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Ian A. Engelbrecht; Brigitte Braschler; Michelle Hamer

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here ...

  8. Automatic registration of terrestrial point cloud using panoramic reflectance images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is paid to registration of terrestrial point clouds nowadays. Research is carried out towards improved efficiency and automation of the registration process. This paper reports a new approach for point clouds registration utilizing reflectance panoramic images. The approach follows a

  9. Terrestrial Solar Power Plants - Current Perspectives and Long Term Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, D.

    2004-12-01

    For terrestrial photovoltaic systems to be viable alternatives to satellite-borne solar generators, two conditions are necessary: Low-cost power generation and low-loss power transmission. This review will deal mainly with the power generation aspect of Very Large Scale terrestrial PV systems, for which it will be argued that system costs of less than $1000/kW may be achievable via the use of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology. Such system costs should be directly competitive with fossil-fuelled ground-based power plants without the need for subsidies. As such, they could be readily integrated into the existing terrestrial grid systems in appropriate parts of the world. Regarding the transmission aspect, technological improvements are to be expected in low-loss long- distance cables - possibly via the discovery of hightemperature superconducting materials. This could enable the creation of a trans-equatorial power grid that, like satellite-borne systems, would ensure that the sun always shines on the generators. Key words: terrestrial solar energy, photovoltaics, dishconcentrators, low-cost electricity

  10. Inventory of Some Environmental Components in the Terrestrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of some environmental components in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility in Makurdi was carried out to obtain baseline information on the area. Inventory, semi-structured interviews and field observations/walks were carried out to obtain information on useful plants, ...

  11. Synthetic spectra of simulated terrestrial atmospheres containing possible biomarker gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, T. L.; Kasting, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder, a space-based interferometer, will eventually allow spectroscopic analyses of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Such analyses would provide information about the existence of life on these planets. One strategy in the search for life is to look for evidence of O3 (and hence O2) in a planet's atmosphere; another is to look for gases that might be present in an atmosphere analogous to that of the inhabited early Earth. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have calculated synthetic spectra for several hypothetical terrestrial-type atmospheres. The model atmospheres represent four different scenarios. The first two, representing inhabited terrestrial planets, are an Earth-like atmosphere containing variable amounts of oxygen and an early Earth-type atmosphere containing methane. In addition, two cases representing Mars-like and early Venus-like atmospheres were evaluated, to provide possible "false positive" spectra. The calculated spectra suggest that ozone could be detected by an instrument like Terrestrial Planet Finder if the O2 concentration in the planet's atmosphere is > or = 200 ppm, or 10(-3) times the present atmospheric level. Methane should be observable on an early-Earth type planet if it is present in concentrations of 100 ppm or more. Methane has both biogenic and abiogenic sources, but concentrations exceeding 1000 ppm, or 0.1% by volume, would be difficult to produce from abiogenic sources alone. High methane concentrations in a planet's atmosphere are therefore another potential indicator for extraterrestrial life.

  12. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Jiao, Dan; Engel, Michael H.; Looy, Cindy V.; Visscher, Henk

    Excessive acid rainfall associated with emplacement of the Siberian Traps magmatic province is increasingly accepted as a major contributing factor to the end-Permian biosphere crisis. However, direct proxy evidence of terrestrial acidification is so far not available. In this paper, we seek to

  13. Terrestrial species viability assessments for national forests in northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Gaines; Barbara C. Wales; Lowell H. Suring; James S. Begley; Kim Mellen-McLean; Shawne. Mohoric

    2017-01-01

    We developed a process to address terrestrial wildlife species for which management for ecosystem diversity may be inadequate for providing ecological conditions capable of sustaining viable populations. The process includes (1) identifying species of conservation concern, (2) describing source habitats, and other important ecological factors, (3) organizing species...

  14. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  15. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  16. Herbivores Enforce Sharp Boundaries Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, Judith M.; Huig, N.; Veen, G. F.; Rip, W.; Bakker, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper

  17. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  18. Rare terrestrial orchids on Mbeya Peak, Southern Tanzania | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disa walteri, Satyrium aberrans, S. comptum and S. johnsonii are rare terrestrial orchids that co-occur and flower around the same time in southern Tanzania. We found the first three of these species on Mbeya Peak in March 2005, about 45 years after they were last recorded by botanists and present the first illustration of D.

  19. Osmotic stress tolerance in semi-terrestrial tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Nanna W T; Smith, Daniel K.; Hygum, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about ionic and osmotic stress tolerance in tardigrades. Here, we examine salt stress tolerance in Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri and Echiniscus testudo from Nivå (Denmark) and address whether limno-terrestrial tardigrades can enter a state of quiescence (osmobiosis) in the face of high...

  20. Contemporary climate change and terrestrial invertebrates : Evolutionary versus plastic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; Kellermann, Vanessa

    To forecast the responses of species to future climate change, an understanding of the ability of species to adapt to long-term shifts in temperature is crucial. We present a review on evolutionary adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of temperature-related traits in terrestrial invertebrates. The

  1. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sérgio; Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Bernardino, Ítalo de Macedo; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Bento, Patrícia Meira; E Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteristics. Morbidity data from forensic service reports of victims who sought care from January to December 2012 were analyzed. Altogether, 2379 reports were evaluated, of which 673 were related to terrestrial transport accidents and 103 involved facial trauma. Three previously trained and calibrated researchers collected data using a specific form. Facial trauma occurrence rate was 15.3% (n=103). The most affected age group was 20-29 years (48.3%), and more men than women were affected (2.81:1). Motorcycles were involved in the majority of accidents resulting in facial trauma (66.3%). The occurrence of facial trauma in terrestrial transport accident victims tends to affect a greater proportion of young and male subjects, and the most prevalent accidents involve motorcycles. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  3. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  4. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water ...

  5. 171 inventory of some environmental components in the terrestrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-02

    Sep 2, 2010 ... ABSTRACT. A survey of some environmental components in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the. Integrated Waste Treatment Facility in Makurdi was carried out to obtain baseline information on the area. Inventory, semi-structured interviews and field observations/walks were carried out to obtain ...

  6. Annotated Checklist of the Terrestrial Gastropods of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is the very first checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Nepal. It includes 138 species and six subspecies, of which 22 species are endemic and four are introduced. It highlights 34 species recorded for the first time in Nepal and provides new distribution records for another 30 species. PMID:25878541

  7. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  8. Experimental Study Of Terrestrial Electron Anti-neutrinos With Kamland

    CERN Document Server

    Tolich, N R

    2005-01-01

    The analysis presented here uses Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) to measure the rate of electron anti-neutrinos, ne&d1;' s , produced from terrestrial 238U and 212Th. 238U and 212Th are thought to be the main heat source driving mantle convection in the Earth, which in turn is responsible for plate tectonics. The total terrestrial 238U and 212Th content has been estimated from Earth models and rock samples from a very small fraction of the Earth. Until now there have been no direct measurements. Since ne&d1;' s have an exceedingly small cross section, they propagate undisturbed in the Earth interior, and their measurement near the Earth surface can be used to gain information on their sources. Based on a total of (2.63 ± 0.19) × 1031 target proton-years (0.506 kton- years), the 90% confidence interval for the total number of terrestrial 238U and 212Th ne&d1;' s detected is 4 to 40. This is consistent with the best models of terrestrial 23...

  9. Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schimel, DS

    2001-11-08

    Full Text Available Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel combustion. This carbon...

  10. Enchytraeids as indicator organisms for chemical stress in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.; Römbke, J.

    2001-01-01

    This review article surveys the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward chemical stress, and the effects of chemical stress on enchytraeid communities in terrestrial ecosystems. The factors affecting bioavailability of stressors to enchytraeids and the nature of direct and indirect effects

  11. Residual Axial Capacity Comparison of CFFT and RC Bridge Columns after Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Echevarria

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fire performance of protected concrete-filled fiber reinforced polymer (FRP tube (CFFT and conventional reinforced concrete (RC bridge columns is studied through two phases of experimental research comprised of fire exposure and residual axial capacity tests. Two one-fifth scale CFFT columns and two one-fifth scale conventional RC columns having similar axial and flexural capacities were subjected to two durations of extreme temperature exposure. The CFFT columns were protected by the Tyfo® CFP fire protection system during the experiments. Subsequently, the post-fire robustness of the columns was quantified by measuring the residual axial capacity characteristics of each column. The protected CFFT columns exhibited superior axial strength and stiffness retention compared to the RC columns after fire exposure.

  12. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  14. Climate-mediated spatiotemporal variability in terrestrial productivity across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Babst, F.; Ciais, P.; Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Zang, C.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Quantifying the interannual variability (IAV) of the terrestrial ecosystem productivity and its sensitivity to climate is crucial for improving carbon budget predictions. In this context it is necessary to disentangle the influence of climate from impacts of other mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of the ecosystem productivity. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of historical observations of European crop yields in tandem with a set of climate variables. We further evaluated if relevant remote-sensing retrievals of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) depict a similar behaviour. Our results reveal distinct spatial patterns in the IAV of the analysed proxies linked to terrestrial productivity. In particular, we find higher IAV in water-limited regions of Europe (Mediterranean and temperate continental Europe) compared to other regions in both crop yield and remote-sensing observations. Our results further indicate that variations in the water balance during the active growing season exert a more pronounced and direct effect than variations of temperature on explaining the spatial patterns in IAV of productivity-related variables in temperate Europe. Overall, we observe a temporally increasing trend in the IAV of terrestrial productivity and an increasing sensitivity of productivity to water availability in dry regions of Europe during the 1975-2009 period. In the same regions, a simultaneous increase in the IAV of water availability was detected. These findings suggest intricate responses of carbon fluxes to climate variability in Europe and that the IAV of terrestrial productivity has become potentially more sensitive to changes in water availability in the dry regions in Europe. The changing sensitivity of terrestrial productivity accompanied by the changing IAV of climate is expected to impact carbon stocks and the net carbon balance

  15. Preparation and characterization of Tribulus terrestris-loaded nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khanavi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Tribulus terrestris is a flowering herb (Zygophyllaceae with several properties in folk medicine such as diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, and stomachic-lithotripter activities. Although, some extracts and phytochemicals represent excellent bio-activity in vitro, less or no in vivo activity is observed due to their improper molecular size. The intend of this research was investigation of the feasibility of encapsulating T. terrestris into [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid] PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with aqueous ethanol 85% by percolation apparatus. The nanoparticles of T. terrestris-loaded were prepared using a modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. Elucidations were made on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The content of nanoparticles was analyzed by HPLC with indirect method. Results: The results stated that increasing the portion of plant extract could cause bigger size with no considerable increase in polydispersity index (PDI. The encapsulation efficiency of T. terrestris-loaded nanoparticles was 40.3 to 78.5 and the drug loadings were 0.806 to 6.104, with different ratios of extract. The overall pattern of the release in SDS 1% in dialysis bag in all formulations showed similar and biphasic release kinetic, an initial burst release in the first day followed by constant release over 10 days. Conclusion: An effective approach for the preparation of T. terrestris-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was performed. The controlled release profile showed that these biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles had great potential and should be given particular consideration in further biological researches.

  16. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  17. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  18. Trends in analysis of gunshot residue for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2017-10-01

    Detection and identification of organic and inorganic components of gunshot residue are well established within forensic chemistry because of highly characteristic and uncommon features of the products of ammunition discharge at the time and place of a shooting incident in comparison to other materials present in daily life of people. Both types of residue play an important role in establishing various circumstances of a shooting crime, though the most vital one concerns the possibility of relating a suspect with the activity of shooting. In this aspect, solid, inorganic particles, nowadays called characteristic, have been utilized. Their specific features result from the primer mixture composition, including compounds of heavy metals, lead, antimony, and barium, and from the extraordinarily dynamic conditions of their formation, taking place at the moment of the primer detonation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis techniques proved to be necessary and sufficient to reveal the content and the spherical morphology of the particles for this purpose. Recently, the recommendation that the potential for lead exposure be minimized was followed in the production of ammunition cal. 9 mm Luger, 0.40 S&W, 0.380 Auto, and 0.38 Special. These modern types of ammunition expel less characteristic particles, the identification of which can be a challenge for the examiners. At least two solutions to strengthen the residue identity are taken into account: additional insights into the internal structure of inorganic particles, e.g., by means of electron backscattered diffraction and focused ion beam, as well as complementary examinations of organic residues with sensitive mass spectrometric techniques.

  19. Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm2. LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO3, thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application, washing