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Sample records for terrestrial origin constitute

  1. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  2. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  3. Origin and evolution of life on terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Cockell, C S; Bérces, A; Belisheva, N K; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H(2)O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.

  4. The Origin of the Moon Within a Terrestrial Synestia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Simon J.; Stewart, Sarah T.; Petaev, Michail I.; Leinhardt, Zoë; Mace, Mia T.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Cuk, Matija

    2018-04-01

    The giant impact hypothesis remains the leading theory for lunar origin. However, current models struggle to explain the Moon's composition and isotopic similarity with Earth. Here we present a new lunar origin model. High-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impacts can create a post-impact structure that exceeds the corotation limit, which defines the hottest thermal state and angular momentum possible for a corotating body. In a typical super-corotation-limit body, traditional definitions of mantle, atmosphere, and disk are not appropriate, and the body forms a new type of planetary structure, named a synestia. Using simulations of cooling synestias combined with dynamic, thermodynamic, and geochemical calculations, we show that satellite formation from a synestia can produce the main features of our Moon. We find that cooling drives mixing of the structure, and condensation generates moonlets that orbit within the synestia, surrounded by tens of bars of bulk silicate Earth vapor. The moonlets and growing moon are heated by the vapor until the first major element (Si) begins to vaporize and buffer the temperature. Moonlets equilibrate with bulk silicate Earth vapor at the temperature of silicate vaporization and the pressure of the structure, establishing the lunar isotopic composition and pattern of moderately volatile elements. Eventually, the cooling synestia recedes within the lunar orbit, terminating the main stage of lunar accretion. Our model shifts the paradigm for lunar origin from specifying a certain impact scenario to achieving a Moon-forming synestia. Giant impacts that produce potential Moon-forming synestias were common at the end of terrestrial planet formation.

  5. Formation of telluric planets and the origin of terrestrial water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of planet formation have failed to reproduce Mars’ small mass (compared with Earth for 20 years. Here I will present a solution to the Mars problem that invokes large-scale migration of Jupiter and Saturn while they were still embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward, then “tacked” and migrated back outward when Saturn caught up to it and became trapped in resonance. If this tack occurred when Jupiter was at 1.5 AU then the inner disk of rocky planetesimals and embryos is truncated and the masses and orbits of all four terrestrial planet are quantitatively reproduced. As the giant planets migrate back outward they re-populate the asteroid belt from two different source populations, matching the structure of the current belt. C-type material is also scattered inward to the terrestrial planet-forming zone, delivering about the right amount of water to Earth on 10-50 Myr timescales.

  6. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.

  7. The origin of methane and biomolecules from a CO2 cycle on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Knížek, Antonín; Ivanek, Ondřej; Kubelík, Petr; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Ferus, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the chemical evolution of newly formed terrestrial planets involves uncertainties in atmospheric chemical composition and assessing the plausibility of biomolecule synthesis. In this study, an original scenario for the origin of methane on Mars and terrestrial planets is suggested. Carbon dioxide in Martian and other planetary atmospheres can be abiotically converted into a mixture of methane and carbon monoxide by `methanogenesis' on porous mineral photoactive surfaces under soft ultraviolet irradiation. On young planets exposed to heavy bombardment by interplanetary matter, this process can be followed by biomolecule synthesis through the reprocessing of reactive reducing atmospheres by impact-induced shock waves. The proposed mechanism of methanogenesis may help to answer the question concerning the formation of methane and carbon monoxide by photochemical processes, the formation of biomolecules on early Earth and other terrestrial planets, and the source and seasonal variation of methane concentrations on Mars.

  8. Oldest pathology in a tetrapod bone illuminates the origin of terrestrial vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Bishop

    Full Text Available The origin of terrestrial tetrapods was a key event in vertebrate evolution, yet how and when it occurred remains obscure, due to scarce fossil evidence. Here, we show that the study of palaeopathologies, such as broken and healed bones, can help elucidate poorly understood behavioural transitions such as this. Using high-resolution finite element analysis, we demonstrate that the oldest known broken tetrapod bone, a radius of the primitive stem tetrapod Ossinodus pueri from the mid-Viséan (333 million years ago of Australia, fractured under a high-force, impact-type loading scenario. The nature of the fracture suggests that it most plausibly occurred during a fall on land. Augmenting this are new osteological observations, including a preferred directionality to the trabecular architecture of cancellous bone. Together, these results suggest that Ossinodus, one of the first large (>2m length tetrapods, spent a significant proportion of its life on land. Our findings have important implications for understanding the temporal, biogeographical and physiological contexts under which terrestriality in vertebrates evolved. They push the date for the origin of terrestrial tetrapods further back into the Carboniferous by at least two million years. Moreover, they raise the possibility that terrestriality in vertebrates first evolved in large tetrapods in Gondwana rather than in small European forms, warranting a re-evaluation of this important evolutionary event.

  9. Constitution of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waenke, H.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the bulk composition are restricted to the Earth, the Moon and the eucrite parent asteroid. The last, the parent body of the eucrite-diogenite family of meteorites, seems to have an almost chondritic composition except for a considerable depletion of all moderately volatile (Na, K, Rb, F, etc.) and highly volatile (Cl, Br, Cd, Pb, etc.) elements. The moon is also depleted in moderate volatile and volatile elements compared to carbonaceous chondrites of type 1 (C1) and to the Earth. Again normalized to C1 and Si the Earth's mantle and the Moon are slightly enriched in refractory lithophile elements and in magnesium. The striking depletion of the Earth's mantle for the elements V, Cr and Mn can be explained by their partial removal into the core. Apart from their contents of metallic iron, all siderophile elements, moderately volatile and volatile elements, Earth and Moon are chemically very similar. It might well be that, with these exceptions and that of a varying degree of oxidation, all the inner planets have a similar chemistry. The chemical composition of the Earth's mantle, yields important information about the accretion history of the Earth and that of the inner planets. (author)

  10. The exposure of the Greek population to natural gamma radiation of terrestrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probonas, M.; Kritidis, P.

    1993-01-01

    The terrestrial natural radioactivity is a significant source of exposure of the population to ionising radiations. To evaluate the external doses received by the Greek population due to this source, soil samples from all Greek provinces have been collected and analysed using two high resolution gamma spectroscopy devices with germanium detectors of high purity (HPGe detectors). The concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K show significant variations, which correlate with the chemical consistency of soils from region to region. A theoretical evaluation of the dose equivalent rates due to the external natural gamma radiation of terrestrial origin has been made. The mean value does not differ greatly from the average dose rates in other countries of the world. (Author)

  11. Transfer of radiocesium through natural ecosystems to foodstuffs of terrestrial origin in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    Since autumn 1986, the dietary radiocesium received in Finland from terrestrial wild products has not shown any marked change. After 1987, the relative contribution of game meat, wild berries and mushrooms to the intake started to increase, due to the decrease in intake via agricultural and garden products after 1986, and via freshwater fish after 1987. The estimates for the total intake of 137 Cs in the three 12-month periods after April 1986 were 34, 33 and 22 Bq d -1 . The contributions of wild products of terrestrial origin to the intake were 9, 9 and 13 per cent. The contribution of freshwater fish was considerable when estimated on the basis of normal consumption of fish for human food: 18, 40 and 38%. (author)

  12. Origins of terrestrial organic matter in surface sediments of the East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Xing, Lei; Zhao, Meixun

    2017-10-01

    Terrestrial organic matter (TOM) is an important component of marine sedimentary OM, and revealing the origins and transport mechanisms of TOM to the East China Sea (ECS) is important for understanding regional carbon cycle. A novel approach combining molecular proxies and compound-specific carbon isotopes is used to quantitatively constrain the origins and transport mechanisms of TOM in surface sediments from the ECS shelf. The content of terrestrial biomarkers of (C27+C29+C31) n-alkanes (52 to 580 ng g-1) revealed a seaward decreasing trend, the δ13CTOC values (-20.6‰ to -22.7‰) were more negative near the coast, and the TMBR (terrestrial and marine biomarker ratio) values (0.06 to 0.40) also revealed a seaward decreasing trend. These proxies all indicated more TOM (up to 48%) deposition in the coastal areas. The Alkane Index, the ratio of C29/(C29+C31) n-alkanes indicated a higher proportion of grass vegetation in the coastal area; While the δ13C values of C29 n-alkane (-29.3‰ to -33.8‰) indicated that terrestrial plant in the sediments of the ECS shelf were mainly derived from C3 plants. Cluster analysis afforded detailed estimates of different-sourced TOM contributions and transport mechanisms. TOM in the Zhejiang-Fujian coastal area was mostly delivered by the Changjiang River, and characterized by higher %TOM (up to 48%), higher %C3 plant OM (68%-85%) and higher grass plant OM (56%-61%); TOM in the mid-shelf area was mostly transported by aerosols, and characterized by low %TOM (less than 17%), slightly lower C3 plant OM (56%-72%) and lower grass plant OM (49%-55%).

  13. Origin of spherule samples recovered from antarctic ice sheet-Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Takamiya, Koichi; Shibata, Seiichi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, Mitsuru [Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Thirty-eight spherules from the Antarctic ice sheet were analyzed using neutron activation analysis under two different conditions to investigate their origin. In almost all of these spherules, the contents of iron, cobalt, and manganese were determined to be 31% to 88%, 17 mg/kg to 810 mg/kg, and 0.017% to 7%, respectively. A detectable iridium content of 0.84 mg/kg was found in only one spherule, which was judged to be extraterrestrial in origin. A comparison of elemental compositions of the Antarctic spherules analyzed in this study with those of deep-sea sediment spherules and those of terrestrial materials revealed that most of the Antarctic spherules except for the sample in which iridium was detected could not be identified as extraterrestrial in origin.

  14. Late Impacts and the Origins of the Atmospheres on the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Stewart, S. T.; Lock, S. J.; Parai, R.; Tucker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Models for the origin of terrestrial atmospheres typically require an intricate sequence of events, including hydrodynamic escape, outgassing of mantle volatiles and late delivery. Here we discuss the origin of the atmospheres on the terrestrial planets in light of new ideas about the formation of the Moon, giant impact induced atmospheric loss and recent noble gas measurements. Our new measurements indicate that noble gases in the Earth's atmosphere cannot be derived from any combination of fractionation of a nebular-derived atmosphere followed by outgassing of deep or shallow mantle volatiles. While Ne in the mantle retains a nebular component, the present-day atmosphere has no memory of nebular gases. Rather, atmospheric noble gases have a close affinity to chondrites. On the other hand, Venus's atmosphere has 20 and 70 times higher abundance of 20Ne and 36Ar, respectively, and a 20Ne/22Ne ratio closer to the solar value than Earth's atmosphere. While the present atmosphere of Mars is significantly fractionated in the lighter noble gases due to long term atmospheric escape, the Kr isotopic ratios in Martian atmosphere are identical to solar. Thus, while Earth's atmosphere has no memory of accretion of nebular gases, atmospheres on both Venus and Mars preserve at least a component of nebular gases. To explain the above observations, we propose that a common set of processes operated on the terrestrial planets, and that their subsequent evolutionary divergence is simply explained by planetary size and the stochastic nature of giant impacts. We present geochemical observations and simulations of giant impacts to show that most of Earth's mantle was degassed and the outgassed volatiles were largely lost during the final sequence of giant impacts onto Earth. Earth's noble gases were therefore dominantly derived from late-accreting planetesimals. In contrast, Venus did not suffer substantial atmospheric loss by a late giant impact and retains a higher abundance of

  15. Constitutional basis of longevity in the cetacea: do the whales and the terrestrial mammals obey the same laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The maximum lifespans in captivity for terrestrial mammalian species can be estimated by means of a multiple linear regression of logarithm of lifespan (L) on the logarithm of adult brain weight (E) and body weight (S). This paper describes the application of regression formulas based on data from terrestrial mammals to the estimation of odontocete and mysticete lifespans. The regression formulas predict cetacean lifespans that are in accord with the data on maximum cetacean lifespans obtained in recent years by objective age determination procedures. More remarkable is the correct prediction by the regression formulas that the odontocete species have nearly constant lifespans, almost independent of body weight over a 300:1 body weight range. This prediction is a consequence of the fact, remarkable in itself, that over this body weight range the Odontoceti have a brain:body allometric slope of 1/3, as compared to a slope of 2/3 for the Mammalia as a whole.

  16. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  17. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia, which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic. This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  18. The City of Sismondi. Origins, Heyday and Decline of a Constitutional Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During his multiannual reflection Sismondi seems reluctant to define his concept of city, while devoting most of his energy to the importance of cities self-government – starting with his famous Histoire des Républiques italiennes au Moyen Age. This essay tries to frame his reflection in the intersection between his economic and constitutional proposals. In the background stands a continuous dialogue with Adam Smith, revisited through the relationship that the canton of Geneva has had during the Restoration with its rural population.

  19. Contamination of Japanese foodstuffs of terrestrial origin after the Fukushima nuclear accident and related dose assessments Part 1: foodstuff contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Simon-Cornu, M.; Gonze, M.A.; Mourlon, C.; Parache, V.; Korsakissok, I.; Navarro, E.; Cessac, B.; Rannou, A.; Champion, D.

    2013-01-01

    During and after the Fukushima accident, the IRSN collected and interpreted the results of radiological measurements performed on foodstuffs of terrestrial origin published by Japan's Ministry of Health between mid-March 2011 and July 2012. Analysis of the findings shows that the accident's date, livestock-rearing practices and the deposits' characteristics had a decisive influence. The fact that radioactive fallout occurred very early in the growing and breeding season largely explains the moderate contamination of most foodstuffs of terrestrial origin, notably in the areas with the largest deposits. In the case of dairy products and meat, feeding imported fodder to livestock in stables, a common practice in Japan, compounded the calendar effect. Measurements published in Japan have also borne out the particular sensitivity of mushrooms, including cultivated species, and game. (authors)

  20. Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of Neon in terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Charnoz, Sebatien; Moreira, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The presence of Neon in terrestrial planet mantles may be attributed to the implantation of solar wind in planetary precursors or to the dissolution of primordial solar gases captured from the accretionary disk into an early magma ocean. This is suggested by the Neon isotopic ratio similar to those of the Sun observed in the Earth mantle. Here, we evaluate the second hypothesis. We use general considerations of planetary accretion and atmospheric science. Using current models of terrestrial planet formation, we study the evolution of standard planetary embryos with masses in a range of 0.1-0.2 MEarth, where MEarth is the Earth's mass, in an annular region at distances between 0.5 and 1.5 Astronomical Units from the star. We determine the characteristics of atmospheres that can be captured by such embryos for a wide range of parameters and calculate the maximum amount of Neon that can be dissolved in the planet. Our calculations may be directly transposed to any other planet. However, we only know of the amount of Neon in the Earth's solid mantle. Thus we use Earth to discuss our results. We find that the amount of dissolved Neon is too small to account for the present-day Neon contents of the Earth's mantle, if the nebular gas disk completely disappears before the largest planetary embryos grow to be ∼0.2 MEarth. This leaves solar irradiation as the most likely source of Neon in terrestrial planets for the most standard case of planetary formation models.

  1. The origin of methane and biomolecules from a CO2 cycle on terrestrial planets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Knížek, Antonín; Ivanek, Ondřej; Kubelík, Petr; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Ferus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 10 (2017), s. 721-726 E-ISSN 2397-3366 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-05076S; GA ČR GA13-07724S Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) R200401721; Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) R200401521 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : biomolecules * CO2 cycle on terrestrial planets * Mars Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  2. Dynamical Origin and Terrestrial Impact Flux of Large Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Roig, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical models of the asteroid delivery from the main belt suggest that the current impact flux of diameter D> 10 km asteroids on the Earth is ≃0.5–1 Gyr‑1. Studies of the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population find a much higher flux, with ≃ 7 D> 10 km asteroid impacts per Gyr. Here we show that this problem is rooted in the application of impact probability of small NEAs (≃1.5 Gyr‑1 per object), whose population is well characterized, to large NEAs. In reality, large NEAs evolve from the main belt by different escape routes, have a different orbital distribution, and lower impact probabilities (0.8 ± 0.3 Gyr‑1 per object) than small NEAs. In addition, we find that the current population of two D> 10 km NEAs (Ganymed and Eros) is a slight fluctuation over the long-term average of 1.1+/- 0.5 D> 10 km NEAs in a steady state. These results have important implications for our understanding of the occurrence of the K/T-scale impacts on the terrestrial worlds.

  3. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I. [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eckersten, Henrik [Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, SLU, P.O. Box 7042, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinlert, Andre [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); MMT, Sven Kaellfelts Gata 11 SE 426 71 Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Dept. Land and Water Resources, KTH, SE 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Gustavlundsvaegen 151A, 167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Greger, Maria [Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m{sup 2} and year of {sup 238}U, a common long

  4. Evolution in a fully constituted world: Charles Darwin's debts towards a static world in the Origin of Species (1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The Transformist Revolution was a long intellectual quest that has expanded from the 18th century to today. One area of inquiry after another has confronted the necessity of recasting its object of study under an evolutionary view: human history, geology, biology, astronomy, etc. No single scholar fully managed to make the transition from a static worldview to an evolutionary one during his or her own lifetime; Charles Darwin is no exception. Many versions of evolutionism were proposed during this revolution, versions offering all sorts of compromises between old and new views. Not sufficiently acknowledged in the historiography is the profoundness of Darwin's debts towards the old static view. As a dual child of the Scientific Revolution and natural theology, Darwin inherited key concepts such as stability, completeness, timelessness, unity, permanence, and uniformity. Darwin took these concepts into consideration while erecting his theory of biological evolution. Unsurprisingly, this theory was ill-equipped to embrace the directionality, historicity, and novelty that came along with a new evolutionary world. This paper analyses a fundamental idea at the heart of Darwin's Origins of Species (1859) inherited from a static, stable, and machine-like conception of the world: the notion of a fully constituted world. Although in principle antithetical to the very idea of evolution itself, Darwin found a way to 'loosen up' this notion so as to retain it in a way that allows for some kind of evolutionary change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Search for EPR markers of the history and origin of the insoluble organic matter in extraterrestrial and terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Scrzypczak, Audrey; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2004-05-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three carbonaceous meteorites (Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake meteorites) and three samples of cherts (microcrystalline SiO 2 rock) containing microfossils with age ranging between 45 million years and 3.5 billion years is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The age of the meteorites is that of the solar system (4.6 billion years). The purpose of this work was to determine the EPR parameters, which allow us to discriminate between biogenic and extra terrestrial origin for the organic matter. Such indicators should be relevant for the controversy regarding the biogenicity of the organic matter in the oldest cheroot (3.5 billion years) and in Martian meteorites containing microbe-like microstructures. The organic matter of meteorites contains a high concentration of diradicaloid moieties characterised by a diamagnetic ground state S=0 and a thermally accessible triplet state S=1. The three meteorites exhibit the same singlet-triplet gap (ST gap) Δ E≈0.1 eV. To the best of our knowledge, such diradicaloids are unknown in insoluble organic matter of terrestrial origin. We have also shown that the EPR linewidth of insoluble organic matter in cherts and coals decrease logarithmically with the age of the organic matter. We conclude from this result that the organic matter in the oldest cherts (3.5 billion years) has the same age as their SiO 2 matrix, and is not due to a latter contamination by bacteria, as was recently found in meteoritic samples.

  6. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Discussion of the nature, origin and role of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and origin of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon as determined through geologic mapping, crater statistics, and remotely sensed data are summarized. Implications of these results regarding scarp formation, absolute ages, and terrestrial planet surfaces are included. The role of the intercrater plains is defined and future work which might lead to a better understanding of these units and terrestrial planet evolution is outlined.

  7. Asymmetric shock heating and the terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    One of the difficulties of the current giant impact model for the origin of the Moon is to explain the marked similarity in the isotopic compositions and the substantial differences in the major element chemistry. Physics of shock heating is analyzed to show that the degree of heating is asymmetric between the impactor and the target, if the target (the proto-Earth) had a magma-ocean but the impactor did not. The magma ocean is heated much more than the solid impactor and the vapor-rich jets come mainly from the magma-ocean from which the Moon might have been formed. In this scenario, the similarity and differences in the composition between the Moon and Earth would be explained as a natural consequence of a collision in the later stage of planetary formation. Including the asymmetry in shock heating is the first step toward explaining the chemical composition of the Moon.

  8. PNAS Plus: Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.; Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-04-01

    All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern (or reconstructed primeval) oceans, lakes, or rivers. Cells maintain ion gradients by using sophisticated, energy-dependent membrane enzymes (membrane pumps) that are embedded in elaborate ion-tight membranes. The first cells could possess neither ion-tight membranes nor membrane pumps, so the concentrations of small inorganic molecules and ions within protocells and in their environment would equilibrate. Hence, the ion composition of modern cells might reflect the inorganic ion composition of the habitats of protocells. We attempted to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K+/Na+ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn, and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under the anoxic, CO2-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of basins at geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. The precellular stages of evolution might have transpired in shallow ponds of condensed and cooled geothermal vapor that were lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K+, Zn2+, and phosphorous compounds.

  9. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution: Introduction. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The relative ages of various geologic units and structures place tight constraints on the origin of the Moon and the planet Mercury, and thus provide a better understanding of the geologic histories of these bodies. Crater statistics, a reexamination of lunar geologic maps, and the compilation of a geologic map of a quarter of Mercury's surface based on plains units dated relative to crater degradation classes were used to determine relative ages. This provided the basis for deducing the origin of intercrater plains and their role in terrestrial planet evolution.

  10. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  11. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  12. Halogen systematics in the Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well, Northwest Territories, Canada: Implications for the origin of gas hydrates under terrestrial permafrost conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaru, Hitoshi; Fehn, Udo; Lu, Zunli; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2007-01-01

    The authors report here halogen concentrations in pore waters and sediments collected from the Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well, a permafrost location in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Iodine and Br are commonly enriched in waters associated with CH 4 , reflecting the close association between these halogens and source organic materials. Pore waters collected from the Mallik well show I enrichment, by one order of magnitude above that of seawater, particularly in sandy layers below the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Although Cl and Br concentrations increase with depth similar to the I profile, they remain below seawater values. The increase in I concentrations observed below the GHSZ suggests that I-rich fluids responsible for the accumulation of CH 4 in gas hydrates are preferentially transported through the sandy permeable layers below the GHSZ. The Br and I concentrations and I/Br ratios in Mallik are considerably lower than those in marine gas hydrate locations, demonstrating a terrestrial nature for the organic materials responsible for the CH 4 at the Mallik site. Halogen systematics in Mallik suggest that they are the result of mixing between seawater, freshwater and an I-rich source fluid. The comparison between I/Br ratios in pore waters and sediments speaks against the origin of the source fluids within the host formations of gas hydrates, a finding compatible with the results from a limited set of 129 I/I ratios determined in pore waters, which gives a minimum age of 29 Ma for the source material, i.e. at the lower end of the age range of the host formations. The likely scenario for the gas hydrate formation in Mallik is the derivation of CH 4 together with I from the terrestrial source materials in formations other than the host layers through sandy permeable layers into the present gas hydrate zones

  13. A new Xist allele driven by a constitutively active promoter is dominated by Xist locus environment and exhibits the parent-of-origin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Yuko; Sakata, Yuka; Hoki, Yuko; Arata, Satoru; Shioda, Seiji; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Sado, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    The dosage difference of X-linked genes between the sexes in mammals is compensated for by genetic inactivation of one of the X chromosomes in XX females. A noncoding RNA transcribed from the Xist gene at the onset of X chromosome inactivation coats the X chromosome in cis and induces chromosome-wide heterochromatinization. Here, we report a new Xist allele (Xist(CAG)) driven by a CAG promoter, which is known to be constitutively active in many types of cells. The paternal transmission of Xist(CAG) resulted in the preferential inactivation of the targeted paternal X (Xp) not only in the extra-embryonic but also the embryonic lineage, whereas maternal transmission ended with embryonic lethality at the early postimplantation stage with a phenotype that resembled mutant embryos carrying a maternal deficiency in Tsix, an antisense negative regulator of Xist, in both sexes. Interestingly, we found that the upregulation of Xist(CAG) in preimplantation embryos temporally differed depending on its parental origin: its expression started at the 4- to 8-cell stages when paternally inherited, and Xist(CAG) was upregulated at the blastocyst stage when maternally inherited. This might indicate that the Xist locus on Xp is permissive to transcription, but the Xist locus on the maternal X (Xm) is not. We extrapolated from these findings that the maternal Xist allele might manifest a chromatin structure inaccessible by transcription factors relative to the paternal allele. This might underlie the mechanism for the maternal repression of Xist at the early cleavage stage when Tsix expression has not yet occurred on Xm. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  15. Hydrothermal simulation experiments as a tool for studies of the origin of life on Earth and other terrestrial planets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Nils G; Andersson, Eva

    2005-08-01

    The potential of life's origin in submarine hydrothermal systems has been evaluated by a number of investigators by conducting high temperature-high pressure experiments involving organic compounds. In the majority of these experiments little attention has been paid to the importance of constraining important parameters, such as the pH and the redox state of the system. This is particularly revealed in the apparent difficulties in interpreting experimental data from hydrothermal organic synthesis and stability studies. However, in those cases where common mineral assemblages have been used in an attempt to buffer the pH and redox conditions to geologically and geochemically realistic values, theoretical and experimental data seem to converge. The use of mineral buffer assemblages provides a convenient way by which to constrain the experimental conditions. Studies at high temperatures and pressure in the laboratory have revealed a number of reactions that proceed rapidly in hydrothermal fluids, including the Strecker synthesis of amino acids. In other cases, the verification of postulated abiotic reaction mechanisms has not been possible, at least for large molecules such as large fatty acids and hydrocarbons. This includes the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction. High temperature-high pressure experimental methods have been developed and used successfully for a long time in, for example, mineral solubility studies under hydrothermal conditions. By taking advantage of this experimental experience new and, at times, unexpected directions can be taken in bioorganic geochemistry, one being, for instance, primitive two-dimensional information coding. This article critically reviews some of the organic synthesis and stability experiments that have been conducted under simulated submarine hydrothermal conditions. We also discuss some of the theoretical and practical considerations that apply to hydrothermal laboratory studies of organic molecules related to the origin of

  16. Constitutional Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  17. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Thermal models of Mercury. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Recent and more complex thermal models of Mercury and the terrestrial planets are discussed or noted. These models isolate a particular aspect of the planet's thermal history in an attempt to understand that parameter. Among these topics are thermal conductivity, convection, radiogenic sources of heat, other heat sources, and the problem of the molten core and regenerative dynamo.

  18. Lipid biomarker investigation of the origin and diagenetic state of sub-arctic terrestrial organic matter presently exported into the northern Bothnian Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2008-01-01

    Predicted climate warming and observed increases in river discharge in the vulnerable Arctic region can lead to alterations in the flux and composition of terrestrial organic matter (terrOM) transported into high latitude coastal waters. A benchmarking of the current sources, transport and

  19. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  20. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  1. Origins of the 1986 Philippine Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    1902 and the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 (Jones Law) - did not expressly provide for the separation of powers . However, in various decisions, the...judiciary as part of the separation of powers was repeatedly declared by the Supreme Court of the Philippines to have been extended to the 11 Philippines

  2. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, K.; Vroon, P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  3. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil­-plant-­snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, C.J.; Vroon, P.Z.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  4. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic mapping of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The geologic framework of the intercrater plains on Mercury and the Moon as determined through geologic mapping is presented. The strategies used in such mapping are discussed first. Then, because the degree of crater degradation is applied to both mapping and crater statistics, the correlation of degradation classification of lunar and Mercurian craters is thoroughly addressed. Different imaging systems can potentially affect this classification, and are therefore also discussed. The techniques used in mapping Mercury are discussed in Section 2, followed by presentation of the Geologic Map of Mercury in Section 3. Material units, structures, and relevant albedo and color data are discussed therein. Preliminary conclusions regarding plains' origins are given there. The last section presents the mapping analyses of the lunar intercrater plains, including tentative conclusions of their origin.

  5. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Cratering histories of the intercrater plains. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon are defined, in part, by their high densities of small craters. The crater size frequency statistics presented in this chapter may help constrain the relative ages and origins of these surfaces. To this end, the effects of common geologic processes on crater frequency statistics are compared with the diameter frequency distributions of the intercrater regions of the Moon and Mercury. Such analyses may determine whether secondary craters dominate the distribution at small diameters, and whether volcanic plains or ballistic deposits form the intercrater surface. Determining the mass frequency distribution and flux of the impacting population is a more difficult problem. The necessary information such as scaling relationships between projectile energy and crater diameter, the relative fluxes of solar system objects, and the absolute ages of surface units is model dependent and poorly constrained, especially for Mercury.

  6. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  7. Constitutional Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Judhariksawan

    2018-01-01

    The constitution is fundamental to the life of the modern state as a major foothold in state governance. Includes the guarantee of constitutional rights of citizens. The The constitution is the basis of state organizers to be implemented so that the state is obliged to guarantee the fulfillment of citizens' constitutional rights. Human rights have become an important part of the modern constitution. This study will describe how human rights guarantees become part of consti...

  8. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, C.J.; Vroon, P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and concentrations were determined in soil, litter, plant leaves, snails, rainwater and airborne particulate matter. Anthropogenic Pb in the soils of all locations was found to be derived from deposition of Pb polluted river sediments. Discharging rivers influenced the reference location before being reclaimed from the sea. The river sediment contains anthropogenic Pb from various sources related to industrial activities in the hinterland of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Lead in the atmosphere contributed substantially to Pb pollution and Pb transfer in plant leaves and snails in all locations. Lead pollution in plant leaves and snails can be explained from a mixture of river sediment-Pb and atmospheric Pb from various transfer routes that involve low concentrations

  9. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of System Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.notten@nunhems.com; Walraven, N. [Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences/Geochemistry, University of Utrecht, Budapestlaan 4, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Beets, C.J. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Department of Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vroon, P. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J.; Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of System Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and concentrations were determined in soil, litter, plant leaves, snails, rainwater and airborne particulate matter. Anthropogenic Pb in the soils of all locations was found to be derived from deposition of Pb polluted river sediments. Discharging rivers influenced the reference location before being reclaimed from the sea. The river sediment contains anthropogenic Pb from various sources related to industrial activities in the hinterland of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Lead in the atmosphere contributed substantially to Pb pollution and Pb transfer in plant leaves and snails in all locations. Lead pollution in plant leaves and snails can be explained from a mixture of river sediment-Pb and atmospheric Pb from various transfer routes that involve low concentrations.

  10. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  11. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen Bačić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy and civil society including science and its disciplines. In this paper, the author mentions several topics which are of interest in the current discussion on the significance of current constitutional changes for the future of the development of constitutionalism and democracy in the Republic of Croatia. These are above all topics of political and legal constitutionalism and suggestions linked to strengthening the independence of judicial powers. The author advocates consistent application of constitutional control and check mechanisms which exclude all insularity of judicial powers in relation to democratic control.

  12. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  13. Transnational Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its

  14. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  15. Transnational Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); Bhatt, Kinnari

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its values by placing them ‘in context’ with existing and evolving cultural norms and political, social and economic discourses and struggles. Drawing on socio-legal investigations into the relationships ...

  16. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  17. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  18. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  19. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  20. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  1. Gender and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  2. constitutional adjudication in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    2000-01-25

    Jan 25, 2000 ... Thus the seeds of what some authors call. “federal .... Pre-WWII Europe trusted its legislature and led to .... European and Civil Law Forum v. 11 ...... on the sovereignty of nationalities and the fact that language constitutes one.

  3. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...

  4. A Prospect and Challenges for Adopting Constitutional Complaint and Constitutional Question in the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Pan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    A jurisdiction of the Indonesian Constitutional Court concerning constitutional adjudication is only limited to review the constitutionality of national law. There is no mechanism for challenging any decision or action made by public authorities that violate fundamental rights enshrined in the Indonesian Constitution. This article argues that constitutional complaint and constitutional question might be adopted as new jurisdictions of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in order to strengthen...

  5. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  6. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  7. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  8. The constitutional view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Horácio Sá Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n2p165   This brief paper is devoted to criticizing the widespread reading of Kant’s first Critique, according to which reference to subject-independent objects is “constituted” by higherorder cognitive abilities (concepts. Let us call this the “constitutional view”. In this paper, I argue that the constitutional reading confuses the un-Kantian problem of how we come to represent objects (which I call the intentionality thesis, with the quite different problem of how we cognize (erkennen (which I call the “cognition thesis” that we do represent objects, that is, things that exist independently of the subject.

  9. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...

  10. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  11. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  12. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  13. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  14. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  15. Genomic and bioinformatics analyses of HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac, two human adenovirus (HAdV) strains that constituted original prophylaxis against HAdV-related acute respiratory disease, a reemerging epidemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Su, Jing; McGraw, John; Ditty, Susan E; Hadfield, Ted L; Seto, Jason; Russell, Kevin L; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-07-01

    Vaccine strains of human adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7 (HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac) have been used successfully to prevent adenovirus-related acute respiratory disease outbreaks. The genomes of these two vaccine strains have been sequenced, annotated, and compared with their prototype equivalents with the goals of understanding their genomes for molecular diagnostics applications, vaccine redevelopment, and HAdV pathoepidemiology. These reference genomes are archived in GenBank as HAdV-4vac (35,994 bp; AY594254) and HAdV-7vac (35,240 bp; AY594256). Bioinformatics and comparative whole-genome analyses with their recently reported and archived prototype genomes reveal six mismatches and four insertions-deletions (indels) between the HAdV-4 prototype and vaccine strains, in contrast to the 611 mismatches and 130 indels between the HAdV-7 prototype and vaccine strains. Annotation reveals that the HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac genomes contain 51 and 50 coding units, respectively. Neither vaccine strain appears to be attenuated for virulence based on bioinformatics analyses. There is evidence of genome recombination, as the inverted terminal repeat of HAdV-4vac is initially identical to that of species C whereas the prototype is identical to species B1. These vaccine reference sequences yield unique genome signatures for molecular diagnostics. As a molecular forensics application, these references identify the circulating and problematic 1950s era field strains as the original HAdV-4 prototype and the Greider prototype, from which the vaccines are derived. Thus, they are useful for genomic comparisons to current epidemic and reemerging field strains, as well as leading to an understanding of pathoepidemiology among the human adenoviruses.

  16. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  17. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  18. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the crucial role in this process. This paper will focus on the applicability of the ECHR in proceedings before national constitutional courts. Having in mind the jurisdiction of the national constitutional court, the ECHR may be applied in two ways: first, in the process of constitutional review by national constitutional courts and, second, in the process of deciding on constitutional complaints.

  19. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  20. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  1. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  2. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  3. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  4. Islamization in Malaysia: the constitutional and legal dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Kah Sing

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the legitimacy of the Islamization of the politics, society and law in Malaysia. The Islamization plan was carried out by the federal government in the early 1980s under the Mahathir administration. The legitimacy of the Islamization plan is measured against the original intent of the Independence Constitution, with particular reference to the position of Islam in the Constitution. Those constitutional provisions which have been claimed to have granted I...

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    systems, and constitute an important livestock compon ... ricultural systems in the the human population ..... Farta sheep supplemented with noug seed cake, wheat bran and ..... live stock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings).

  6. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  7. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  8. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  9. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  10. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  11. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  13. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  14. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land......, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’....

  15. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-04-15

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition.

  16. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  17. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    OpenAIRE

    Nastić, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the cruc...

  18. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  19. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....

  20. Abiotic Formation of Methyl Halides in the Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, F.

    2011-12-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide are the most abundant chlorine and bromine containing organic compounds in the atmosphere. Since both compounds have relatively long tropospheric lifetimes they can effectively transport halogen atoms from the Earth's surface, where they are released, to the stratosphere and following photolytic oxidation form reactive halogen gases that lead to the chemical destruction of ozone. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide account for more than 20% of the ozone-depleting halogens delivered to the stratosphere and are predicted to grow in importance as the chlorine contribution to the stratosphere from anthropogenic CFCs decline. Today methyl chloride and methyl bromide originate mainly from natural sources with only a minor fraction considered to be of anthropogenic origin. However, until as recently as 2000 most of the methyl chloride and methyl bromide input to the atmosphere was considered to originate from the oceans, but investigations in recent years have clearly demonstrated that terrestrial sources such as biomass burning, wood-rotting fungi, coastal salt marshes, tropical vegetation and organic matter degradation must dominate the atmospheric budgets of these trace gases. However, many uncertainties still exist regarding strengths of both sources and sinks, as well as the mechanisms of formation of these naturally occurring halogenated gases. A better understanding of the atmospheric budget of both methyl chloride and methyl bromide is therefore required for reliable prediction of future ozone depletion. Biotic and abiotic methylation processes of chloride and bromide ion are considered to be the dominant pathways of formation of these methyl halides in nature. In this presentation I will focus on abiotic formation processes in the terrestrial environment and the potential parameters that control their emissions. Recent advances in our understanding of the abiotic formation pathway of methyl halides will be discussed. This will

  1. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  2. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  3. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  4. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Constitutional Medicine in China, Japan and Korea: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjun; Ma, Mingyue; Chen, Xuemei; Min, Jiayu; Li, Lingru; Zheng, Yanfei; Li, Yingshuai; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese-Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted. The constitutional theories of the three countries are all derived from the Canon of Internal Medicine or Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases of Ancient China. However, the three countries have different constitutional classifications and criteria. Medical sciences in the three countries focus on the clinical applications of constitutional theory. They all agree that different pathogenic laws that guide the treatment of diseases govern different constitutions; thus, patients with different constitutions are treated differently. The three countries also differ in terms of drug formulations and medication. Japanese medicine is prescribed only based on constitution. Korean medicine is based on treatment, in which drugs cannot be mixed. TCM synthesize the treatment model of constitution differentiation, disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation with the treatment thought of treating disease according to three categories of etiologic factors, which reflect the constitution as the characteristic of individual precision treatment. In conclusion, constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea have the same theoretical origin, but differ in constitutional classification, clinical application of constitutional theory on the treatment of diseases, drug formulations and medication.

  6. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Remote sensing and physical data and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Imagery data from Mariner 10 and Lunar Orbiter IV form the major base of observations analyzed. But a variety of other information aids in constraining the composition and structure of the Moon and Mercury, and in particular, provides input to the problem of the nature and origin of their intercrater plains. This information for Mercury is remotely sensed from Earth or from the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Lunar data includes, of course, ground truth information from the Apollo landing sites. Since neither intercrater region was sampled, lunar and Mercurian data are similar in type and limitations. Constraints on surface and interior composition and structure are reviewed.

  7. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...... of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  8. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  10. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition. PMID:19297405

  11. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  12. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  13. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Adeniyi S. Basiru is an independent researcher and a PhD candidate ... constitution-making are fundamentally the exclusive reserve of the elites, ..... agenda must be situated against the background of events that heralded his.

  14. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  15. THE EMERGING INTERNATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    CFI) affirmed ... primarily include the value system of the international legal order, meaning norms of ... the existence of such a traditional constitutional demos. Europe's ..... between the African Development Bank (BAD) and one of its employees,.

  16. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  17. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  18. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  19. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  20. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  1. Coastal niches for terrestrial predators: a stable isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellbrand, K.; Hamback, P.A., E-mail: peter.hamback@botan.su.se [Stockholm Univ., Dept. of Botany, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the use of marine versus terrestrial food items by terrestrial arthropod predators on Baltic Sea shores. The inflow of marine nutrients in the area consists mainly of marine algal detritus and emerging aquatic insects (e.g., chironomids). Diets of coastal arthropods were examined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in a two source mixing model. The results suggest that spiders are the terrestrial predators mainly utilizing nutrients and energy of marine origin on Baltic Sea shores, whereas insect predators such as beetles and heteropterans mainly utilize nutrients and energy derived from terrestrial sources, possibly owing to differences in hunting behaviour. That spiders are the predators which benefit the most from the marine inflow suggest that eventual effects of marine subsidies for the coastal ecosystem as a whole are likely mediated by spiders. (author)

  2. Coastal niches for terrestrial predators: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellbrand, K.; Hamback, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the use of marine versus terrestrial food items by terrestrial arthropod predators on Baltic Sea shores. The inflow of marine nutrients in the area consists mainly of marine algal detritus and emerging aquatic insects (e.g., chironomids). Diets of coastal arthropods were examined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in a two source mixing model. The results suggest that spiders are the terrestrial predators mainly utilizing nutrients and energy of marine origin on Baltic Sea shores, whereas insect predators such as beetles and heteropterans mainly utilize nutrients and energy derived from terrestrial sources, possibly owing to differences in hunting behaviour. That spiders are the predators which benefit the most from the marine inflow suggest that eventual effects of marine subsidies for the coastal ecosystem as a whole are likely mediated by spiders. (author)

  3. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  5. Cicero and the Mixed Constitution (res publica mixta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sadek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the mixed constitution is the story of the most stable and just constitution. In theory, this is a combination of at least two of the three elementary forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, with some advantages that elementary forms may lack. It originated with the deliberation of Greek philosophers, who wanted to draw up a constitution safeguarding against the permanent variation of elementary constitutional forms and against coups d’état. For both Plato and Aristotle, the mixed constitution was, above all, the reflection of a search for balance between the two extreme forms of government, direct (Athenian democracy on the one hand and the exclusion of the people from governing on the other. The Greek theory was applied by the historian Polybius to the traditional tripartite constitution of the Roman republic. In his view, the consuls were monarchic elements, the senate an aristocratic element, and the comitia a democratic one. Cicero’s introduction of the idea of the mixed constitution in De re publica can only be understood in the light of the author’s personal situation and contemporary political circumstances. His political engagement at a time when the republic was gradually transforming into a monarchy aimed at restoring the important role of the nobility, represented by the senate. For Cicero, the mixed constitution was mainly an instrument for restoring the lost balance between the consuls, the senate, and the comitia, a last chance to save the decaying republic. The concluding part of the article addresses Alois Riklin’s recent discussion of the modern reception of the mixed constitution idea, which advances the controversial thesis that the paradigm of power division, the foundation of modern representative democracy, originates directly from the mixed constitution.

  6. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  7. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  8. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    the 3 arms of government the Executive, Legislative, Judiciary, Public Service and Marketing .... Rotation principle of a presidency position in Nigeria which will cultivate a sense of ... the issues survived inclusion in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. 13. S. 2 of Decree No. ..... Oxford, 5th Edition p.245.

  9. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    and politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  10. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  11. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  12. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  13. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  14. The Constitution and Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  15. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  16. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  17. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  18. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  19. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  20. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  1. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  2. Contested constitutions: Legitimacy of constitution-making and constitutional conflict in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raadt, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    What were the effects of constitution-making procedures on the acceptance of the new "rules of the political game" in postcommunist Central Europe? This article sets out to scrutinise the increasingly popular claim among politicians and scholars of democratisation that inclusiveness and popular

  3. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  4. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact with their......Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact...... with their constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...

  5. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  6. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  7. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  8. Limits of verification by the Federal Constitutional Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed a resolution on October 27,1983 - 10 S 1102/83 - dismissing the application to revoke the immediate implementation of the first partial construction permit for the joint nuclear power plant Neckar II. As the plaintiff thereupon lodged a complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court the resolution did not become effective immediately. However, the Federal Constitutional Court on October 1, 1984 decreed unanimously in accordance with the section 93a subsection 3 of the law on the Federal Constitutional Court - 1 BvR 231/84 -: ''The constitutional complaint lodged is not taken up for decision because its chances of success are nil.'' Thus the original decision of the court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed on October 27, 1983 was confirmed by the endorsement of its immediate implementation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Origin of tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

  10. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delegation power or as an original power. This article explores how the state courts are adjudicating federal criminal matters, and how the criminal adjudicative jurisdiction of the federal courts and state courts is compartmentalized. Keywords: jurisdiction, criminal adjudication, compartmentalization, constitution, federalism ...

  11. Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States subscribes to the original premise of the framers of the Constitution that the way to safeguard against tyranny is to separate the powers of government among three branches so that each branch checks the other two. At no time in the 20th century was the devotion to that principle more vigorously evoked than in 1937, when…

  12. A reappraisal of the stratigraphy and chronology of Early Pliocene palaeontological sites from Lanzarote Island containing fossil terrestrial animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín

    2016-11-01

    The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.

  13. Comparision of the Martian Gullies With Terrestrial Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried to explained its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies formed at cold enviroment, sited at the Nevado de Toluca volcanoe near Toluca City, Mexico. We compare them with Martian gullies, choisen from four different areas, to recognize possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lenghts of those Martian gullies and their range was from 24 m 1775 m.

  14. The Normative Constitution of Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    On a naturalistic conception of agency, someone is an agent when certain of his own mental states are the cause of his movements. On a normative conception, a person constitutes his agency by following certain principles or laws. In Kant’s conception, for example, a movement counts as the agent’s own when it is chosen autonomously, that is, in accordance with the categorical imperative. To say that someone acts is to imply that his movements are a manifestation of his own activity and that it...

  15. Muscle performance in a soft-bodied terrestrial crawler: constitutive modelling of strain-rate dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfmann, A. Luis; Woods, William A; Trimmer, Barry A

    2007-01-01

    Experimental data on the passive mechanical properties of the ventral interior lateral muscle of the tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta, are reported. The stress–deformation response of the Manduca muscle is shown to be nonlinear pseudo-elastic, capable of large deformations and subject to stress softening during initial loading cycles. The muscle passive mechanical properties also depend on multiple time-dependent processes. In particular, we show new experimental data from cyclic l...

  16. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  17. Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Giles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, “Follow me” (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels, “Love God, and your neighbour as yourself” (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels, and “Take up your cross” (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels. The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.

  18. Earth as a radio source: terrestrial kilometric radiation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.

    1974-02-01

    Radio wave experiments on the IMP-6 and 8 satellites have shown that the earth emits very intense electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from about 50 kHz to 500 kHz. A peak intensity the total power emitted in this frequency range is about 1 billion watts. The earth is, therefore, a very intense planetary radio source, with a total power output comparable to the decametric radio emission from Jupiter. This radio emission from the earth is referred to as terrestrial kilometric radiation. Terrestrial kilometric radiation appears to originate from low altitudes (less than 3.0 Re) in the auroral region. Possible mechanisms which can explain the generation and propagation of the terrestrial kilometric radiation are discussed. (U.S.)

  19. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  20. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  1. The Constitutive Values of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive values are the characteristics that are constitutive of good theories, the criteria to which we appeal when choosing among competing theories. I argue that, in order to count as a cognitive value, a characteristic must be needed to explain actually made theory choices, and its cognitive significance must be well defended especially in view of considerations derived from the objective of science. A number of proposed objectives of science are entertained, and it is argued that adopting a par-ticular objective is dialectically intertwined with commitment to certain social values.Then, the ways in which science is, and is not value free is explored briefly, leading to the identification of a level of analysis where values may influence theory choice without causing paradox or threatening the impartiality of soundly-made scientific judgments.

  2. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  3. Kinanthropometry - Components of body constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present the conceptual and historical background to Kinanthropometry and to characterize this area of research. The components of body constitution relating to dimensions, proportions, shape and body composition that should be considered in Physical Education and Sports programs are also described. ARESUMO Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os aspectos conceituais referentes à Cineantropometria, assim como os aspectos históricos e caracterização desta área de estudos. São também descritos os componentes de constituição corporal referentes à dimensões, proporções, forma e composição corporal que devem ser considerados em programas de Educação Física e Esporte.

  4. NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the originally-submitted observation measurement data, terrestrial biosphere model output data, and inverse model simulations that various...

  5. NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the originally-submitted observation measurement data, terrestrial biosphere model output data, and inverse model simulations that...

  6. The terrestrial record of Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the known impact record of the early Solar System lay exclusively on the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and other bodies where it has not been erased by later weathering, erosion, impact gardening, and/or tectonism. Study of the cratered surfaces of these bodies led to the concept of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), an interval from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which the surfaces of the planets and moons in the inner Solar System were subject to unusually high rates of bombardment followed by a decline to present low impact rates by about 3.5 Ga. Over the past 30 years, however, it has become apparent that there is a terrestrial record of large impacts from at least 3.47 to 3.22 Ga and from 2.63 to 2.49 Ga. The present paper explores the earlier of these impact records, providing details about the nature of the 8 known ejecta layers that constitute the evidence for large terrestrial impacts during the earlier of these intervals, the inferred size of the impactors, and the potential effects of these impacts on crustal development and life. The existence of this record implies that LHB did not end abruptly at 3.8-3.7 Ga but rather that high impact rates, either continuous or as impact clusters, persisted until at least the close of the Archean at 2.5 Ga. It implies that the shift from external, impact-related controls on the long-term development of the surface system on the Earth to more internal, geodynamic controls may have occurred much later in geologic history than has been supposed previously.

  7. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  8. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  9. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  11. The foundational tenets of Johannes Althusius' constitutionalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... sovereignty, in contrast to undivided (statist) sovereignty and his views on public office provided the framework for constitutionalism and limited government which could arguably improve on that of contemporary statist constitutionalism.

  12. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  13. The constitutional court review of judicial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, the constitutional precepts envisage that judicial decisions are not subject to extrajudicial control. However, in the course of deciding on constitutional complaints, the Constitutional Court reviews the compliance of individual legal acts and actions of state authorities with the Constitution, including court decisions on cases involving the constitutionally guaranteed rights. Hence, in order to eliminate tension or even contradiction between the constitutional precepts, the constitutional review of judicial decisions should be considered as a special form of judicial control, regardless of the fact that the Constitutional Court is not part of the judicial structure in the strict organizational sense. Thus, unlike the cases where the Court is involved in the normative control of the applicable law, in the process of reviewing judicial decision of lower courts the constitutional judiciary acts in the capacity of a specific judicial authority. According to another possible interpretation of the aforementioned constitutional norms, the direct constitutional protection of the constitutionally guaranteed rights may only be pursued in the process of reviewing individual legal acts and actions of state authorities, but not by pursuing a judicial review of court decisions which the Constitutional Court has no jurisdiction to decide upon. Thus, the dogma of judicial independence would prevail over the dogma of direct protection of fundamental rights. The third interpretation of this relationship maintains that that judicial decisions may be subject to control but, in this specific case, the Constitutional Court may only issue an opinion (a statement rather than a binding decision which would cancel the lower court judgment. Then, it is up to the judicial authorities of the lower instance to adjust their judicial decision, which in the opinion of the Constitutional Court constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed rights

  14. Unanimous Constitutional Consent and the Immigration Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Josten, Stefan D.; Zimmermann, Klaus W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper utilizes the cross-cutting cleavages approach to evaluate the probability of a unanimous constitutional consent and, based on these results, discusses the implications of immigration on an existing constitutional consent. It is shown that previous conclusions of beneficial effects stemming from a multitude of political dimensions for a unanimous constitutional consent crucially depend on the assumption of an extreme mode of intrapersonal compensation of constitutional majority and ...

  15. Constitutional Referendums:A Theoretical Enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the use of referendums to settle major constitutional questions has increased dramatically. Addressing this phenomenon as a case study in the relationship between democracy and constitutional sovereignty, this article has two aims.The first is to argue that these constitutional referendums are categorically different from ordinary, legislative referendums, and that this has important implications for theories of constitutional sovereignty. Secondly, the article suggests that...

  16. Analysis on constitution of American college republicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on internet survey and comparative analysis, according to the firsthand materials, comprehensively and systematically probes the formation of the constitution form and structure, and analyzes its contents of Constitution of American College Republicans among 15 colleges respectively, which includes the illustration of constitution, membership, personnel, meeting, financial amendment, etc. Finally, this essay analyzes the characteristics of constitution of college republicans and its advantages.

  17. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  18. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  19. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  20. Constitutive model for porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments

  1. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  2. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora. PMID:21949669

  3. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  4. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  5. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  6. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  7. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  8. What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Determining inclusion/exclusion criteria for cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance is challenging. The aims of this paper were to (1) define inclusion/exclusion criteria that have been adopted uniformly by surveillance programmes and identify where consensus is still elusive, and (2) provide...... (SCPE; 1976-1998). An expert panel used a consensus building technique, which utilized the SCPE 'decision tree' and the original 'What constitutes cerebral palsy?' paper as frameworks. RESULTS: CP surveillance programmes agree on key clinical criteria pertaining to the type, severity, and origin...

  9. Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Vladimír

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation procedures belong to the main tasks of surveyor working in a field of geodesy, for example in satellite geodesy or astronomical geodesy. It is necessary to know transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial (Earth coordinate systems. Increasingly a dynamic advance growth of application of satellite navigation systems, for example GPS (Global Positioning System into engineering surveying, real estate register and others spheres of applied geodesy and geo-surveying (mine surveying exacts knowledge of these transformation procedures between coordinates in various coordinate systems. These tasks are common for daily work for various practical surveyors too, not only for theoretical scientific working surveyors.Conventional Terrestrial System is 3D coordinate system what is the most important coordinate system in global geodesy. Conventional Terrestrial System is an approximation of the nature coordinate system of the Earth. The origin of this coordinate system is placed in the earth substantial centre of gravity and in the centre of geoid. Conventional Terrestrial System is the Cartesian right-handed coordinate system, i.e. positive one. The Local Astronomical System is 3D coordinate system too and it belongs to an important coordinate system in geodesy from its practical point of view. Many geodetic measurements are realized in this coordinate system. Designation of this coordinate system as astronomical system expresses its sticking to a normal line to an equipotential plane, i.e. to a vertical. Local Astronomical system is the left-handed cartesian coordinate system.Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems with theory of these systems are presented in the paper. Transformation in the local astronomical coordinate system presents common transformation in a frame of an adjustment of various local geodetic networks. In a case of satellite measurements (GPS, satellite altimetry, etc. transformation between local and

  10. The comparative constitutional law on national constitutional system: with regard to the IX World Congress of Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Landa Arroyo, César

    2015-01-01

    From  the  process  of  globalization  of  law,  the  comparative constitutional law has gained a leading role for a better understanding and solving old and new constitutional national and international challenges. Therefore, some assumptions and considerations to take into account are presented for the development of the national constitutional order within the framework of the comparative constitutional law, such as universality and relativism of human rights; the concept of power and cons...

  11. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  12. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  13. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  14. International solar-terrestrial physics program: a plan for the core spaceflight missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  15. Childrens' Rights in the South African Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Children were in many respects defenceless victims of discriminatory practices in ‘apartheid South Africa’. In fact, discrimination on the basis of gender, race and other inequalities were inscribed in the social fabric of the previous constitutional dispensation. The constitutional dispensation that came into effect on the 27th April 1994 was therefore designed to innovate social, political and legal structures that would be radically different from those of the country’s past history.In this contribution the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children are considered. In order to fathom the impact. a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children is provided. Thereafter the rights of children expressly mentioned in the Constitution will be addressed. Attention is also paid to the equal protection and non-discrimination provisions of the Constitution, albeit only indirectly.

  16. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...

  17. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L) in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position), the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competi...

  18. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  19. Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlie, Ahmad Tholabi

    2013-01-01

    Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments. Indonesian constitutional amendments incorporated human rights principles into the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI), especially in the second amendment in 2000. Under that amendment, the UUD NRI currently stipulates human rights principles as provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). However, there are some important notes, which at its core is a lack of emphasis on the vision and mission of ...

  20. Constitutionalism and Democracy in Contemporary International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Padjen, Ivan

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the insight that jurisprudence of legal theory should be concerned primarily with,on the one hand, international law, and, on the other, constitutional developments, the paper; analyzes some prominent conceptions of constitutionalism and democracy in international community and municipal legal orders; formulates a new set of criteria for the analysis of constitutionalism and democracy in international law; and argues that Laswell and McDougal's policy oriented jurisprudence offe...

  1. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  2. The British parliament: An effort towards the constitutional reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The British Parliament is the eldest representative assembly which inspired the development of most European parliamentary systems. This institution provides a framework for the Westminster model of democracy. The Parliament structure is based on bicameralism, including two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The two-chamber structure is an integral part of the British parliamentary system. During the last century, many reforms took place regarding the modernization of Parliament. Thus, the number of members of the House of Lord has been reduced in order to ensure more efficiency in the working procedures. However, the House of Commons is still 'the dominant House' given its capacity to recruit a political majority which is eligible to control the Cabinet. During the 20th century, several waves of reforms engulfed the traditional English parliamentarism and its 'unwritten' constitution. Although the reforms have yielded some results, they have not yet produced a constitution in the formal sense. The partially reformed Parliament has not lost the traditional supremacy it was initially vested under the original postulates of the parliamentary sovereignty doctrine. The great constitutional reform in the UK, initiated in 1997, has encompassed not only Parliament but also a vast array of other areas ranging from the state power organization to human rights. In this process, the British Parliament should exercise a dual function: as a subject of reform ('reformer', as well as an object of reform ('the reformed'. Undoubtedly, the United Kingdom has been facing one of the largest waves of constitutional reforms in its long history, which will sooner or later lead to a constitutional codification in the state whose system is still predominantly based on the historical and 'unwritten' constitution.

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  5. Limno-terrestrial Tardigrada of the Nearctic Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G. HINTON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined all available records of limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in the Nearctic realm (Greenland, Canada, Alaska, the continental United States of America, and northern Mexico, both to compare this fauna with other realms and to investigate distribution within North America. We included only those records in which tardigrades had been identified to species. Of 204 Nearctic limno-terrestrial tardigrade species, 38 were cosmopolitan, while 55 were unique to the Nearctic realm. The Nearctic tardigrade fauna is most similar to the Palearctic, with 135 species in common, 39 of which have not been reported elsewhere. The Nearctic realm shares 82 species with the Neotropical realm, only 10 which are not also Palearctic. These data are consistent with the geological history of the three realms, and indicate a distinction between Laurasian and Gondwanan tardigrade faunas. Although little is known about limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in much of North America, there are several excellent regional or local surveys. Many species are distributed widely throughout the continent, but 30.0% of Nearctic species have been reported from a single site. Cluster analysis of the fauna of 11 Nearctic regions shows that the Arctic and sub-Arctic fauna constitute a regional fauna distinct from the rest of the continent. Ecological analysis is hampered by inconsistent reporting of tardigrade substrate, though available data suggest little substrate specificity in terrestrial tardigrades. Most species are found in both mosses and lichens. Many are also present in soil and leaf litter, but few are found only in these substrates.

  6. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  7. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  8. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point t...

  9. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...

  10. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.

    1996-01-01

    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  11. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  12. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  13. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe

  14. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  15. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  16. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  17. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  18. Constitutional Politics, Constitutional Texts and Democratic Variety in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Blokker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, it is argued that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe involves important forms of differentiation of democracy, rather than merely convergence to a singular – liberal-democratic, constitutional - model. One way of taking up democratic differentiation in post-communist societies is by analysing the constitutional documents of the new democratic orders, and the constitutional politics leading to the foundational documents. In a first step, the paper analyses constitution...

  19. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  20. On the Constitution and the Constitutions in Contemporary Egypt (2011-2014: Analysis and Early Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Castañeda Reyes

    2016-01-01

    world witnessed, a testament to what massive popular participation can attain. We believe the Constitution has true potential to guide the forces of change in the country. Therefore, the struggle for “bread, freedom, social justice and human dignity” will continue and is actually continuing in the Nile country via constitutional and non-constitutional means.

  1. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  2. Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1983-03-01

    The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained

  3. Constitutive relations for nuclear reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaverl, F. Jr.; Lee, D.

    1978-01-01

    A strain rate dependent constitutive equation is proposed which is capable of describing inelastic deformation behavior of anisotropic metals, such as Zircaloys, under complex loading conditions. The salient features of the constitutive equations are that they describe history dependent inelastic deformation behaviour of anisotropic metals under three-dimensional stress states in the presence of fast neutron flux. It is shown that the general form of the constitutive relations is consistent with experimental observations made under both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The utility of the model is demonstrated by examining the analytical results obtained for a segment of tubing undergoing different loading histories in a reactor. (Auth.)

  4. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papier, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In principle the decision between direct storage and reprocessing comes into the scope of regulation by the first or second power, resp., reserved for them according to the constitutional principle of necessity. The author thinks that a possibly increased hazard potential might result in increased protection requirements or protection measures as envisaged by the licensing preconditions of the Atomic Energy Law and those of other normative protection regulations. This is no issue of constitutional jurisdiction but of political intent and technical-economic capabilities whether or not certain technologies are precluded a prior or permitted and implemented at a safety level satisfying the specific constitutional protection requirements. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  6. Interpretative decisions in the practice of the Constitutional Court of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the Constitutional Court and Parliament is marked by envolving process. The desired balance between these two state bodies was gradually disturbed by the Constitutional Court. Consequently, the substrate of the constitutional function originally designed as a function of 'negative legislator' is also changed in that process. Interpretative decision is one of the model of the activity of the Constitutional Court which makes questionable the position of the Parliament as a state body which regulates social relations in original form. Interpretative decision is an specific form of rejected decisions that contains binding instruction regading the interpretation of the norm, as a condition. This interpretation is given by Constitutional Court in order to make the norm in accordance with the Constitution. By the analysis of the practice of the Constitutional Court of Serbia, the paper has a task to determine wheter, to what extend and in what form the interpretative decisions occur in the work of the Court as well as to determine is there a clear constitutional base for establishing the jurisdiction of their adoption in our legal system.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  12. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  14. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  16. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  19. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  20. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  2. Some Studies of Terrestrial Impact Cratering Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetsu L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, a 28.4 Myr periodicity was detected in the ages of terrestrial impact craters and a 26 Myr periodicity in the epochs of mass extinctions of species. Periodic comet showers from the Oort cloud seemed to cause catastrophic events linked to mass extinctions of species. Our first study revealed that the only significant detected periodicity is the “human signal” caused by the rounding of these data into integer numbers. The second study confirmed that the original 28.4 Myr periodicity detection was not significant. The third study revealed that the quality and the quantity of the currently available data would allow detection of real periodicity only if all impacts have been periodic, which cannot be the case. The detection of a periodic signal, if present, requires that more craters should be discovered and the accuracy of age estimates improved. If we sometimes will be able to find the difference between the craters caused by asteroid and comet impacts, the aperiodic component could be removed. The lunar impact craters may eventually provide the required supplementary data.

  3. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715

  4. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  5. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  6. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers: The Medical ... and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is ... the rights guaranteed to the professionals when they appear before the Tribunal.

  7. Constitutive properties of salt from four sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Senseny, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    Results are presented from laboratory strength and creep tests performed on salt specimens from the Richton dome in Mississippi, the Vacherie dome in Louisiana, the Permian basin in Texas, and the Paradox basin in Utah. The constitutive properties obtained are the elastic moduli and the failure envelope at 24 0 C and parameter values for the baseline creep law. Some additional data are presented to indicate how the elastic moduli and strength change with temperature. The constitutive properties given in this report and subsequent numerical simulations will serve as input to the screening of site locations for a nuclear-waste repository. The matrix of tests performed is the minimum effort required to obtain these constitutive properties. Comparison of results with those obtained for sites that have been characterized in greater detail suggests that the constitutive parameter values obtained are adequate for site-screening activity

  8. Democracy, Citizen Sovereignty and Constitutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in conceptual clarification. Its purpose is to explore the contribution that constitutional economics can make to the theory of democracy. Constitutional economics as the economics of rules is concerned with the study of how the choice of rules in the social, economic and political realm affects the nature of the processes of human interaction that evolve within these rules. The theory of democracy is concerned with institutionalorganizational problems of self-govern...

  9. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  10. A constitutional economics perspective on soft paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    Schnellenbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework that distinguishes short-term consumer preferences, individual reflective preferences and political preferences, we discuss from a constitutional economics perspective whether individuals find it in their common constitutional interest to endow representatives and bureaucrats with the competence to impose soft paternalist policies. The focus is specifically on soft paternalist policies, because these often work with non-transparent 'nudges' that are considered as manipulativ...

  11. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  12. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  13. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  14. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  15. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  16. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  17. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  18. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  19. How do the Constitutional Courts decide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Pasquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mode of production of judicial sentences drafted by constitutional courts in Europe. The natural object of study of the constitutional theory is the analysis of this final product of judicial creation of Law by Constitutional Courts. However, the doctrine has not given sufficient attention –from a comparative law perspective– to the mechanisms and procedures that lead to the decisions of these institutions. Thus, this document will classify the different types of decision-making processes in the courts, analyzing the stages that make up the «mode of production», from the study of the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Constitutional Council of the French Republic, The Constitutional Court of Italy and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. At the end of the paper, some conclusions are made about the period of the magistrates, their party affiliation, the temporary restrictions of deliberation and institutional factors such as the number of attendees or the personalization of its members.

  20. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  1. Separation of powers and constitutional loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and dynamics of political life leads to developments and reconsiderations in terms of classical theories of constitutional law. Such a process occurs also in the case of separation of powers. Many factors have a bearing on how this theory is currently translated into practice, which requires additional perspectives of analysis in order to develop improved models of cooperation and balance of powers, according to new political realities. This study aims at examining the principle of separation and balance of powers in terms of mutual respect and loyal cooperation between institutions, or, in a broader sense, of constitutional loyalty, an intrinsic value-principle of all constitutions, without which no fundamental law, no matter of how democratic it might be, could function properly2. Based on examination of concrete cases drawn from the case-law of the Constitutional Court of Romania, the study demonstrates that, in lack of constitutional loyalty, the objective pursued by enshrining the principle of separation of powers cannot be achieved effectively, i.e. compliance of public authorities and political actors with constitutional provisions is purely formal and the alleged collaboration between them is a "dialogue of the deaf" at the expense of democracy. The seriousness of the consequences of this type of behaviour requires identification of remedies. What are the limits and what solutions can be identified in this regard are questions that also we aim to answer.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  3. Constitutive and Stability Behavior of Soils in Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein; Costes, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    All aspects of soil stability, bearing capacity, slope stability, the supporting capacity of deep foundations, and penetration resistance depend on soil strength. The stress-deformation and stress-deformation-time behavior of soils are of importance in any problem where ground movements are of interest. In most engineering materials, the strength is derived from internal chemical and physico-chemical forces of interaction, which bond the atoms, molecules, and particles together. In soils, the constitutive relations are mainly derived from interparticle friction between particles and particle groups and dilatancy, and to a lesser extent from particle bonding by weak electrostatic, physico-chemical, and coulomb forces. For engineering purposes, soils are classified as cohesive (clays and silts; typical particle sizes range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers) and cohesionless (sand and gravel; typical particle sizes range from 10 micrometers to 75 mm). The mechanical or constitutive properties of cohesionless soils or granular materials are highly fabric-dependent, highly non-linear, and non-conservative with engineering properties primarily depending on the effects of gravity through self-weight and on the tractions or forces applied to the soil mass. Under moderate-to-high stress levels, the influence of gravity on the behavior of laboratory test specimens may not be pronounced and, therefore, the test results in terrestrial (1-g) environment may be sufficiently conclusive. However at low interparticle stresses, which can result either from low applied (confining) stresses or from excess pore fluid pressures developed within the soil mass without corresponding changes in the applied stresses, the presence of gravitational body forces acting on solid particles and interstitial fluids exerts a pronounced influence on movement of individual particles or particle groups. Such motions, in turn, cause changes in soil fabric which results in significant changes in the

  4. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  5. Identification and protection of terrestrial global biodiversity hotspots: progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    Arijit Roy Forestry and Ecology Department, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun, India Abstract: Due to ever-increasing demand on the natural resources, earth is on the verge of a global mass extinction. The biodiversity hotspots are the remnant natural areas of high terrestrial biodiversity which are rapidly degrading and constitute more than half of the global endemic species in approximately 2% of the global land area which requires conservation and protection along with effort t...

  6. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetesi, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  7. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetesi, Zsolt, E-mail: zs.hetesi@astro.elte.h [Eoetvoes University, Department of Astronomy, Budapest, H-1518, PO Box 32 (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  8. Biodiversity of Terrestrial Vegetation during Past Warm Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Ridgwell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Previous modelling studies of vegetation have generally used a small number of plant functional types to understand how the terrestrial biosphere responds to climate changes. Whilst being useful for understanding first order climate feedbacks, this climate-envelope approach makes a lot of assumptions about past vegetation being very similar to modern. A trait-based method has the advantage for paleo modelling in that there are substantially less assumptions made. In a novel use of the trait-based dynamic vegetation model JeDi, forced with output from climate model HadCM3, we explore past biodiversity and vegetation carbon changes. We use JeDi to model an optimal 2000 combinations of fifteen different traits to enable assessment of the overall level of biodiversity as well as individual growth strategies. We assess the vegetation shifts and biodiversity changes in past greenhouse periods to better understand the impact on the terrestrial biosphere. This work provides original insights into the response of vegetation and terrestrial carbon to climate and hydrological changes in high carbon dioxide climates over time, including during the Late Permian and Cretaceous. We evaluate how the location of biodiversity hotspots and species richness in past greenhouse climates is different to the present day.

  9. The solar generation childhood and adolescence of terrestrial photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip R

    2018-01-01

    The first book to address the early development of the photovoltaic industry, and the pioneering researchers and companies in the sector. Well before the end of this century, solar power will be the world's dominant power source. This book looks at the origins of this smart sustainable energy technology, tracing the pioneering years from its inception following the 1973 oil crisis to the end of the last millennium—just as the sector was poised for explosive growth. It focuses on the progress of the early terrestrial photovoltaic sector, often in the face of skepticism or apathy. It also covers the research and achievements of people and organizations within the PV business. Written by a leader in the field with more than 40 years of experience and an international reputation in the sustainable energy industry, The Solar Generation: Childhood and Adolescence of Terrestrial Photovoltaics offers enlightening coverage on the terrestrial PV industry. The first part of this 3-volume set provides a historical bac...

  10. HOVE-Wedge-Filtering of Geomorphologic Terrestrial Laser Scan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Panholzer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning has become an important surveying technique in many fields such as natural hazard assessment. To analyse earth surface processes, it is useful to generate a digital terrain model originated from laser scan point cloud data. To determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. In mountainous terrain with a small-structured topography, filtering is very difficult. Here, automatic filtering solutions usually designed for airborne laser scan data often lead to unsatisfactory results. In this work, we further develop an existing approach for automated filtering of terrestrial laser scan data, which is based on the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above a direct line of sight between scanner and another measured point. By taking into account several environmental variables and a repetitive calculation method, the modified method leads to significantly better results. The root-mean-square-error (RSME for the same test measurement area could be reduced from 5.284 to 1.610. In addition, a new approach for filtering and interpolation of terrestrial laser scanning data is presented using a grid with horizontal and vertical angular data and the measurement length.

  11. COUNTERMAJORITARIAN INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1993 AS AN INSTRUMENT ENSURING CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shakhray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article enriches the discussion on the legal reasons and conditions fostering the viability of democratic constitutions by analyzing the rich experience of the Russian Constitution of 1993. Particular attention is paid to the concept of countermajoritarian institutions. The authors elaborate the idea that countermajoritarian institutions can play an important role in ensuring the viability (put in other terms, the proper balance between stability, adaptability, and dynamic development of modern democratic constitutions as well as political regimes.The article presents evidence-based data showing that the President and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation systematically acted as countermajoritarian institutions at the initial stage of the implementation of the “blueprint for the future” set down in the 1993 Russian Constitution. As a result of the activities of these institutions, strong legal frameworks were created that are necessary for the establishment of anew constitutional system of the Russian state and law.Today, the Russian Constitution of 1993 is one of the longest lasting democratic constitutions in the world (the average “life expectancy” of democratic constitutions adopted over the past 250 years is about seventeen years. The study of the countermajoritarian provisions in the 1993 Russian Constitution is of both theoretical and practical importance. In particular, the results of the study can be useful in creating efficient legal instruments for the maintenance of political stability and social development management both within sovereign states and within interstate communities.

  12. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    vast majority of granitic materials recognised so far in the extra-terrestrial record are characterised by ferroan A-type compositions, characterised by high to very high K2O and medium CaO contents, sodic varieties being exceedingly rare. Textural evidence of graphic quartz-alkali feldspar intergrowths within crystallised products suggests that they are igneous in origin and crystallised quickly from a liquid. In water-depleted to water-free environments, fluorine and chlorine can play significant roles, as their effects on liquidus temperatures and crystallising assemblages are nearly identical to those of water. The distribution of alkalis and alkaline earths cannot be related only to extensive crystal fractionation, but is likely induced by supplementary silicate liquid immiscibility. Medium-temperature silicate liquid immiscibility is well known as a mode of differentiation in experimental petrology studies at very low pressures on systems dominated by Fe, Ti, K, and P as major elements. The ultimate question is, therefore, not whether granite (s.l.) occurs in any given planetary body, but if sufficient volumes of granitic materials could have been produced to constitute stable continental nuclei.

  13. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  14. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladin, P.

    1984-01-01

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  17. Contaminants in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment. National assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riget, F.; Aastrup, P.; Dietz, R.

    1997-01-01

    The present report reviews the available information on heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and radioactivity in the Greenland freshwater and terrestrial environments. Levels in lake sediments, soil, humus and organisms are presented, spatial and temporal trends are discussed and where possible also biological effects. Many of the contaminants that occur in the Greenland environment originate from distant sources outside of the region, and are transported to the Arctic via three major pathways - atmospheric, terrestrial/freshwater and marine. The main sources of pollution in Greenland is considered to be the industrialization of Eurasia. Pollutants are mainly. The organochlorine levels in Greenland char are typically in the low range compared to values reported from Canada. The Greenland sediment samples showed all organochlorine values below the detection limits of 0.1 μg/kg dry weight, thus being among the lowest contaminated sediments within the Arctic. The total content of PAH in the Greenland sediment samples ranged between 78-635 μ3 g/kg dry wight, with a geometric mean of 178 μg/kg, comparable to or lower than reported values from other arctic countries. The lowest concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment are found in the northern parts of Greenland and the highest in the south western parts. The main source of anthropogenic radioactivity is nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere and the fallout from this activity is closely related to the amounts of precipitation. The predominant foodchain in the Arctic with regard to transport of radiocaesium to man is: Lichen-reindeer-man. Although the doses from the terrestrial foodchain are 20 times higher than those received from the marine foodchain, they are not considered to be of any relevance for the human health in Greenland. 4 appendices contain experimental results. (EG)

  18. Phrenology, heredity and progress in George Combe's Constitution of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-09-01

    The Constitution of Man by George Combe (1828) was probably the most influential phrenological work of the nineteenth century. It not only offered an exposition of the phrenological theory of the mind, but also presented Combe's vision of universal human progress through the inheritance of acquired mental attributes. In the decades before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, the Constitution was probably the single most important vehicle for the dissemination of naturalistic progressivism in the English-speaking world. Although there is a significant literature on the social and cultural context of phrenology, the role of heredity in Combe's thought has been less thoroughly explored, although both John van Wyhe and Victor L. Hilts have linked Combe's views on heredity with the transformist theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. In this paper I examine the origin, nature and significance of his ideas and argue that Combe's hereditarianism was not directly related to Lamarckian transformism but formed part of a wider discourse on heredity in the early nineteenth century.

  19. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  20. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is submitted that the further harmonisation of European contract law may contribute to the definition of the European constitutional order both on the institutional level (regarding the forms in which Eur...

  1. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  2. Beyond the principle of plentitude: a review of terrestrial planet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E; Deschenes, B; Dundon, L; Fagan, K; Menviel-Hessler, L; Moskovitz, N; Workman, M

    2005-04-01

    We review recent work that directly or indirectly addresses the habitability of terrestrial (rocky) planets like the Earth. Habitability has been traditionally defined in terms of an orbital semimajor axis within a range known as the habitable zone, but it is also well known that the habitability of Earth is due to many other astrophysical, geological, and geochemical factors. We focus this review on (1) recent refinements to habitable zone calculations; (2) the formation and orbital stability of terrestrial planets; (3) the tempo and mode of geologic activity (e.g., plate tectonics) on terrestrial planets; (4) the delivery of water to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; and (5) the acquisition and loss of terrestrial planet carbon and nitrogen, elements that constitute important atmospheric gases responsible for habitable conditions on Earth's surface as well as being the building blocks of the biosphere itself. Finally, we consider recent work on evidence for the earliest habitable environments and the appearance of life itself on our planet. Such evidence provides us with an important, if nominal, calibration point for our search for other habitable worlds.

  3. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  4. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  5. Constitutive equations for Zr1Nb. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Based on existing knowledge and constitutive equations for non-irradiated material, constitutive equations were written for Zr1Nb irradiated at 573 K at deformation in the direction of forming. Constitutive equations express the following material characteristics: dependence of shear strength on fast neutron fluence, superposition of deformation hardening and subsequent radiation hardening, the effect of stress on deformation rate, and for fluences above ca. 10 24 n.m -2 (E>1 MeV) the course of the deformation curve for various fluence levels. The values apply for temperatures and rates of deformation which are characteristic of transient processes during changes in the power output of fuel elements of pressurized water reactors. (J.B.)

  6. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  7. [Etiologic spectrum of solitary constitutional syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Matorras Galán, P; Riancho Moral, J A; González-Macías, J

    2002-07-01

    To know the spectrum of diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome in our setting. This syndrome was defined as a clinical picture characterized by the presence of asthenia, anorexia, and weight loss of at least 5% of body weight in the last six months, not associated with any other symptom or sign suggesting the diagnosis of an organ or system disease. All patients diagnosed of the solitary constitutional syndrome (328) in a tertiary-care level teaching hospital between January 1991 and December 1996. Fifty-two (170) percent of patients with solitary constitutional syndrome were males and 48% (158) females. The mean age was 65.4%, ranging from 15 to 97 years. The average of the monthly estimated weight loss was 3 to 4 kilograms. A total of 115 (35%) malignant neoplasms and 5 (1.5%) benign tumors were diagnosed. The most common malignant tumors corresponded to the digestive tract (51.3% of the total malignant tumors). The second cause in frequency of the solitary constitutional syndrome corresponded to psychiatric diseases, with a total of 80 patients (24.3%). A total of 116 non-neoplastic organic diseases were detected, with digestive tract diseases --mainly peptic disease-- being the most common cause in this group. After follow-up, only in twenty cases were we unable to detect the underlying disease responsible for the syndrome. In nine of these, the solitary constitutional syndrome was self-limited. Forty-four percent of patients had at least another concomitant disease and in 24% of patients more than one associated condition was found. The most common diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome were, by decreasing frequency, malignant tumors, psychiatric disorders, and non-malignant organic diseases located in the digestive tract. A better knowledge of the etiological spectrum of this syndrome might be useful for a more efficient management of these patients.

  8. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  9. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Living or Dead? Specifics of the Language of the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The original text of the Constitution of the United States of America, written over 200 years ago, constitutes the supreme source of law in the American legal system. The seven articles and twenty seven amendments dictate understanding of fundamental principles of the federation’s functioning and its citizens’ rights.

  11. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  12. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  13. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  14. The U.S. Constitution in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    A comparative study of constitutions and governments in world history is a key to deeper understanding of the U.S. Constitution. While many countries have constitutions, the United States is among a minority of nations in today's world that has a constitutional government. Many nations' constitutions truly guarantee few protections of individual…

  15. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  16. The parameters of constitutional conflict after Melloni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Melloni makes clear that primacy of EU law is not about citizens’ rights: even the core of their constitutional rights under national law has to be set aside in favour of the "primacy, unity and effectiveness" of EU law. Melloni extends the duty to

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  18. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  19. Constitutive modelling of sandvik 1RK91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Hommes, M.; Post, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Beyer, J.; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2003-01-01

    A physically based constitutive equation is being developed for the maraging stainless steel Sandvik 1RK91. The steel is used to make precision parts. These parts are formed through multistage forming operations and heat treatments from cold rolled and annealed sheets. The specific alloy is designed

  20. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  1. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  2. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  3. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  4. The Air Force Officer and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    2. Enumerated Powers 3. Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances C. Ways to amend the U.S. Constitution D. The elements of the U.S...the courts ▪ judicial 14. What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful? ▪ checks and balances ▪ separation of powers 15. Who

  5. Sub-national constitutions in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    practice.9 Consequently, the reference to the practice is merely tangential and is intended for ... ico, and Malaysia, from among others. See James A. .... ereignty and the principle of self-rule that constitutes an aspect of federal ..... ernment, to levy and collect state taxes on their own revenue sources, to es- tablish and ...

  6. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  7. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  8. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Tort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey J.

    1988-01-01

    Given state law barriers to recovery for the negligence of public officials, redress is often sought in federal courts. Discusses the concept of "constitutional tort" and analyzes the various components and the elements that must be satisfied before recovery is allowed. (MLF)

  9. Government and Ethics: The Constitutional Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossum, Ralph A.

    1984-01-01

    Government and ethics teachers should educate students in the "wholesale sanity" of American democracy. In particular they should (1) identify and defend the principles of the American constitutional order, (2) criticize government actions departing from these principles, and (3) seek means by which to correct for these departures. (RM)

  10. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    existence of a constitution in an autocratic regime, such regime can never be a .... in a democratic system posits that 'the ethical responsibility of leadership and ..... civil rule, it is believed that we shall soon get to that stage of western style of.

  11. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  12. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  13. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  14. Constitutional values, therapeutic jurisprudence and legal education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... they have the power to transform thoughts, policies and lives, and that practising law is ... The values and philosophies that law lecturers instil in law students can ... The question remains: How do we transform legal education in South Africa? ... to our constitutional vales and an ability to engage critically with these values.

  15. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  16. Constitutional Due Process and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses substantive and procedural due process as required by the United States Constitution and interpreted by the Supreme Court, with particular reference to situations arising in educational environments. Covers interests protected by due process requirements, the procedures required, and some special considerations that may apply. (PGD)

  17. Constitutive equations for two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1974-12-01

    The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr

  18. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...... market, policy field, technical standards, transnationalization, new approach harmonization, private product policy...

  19. Book Review: Against the New Constitutionalism | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Abstract. Book Title: Against the New Constitutionalism. Book Author: Tamas Gyorfi. Edward Elgar Publishing Cheltenham, UK 2016. ISBN 9781783473007 ...

  20. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest ...

  1. Constitutive Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlat, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behaviour common in sheet metals. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive models of plasticity suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad manner. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are described in a somewhat more detailed manner

  2. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Professor, School of Business Leadership,. University of South ... towards its employees, especially in the light of the constitutionally protected right to dignity. The protection of fundamental freedoms such as gender equality, the right to dignity and the .... dismissal is provided for in terms of section 186(1)(e) of the LRA. 17.

  3. The negotiation of The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution of Romania of 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona-Arina Raef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author is trying to find if there was a negotiation between main parties regarding The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution Of Romania of 1991 or if there was a project imposed by one party to the others.

  4. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... strength of our common ideals. In a document that has endured for more than two and a quarter centuries, the Framers put forth their vision for a more perfect Union. Our Constitution was signed on September... citizenship, recognize the enduring strength of our Constitution, and reaffirm our commitment to the rights...

  5. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is

  6. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  7. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  8. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  9. The Possibility of Vice-Presidents’ Authority Arrangement in the 1945 Constitution through Constitutional Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar L. Suroso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the vice-presidents’ authority reappeared in the administration of President Jokowi after the “authority expansion of the Chief of Presidency Staff” and the case of “Rizal Ramli vs Jusuf Kalla”. This article is intended to provide arguments for the idea of some parties to organize more explicit and detailed the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution. The idea arises from the absence of further arrangement on the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution. This article is systematized into 3 (three sub-theme; 1 the arrangement of the vice-presidents’ authority in the constitution for several countries; 2 The authority of the vice-president according to the 1945 Constitution, and 3 New resultant and the possibility of 1945 Constitution amendment. The result revealed a number of interesting things; 1 the constitutions of other countries do not specify the authority of the vice-president and put the vice-president as a “spare tire” when the president is absent; 2 no new resultant about the position and authority of the vice-president so that theoretically is not reason enough to regulate in detail the authority of the vice-president through the 1945 Constitution amendment; 3 arrangement in detail in the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution holds the potential to confuse the presidential system design as the 1945 Constitution. Therefore, the possibility of vice-presidents’ authority arrangement in the 1945 Constitution through amendment is very small, both in terms of momentum and the substance of issues.

  10. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Philip; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimi...

  11. Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Berry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO 2 . The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO 2 can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO 2 uptake and respiratory CO 2 release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change

  12. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  13. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  14. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  15. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  16. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  17. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  18. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  19. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Hongjun [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  20. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  2. Legitimacy of Constitutional Justice: Democracy, Constitutional Court and Theory Against Majority Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaminne Nathalia Cabral Moraes e Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as its theme the analysis of the separation of powers and the rule of democracy, in addition to the possibility of the Constitutional Court be composed of people appointed by the President of the Republic, not fulfilling the democratic rule, and make the control of constitutionality of laws, created through democratic process. Will be answered: the separation of powers obey the democratic rule? When the Legislature fails to fulfill its function of legislating, opens the opportunity for the Supreme Court, as the Constitutional Court that is, create, through judicial activism, silent rules? That injured the democratic rule?

  3. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  4. Federalism and constitutional change in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okpanachi, Eyene; Garba, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with established democracies Nigeria is a highly populated and ethnic fragmented state. Therefore after colonial rule and independence a federal constitutional structure was supposed to bring the processes for conflict resolution between the ethnic groups. In 1960 Nigeria started as a highly decentralised state and went through important changes until 1999 towards greater centralisation which found its culmination in regular military governments and open conflicts. Until 1999 ea...

  5. Towards Viscoplastic Constitutive Models for Cosserat Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Dörlich Vanessa; Linn Joachim; Scheffer Tobias; Diebels Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, slender structures like cables, hoses or wires can be described by the geometrically exact Cosserat rod theory. Due to their complex multilayer structure, consisting of various materials, viscoplastic behavior has to be expected for cables under load. Classical experiments like uniaxial tension, torsion or three-point bending already show that the behavior of e.g. electric cables is viscoplastic. A suitable constitutive law for the observed load case is crucial for a realistic simul...

  6. Military Guilty Plea Inquiry: Some Constitutional Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    have given some constitutional definition to the requirement that a plea be voluntarily made. A threat by FBI agents to publish untrue statements about...Townsend v. Burke, the Supreme Court held that, where an accused was held incommunicado for forty hours by government 53 agents , his guilty plea...understands the sentence limitations imposed by the agreement; (4) strike down conditions in the pretrial agree- ment which are violative of the law, public

  7. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  10. Constitutive modelling in the range of inelastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, O.T.; White, P.S.; Chaboche, J.L.; Eikhoff, J.V.D.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the state of the art in constitutive modelling in the range of inelastic deformations, with particular consideration of the practical use of these models in the field of fast reactors, rather than to formulate new models. An outline is given of the constitutive equations for high-temperature reactor materials developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two forms of equations are considered, a semi-classical treatment in terms of separate plasticity and creep and unified equations in which the classical plasticity does not explicitly occur. The fraction model originally proposed by Besseling is described. The basic concept of this model is that the material is thought to be subdivided into a number of parallel fractions, each with simple conventional properties. The more complicated behaviour of real material is thus approximated by choosing a number of parallel fractions with suitable models and model parameters. Three time-independent formulations of plasticity are considered and compared. Attention is focused on the kinematic hardening in the multi-yield surface theory of Mroz and the non-linear kinematic rule intensively used at Enset and Onera. Some connections are pointed out with the two-surface model of Dafalias and Popov, and the range of applicability of the different models is studied in detail. Finally, the constitutive equations of the Interatom model are presented. They are mainly based on the concept of overstresses, expressing the rate-dependence of the material by the magnitude of these overstresses. This model furthermore comprises a combination of general non-linear isotropic and kinematic hardening, with a smooth transition from isotropic to kinematic hardening as a function of process time

  11. Genome constitution of Narcissus variety, 'Tete-a-Tete', analysed through GISH and NBS profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissus variety, ‘Tête-à-Tête’, has been the most popular variety since 1949, and a well known allotriploid (2n = 3x = 24 + B) of spontaneous origin. Because the identity of one of the parents of this variety was uncertain, the genome constitution of ‘Tête-à-Tête’ was investigated by using

  12. Constitutional Mandate for Free and Compulsory Education: New Light on the Intention of the "Founding Fathers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…

  13. The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge and the South's Constitutional Apologia for the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Hal W.

    The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge, one-time personal minister to Stonewall Jackson, defended secession as the South's attempt to preserve the Constitution in its original mission while eulogizing Jackson at a ceremony in 1875. Hoge drew upon the historical legacy of the American Revolution to suggest that the colonies had also formed a separate…

  14. On the Constitutive Response Characterization for Composite Materials Via Data-Driven Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; John G. Hermanson; Athanasios lliopoulos; Samuel Lambrakos; Tomonari Furukawa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we focus on demonstrating the use of design optimization for the constitutive characterization of anisotropic material systems such as polymer matrix composites, with or without damage. All approaches are based on the availability of experimental data originating from mechatronic material testing systems that can expose specimens to...

  15. Molecular pharmacological phenotyping of EBI2. An orphan seven-transmembrane receptor with constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Holst, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is an orphan seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor originally identified as the most up-regulated gene (>200-fold) in EBV-infected cells. Here we show that EBI2 signals with constitutive activity through Galpha(i) as determined by a receptor...

  16. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiter

    Full Text Available Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  17. The dimension of constitutional protection and the guarantee of citizen rights and freedoms-A comparative view of the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo with the Constitutions of neighbouring countries: Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Kryeziu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In different historic periods of time and in various political regimes, people felt free and enjoyed their rights in different ways, but very li$ le was said about individual freedoms, as it was said more about collective freedoms. The term freedom is an antique, historic term. The corpus of human rights and fundamental freedoms has been studied since the ancient times, including middle ages until modern times of human civilization. However, the origin for protection of these rights and freedoms was sanctioned in the constitutional aspect in Magna Charta issued on 15-th of June 1215, which comprises the milestone in the history of constitutional regimes on human rights and freedoms. The protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms is admitted by everyone. That is embedded in written constitutions worldwide, as well as in the United Nations Charter, final act of the Conference of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSBE known as Helsinki Act. The majority of democratic constitutions adopted after the Second World War, and the latest constitutions of the countries of South-eastern Europe, give an important place to the evidencing and guaranteeing of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  18. The dime nsion of constitutional protection and the guarantee of citizen rights and freedoms-A comparative view of the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo with the Constitutions of neighbouring countries: Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Kryeziu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In different historic periods of time and in various political regimes, people felt free and enjoyed their rights in different ways, but very little was said about individual freedoms, as it was said more about collective freedoms. The term freedom is an antique, historic term. The corpus of human rights and fundamental freedoms has been studied since the ancient times, including middle ages until modern times of human civilization. However, the origin for protection of these rights and freedoms was sanctioned in the constitutional aspect in Magna Charta issued on 15-th of June 1215, which comprises the milestone in the history of constitutional regimes on human rights and freedoms. The protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms is admitted by everyone. That is embedded in written constitutions worldwide, as well as in the United Nations Charter, final act of the Conference of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSBE known as Helsinki Act. The majority of democratic constitutions adopted after the Second World War, and the latest constitutions of the countries of Southeastern Europe, give an important place to the evidencing and guaranteeing of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  19. Numerical and physical testing of upscaling techniques for constitutive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates upscaling techniques for hydraulic conductivity measurements based on accuracy and practicality for implementation in evaluating the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Analytical and numerical techniques are compared to one another, to the results of physical upscaling experiments, and to the results obtained on the original domain. The results from different scaling techniques are then compared to the case where unscaled point scale statistics are used to generate realizations directly at the flow model grid-block scale. Initital results indicate that analytical techniques provide upscaling constitutive properties from the point measurement scale to the flow model grid-block scale. However, no single analytic technique proves to be adequate for all situations. Numerical techniques are also accurate, but they are time intensive and their accuracy is dependent on knowledge of the local flow regime at every grid-block

  20. Crossing Linguistic Borders : Translating Democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Quaranta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of political concepts into different places and cultures happens first and foremost through translation. Far from being a simple transposition of meaning into a different language to facilitate border crossing, it also entails a process of adjustment to a different cultural context and a change in what is perceived to be the original meaning of the concept. Translation should also include the analysis of the social contexts that cause a political concept to be modified. Through Baker's social narrative theory, all these aspects can be integrated to analyse how the concept of democracy moves from place to place and from language to language leading to more complex understandings of it. I will examine the meaning of the concept of democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution to outline the main features of an intercultural translational process of the concept of democracy.

  1. A thermodynamically and microscopically motivated constitutive model for piezoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamlah, M.; Wang, Z.

    2003-07-01

    This progress report presents a thermodynamically and microscopically motivated constitutive model for piezoceramics within the framework of a research project supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. This project is aimed at developing a finite element tool for the analysis of piezoceramic components taking into account the full range of large signal electromechanical hysteresis effects exhibited by these materials. Such a tool is necessary for the stress analysis being the basis for a reliability assessment of piezoceramic devices subject to domain switching processes. In a first step, the hysteresis phenomena of piezoceramics and their microscopic origin were discussed, and the phenomena to be described were selected. Concerning the balance laws, the simplest form consisting of balance of momentum and Gauss' Law was derived by physically motivated assumptions step by step from nonlinear thermomechanics and Maxwell's Equations. Revision of the current literature revealed that a commonly accepted thermodynamic framework for phenomenological modeling has been established in the international scientific discussion. (orig.)

  2. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... four short months, delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia established a... government, a protector of liberties, and a guarantee that we are all free to shape our own destiny. As we...

  3. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... vision, we resolve to stay true to their spirit of patriotism and unity. In remembrance of the signing of... citizenship, recognize the enduring strength of our Constitution, and reaffirm our commitment to the rights...

  4. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  5. Automatic concrete cracks detection and mapping of terrestrial laser scan data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rabah

    2013-12-01

    The current paper submits a method for automatic concrete cracks detection and mapping from the data that was obtained during laser scanning survey. The method of cracks detection and mapping is achieved by three steps, namely the step of shading correction in the original image, step of crack detection and finally step of crack mapping and processing steps. The detected crack is defined in a pixel coordinate system. To remap the crack into the referred coordinate system, a reverse engineering is used. This is achieved by a hybrid concept of terrestrial laser-scanner point clouds and the corresponding camera image, i.e. a conversion from the pixel coordinate system to the terrestrial laser-scanner or global coordinate system. The results of the experiment show that the mean differences between terrestrial laser scan and the total station are about 30.5, 16.4 and 14.3 mms in x, y and z direction, respectively.

  6. Multi-model analysis of terrestrial carbon cycles in Japan: reducing uncertainties in model outputs among different terrestrial biosphere models using flux observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Hajima, T.; Ueyama, M.; Sasai, T.; Hirata, R.; Saigusa, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Takagi, K.

    2009-08-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models show large uncertainties when simulating carbon and water cycles, and reducing these uncertainties is a priority for developing more accurate estimates of both terrestrial ecosystem statuses and future climate changes. To reduce uncertainties and improve the understanding of these carbon budgets, we investigated the ability of flux datasets to improve model simulations and reduce variabilities among multi-model outputs of terrestrial biosphere models in Japan. Using 9 terrestrial biosphere models (Support Vector Machine-based regressions, TOPS, CASA, VISIT, Biome-BGC, DAYCENT, SEIB, LPJ, and TRIFFID), we conducted two simulations: (1) point simulations at four flux sites in Japan and (2) spatial simulations for Japan with a default model (based on original settings) and an improved model (based on calibration using flux observations). Generally, models using default model settings showed large deviations in model outputs from observation with large model-by-model variability. However, after we calibrated the model parameters using flux observations (GPP, RE and NEP), most models successfully simulated seasonal variations in the carbon cycle, with less variability among models. We also found that interannual variations in the carbon cycle are mostly consistent among models and observations. Spatial analysis also showed a large reduction in the variability among model outputs, and model calibration using flux observations significantly improved the model outputs. These results show that to reduce uncertainties among terrestrial biosphere models, we need to conduct careful validation and calibration with available flux observations. Flux observation data significantly improved terrestrial biosphere models, not only on a point scale but also on spatial scales.

  7. A segmentation approach for a delineation of terrestrial ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, J.; Stepinski, T.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecoregions are the result of regionalization of land into homogeneous units of similar ecological and physiographic features. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (TEW) is a commonly used global ecoregionalization based on expert knowledge and in situ observations. Ecological Land Units (ELUs) is a global classification of 250 meters-sized cells into 4000 types on the basis of the categorical values of four environmental variables. ELUs are automatically calculated and reproducible but they are not a regionalization which makes them impractical for GIS-based spatial analysis and for comparison with TEW. We have regionalized terrestrial ecosystems on the basis of patterns of the same variables (land cover, soils, landform, and bioclimate) previously used in ELUs. Considering patterns of categorical variables makes segmentation and thus regionalization possible. Original raster datasets of the four variables are first transformed into regular grids of square-sized blocks of their cells called eco-sites. Eco-sites are elementary land units containing local patterns of physiographic characteristics and thus assumed to contain a single ecosystem. Next, eco-sites are locally aggregated using a procedure analogous to image segmentation. The procedure optimizes pattern homogeneity of all four environmental variables within each segment. The result is a regionalization of the landmass into land units characterized by uniform pattern of land cover, soils, landforms, climate, and, by inference, by uniform ecosystem. Because several disjoined segments may have very similar characteristics, we cluster the segments to obtain a smaller set of segment types which we identify with ecoregions. Our approach is automatic, reproducible, updatable, and customizable. It yields the first automatic delineation of ecoregions on the global scale. In the resulting vector database each ecoregion/segment is described by numerous attributes which make it a valuable GIS resource for

  8. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of…

  9. Constitutionalism and good governance in Nigeria (1999-2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the country, at present, has a written constitution which in reality, was derived from a military decree, there has been constant debate as to whether what the country has is really a constitution and whether the subsequent civilian regimes are constitutional governments. This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional ...

  10. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  11. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  12. Globalisation, the development of constitutionalism and the individual employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Calitz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish which legal system will govern the relationship between parties involved in an international employment contract, the rules of private international law (or conflict of laws must be applied. Each country has its own rules of private international law and each country’s courts will apply its own rules if the court is seized with a matter that involves foreign elements. There may be conflict between the potentially applicable legal systems of countries in terms of the level of protection afforded to employees who are parties to international employment contracts. South Africa has constitutionalised the right to fair labour practices and the question is whether this right is applicable to South African employees working in other countries, or to foreigners working in South Africa who originate from countries where this right is not protected. The answer to this question is to be found in the influence of the Constitution on the rules of private international law as applied by South African courts. It is evident from recent judgments of the Labour Court that the Court will readily assume jurisdiction and will furthermore readily hold that the proper law of the contract is South African law in order to protect the constitutional rights of employees involved in international employment contracts. Had the Labour Court held that the place of performance was still the decisive connecting factor, (as previously decided in most South African cases on this aspect the law of the other countries involved in the international employment relationship could have left employees in a worse position than under South African law. This possibility seems to be one of the important underlying reasons for the Labour Court’s willingness to assume jurisdiction and to hold that the proper law was in fact South African law. In the globalisation context the Labour Court has contributed to the advancement of constitutionalism by developing South Africa

  13. The effect of the original acquisition of ownership of immovable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the ...

  14. On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)

  15. Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1998-01-01

    are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... was the difference in time scale between the geological process of deposition (millions of years) and the laboratory measurements of mechanical properties (minutes or hours). In addition, the time scale relevant to the production history of the oil field was interesting (days or years)....

  16. Validation of constitutive equations for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, T.; Magain, P.; Quik, M.; Labibes, K.; Albertini, C.

    1997-01-01

    High strain rate mechanical properties are a major concern for each steel manufacturer, especially with respect to thin sheet steel used in the automotive branch. We began to study this topic by starting a project with the following goals: acquiring reliable experimental data, understanding in depth the energy absorption in thin sheet steel and finding the right constitutive material equation. The first part of the project has been presented in. In this paper we present data computation and comparison with the existing material model theories to exploit the experimental data. (orig.)

  17. [Constitutional syndrome associated to metformin induced hepatotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Poza Gómez, Gema; Rivero Fernández, Miguel; Vázquez Romero, Manuel; Angueira Lapeña, Teresa; Arranz de la Mata, Gemma; Boixeda de Miquel, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic agent frequently used to manage type II diabetes. This drug produces nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms in 5-20% of patients and, more rarely, has also been associated with severe adverse effects such as lactic acidosis. Only a few isolated cases of hepatotoxicity due to this drug have been documented. We report the case of an 83-year-old man with constitutional syndrome and hepatic biochemical alterations, which were attributed to metformin after ruling out an oncologic etiology and observing complete clinical and biochemical resolution after withdrawal of the drug.

  18. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  20. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Constitutive relations for non-elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of constitutive equations is described for non-elastic deformation of metals. The relations are embodied in a model that has had considerable experimental investigation. The model employs two deformation state variables of which one is a scalar hardness variable and the other is a stored anelastic strain. The description is entirely in terms of real time strain rates. The model and its experimental background is discussed. The relationship to mechanical calculations and a possible extension to radiation environment is also considered. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  3. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  5. The Origin and Constitution of Facilities Management as an integrated corporate fuction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To understand how facilities management (FM) has evolved over time in a complex public corporation from internal functions of building operation and building client and the related service functions to become an integrated corporate function. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major longitudinal case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The research presented here included literature studies, archive studies...... and a fully integrated corporate Facilities Management function are established. Research limitations/implications – The paper presents empirical evidence of the historical development ofFMfrom one case and provides a deeper understanding of the integration processes that are crucial to FM and which can...

  6. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  7. 210Po behaviour in terrestrial environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppin, F.; Roussel-Debet, S.

    2004-01-01

    This bibliographical review illustrates the behaviour of 210 polonium in the terrestrial environment. Sources of 210 Po in the atmosphere vary especially with the geographical localization and the occurrence or the absence of mining activities. In soils, polonium, because of its atmospheric origin, is concentrated in the first upper centimeters. 210 Po is rather immobile and adsorbed on mineral surfaces; it can (co)precipitate with metallic (oxi)hydroxides or in the form of sulphide. The main transfer pathway of 210 Po to vegetation is foliar deposit, which is not, or only slightly, followed by incorporation or translocation. 210 Po is transferred to animals mainly by ingestion, with relatively high transfer factors. In fresh waters, 210 Po is generally immobile in the form of insoluble Po(IV) and/or associated with the particulate or colloidal phase. Plankton, invertebrates and fish concentrate the 210 Po, especially in soft tissues. Polonium, which is an omnipresent natural radionuclide, is likely to occasion a significant exposure to man, compared with other natural or artificial radioisotopes. Nearly all studies derive from in situ measurements and are very descriptive, therefore experimental work aiming at a better knowledge and modeling of its behaviour in the terrestrial environment would be useful. (author)

  8. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  9. Proposals for the Reform of Constitutional Regulations on Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor András Hetei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make specific proposals in the areas of public finance and the budget process in the context of the reform of the Hungarian Constitution. In preparing the proposals the author has reviewed the prevailing constitutional regulations as well as the relevant practice of the Constitutional Court, and examined and compared the constitutional schemes of European countries. The paper finds that a number of aspects of the constitutional regulation of public finance...

  10. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  11. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  12. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  13. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  14. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  15. Urgensi Pengaturan Perkara Constitutional Complaint Dalam Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Muhajir Nugroho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the mechanism for settling disputes in the Constitutional Court containing elements of constitutional complaint. In particular, this study focused on two things: first assessing the urgency/ importance of the idea of setting constitutional complaint in the Constitutional Court's authority. Secondly, to formulate recommendations on setting constitutional complaint in the Constitutional Court's authority. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. This type of research is a doctrinal law. This research studied the concept and implementation of the judicial settlement of cases that contain elements of constitutional complaint (complaint constitution by the Constitutional Court. The conclusion of this study is an important constitutional complaint mechanism is contained within the competence of the Constitutional Court to solve problems of injustice experienced by citizens as a result of public policies undertaken by the government in a broad sense, namely the executive, legislature and judiciary. Setting constitutional complaint within the competence of the Constitutional Court does not have to be explicitly stipulated in the constitution, but enough in the explanation of the Constitutional Court Act. That is not to add direct authority of the Court, but expand the meaning of the authority of the Court in testing the law.

  16. Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M

    2016-04-21

    The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  18. Scaling and constitutive relationships in downcomer modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Harlow, F.H.

    1978-12-01

    Constitutive relationships to describe mass and momentum exchange in multiphase flow in a pressurized water reactor downcomer are presented. Momentum exchange between the phases is described by the product of the flux of momentum available for exchange and the effective area for interaction. The exchange of mass through condensation is assumed to occur along a distinct condensation boundary separating steam at saturation temperature from water in which the temperature falls off roughly linearly with distance from the boundary. Because of the abundance of nucleation sites in a typical churning flow in a downcomer, we propose an equilibrium evaporation process that produces sufficient steam per unit time to keep the water perpetually cooled to the saturation temperature. The transport equations, constitutive models, and boundary conditions used in the K-TIF numerical method are nondimensionalized to obtain scaling relationships for two-phase flow in the downcomer. The results indicate that, subject to idealized thermodynamic and hydraulic constraints, exact mathematical scaling can be achieved. Experiments are proposed to isolate the effects of parameters that contribute to mass, momentum, and energy exchange between the phases

  19. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Cao Fang; Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The full constitutive response of three solder materials. ► Test temperatures from −196 °C to 60 °C and strain rates from 10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 . ► Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (−196 °C to 60 °C) and strain rate (10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 ). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  20. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G., E-mail: alexpb@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cao Fang [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, Annadale, NJ 08801 (United States); Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The full constitutive response of three solder materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test temperatures from -196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C and strain rates from 10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (-196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C) and strain rate (10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  1. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  2. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a number of industries, such as the automotive industry, the passenger transport industry, the energy industry and the industry of manufacture of weapons, beverages and tobacco products. By demonstrating the mistakes of the arguments in favor of such exclusions, the article holds up that none of these provisions meets constitutional standards. Furthermore, based on a critical analysis of the Positive Law, it is shown that the hidden desire behind the exclusions was to keep the economic sectors of high profitability under control of big corporations to the detriment of smaller initiatives.

  3. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  4. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  5. Towards Viscoplastic Constitutive Models for Cosserat Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörlich Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, slender structures like cables, hoses or wires can be described by the geometrically exact Cosserat rod theory. Due to their complex multilayer structure, consisting of various materials, viscoplastic behavior has to be expected for cables under load. Classical experiments like uniaxial tension, torsion or three-point bending already show that the behavior of e.g. electric cables is viscoplastic. A suitable constitutive law for the observed load case is crucial for a realistic simulation of the deformation of a component. Consequently, this contribution aims at a viscoplastic constitutive law formulated in the terms of sectional quantities of Cosserat rods. Since the loading of cables in applications is in most cases not represented by these mostly uniaxial classical experiments, but rather multiaxial, new experiments for cables have to be designed. They have to illustrate viscoplastic effects, enable access to (viscoplastic material parameters and account for coupling effects between different deformation modes. This work focuses on the design of such experiments.

  6. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  7. A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

  8. Preservation of terrestrial plant biomarkers from Nachukui Formation sediments and their viability for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, E.; Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Lepre, C. J.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary records from the Turkana Basin in eastern Africa provide a unique opportunity to compare a high-resolution record of climate and terrestrial vegetation with important changes in the record of human evolution. Molecular biomarkers from terrestrial vegetation can yield stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and carbon that reflect ancient climate and vegetation. However, the preservation of long-chain plant wax biomarkers in these paleosol, fluvial, and lacustrine sediments is not known, and this preservation must be studied to establish their utility for molecular stable isotope studies. We investigated leaf wax biomarkers in Nachukui Formation sediments deposited between 2.3 and 1.7 Ma to assess biomarker preservation. We analyzed n alkane and n alkanoic acid concentrations and, where suitable, molecular carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios. Molecular abundance distributions show a great deal of variance in biomarker preservation and plant-type source as indicated by the carbon preference index and average chain length. This variation suggests that some samples are suitable for isotopic analysis, while other samples lack primary terrestrial plant biomarker signatures. The biomarker signal in many samples contains significant additional material from unidentified sources. For example, the n-alkane distributions contain an unresolved complex mixture underlying the short and mid-chain n-alkanes. Samples from lacustrine intervals include long-chain diacids, hydroxy acids and (ω-1) ketoacids that suggest degradation of the original acids. Degradation of poorly preserved samples and the addition of non-terrestrial plant biomarkers may originate from a number of processes including forest fire or microbial alteration. Isotopic analysis of well-preserved terrestrial plant biomarkers will be presented along with examples where the original biomarker distribution has been altered.

  9. What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Sumio; Furumitsu, Isato; Rozin, Paul; Ruby, Matthew B.; Arbit, Naomi; Fischler, Claude; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2) investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health. PMID:29370081

  10. What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sproesser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1 comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2 investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health.

  11. What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Imada, Sumio; Furumitsu, Isato; Rozin, Paul; Ruby, Matthew B; Arbit, Naomi; Fischler, Claude; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2018-01-25

    Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2) investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health.

  12. Dental lesions in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B.; Jonsson, Lena M.; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions...... of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually...... with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions...

  13. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  14. Constitution and religiosity of/in the constitutional order of the National Socialist Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velez, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will analyse the National Socialist regime as a politico-constitutional reality. We will do it from a new way of looking at politico-constitutional phenomena, interpreting them as registered in a religious grounding. It seeks to show that the National Socialist regime was characterised by having identified the political community – a racially interpreted and raised community to the Absolute – with an empirical historic personality regarded as eminently communitarian. It suggests that the regime constitutes a sui generis case, either in a context of regimes conventionally classified as "right-wing authoritarian and/or totalitarian" or in a larger context of contemporary politics.

  15. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  17. Geological remote sensing signatures of terrestrial impact craters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, J.B.; Schnetzler, C.; Grieve, R.A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Geological remote sensing techniques can be used to investigate structural, depositional, and shock metamorphic effects associated with hypervelocity impact structures, some of which may be linked to global Earth system catastrophies. Although detailed laboratory and field investigations are necessary to establish conclusive evidence of an impact origin for suspected crater landforms, the synoptic perspective provided by various remote sensing systems can often serve as a pathfinder to key deposits which can then be targetted for intensive field study. In addition, remote sensing imagery can be used as a tool in the search for impact and other catastrophic explosion landforms on the basis of localized disruption and anomaly patterns. In order to reconstruct original dimensions of large, complex impact features in isolated, inaccessible regions, remote sensing imagery can be used to make preliminary estimates in the absence of field geophysical surveys. The experienced gained from two decades of planetary remote sensing of impact craters on the terrestrial planets, as well as the techniques developed for recognizing stages of degradation and initial crater morphology, can now be applied to the problem of discovering and studying eroded impact landforms on Earth. Preliminary results of remote sensing analyses of a set of terrestrial impact features in various states of degradation, geologic settings, and for a broad range of diameters and hence energies of formation are summarized. The intention is to develop a database of remote sensing signatures for catastrophic impact landforms which can then be used in EOS-era global surveys as the basis for locating the possibly hundreds of missing impact structures

  18. The Foundational Tenets of Johannes Althusius' Constitutionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-11-02

    Nov 2, 2017 ... On close analysis utilitarianism, as for example conceived by Bentham, provides the other original impetus for statist collectivism. In the name of what is perceived to serve the interest of the majority best (which is identified with the public good) utilitarianism also disregards deviant communities and.

  19. Youth Sexting: A Legislative and Constitutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Kallee; Vaughn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    One central controversy with youth sexting is that adolescents may be prosecuted under child pornography and obscenity statutes that were originally created to protect children from sexual exploitation perpetrated by adults and do not adequately address consensual teen behavior. Due to this concern, many states have implemented laws specifically…

  20. Natural and man-made terrestrial electromagnetic noise: an outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment is continuously exposed to electromagnetic radiations which set up a «background» electromagnetic noise. Within the Non Ionizing Radiation band (NIR, i.e. for frequencies lower than 300 GHz, this background can have a natural or an artificial origin. Natural origins of electromagnetic radiations are generally atmospheric or cosmic while artificial origins are technological applications, power transmission, communications, etc. This paper briefly describes the natural and man-made electromagnetic noise in the NIR band. Natural noise comes from a large variety of sources involving different physical phenomena and covering a wide range of frequencies and showing various propagation characteristics with an extremely broad range of power levels. Due to technological growth man-made electromagnetic noise is nowadays superimposed on natural noise almost everywhere on Earth. In the last decades man-made noise has increased dramatically over and above the natural noise in residential and business areas. This increase has led some scientists to consider possible negative effects of electromagnetic waves on human life and living systems in general. Accurate measurements of natural and man-made electromagnetic noise are necessary to understand the relative power levels in the different bands and their influence on life.

  1. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  2. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  3. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  4. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  5. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  6. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  7. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  8. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  9. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  10. The 1857 Constitution and its Parlamentary Interlude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pantoja Morán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, American scholars have noticed that Mexico ex­perienced  a parlamentary form of government during  the brief period between the end of the Reform War and the landing of the invading troops, which gave place to the Intervention War against imperial claims. despite the significance of this observation, Mexi­can scholars had virtually ignored it. This work seeks to reveal, through a political, historical, and le­gal analysis of these events, if such an experience can be described as parlamentary, if the 1857 Constitution shows signs of a parlamen­tary system, and if this might have been the intention of its authors.

  11. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  12. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  13. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  14. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  15. SAR mapping of Burfellshraun: A terrestrial analog for recent volcanism on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning; Rossi, Matti; Dall, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    between 10 and 100 Myr. Parts of the lava flows show smooth kilometer-sized plates that appear to have rafted on the moving lava flow. We have found a terrestrial analogue with similar features, the Burfellshraun lava flow in Northern Iceland. This is the only known lava flow on Earth where kilometer......-sized rafting plates are observed and constitute the dominating feature. Using a combination of airborne remote sensing data and field observations we have studied the emplacement and physical properties of the flow. On the basis of our observations we have reconstructed the sequence of events that led...

  16. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  17. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  18. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America... beacon of hope for Americans and those who seek new lives in the United States. Every day, we welcome new....BARACK OBAMA ...

  19. Terrestrial Soundscapes: Status of Ecological Research in Natural and Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, Bryan Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soundscape ecological research in terrestrial systems is relatively new. In this paper, I present a brief summary of the origins of this research area, describe research questions related to several research thrusts that are ongoing, summarize several soundscape projects that exist and how these relate to the research thrusts, and briefly describe the work of a global network of scientists, musicians, and engineers that are attempting to move this new field forward.

  20. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  1. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    The realization of Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRFs) must be periodically updated in order to account for newly acquired observations and for upgrades in data analysis procedures and/or combination techniques. Any innovative computation strategy should ameliorate the definition of the frame physical parameters, upon which a number of scientific applications critically rely. On the basis of the requirements of scientific cutting edge studies, the geodetic community has estimated that the present day challenge in the determination of TRFs is to provide a frame that is accurate and long-term stable at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y respectively. This work aims at characterizing the frame realized by a combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations via their co-location on board GNSS spacecrafts. In particular, it is established how such a frame compares to the traditional ITRF computation and what is the impact on the realization of the frame origin and scale. Four years of data from a global network encompassing about one hundred GNSS stations and all SLR sites have been analyzed. In order to ensure the highest possible consistency, the raw data of both techniques are treated with the same analysis Software (Bernese GNSS Software 5.2) following IERS2010 Conventions. Both weekly and long term solutions are carried out exploiting either the Bernese or the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frames (CATREF) Software packages. We present the results of a combination study involving GNSS data and SLR observations to the two LAGEOS and to the GNSS satellites equipped with retroreflector arrays. The latter type of measurements is currently not included in the computation of the official ITRF solutions. The assessment of the benefit that they could provide to the definition of the origin and scale of the ITRF is however worth investigating, as such data provide the potential for linking the GNSS and

  2. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  3. Transitional processes: Territorial organization of authorities and the future constitution of Serbia comparative analysis of five constitutional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a comparative analysis of territorial organization of authorities in five constitutional models for Serbia. The paper consists of the following chapters: Introduction, Outline of the Constitution of Kingdom of Serbia, Basic Principles of the New Constitution of Serbia - DSS, Outline of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - DS Constitutional Solutions for Serbia - BCLJP, Project of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - Forum iuris, Conclusion. The analysis of territorial organization of authorities has been seen in the context of the processes of transition and archiving the important principles of civil society and civil autonomies.

  4. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  5. Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically reviewed the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria on freedom ... Insight was drawn from international legal instrument on the subject. ... However, the repudiation of the supremacy of the Constitution by Islamic law ...

  6. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  7. Planetary Environments and Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Marc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present strategies proposed for the search for the origins of life and for extra-terrestrial life are mainly based on Earth-life and its adaptation along geological eras to the Earth environment. These strategies should however face the difficulty that one cannot as yet accurately date the appearance of life on Earth, and consequently one cannot identify a chronology of phenomena related to the transition from the non-living to the living and the dependence of these phenomena on the Earth environment. In this paper, we present new approaches to search for the origins of life on the Earth and next, for life on exoplanets. This study is based on our experience gained at the head of the CNRSc interdisciplinary research initiative "Environnements Planétaires et Origines de la Vie (EPOVd, and on the analysis of the projects the initiative funded.

  8. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  9. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  10. Constitutive Theories of Self-Knowledge and the Regress Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the other hand, hold that self-knowledge is constitutive of intentional states. That is, self-ascription is a necessary condition for being in a particular mental state. Akeel Bilgrami is a defender of the constitutive model. I argue that the constitutive model gives rise to a regress problem. This paper will focus on that problem ...

  11. Theoretical (dis-) position and strategic leitmotivs in constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay takes a look at the historic restoration that bequeathed this country and its people a prototypical, justiciable Constitution. The advent of constitutional democracy in South Africa went hand in hand with an about-turn in the interpretation of enacted law-texts (including the Constitution) and a critical interrogation of ...

  12. Constitutional Provisions on the Press: A World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschos, Manny

    A study examined the legal treatment of the press in constitutions or other basic legal institutional documents from around the world. Sixty-three constitutions or basic documents from the Western World, the Communist Bloc, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America were analyzed. Analysis revealed that most constitutions open with…

  13. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  14. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  15. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  16. James Madison's "Public" As Interpreter of the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    James Madison's thoughts on various interpretations of the Constitution maintain that public opinion is the ultimate method of legitimizing the document. The Constitution must prevail against mere public opinion, but public opinion may be used to establish the meaning of the Constitution when conflicting interpretations exist. The public good and…

  17. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  18. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement.

  19. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of TCR expression levels is a central event during T cell development and activation, and it probably plays an important role in adjusting T cell responsiveness. Conflicting data have been published on down-regulation and degradation rates of the individual TCR subunits, and several di...... to the lysosomes. Similar results were obtained in studies of primary human Vbeta8+ T cells stimulated with superantigen. Based on these results, the simplest model for TCR internalization, sorting, and degradation is proposed.......Modulation of TCR expression levels is a central event during T cell development and activation, and it probably plays an important role in adjusting T cell responsiveness. Conflicting data have been published on down-regulation and degradation rates of the individual TCR subunits, and several...... divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down...

  20. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  1. The origin of turtles: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    The origin of turtles and their unusual body plan has fascinated scientists for the last two centuries. Over the course of the last decades, a broad sample of molecular analyses have favored a sister group relationship of turtles with archosaurs, but recent studies reveal that this signal may be the result of systematic biases affecting molecular approaches, in particular sampling, non-randomly distributed rate heterogeneity among taxa, and the use of concatenated data sets. Morphological studies, by contrast, disfavor archosaurian relationships for turtles, but the proposed alternative topologies are poorly supported as well. The recently revived paleontological hypothesis that the Middle Permian Eunotosaurus africanus is an intermediate stem turtle is now robustly supported by numerous characters that were previously thought to be unique to turtles and that are now shown to have originated over the course of tens of millions of years unrelated to the origin of the turtle shell. Although E. africanus does not solve the placement of turtles within Amniota, it successfully extends the stem lineage of turtles to the Permian and helps resolve some questions associated with the origin of turtles, in particular the non-composite origin of the shell, the slow origin of the shell, and the terrestrial setting for the origin of turtles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. On constitutive modelling and information for phenomenal distributed parameter control of multicomponent chemical processes in fluid- and solidphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    The problem under consideration is to find common physicochemical conditions of kinetics and phenomena of multicomponent chemical processes in fluid- and solidphase, deciding yield and quality of final products of these processes. The paper is devoted to the construction of a fundamental distributed parameter constitutive theory of physicochemical modelling of these chemical processes treated from the view of isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories. On the basis of definition of derivative and constitutive equations of continuity, original system of partial differential constitutive state equations are deduced

  3. A set of constitutive relationships accounting for residual NAPL in the unsaturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfler, E L; van der Zee, S E

    2001-07-01

    Although laboratory experiments show that non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) is retained in the unsaturated zone, no existing multiphase flow model has been developed to account for residual NAPL after NAPL drainage in the unsaturated zone. We developed a static constitutive set of saturation-capillary pressure relationships for water, NAPL and air that accounts for both this residual NAPL and entrapped NAPL. The set of constitutive relationships is formulated similarly to the set of scaled relationships that is frequently applied in continuum models. The new set consists of three fluid-phase systems: a three-phase system and a two-phase system, that both comply with the original constitutive model, and a newly introduced residual NAPL system. The new system can be added relatively easily to the original two- and three-phase systems. Entrapment is included in the model. The constitutive relationships of the non-drainable residual NAPL system are based on qualitative fluid behavior derived from a pore scale model. The pore scale model reveals that the amount of residual NAPL depends on the spreading coefficient and the water saturation. Furthermore, residual NAPL is history-dependent. At the continuum scale, a critical NAPL pressure head defines the transition from free, mobile NAPL to residual NAPL. Although the Pc-S relationships for water and total liquid are not independent in case of residual NAPL, two two-phase Pc-S relations can represent a three-phase residual system of Pc-S relations. A newly introduced parameter, referred to as the residual oil pressure head, reflects the mutual dependency of water and oil. Example calculations show consistent behavior of the constitutive model. Entrapment and retention in the unsaturated zone cooperate to retain NAPL. Moreover, the results of our constitutive model are in agreement with experimental observations.

  4. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  5. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  6. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  7. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  8. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...... and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition...

  9. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.

  10. Comets and the origin of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsemme, A H

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and evolution of the universe and of the earth are summarized as a background to the discussion of the origin of life on earth as the result of the transport of the necessary materials to earth by comets. Evidence for the origin of the universe in the Big Bang supplied by observations of the expansion of the universe and the cosmic microwave background is discussed, and the condensation of primordial matter into galaxies and stars and the chemical processes in stars converting primordial hydrogen and helium into heavy elements as the stars evolve giving rise to an interstellar medium are considered. Attention is then given to the birth of the solar system from the contraction of a dark interstellar cloud containing gas, dust and interstellar molecules, and in particular to the origin of the terrestrial planets and the cometary contributions to the terrestrial crust, oceans and atmosphere. Finally, the chronology of the universe from the Big Bang to the present and that of the earth from its formation to the present are reviewed.

  11. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the food surveillance programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), in particular the Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. To define the surveillance programme the following issues need to be decided upon: 1) the type of food which should be analysed; 2) the nature of the contaminants which should be analysed; and 3) the geographical location from which the food samples should be taken. (author)

  12. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  13. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  14. Experimental investigation of possible geomagnetic feedback from energetic (0.1 to 16 keV) terrestrial O(+) ions in the magnetotail current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, O. W.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.; Quinn, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Data from energetic ion mass spectrometers on the ISEE 1 and AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are combined with geomagnetic and solar indices to investigate, in a statistical fashion, whether energized O(+) ions of terrestrial origin constitute a source of feedback which triggers or amplifies geomagnetic activity as has been suggested in the literature, by contributing a destabilizing mass increase in the magnetotail current sheet. The ISEE 1 data (0.1-16 keV/e) provide in situ observations of the O(+) concentration in the central plasma sheet, inside of 23 R(sub E), during the rising and maximum phases of solar cycle 21, as well as inner magnetosphere data from same period. The CCE data (0.1-17 keV/e) taken during the subsequent solar minimum all within 9 R(sub E). provide a reference for long-term variations in the magnetosphere O(+) content. Statistical correlations between the ion data and the indices, and between different indices. all point in the same direction: there is probably no feedback specific to the O(+) ions, in spite of the fact that they often contribute most of the ion mass density in the tail current sheet.

  15. Sampling Terrestrial Environments for Bacterial Polyketides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment. Identifying environments where producing bacteria are abundant and diverse should improve our ability to discover (bioprospect new polyketides. This review summarizes for the bioprospector the state-of-the-field in terrestrial microbial ecology. It provides insight into the scientific and technical challenges limiting the application of microbial ecology discoveries for bioprospecting and summarizes key developments in the field that will enable more effective bioprospecting. The major recent efforts by researchers to sample new environments for polyketide discovery is also reviewed and key emerging environments such as insect associated bacteria, desert soils, disease suppressive soils, and caves are highlighted. Finally strategies for taking and characterizing terrestrial samples to help maximize discovery efforts are proposed and the inclusion of non-actinomycetal bacteria in any terrestrial discovery strategy is recommended.

  16. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  17. Analytical, Experimental, and Modelling Studies of Lunar and Terrestrial Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of our research has been to understand the paths and the processes of planetary evolution that produced planetary surface materials as we find them. Most of our work has been on lunar materials and processes. We have done studies that obtain geological knowledge from detailed examination of regolith materials and we have reported implications for future sample-collecting and on-surface robotic sensing missions. Our approach has been to study a suite of materials that we have chosen in order to answer specific geologic questions. We continue this work under NAG5-4172. The foundation of our work has been the study of materials with precise chemical and petrographic analyses, emphasizing analysis for trace chemical elements. We have used quantitative models as tests to account for the chemical compositions and mineralogical properties of the materials in terms of regolith processes and igneous processes. We have done experiments as needed to provide values for geochemical parameters used in the models. Our models take explicitly into account the physical as well as the chemical processes that produced or modified the materials. Our approach to planetary geoscience owes much to our experience in terrestrial geoscience, where samples can be collected in field context and sampling sites revisited if necessary. Through studies of terrestrial analog materials, we have tested our ideas about the origins of lunar materials. We have been mainly concerned with the materials of the lunar highland regolith, their properties, their modes of origin, their provenance, and how to extrapolate from their characteristics to learn about the origin and evolution of the Moon's early igneous crust. From this work a modified model for the Moon's structure and evolution is emerging, one of globally asymmetric differentiation of the crust and mantle to produce a crust consisting mainly of ferroan and magnesian igneous rocks containing on average 70-80% plagioclase, with a large

  18. Felicidad y constitucionalismo = Happiness and constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lorca Martín de Villodres

    2013-09-01

    happiness in our Constitutions. It is thought that only in a democratic society, where social rights have been developed, can citizens get a dignified life, so that they are able to look for happiness. Without a dignified life, happiness is something impossible to achieve. Consequently, happiness is said to be not only an individual objective, but also a common and public target. The State should offer citizens the proper conditions for the pursuit of happiness. In the Spanish Constitution, we get the impression that it is possible to find happiness from some aspects of it. So, according to this, the eudemonism theory could be reasserted in our modern Social State. Currently, we can notice that public policies are concerned with the happiness of citizens in order to improve their daily lives, and actually governments are working on it in many countries. In any case, this fact might be considered as a return to the essence of human being. A good chance to try to understand what is a person.

  19. DENTAL LESIONS IN THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B; Jonsson, Lena M; Kortegaard, Hanne; Arnbjerg, Jens; Nielsen, Søren S; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-06-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions present frequent problems for lowland tapirs, occurring both in captive and in free-ranging individuals, and indicates that increasing age should be considered a risk factor for the development of these lesions. Notably, the predominant dental problems in lowland tapirs and Malayan tapirs are not the same.

  20. Origin of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's interior and its bearing on the Earth's origin are discussed. It seems likely that the terrestrial planets formed by the accretion of solid planetisimals from the nebula of dust and gas left behind during the formation of the Sun. The scenario proposed is simpler than others. New evidence based upon a comparison of siderophile element abundances in the Earth's mantle and in the Moon imply that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had segregated

  1. A constitutive model for the mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Arturo N; Pavan, Piero G; Stecco, Carla

    2010-10-01

    A constitutive model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia. The mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia regards the role in the foot biomechanics and it is involved in many alterations of its functional behavior, both of mechanical and nonmechanical origin. The structural conformation of the plantar fascia in its middle part is characterized by the presence of collagen fibers reinforcing the tissue along a preferential orientation, which is that supporting the major loading. According to this anatomical evidence, the tissue is described by developing an isotropic fiber-reinforced constitutive model and since the elastic response of the fascia is here considered, the constitutive model is based on the theory of hyperelasticity. The model is consistent with a kinematical description of large strains mechanical behavior, which is typical of soft tissues. A fitting procedure of the constitutive model is implemented making use of experimental curves taken from the literature and referring to specimens of human plantar fascia. A satisfactory fitting of the tensile behavior of the plantar fascia has been performed, showing that the model correctly interprets the mechanical behavior of the tissue in the light of comparison to experimental data at disposal. A critical analysis of the model with respect to the problem of the identification of the constitutive parameters is proposed as the basis for planning a future experimental investigation of mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia.

  2. Method to determine the optimal constitutive model from spherical indentation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairui Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The limitation of current indentation theories was investigated and a method to determine the optimal constitutive model through spherical indentation tests was proposed. Two constitutive models, the Power-law and the Linear-law, were used in Finite Element (FE calculations, and then a set of indentation governing equations was established for each model. The load-depth data from the normal indentation depth was used to fit the best parameters in each constitutive model while the data from the further loading part was compared with those from FE calculations, and the model that better predicted the further deformation was considered the optimal one. Moreover, a Yang’s modulus calculation model which took the previous plastic deformation and the phenomenon of pile-up (or sink-in into consideration was also proposed to revise the original Sneddon-Pharr-Oliver model. The indentation results on six materials, 304, 321, SA508, SA533, 15CrMoR, and Fv520B, were compared with tensile ones, which validated the reliability of the revised E calculation model and the optimal constitutive model determination method in this study. Keywords: Optimal constitutive model, Spherical indentation test, Finite Element calculations, Yang’s modulus

  3. Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tourchi, Saeed; Hamidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rul...

  4. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  5. The spirit of the constitution. The institutionalized unsociability in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas MAVRIDIS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article attempts a comparison of the Greek Constitution of 1975, the constitutions of Germany, USA, Switzerland, Austria, France, UK and Italy on the issue of property relations and general interest, in order to highlight those notified differences relating to these communities and resulted in specific social situations. While the constitutions of the other countries, which are among the most representative democracies of the Western world, are characterized by an increased institutionalization of sociability, the Greek constitution on the issue of general interest takes an antisocial and, at best, neutral attitude. The convergence of the Greek constitution on this issue with the other constitutions is considered a prerequisite for overcoming the crisis and, more generally, for social development. This little effort hopes to contribute to a more social future formulation of the Greek constitution and a corresponding behaviour of Greek society.

  6. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  7. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  8. UAS CNPC Satellite Link Performance - Sharing Spectrum with Terrestrial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System, the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link connecting the ground-based pilot with the unmanned aircraft must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a potentially suitable allocation for radio line-of-sight (LOS), terrestrial based CNPC link at 5030-5091 MHz. For a beyond radio line-of-sight (BLOS), satellite-based CNPC link, aviation safety spectrum allocations are currently inadequate. Therefore, the 2015 WRC will consider the use of Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands to provide BLOS CNPC under Agenda Item 1.5. This agenda item requires studies to be conducted to allow for the consideration of how unmanned aircraft can employ FSS for BLOS CNPC while maintaining existing systems. Since there are terrestrial Fixed Service systems also using the same frequency bands under consideration in Agenda Item 1.5 one of the studies required considered spectrum sharing between earth stations on-board unmanned aircraft and Fixed Service station receivers. Studies carried out by NASA have concluded that such sharing is possible under parameters previously established by the International Telecommunications Union. As the preparation for WRC-15 has progressed, additional study parameters Agenda Item 1.5 have been proposed, and some studies using these parameters have been added. This paper examines the study results for the original parameters as well as results considering some of the more recently proposed parameters to provide insight into the complicated process of resolving WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.5 and achieving a solution for BLOS CNPC for unmanned aircraft.

  9. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  10. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V.

    2016-08-01

    Soils - constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter - specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change.

  11. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the terrestrial environment: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bertil R R; Holm, Elis

    2011-05-01

    The radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb widely present in the terrestrial environment are the final long-lived radionuclides in the decay of (238)U in the earth's crust. Their presence in the atmosphere is due to the decay of (222)Rn diffusing from the ground. The range of activity concentrations in ground level air for (210)Po is 0.03-0.3 Bq m(-3) and for (210)Pb 0.2-1.5 Bq m(-3). In drinking water from private wells the activity concentration of (210)Po is in the order of 7-48 mBq l(-1) and for (210)Pb around 11-40 mBq l(-1). From water works, however, the activity concentration for both (210)Po and (210)Pb is only in the order of 3 mBq l(-1). Mosses, lichens and peat have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (210)Pb from atmospheric fallout and exhibit an inventory of both (210)Po and (210)Pb in the order of 0.5-5 kBq m(-2) in mosses and in lichens around 0.6 kBq m(-2). The activity concentrations in lichens lies around 250 Bq kg(-1), dry mass. Reindeer and caribou graze lichen which results in an activity concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb of about 1-15 Bq kg(-1) in meat from these animals. The food chain lichen-reindeer or caribou, and Man constitutes a unique model for studying the uptake and retention of (210)Po and (210)Pb in humans. The effective annual dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb in people with high consumption of reindeer/caribou meat is estimated to be around 260 and 132 μSv a(-1) respectively. In soils, (210)Po is adsorbed to clay and organic colloids and the activity concentration varies with soil type and also correlates with the amount of atmospheric precipitation. The average activity concentration levels of (210)Po in various soils are in the range of 20-240 Bq kg(-1). Plants become contaminated with radioactive nuclides both by absorption from the soil (supported Po) and by deposition of radioactive fallout on the plants directly (unsupported Po). In fresh leafy plants the level of (210)Po is particularly high as the result of the

  12. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the terrestrial environment: a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Bertil R.R.; Holm, Elis

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb widely present in the terrestrial environment are the final long-lived radionuclides in the decay of 238 U in the earth's crust. Their presence in the atmosphere is due to the decay of 222 Rn diffusing from the ground. The range of activity concentrations in ground level air for 210 Po is 0.03-0.3 Bq m -3 and for 210 Pb 0.2-1.5 Bq m -3 . In drinking water from private wells the activity concentration of 210 Po is in the order of 7-48 mBq l -1 and for 210 Pb around 11-40 mBq l -1 . From water works, however, the activity concentration for both 210 Po and 210 Pb is only in the order of 3 mBq l -1 . Mosses, lichens and peat have a high efficiency in capturing 210 Po and 210 Pb from atmospheric fallout and exhibit an inventory of both 210 Po and 210 Pb in the order of 0.5-5 kBq m -2 in mosses and in lichens around 0.6 kBq m -2 . The activity concentrations in lichens lies around 250 Bq kg -1 , dry mass. Reindeer and caribou graze lichen which results in an activity concentration of 210 Po and 210 Pb of about 1-15 Bq kg -1 in meat from these animals. The food chain lichen-reindeer or caribou, and Man constitutes a unique model for studying the uptake and retention of 210 Po and 210 Pb in humans. The effective annual dose due to 210 Po and 210 Pb in people with high consumption of reindeer/caribou meat is estimated to be around 260 and 132 μSv a -1 respectively. In soils, 210 Po is adsorbed to clay and organic colloids and the activity concentration varies with soil type and also correlates with the amount of atmospheric precipitation. The average activity concentration levels of 210 Po in various soils are in the range of 20-240 Bq kg -1 . Plants become contaminated with radioactive nuclides both by absorption from the soil (supported Po) and by deposition of radioactive fallout on the plants directly (unsupported Po). In fresh leafy plants the level of 210 Po is particularly high as the result of the direct deposition of 222 Rn

  13. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  14. An Event Observed as a Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) and a Terrestrial Electron Beam (TEB) by Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Cramer, E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Roberts, O.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-ms, intense flashes of gamma-rays. They are due to the acceleration of electrons with relativistic energies in thunderstorms that emit gamma-rays via bremsstrahlung. When these photons reach the upper atmosphere, they can produce secondary electrons and positrons that escape the atmosphere and propagate along the Earth's magnetic field line. Space instruments can detect these charged particles, known as Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs), after traveling thousands of kilometers from the thunderstorm. We present an event that was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) as both a TGF and a TEB. To our knowledge this is the first such event that has ever been observed. We interpret the first pulse as a TGF with a duration of 0.2 ms. After 0.5 ms a second pulse is seen with a duration of 2 ms that we interpret as a TEB. Confirming this interpretation, a third pulse is seen 90 ms later, which is understood as a TEB magnetic mirror pulse. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) detected a sferic, under the spacecraft footprint and within the southern magnetic footprint that is simultaneous with the first pulse. Along with the sferic, this unique observation allows us for the first time to test TGF and TEB models for the same event. We present Monte Carlo simulations of the first two pulses, including pitch angles for electrons and positrons, to see if the models can consistently describe the TGF/TEB spectra and time profiles originating from the same source.

  15. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  16. High pressure membrane foulants of seawater, brackish water and river water: Origin assessed by sugar and bacteriohopanepolyol signatures

    KAUST Repository

    Mondamert, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the origin of foulant material recovered on membranes used in water treatment. Firstly, sugar signatures were assessed from the monosaccharide composition. As results were not conclusive, a statistical approach using discriminant analysis was applied to the sugar data set in order to predict the origin of the foulant material. Three groups of various origins (algal, microbial, continental dissolved organic matter) were used as sugar references for the prediction. The results of the computation showed that the origin of reverse osmosis (RO) seawater foulant material is influenced by both the location of the water sources and the season. RO brackish water and nanofiltration river water foulant materials had a terrestrial origin. Secondly, bacteriohopanepolyol signatures indicated that RO seawater foulant material had a marine signature, RO brackish water foulant material had both a marine and a terrestrial origin and the nanofiltration river water foulant material contained only a terrestrial signature. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  17. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  18. Constitutional Decree No. 19 promulgating the Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 15 August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree amends Section 44 of the Constitution of Uruguay to read as follows: "44. The State shall legislate on all matters related to public health and hygiene, and shall assure the improvement of the physical, moral, and social well-being of all the inhabitants of the country. All inhabitants shall have a duty to care for their own health and to have themselves treated in the event of disease. The State shall make available, without charge, means of prevention and medical care to indigent persons or to persons lacking sufficient resources." full text

  19. Potential and limitation of combining terrestrial and marine growth records from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, A.; Urbinati, C.; Tonelli, E.; Eggertsson, Ó.; Levanič, T.; Kaczka, R. J.; Andrew, C.; Schöne, B. R.; Büntgen, U.

    2017-08-01

    Seasonally formed, perennial growth increments of various organisms may possibly contain information about past environmental changes, well before instrumental measurements occurred. Such annually resolved proxy records have been mainly obtained from terrestrial archives, with a paucity of similar data originating from marine habitats. Iceland represents ideal conditions to develop both, tree ring (dendro) and bivalve shell (sclero) chronologies from adjacent sites. Here we introduce the first network of Icelandic birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) dendrochronologies, as well as ocean quahog (Arctica islandica L.) sclerochronologies. In order to identify the dominant external drivers of tree and shell growth, we assess the common growth trends and growth extremes within and between the terrestrial and marine records, as well as relationships of both archives with instrumental-based meteorological indices. Capturing a strong signal of June-August mean air temperature, the dendrochronologies are significantly positively correlated to each other. The sclerochronologies, however, reveal much lower growth coherency, which likely results from different sampling strategies and growth habitats. Disagreement between the dendro- and sclerochronologies possibly originates from unequal sample size, offset in the seasonal timing and rate of the growth, as well as varying sensitivities to different environmental factors. Our results emphasize the importance of considering a wide range of species and taxa to reconstruct a more complete picture of terrestrial and marine ecosystem functioning and productivity across various spatiotemporal scales.

  20. Autoxidation as a major player in the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeron, Marie-Aimée.; Radakovitch, Olivier; Charrière, Bruno; Vaultier, Frédéric; Rontani, Jean-François

    2017-05-01

    The Rhône River plays a major role in the Mediterranean Sea, being both its main freshwater source and its major particulate matter provider. This survey of the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) was conducted along the salinity gradient of the Rhône River plume, between 2012 and 2014. It revealed that autoxidation acts rapidly and intensely upon the POM's arrival at sea, with α-amyrin and β-amyrin autoxidation rates going from 12.9 ± 2.9% to 45.0 ± 6.4% and 10.7 ± 4.0% to 50.3 ± 4.4%, respectively, between fresh water (salinity 0) and seawater (salinity 38). These compounds, being unambiguous markers of the terrestrial origin of POM, allow us to unequivocally characterize the POM as terrestrial. While it was originally believed that a desorption of redox-active trace metal ions was the favoring factor that kick-started this intense autoxidation, this study evidences no trace metal desorption in the Rhône River mixing zone and hence no correlation between high autoxidation rates and the presence of trace metal ions. Autoxidation rates however were very well correlated with salinity levels within the river plume, with r2 reaching 0.801, 0.962, and 0.943 for sitosterol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin, respectively, in November 2014.